Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2002 - Volume 28  - Number 1  (January/February)

Editorial

1 - A Maioridade do JP

Luiz Carlos Corrêa da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(1):

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2 - Admissão do Jornal de Pneumologia na SciELO Brasil: uma vitória com novos desafios

Thaís Helena Abrahão Thomaz Queluz

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(1):

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Original Article

3 - Respiratory morbidity among passive smoking children

Morbidade respiratória em crianças fumantes passivas

Luisa Maria Torres de Carvalho, Eanes Delgado Barros Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(1):8-14

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Objective: To study the prevalence of respiratory morbidity among passive smoking children and to determine the effects of environmental tobacco smoke in the upper and lower respiratory system of these children in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Cases and method: This is a cross sectional study of 1,104 children under the 5 years old. Information about respiratory symptoms and illnesses of the children, family history of respiratory diseases, smoking habits of household members and housing conditions were assessed by a questionnaire addressed to the children's parents. Results: Among the 1,104 children, 558 were males and 546 were females. Respiratory morbidity was greater in the children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke than in those who were not exposed (82% vs 74%). Regarding the lower respiratory tract, the most frequent complaints were wheeze (57.7%; OR = 1.32; IC 95%: 1.04-1.68), dyspnea (43.8%; OR = 1.56; IC 95%: 1.22-1.99), asthma, bronchitis or pneumonia (29.4%; OR = 1.31; IC 95%: 1.00-1.71). As to the upper respiratory tract, rhinitis was the most frequent complaint (38.1%; OR = 1.46; IC 95%: 1.13-1.88). Logistic regression analysis showed that the lower respiratory tract complaints were associated with: mother's smoking (OR = 2.02; IC 95% 1.12-3.66); father's smoking (OR = 1.99; IC 95%: 1.16-3.40); mould (OR = 1.55; IC 95%: 1.14-2.13) and family history of respiratory diseases (OR = 1.72; IC 95%: 1.26-2.35). Upper respiratory tract complaints were associated with: family history of respiratory diseases (OR = 1.44; IC 95%: 1.13-1.85) and mother's smoking (OR = 1.54; IC 95%: 1.01-2.35). Conclusion: The authors concluded that the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a risk factor for upper and lower respiratory morbidity among children under 5 years old.

 


4 - Volume controlled ventilation versus pressure controlled ventilation in a canine acute lung injury model: effects on cardiorespiratory parameters and oxygen cost of breathing

Ventilação mecânica volume-controlada versus pressão controlada em modelo canino de lesão pulmonar aguda: efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e sobre o custo de oxigênio da respiração

Bruno do Valle Pinheiro, Marcelo Alcântara Holanda, Célia Mallart Larges, Oswaldo Shigueomi Beppu

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(1):15-22

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Background: It is questionable whether pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) has advantages over volume-cycled ventilation (VCV). Objectives: To compare PCV to VCV with decelerating flow profile during assisted and controlled modes in an acute lung injury experimental model. Methods: Severe acute lung injury (PaO2/FIO2 < 100 mmHg) was induced by oleic acid IV infusion (0.05 mg/kg) in seven dogs. The animals were submitted to PCV and VCV in a randomized sequence. After 40 minutes in the assisted mode, ventilation was changed to the controlled mode after neuromuscular blockade. The tidal volume and the inspiratory time were kept constant throughout the experiment. Results: There were no differences in gas exchange (PaO2 and PaCO2), cardiac output or oxygen delivery (DO2) between VCV and PCV. The same was observed regarding maximum airway and plateau pressures, and also to the static compliance. Oxygen consumption (VO2) after neuromuscular blockade was 124 ± 48 in VCV versus 143 ± 50 ml/min in PCV, p = 0.42. In the assisted mode, there was a statistical trend of a higher VO2 in PCV (219 ± 72 versus 154 ± 67 ml/min in VCV, p = 0.06), that was associated with a statistical trend of a higher oxygen cost of breathing (OCB) during assisted PCV, although without statistical significance (31 ± 77 in VCV versus 75 ± 96 ml/min in PCV, p = 0.23), and also in a lower PvO2 (34 ± 7 in PCV versus 42 ± 6 ml/min in VCV, p = 0.02). These occurred despite a higher maximum inspiratory flow in the assisted mode in PCV (58 ± 9 versus 48 ± 4 L/min in VCV, p = 0.01). In both VCV and PCV the institution of controlled ventilation reduced cardiac debit and DO2 in as much as 20% relative to the assisted mode. Conclusions: The implementation of controlled ventilation improved the oxygen delivery/consumption relationship in this severe and with high OCB acute lung injury model. The PCV offered no additional benefits to VCV and it was associated with a higher OCB during the assisted mode.

 


Keywords: Artificial respiration. Pulmonary gas exchange. Tidal volume.

 

5 - Papain-induced experimental pulmonary emphysema model in rats

Modelo experimental de enfisema pulmonar em ratos induzido por papaína

Laerte Brasiliense Fusco, Paulo M. Pêgo-Fernandes, Alexandre Martins Xavier, Rogério Pazetti, Dolores Helena Rodriguez Ferreira Rivero, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(1):1-7

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Objective: The reproduction of an experimental emphysema model in rats by intratracheal instillation of papain was proposed for the evaluation of lung volume reduction surgeries. Method: The study used orotracheal instillation of papain (20 mg/kg) dissolved in 0.9% saline solution. Forty days after instillation, animals underwent mechanical ventilation. Elastance and resistance of the respiratory system were measured, and the rats were sacrificed by having their lungs removed. The pulmonary tissue of the animals was qualitatively analyzed with hematoxylineosin staining and submitted to morphometric analysis for the measurement of the mean alveolar diameter. The pulmonary tissue was also subjected to resorcin-fuchsin staining for the identification of elastic fibers, which were quantified in alveolar septa by digital imaging. Results: In the animals instilled with papain, the histological analysis of the lungs showed pan-acinar emphysema, with rupture of alveolar septa and hyperdistention. Morphometric analysis showed higher mean values for mean alveolar diameter in the lungs of the animals submitted to papain (149.08 μm and 100.56 μm) as compared to the group receiving saline solution (64.08 μm and 75.90 μm). The quantification of elastic fibers of alveolar septa of papain-treated animals was 70% lower than in the animals receiving saline solution. Mechanic ventilation did not show differences in respiratory system resistance of animals receiving papain or saline solution. Respiratory system elastance was lower in the group receiving papain than in the group receiving saline solution, showing a functional status compatible with pulmonary emphysema, with decreased elasticity of the pulmonary tissue. Conclusion: The reproduction of an experimental model of pan-acinar pulmonary emphysema in rats was achieved by papain instillation through the respiratory tree with functional and morphologic evidences.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary emphysema. Experimental model. Papain. Rats. Drug instillations.

 

6 - Pulmonary tuberculosis: findings on high resolution computerized tomography of active disease on patients with bacteriological confirmation

Tuberculose pulmonar: achados na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax em pacientes com doença em atividade comprovada bacteriologicamente

Cristiane Aló Campos, Edson Marchiori, Rosana Rodrigues

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(1):23-29

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Background: The aim of this study was to describe the signs of active tuberculosis in patients submitted to high resolution computerized tomography and the distribution of lesions along the pulmonary parenchyma. Material and methods: The high resolution CTs performed on 42 patients with tuberculosis either bacteriologically diagnosed or clinical suspected and later confirmed by bacteriological tests were studied. Results: The signs of disease activity observed were airspace nodule (83%), centrilobular nodule (74%), tree-in-bud pattern (67%), cavitations (67%), bronchial thickening (55%), parenchymal consolidations (48%), ground glass opacity (21%) and thickening of the inter and intralobular septa (9%). Conclusion: High resolution computed tomography can be strongly suggestive of disease activity, is particularly helpful in patients with negative smear and/or undetermined radiographs, and allows the establishment of proper treatment, even before mycobacteria are identified in means of culture.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary tuberculosis. X-ray computed tomography.

 

7 - Role of the open lung biopsy in the evaluation of undiagnosed acute lung disease in a pediatric intensive care unit

Contribuição da biópsia pulmonar a céu aberto na avaliação de pneumopatias difusas e agudas em unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica

Albert Bousso, Evandro Roberto Baldacci, José Carlos Fernandes, Iracema de Cássia Oliveira Fernandes, Andréa Maria Gomes Cordeiro, José Pinhata Otoch, Bernardo Ejzenberg, Yassuhiko Okay

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(1):30-40

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Introduction: The diagnosis of diffuse lung disease is still a challenge for the pediatric intensive care physician. Routine clinical examinations and laboratory tests are frequently negative. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential, the impact on therapy and the rate of complications of open lung biopsy in children with undiagnosed diffuse lung disease, respiratory failure and inappropriate response to initial therapy. Methods: From January 1987 to January 1997, 29 children with diffuse pulmonary disease of unknown etiology, respiratory failure (PaO2 /FiO2 < 300) and no response to previous treatments were considered for open lung biopsy. Newborns, children with known chronic pulmonary disease and children with untreatable shock or coagulopathy were excluded. All biopsies were performed by a thoracic surgeon by a microthoracotomy in the lung shown to be the most affected by X-ray examination. Tissue samples were analyzed in terms of cultures, light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy, according to the pathologist's decision. Results: All biopsies (100%) resulted in at least one histological diagnosis and in 20 patients (68.9%) it was obtained a specific diagnosis. The most frequent histological patterns found were: non-specific interstitial pneumonitis with variable degrees of fibrosis in 18 cases; bronchiolitis in eight cases and pulmonary hypertension in three cases. Regarding the most frequent specific diagnosis, six children were found with cytomegalovirus infection, three with Pneumocystis carinii, three with adenovirus and three with respiratory syncytial virus infection. These data induced a change in therapy in 20 children (68.9%). The most frequent changes in therapy were the use of corticosteroids in 14 children and a review of the antibiotic regimen in six patients. Seven patients (24.1%) presented with complications that were easily resolved. There were 13 deaths, probably due to the critical conditions of these patients, all unrelated to the procedure. Conclusions: Open lung biopsy, though an invasive procedure, should be considered in the evaluation of selected children with undiagnosed diffuse lung disease, respiratory failure and with no satisfactory response to previous therapies.

 


Case Report

8 - Endobronchial granular cell tumor: report of a case diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy

Tumor de células granulares endobrônquico: relato de um caso diagnosticado por biópsia endoscópica

Ayrton Schneider Filho, Carlos Renato Almeida Melo, Alessandra Naimaier Bertolazi, Carlos Eurico da Luz Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(1):51-54

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Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a term used to describe a tumor with distinctive histology, characteristic immunohistochemical profile, and peculiar ultrastructural findings. This tumor has an ample topographic distribution and its localization in the airways is considered common. The authors report on the case of a 40-year old woman who had been presenting productive cough and fever for two months and seemed normal at physical examination. Computerized tomography evidenced thickened intermediary bronchial wall and bronchoscopy showed, at this level, hyperemia and elevation of the endobronchial mucosa. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of the tissued established the diagnosis of GCT. The purpose of this report is to call attention to the possibility of diagnosing this kind of tumor by small endoscopic biopsies.

 


Keywords: Neoplasm muscle tissue. Granular cell tumor. Biopsy. Diagnosis

 

9 - Recurrent pneumothorax secondary to agenesis of the diaphragm

Pneumotórax recidivante secundário à agenesia do diafragma

Camila Baracat Mendina, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(1):48-50

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The authors report a case of recurrent pneumothorax secondary to agenesis of the diaphragm in a 36-year old female. The diagnosis was established by means of clinical history and chest X-ray examination. Surgical correction was carried out. Diaphragmatic agenesis was detected during the procedure and pleural abrasion was performed. Two months following surgery another pneumothorax episode occurred. Fallopian tube ligature was then performed in order to prevent the entrance of air into the abdomen during ovulation, and thus avoid further recurrences of pneumothorax.

 


Keywords: Diaphragm. Agenesis. Pneumothorax. Recurrence.

 

Review Article

10 - Lung cancer epidemiology

Epidemiologia do câncer do pulmão

Mauro Zamboni

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(1):41-47

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Once a rare disease, lung cancer has become the most common type of lethal cancer throughout the world. This change has occurred since the 1920s , when it was observed both in Europe and in North America that the number of the cases began to increase. Although mentioned sporadically in the medical literature in the first half of the century, it was in 1950 that several well-performed case-controlled studies first suggested tobacco smoking as the overwhelming cause of lung cancer. It took even more years before results of large prospective studies, like the pioneering work of Doll and Hill, convinced both the public and the governments that smoking is the most important cause of the disease. Histologically, lung cancer is divided into four major subgroups: squamous-, adeno-, small cell, and large cell carcinomas. In a substantial number of cases, however, accurate histological diagnosis may be difficult, due to both intrinsic tumor heterogeneity and to inter-observer variability. Kreyberg suggested that only squamous and small cell carcinomas were caused by tobacco smoking, but most of the more recent studies indicate that the majority of adenocarcinomas is also caused by tobacco smoking. In all studies the proportion of adenocarcinoma is much higher in females than in males and secular trends during 1980s and 1990s have shown an increase in the occurrence of adenocarcinoma. Most occupational carcinogens, with the exception of chloromethyl ethers and radiation (radon), which have a higher tendency to promote small cell lung cancer, give rise to tumors with a histological distribution that is similar to tumors caused by tobacco smoke.

 


Keywords: Lung cancer. Epidemiology.

 

Case Report

11 - Cerebral tuberculoma

Tuberculoma cerebral

Elizabeth Clara Barroso, Tânia Regina Brígico de Oliveira, Ana Maria Dantas do Amaral, Valéria Góes Ferreira Pinheiro, Ana Lúcia de Oliveira Sousa

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(1):55-58

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It is reported a case of a previously healthy man with seizures of sudden onset. A contrast head computerized tomogram (CT) showed a right frontoparietal expanding lesion suggesting to be metastatic. No prior disease was found on investigation. The histologic exam of the brain revealed tuberculoma. The seizures were controlled with Hidantoin 300 mg/day and antituberculosis chemotherapy for 18 months. Central nervous system tuberculosis (5-15% of the extrapulmonary forms) is highly lethal. The case reported herein is specially rare in immunocompetent patients. It may have good prognosis and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of brain tumours.

 


Keywords: Intracranial tuberculomas. Central nervous system tuberculosis. Diagnosis.

 

Letters to the Editor

12 - Zémaria, a tosse e a fé no tratamento da tuberculose

Fernando Augusto Fiuza de Melo

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(1):60-

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Year 2002 - Volume 28  - Number 2  (March/April)

Original Article

1 - Modified crichothyroidotomy: an alternative for tracheobronchial secretions removal

Cricotireoidotomia modificada: opção para remoção das secreções traqueobrônquicas

Wilson Paloschi Spiandorello, Darcy Ribeiro Pinto Filho, Gisele Bassani, Franca Stedile Angeli Spiandorello

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(2):61-64

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Introduction: Inhalations, postural drainage and respiratory physiotherapy are not always effective in removing tracheobronchial secretions. Objectives: To evaluate an alternative surgical technique, modified crichothyroidotomy, to aspirate tracheobronchial secretions. Method: Modified crichothyroidotomy is the introduction of a catheter number 8, 10 or 12 into the crichothyroid membrane in order to stimulate coughing and the aspiration of secretions. This is a descriptive study of the benefits as well as immediate and late complications caused by the use of this technique in 45 patients with excessive tracheobronchial secretions inadequately removed by usual methods. Results: Immediate surgical complications were bleeding (10 patients), oropharynx deviation (3), subcutaneous emphysema (1) and difficult introduction (1). Mean catheter permanence was 14 ± 16 days and, in all cases, the catheter provoked coughing and allowed the easy aspiration of secretions. The most frequent occurrence (17 patients) was the expulsion of the catheter by coughing, inadequate catheter handling during aspiration and moving of the patients. Conclusion: This is a simple technique with a low morbidity rate and represents constitutes an effective alternative to be used in the aspiration of tracheobronchial secretions.

 


Keywords: Postural drainage. Aspiration.

 

2 - The effectiveness of the pulmonary rehabilitation program as an ancillary treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Efetividade da reabilitação pulmonar como tratamento coadjuvante da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Sérgio Leite Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas, Terezinha Lima

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(2):65-70

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Introduction: The patient with COPD has his global physical activity decreased due to a progressive worsening of the lung function resultant from any kind of physical effort he may perform. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is used in the United States and Europe as an alternative therapy in COPD treatment. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of PR as an ancillary treatment for COPD. Patients and methods: 30 patients prospectively submitted to the PR program developed in six weeks with three weekly sessions. Evaluation included clinical history and complete physical examination, the six-minute walking distance test, maximum workload test for upper limbs, maximum load test for lower limbs, a questionnaire of effort perception, spirometry and analysis of blood gases. Results: Concerning spirometry and analysis of blood gases, pre and post PR program, no statistically significant change was observed (p > 0.05). Pre and post PR program, statistically significant values (p < 0.05) were observed in the decrease in effort perception and increase in functional physical capacity, maximum workload test for upper limbs and incremental test for lower limbs used to determine the maximum workload. Conclusions: The authors concluded that, in the group studied, the PR program increased the patients' physical capacity and maximum workload for upper limbs whereas no changes were observed in the data regarding spirometry and analysis of blood gases.

 


Keywords: Rehabilitation. Therapeutical approaches. Lung diseases obstructive. Treatment outcome. Exercise therapy.

 

3 - Cost-effectiveness of an education program for asthmatic adults of a public university hospital

Custo-efetividade de programa de educação para adultos asmáticos atendidos em hospital-escola de instituição pública

Maria Alenita de Oliveira, Maria Tereza Muniz, Lucia Ande Santos, Sônia Maria Faresin, Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(2):71-76

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The direct costs incurred in managing patients with poorly controlled asthma are high and educational programs could decrease these costs. Aim: The objectives of this study were to compare the direct cost of the implementation of an educational program for adult asthmatic patients with the cost of the usual care delivered to asthmatics by specialists. Methods: Five years ago, a six-month study demonstrated that an educational program improved clinical outcomes (22 in educational program-E and 20 patients in control group-C). Throughout the educational intervention period all cases of hospitalization, emergency and regular calls involving patients from both groups were recorded. The basis for the values utilized in the calculation of costs was the healthcare database of the Brazilian government (DATASUS). The overall medication cost/patient in both groups was based on the amount of medication taken during the month preceding the last call. The final values were converted into US dollars. Results: The mean direct cost/patient in the educational (E) and control (C) groups and the difference (Δ) between groups were: hospitalizations (C = US$ 183, E = 0, Δ = US$ 183); emergency calls (C = US$ 14, E = US$ 5, Δ = US$ 9); regular calls (C = US$ 10, E = US$ 24, Δ = -US$ 14); medication (C = US$ 124,3, E = US$ 195,6, Δ = -US$ 71,3). The total cost was US$ 33/patient in group C and US$ 224/patient in group E with an average cost saving of US$ 107/patient. Conclusion: The expenses with medication is higher in E group because the regular use of maintenance drugs, however the study suggested that the application of the asthma education program reduced the total direct costs of asthma.

 


Keywords: Asthma. Cost-benefit. Patient education.

 

4 - Cigarette smoking survey among physicians of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul: prevalence and smoker's profile

Pesquisa sobre tabagismo entre médicos de Rio Grande, RS: prevalência e perfil do fumante

Luís Suárez Halty, Maura Dumont Hüttner, Isabel de Oliveira Netto, Thaís Fenker, Tatiana Pasqualini, Berenice Lempek, Adriana Santos, Alessandra Muniz

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(2):77-83

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Smoking is a serious public health problem. The campaign against tobacco is largely supported by health professionals, especially doctors. The physician is a model for the community and therefore should give the example avoiding smoking. Objectives: This work seeks to evaluate the magnitude and the distribution of smoking habit among physicians in Rio Grande, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, and characterize the smoking doctor's profile. Method: Data were obtained, in 1999, through application and analysis of a questionnaire, based on the model proposed by WHO, among 333 physicians of whom 213 (64%) were men and 120 (36%) were women. The average age of the sample was 43 (± 10.5) years with 65.1% between 30 and 50 years. Results: Smoking prevalence was 18.3% (15.9% regular smokers and 2.4% occasional smokers). Regular smoking prevalence was 17.8% among males and 12.5% among females, with no significant statistic difference (p > 0.05). The mean number of cigarettes smoked was 24.3 packets/years, being superior among men and increasing with age. It was verified that 86.8% of the smokers began smoking before 20 years of age, due to their desire or friends' influence in 63.2% of the cases. Conclusion: Although smoking prevalence among Rio Grande physicians is lower than in other countries, it is still unacceptable. Since this class has a decisive role in the prevention and fight against smoking, a specific campaign against tobacco among these professionals would greatly justify.

 


Keywords: Smoking. Prevalence. Physicians. Epidemiological

 

Review Article

5 - Therapeutic management of tracheobronchial stenosis with stent application

A correção das estenoses traqueobrônquicas mediante o emprego de órteses

Maurício Guidi Saueressig, Amarílio Vieira de Macedo Neto, Alexandre Heitor Moreschi, Rogério Gastal Xavier, Paulo Roberto Stefani Sanches

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(2):84-93

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The surgical treatment of patients with tracheobronchial stenosis requires individualized attention due to the complexity of its origin though tracheoplasty is considered to be the ideal procedure. The most common causes of stenosis are tracheal intubation and the development of neoplasias. These are the very conditions that most benefit from endoscopic treatment when surgical correction is not indicated. Today, endoscopic procedures include the application of different kinds of laser and dilators usually delivered with a rigid bronchoscope, as well as radiotherapy and stents that may be used separately or associated. Basically, there are two types of stents, metal or silicone. The metallic ones are more frequently indicated in cases of tracheomalacia and extrinsic compressive stenosis. Silicone are more applicable in cases of tracheobronchial obstruction resultant from acute inflammation or endoluminal tumor. Although these methods can be used interchangeably in some cases, the best way to correct tracheobronchial stenosis is to correctly decide upon the treatment as early as the preliminary steps.

 


Keywords: Tracheal stenosis. Orthopedics fixation devices. Angioplasty.

 

6 - Lung cancer radiology

Radiologia do câncer de pulmão

Maysa Gomes Barcellos

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(2):94-99

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The evaluation of patients with lung cancer involves not only the detection of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes and the delineation of the relationship between the primary lesion with the mediastinal structures but also the determination of extra thoracic metastases. This article reviews the major imaging techniques that are currently used to stage bronchogenic carcinoma. Radiologic studies have made an important impact on the evaluation of the solitary pulmonary nodule. Mediastinal staging coupled with imaging methods is not accurate. CT and MR imaging of the chest and abdomen are often used to stage a known or suspected lung carcinoma. Despite their limitations, CT and MR prevent unnecessary thoracotomies and invasive procedures. MR can be helpful in the evaluation of parts of the chest not well shown on CT. PET-FDG imaging complements chest CT in the noninvasive evaluation of lung cancer and strategies for its use merit further investigation.

 


Keywords: Radiology. Bronchogenic carcinoma. Lung neoplasms. Diagnostic imaging. Emission-computed tomography. Nuclear magnetic resonance.

 

Case Report

7 - Human pulmonary dirofilariasis: a report of seven cases

Dirofilariose pulmonar humana: relato de sete casos

Rodrigo Silva Cavallazzi, Antônio César Cavallazzi, Irene Vieira Souza, João José de Deus Cardoso

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(2):100-102

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Human pulmonary dirofilariasis is a rare disease caused by the parasite Dirofilaria immitis. It is usually seen as a solitary pulmonary nodule that mimics lung cancer. Although this disease is considered benign, its diagnosis often requires an excisional lung biopsy. Herein we report the epidemiological, clinical and radiological features observed in seven cases of human pulmonary dirofilariasis from Florianópolis. Six of our seven patients, showed a radiological finding of pulmonary nodule and underwent excisional lung biopsy for diagnosis. In one case, the radiological image was unavailable for review. Therefore, it was not described in this work, and the diagnosis was established through transbronchial biopsy.

 


Keywords: Dirofilariasis. Dirofilaria immitis. Coin lesion pulmonary.

 

8 - Tracheobronchomegaly

Traqueobroncomegalia em criança: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

Eliana H. Mihara Varella, Patrícia F. Miamoto, Fabíola V. Adde, Cleyde M.A. Nakaie, Joaquim C. Rodrigues

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(2):103-106

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Objective: To point out to tracheobronchomegaly as a differential diagnosis in children with chronic respiratory disorders. Methods: The patient's data were obtained from his chart review and bibliographical data were obtained from the Medline System. Results: This is a case report on a 15-year-old, white, male patient who had been followed up in the Pulmonology Unit of the Children's Institute since he was 10 years old. His history included wheezing episodes and recurrent respiratory tract infections since he was 5 months old. The initial diagnosis was asthma, but, since the patient responded only partially to treatment, a chest computerized tomography was performed. It revealed an enlargement of the tracheal and right bronchial dimensions, confirming the diagnosis of tracheobronchomegaly. Conclusions: Tracheobronchomegaly is a rare disease in children. This entity should be thought in children with chronic respiratory diseases of unidentified etiology. To date, no definitive treatment is available.

 


Keywords: Tracheobronchomegaly. Obstructive lung diseases.

 

9 - Osteochondroma

Osteocondroma: relato clínico

Nelson Perelman Rosenberg, Ivo Leuck Jr., Mario de Luca Jr., Miguel Angelo Martins Castro Jr.

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(2):107-108

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Osteochondroma is generally found as a small, hard and painless tumor that grows from the outer surface of the costal metaphysis. We herein report the case of a 19-year-old female presenting chest pain with respiratory or hemodynamic involvement. Radiological examination showed a large intrathoracic calcified lesion compressing the mediastinal vessels.

 


Keywords: Osteochondroma. Thoracic injuries.

 

10 - Nephrobronchial fistula due to Pastereula aerogenes infection

Fístula nefrobrônquica em paciente com infecção por "Pasteurella aerogenes"

Renato Della Santa, Cláudio Leo Gelape, Felipe Duborqc, Ricardo Lira, João Cabral

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(2):109-112

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The authors report the case of a 58 year-old woman with nephrolithiasis, who after being submitted to percutaneous lithotripsy developed xantogranulomatous pyelonephritis, lung abscess and sepsis. Initially, treatment included open drainage of the retroperitoneum, nephrectomy and tubular drainage of the lung abscess and pleural space, through right lateral thoracotomy. Pastereula aerogenes was isolated from both lung and retroperitoneal secretions. To our knowledge, this is the first case of nephrobronchial fistula related with this bacteria in medical literature.

 


Keywords: Bronchial fistula. Xantogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Lung abscess. Gram-negative bacterial infections. Lithiasis. Kidney.

 

Letters to the Editor

Year 2002 - Volume 28  - Number 3  (May/June)

Original Article

1 - Heimlich valve in the treatment of pneumothorax

A válvula de Heimlich no tratamento do pneumotórax

Ricardo Beytuti, Letícia Engber Odilon Villiger, José Ribas Milanez de Campos, Rodrigo Afonso Silva, Angelo Fernandez, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(3):115-119

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Objective: Heimlich valve has been described as a substitute for water-sealed drainage systems. The objective of this study by the Thoracic Surgery Service of the "Hospital das Clínicas", University of São Paulo Medical Center, is to assess its effectiveness in the treatment of pneumothorax and its ease of operation, safety, and patient toleration. Methods: From June/97 to August/00, 107 patients with pneumotoraxes of different etiologies were analyzed. The majority (76%) were classified radiologically as suffering from moderate or large pneumothorax, three hypertensive pneumothorax, and one was bilateral. The pleural cavity was drained with teflon or polyurethane plastic pig-tail catheters (10.2F, 14F, straight 11F connected to the Heimlich valve or the valve was connected directly to the thoracic drain in post-thoracotomy patients). Results: The valve remained in place for one to 120 days (mean 4 days). Tolerance to the system was good in 89% of cases. There were no serious complication linked to the system. Associated pleural effusion in 20 patients (18.5%) did not prevent the system from functioning well. Only two patients (1.8%) developed subcutaneous emphysema, and therefore, a 36F Tubular drain under water seal was chosen. Thoracotomy for decortication was indicated in one patient (0.9%). Twenty patients (18.5%) were treated on an outpatient basis. Conclusions: The Heimlich valve confirmed its effectiveness in resolving pneumothorax of different etiologies and in postoperative air leaks. Its operation was simpler than that of conventional systems. The good toleration and safety mentioned by the patients was a determining factor in early hospital discharge and a motive for outpatient treatment.

 


Keywords: Pneumothorax. Pleura. Postural drainage.

 

2 - Reduction on the levels of anxiety and depression of COPD patients participating in a pulmonary rehabilitation program

Redução nos níveis de ansiedade e depressão de pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) participantes de um programa de reabilitação pulmonar

Dagoberto Vanoni de Godoy, Rossane Frizzo de Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(3):120-124

Abstract PDF PT

Study objectives: Multidisciplinary pulmonary rehabilitation has been the most suitable treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This clinical trial studied the prevalence of anxiety and depression and the effect of a pulmonary rehabilitation program on anxiety and depression levels of 46 COPD patients (mean ± SD age, 62 ± 11 years; 34 men and 12 women). Design: The participants underwent a 12-week treatment program: 24 sessions of physical exercise, 24 sessions of physiotherapy, 12 psychological sessions and three educational sessions. All patients were evaluated at baseline and at completion of the rehabilitation program through three instruments: Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and 6- minute walking distance (Tcam6'). Results: Patients demonstrated significant statistical improvements, including reduced anxiety and depression, and increased endurance: BAI 16.4 ± 6.9 vs. 6.8 ± 5.3 (p < 0.001); BDI: 16.9 ± 8.7 vs. 7.5 ± 6.6 (p < 0.001); Tcam6": 335.7 ± 83.4 vs. 441.6 ± 100.8 (p < 0.05). Conclusions: COPD patients presented high prevalence of anxiety and depression levels. The pulmonary rehabilitation program was able to improve patient exercise performance, and to reduce anxiety and depression levels.

 


Keywords: COPD. Pulmonary rehabilitation. Physical exercise. Anxiety. Depression.

 

3 - Comparison between the theoretical values for spirometric data in children determined by Mallozi's and Polgar's equations

Comparação entre os valores teóricos para alguns dados espirométricos em crianças determinados pelas equações de Mallozi e de Polgar

Waldemar Ladosky, Rogerson T. Andrade, Noel Guedes Loureiro, Marcos Alberto Machado Botelho

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(3):125-130

Abstract PDF PT

Objective: This paper is a continuation of the study on the validity of equations of predicted value (PV) for the Brazilian population. A comparison was made between the equations proposed by Mallozi and by Polgar for the Brazilian population, which are mainly used in the United States and Europe. Methods: PVs of 185 patients of both sexes (89 boys and 96 girls), ages between 6 and 17 years, were analyzed. For each subject, the PVs for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at 1 sec. (FEV1), and the medium expiratory flow (MEF) were calculated according to the equations proposed by Mallozi and Polgar. Results were compared. Diagnoses were made according to the Brazilian Consensus of Spirometry. Results: The PV-M for FVC is 0.38% higher for boys and 2.19% higher for girls than that determined by Polgar. The PV-P for FEV1 is 6.67% (p < 0.05) lower for girls, suggesting an underassessment of the obstructive impairment. For boys, a mean lower value of 7.26% as compared to the VT-M is at the limit of significance (0.05 < p < 0.01). No significant difference between the two equations analyzed was found for MEF. Conclusions: The PVs for CVF and VEF1 for Brazilian children, according to Mallozzi, are significantly different when compared to those published by authors like Polgar. As a result, the authors found that Mallozzi's equations are more likely to detect obstructive impairment and less likely to diagnose restrictive ventilatory insufficiency.

 


Keywords: Spirometry. Vital capacity. Forced expiratory volume. Maximal medium expiratory flow rate. Case-control studies

 

4 - Use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during physical activities on an ergometric treadmill performed by individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): comparison with the use of oxygen

Utilização da pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas (CPAP) durante atividade física em esteira ergométrica em portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC): comparação com o uso de oxigênio

Flávio Danilo Mungo Pissulin, Alcides Guimarães, Lúcio Benedicto Kroll, Michel Jorge Cecílio

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(3):131-136

Abstract PDF PT

Objective: To analyze the effects of the continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), with 30% of FiO2 and in compressed air, used during the performance of submaximal physical activity on an ergometric treadmill. Materials and methods: Nine male individuals with COPD were submitted to physical activity on the ergometric treadmill using CPAP with 30% FiO2 .The authors evaluated the behavior of the spirometric parameters, the forced vital capacity (FVC), the forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) before and after physical activity, the respiratory frequency (f), the arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), the cardiac frequency (cf), the systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and the diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) at rest and during physical activity. Results and conclusion: Results have shown that, when using CPAP in both situations analyzed, there has been an increase in the FVC and a decrease in f and in cf with statistically significant difference (α = 0.05). SaO2 has showned a significantly higher mean when CPAP was used with 30% of FiO2 (α = 0.05). The FEV1, the SAP and DAP have maintained the same value in the statistical analyses.

 


Keywords: Exercise test. Forced expiratory volume. Vital capacity.

 

Review Article

5 - Low-molecular-weight heparin in the treatment of pulmonary embolism

Heparina de baixo peso molecular no tratamento da tromboembolia pulmonar

Renato Maciel

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(3):137-142

Abstract PDF PT

This article reviews the pharmacokinetic properties of low-molecular weight heparins, compares the results of their use to that of unfractioned heparin in a pulmonary embolism treatment, showing they are a safe an effective alternative. The authors suggest that low-molecular-weight heparins administered subcutaneously once or twice-daily and without frequent laboratory monitoring have permitted out-of-hospital or short hospitalization management in some cases of pulmonary embolism, resulting in cost savings and increased patient satisfaction.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary embolism. Heparin. Low-molecular-weight heparin.

 

6 - Tumor markers in lung cancer: a pathway to biological therapy

Marcadores tumorais no câncer de pulmão: um caminho para a terapia biológica

Fernando Azevedo Pacheco, Marcos Eduardo Machado Paschoal, Maria da Glória da Costa Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(3):143-149

Abstract PDF PT

Recent advances in genetics and molecular biology lead to the identification of genes and protein products overexpressed by tumors. Such products, called tumor markers, were previously used only as diagnostic and prognostic tools, but are currently being the target of extensive research, with growing evidence that some of them may have an important role in the development of new treatment modalities, targeting the tumor cell biological cycle. In this article, the authors review the role of some of the traditionally known tumor markers (CEA, p53, NSE, K-ras), and describe the prevalence and the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression and its protein product, p185neu. New drugs have been developed, aiming at the blockade of the signaling process initiated by the EGFR. Among these, the authors highlight ZD1839 (Iressa), a new orally administered drug that reversibly and selectively inhibits the EGFR tyrosine-kinase activity. This drug has demonstrated good results in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer, as an isolated drug or in combination with other chemotherapy agents. Targeting the EGFR could represent a significant contribution to cancer therapy, mainly the non-small-cell lung cancer.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms. Tumor markers. Receptor epidermal growth factor.

 

Case Report

7 - Pulmonary artery aneurysm as a manifestation of Behçet disease: case report and review

Aneurisma de artéria pulmonar como manifestação da doença de Behçet

Marcos Naoyuki Samano, Renata Teixeira Ladeira, Luiz Pedro Meirelles, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(3):150-154

Abstract PDF PT

Behçet disease has been associated to pulmonary manifestations and may be lethal if not treated correctly. The authors describe a case of a 53 year-old male with aneurysmatic pulmonary artery dilatation, pulmonary hypertension, and hemoptysis. A review is presented about the diagnosis and the medical and surgical treatment of this disease.

 


Keywords: Behcet's syndrome. Pulmonary artery. Pulmonary hypertension. Aneurysm. Hemoptysis.

 

8 - Recurrent pneumonias in patient with antibody deficiency and normal immunoglobulins

Pneumonias de repetição em paciente com deficiência de anticorpos e imunoglobulinas normais

Beatriz Tavares Costa-Carvalho, Renata Rodrigues Cocco, Waldinei M. Rodrigues, Viviane A. Colla, Dirceu Solé, Magda M. Carneiro-Sampaio

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(3):155-158

Abstract PDF PT

The authors report the case of a 7-year-old girl, with a history of recurrent respiratory infections since five months of age. Immunological evaluation at four years of age revealed a normal level of total serum immunoglobulins, but a deficient humoral response to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although having all normal IgG subclasses, the patient had inadequate antibody levels to all serotypes tested (1, 3, 5, 6, 9, and 14). Concurrent radiological evaluation showed diffuse atelectasis and bronchiectasis. Patient was started on IVIG, and subsequent chest CT scan revealed resolution of the above-mentioned lesions. To prevent irreversible damage to lung parenchyma, due to recurrent lower respiratory infections, it is important to identify immunocompromised individuals and treat them accordingly.

 


Keywords: Immunologic deficiency syndromes. Streptococcus pneumoniae.

 

9 - Pancreatic pseudocyst associated to massive pleural effusion

Pseudocisto de pâncreas associado a derrame pleural maciço

Evandro Monteiro S. de Magalhães, Joaquim Carlos Ávila Terra, Luciana Borém Pimenta de Figueiredo, Luís Henrique Serra Miranda

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(3):

Abstract PDF PT

The authors report a case of pancreatic pseudocyst associated with massive pleural effusion. The patient was submitted to X rays, REED, ultrasonography, thoracoabdominal computerized tomography and amylase dosing in the pleural liquid. Clinical treatment included dietary support and thoracocentesis with drainage of about 3,200 ml. Patient was submitted to laparotomy to remove the pseudocyst, and was discharged in good clinical conditions. Based on this report, the authors analyze and review the literature for the occurrence of pleural effusion associated with pancreatic diseases and diagnoses.

 


Keywords: Pancreatic pseudocyst. Pleural effusion. Computerized X-ray tomography. Laparotomy.

 

10 - Benign schwannoma of the posterior mediastinum with a dumbbell-shaped lesion traversing the trachea

Schwannoma benigno do mediastino posterior com desenvolvimento em ampulheta para a traquéia

Fernando Luiz Westhhal, Augusto Castilho, Arteiro Queiroz Menezes

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(3):

Abstract PDF PT

Benign schwannoma tumors are the most common primary tumors of the posterior mediastinum. They may develop into a dumbbell-shaped involvement of the medullar channel, but rarely reach the tracheobronchial tree. The authors report a case of a 45-year-old female patient with a benign schwannoma in the posterior mediastinum, with a dumbbell-shaped lesion that traverses the intercartilaginous septa of the trachea. The tumor was resected by endoscopy in the endotracheal portion and afterwards by thoracotomy of the mediastinal tumor. Eight months after the surgery, there has been no recurrence of the lesion.

 


Keywords: Mediastinal neoplasms. Thoracotomy. Thoracoscopy. Mediastinal cyst.

 

11 - Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonia: analysis of eight cases and review of the literature

Pneumonia de hipersensibilidade crônica: análise de oito casos e revisão da literatura

Maria de Fátima do Amparo Teixeira, Patrícia Gioia de Assis, Luiz Cláudio Lazzarini-de-Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(3):167-172

Abstract PDF PT

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is an immunologic lung disease caused by chronic inhalation of chemicals or organic dusts. Its chronic stage makes diagnosis more difficult because other interstitial diseases share the same clinical and radiological presentation, usually requiring open lung biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. The authors reviewed the confirmed cases in the last 11 years at the Thoracic Diseases Institute [Instituto de Doenças do Tórax] of the Rio de Janeiro Federal University [UFRJ]. In this period, eight cases were confirmed by histopathological studies. Main symptoms were dyspnea and coughing. All cases showed interstitial infiltrates on radiological studies and restrictive functional patterns were found in 70% of the cases. All seven patients treated with corticosteroids responded with improved clinical symptoms, although some did not have radiological or functional response. Once the diagnosis is established, patients must avoid the causative environment because the disease may progress to fibrosis if exposition continues.

 


Keywords: Extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Case-control studies. Diagnosis.

 

Letters to the Editor

12 - A tuberculose e o casamento

Rubens Bedrikow

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(3):173-174

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Year 2002 - Volume 28  - Number 4  (July/August)

Original Article

1 - Pulmonary sequestration: a series of nine cases operated on

Seqüestro pulmonar: uma série de nove casos operados

Paulo M. Pêgo-Fernandes, Cibele Hasmann Freire, Fabio Biscegli Jatene, Ricardo Beyruti, Francisco Vargas Suso, Sérgio Almeida de Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):175-179

Abstract PDF PT

Background: Pulmonary sequestration is a congenital anomaly involving the pulmonary parenchyma and its vascularization, and it presents as extralobar or intralobar. Aim: Describe the cases treated at the Institute of Heart (InCor) and Clinical Hospital of the Medical School of the University of São Paulo (FMUSP). Method: Retrospective analyses of the files of the patients treated over the 10-year period taking demographic, clinical and laboratorial data. Results: The patients were recurrent pulmonary infection and hemoptysis were frequent clinical findings in these patients. All cases were intralobar. The main localization was the left lower lobe (66%). Only one diagnosis was made intra-operatively. In the other eight cases, diagnosis was suggested on chest radiographs (100%) and confirmed by angiography (77%) and computed tomography (66%). Lobectomy (77%) was the most common surgical treatment, with low post-operative morbidity, and no mortality. Anatomic and histologic examination was performed in seven cases and confirmed the pathology. Conclusion: Pulmonary sequestration is an uncommon entity, in which the computed tomography and the angiography are the radiological investigations that provide the most information to a definitive and secure diagnosis. Resection of the involved tissue leads to excellent results.

 


2 - Analysis of the use of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire as an instrument to measure nicotine dependence

Análise da utilização do Questionário de Tolerância de Fagerström (QTF) como instrumento de medida da dependência nicotínica

Luis Suárez Halty, Maura Dumont Hüttner, Isabel Cristina de Oliveira Netto, Valéria A. dos Santos, Grasiele Martins

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):180-186

Abstract PDF PT

Introduction: The University Hospital is reference in the city of Rio Grande, in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southeast part of Brazil, for chronic lung disease patients, with a major smoking cessation program. Aim: The purpose of this work was to analyze the utilization of Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire to assess the nicotine dependence of smoking patients with reference to individualization of treatment. Material and Method: The authors used the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (FTQ) in daily smoking adult patients from the Medical Clinic and Chest Medicine Units of the University Hospital and Rio Grande Santa Casa Hospital, during the period of one year. Three hundred and one valid questionnaires were filled out, 40.5% by females and 59.5% by males. Mean age was 48.6 years. The score of the questionnaires classified patients by dependence into five degrees: very low, low, medium, high, and very high. Results: 54.9% belong to the group of high nicotine dependence (score ³ 6), with a significant correlation of elevated nicotine dependence and cigarettes per day or time to the first cigarette of the day (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The use of the FTQ demonstrated ease of administration and more than 50% of the patients with a degree of chemical dependence that anticipate discomfort at cessation of smoking and need of treatment to control the withdrawal symptoms.

 


3 - Results of tuberculosis treatment with streptomycin, isoniazid, and ethambutol (scheme SHM)

Resultado do tratamento da tuberculose com estreptomicina, isoniazida e etambutol (esquema SHM)

Pedro Dornelles Picon, Maria de Lourdes Della Giustina, Carlos Fernando Carvalho Rizzon, Sérgio Luiz Bassanesi, Ana Paula Zanardo, Matheus Truccolo Michalczuk, Letícia Rebolho Dei Ricardi

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):187-192

Abstract PDF PT

Aim: To evaluate the performance of an SHM scheme (streptomycin, isoniazid, and ethambutol) in an outpatient clinic routine treatment for tuberculosis. Method: Seventy-eight patients with tuberculosis whose prior treatment with the RHZ scheme (six months of rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide) had to be discontinued due to adverse effects, or who could not receive the RHZ scheme due to high risk for liver toxicity, were treated in the outpatient clinic with the 12 month SHM scheme from 1986 to 1994, in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Results: Three patients (3.8%) required a scheme change due to toxicity. In the remaining 75 patients, 58 (77.3%) were cured, eight (10.7%) withdrew, five (6.7%) presented failure, and four (5.3%) died. Theoretical cure rate, which is the percent of cure of patients who regularly followed the treatment, was 95.3%. Adverse reactions were seen in 32 patients (41%), the most frequent being vestibular damage in 18 patients (23.1%). Results were compared to those obtained in the same outpatient clinic with the 12 month RHM scheme (rifampicin, isoniazid, and ethambutol), and with the six month RHZ scheme. Conclusion: The SHM scheme may be recommended as an alternative for the treatment of tuberculosis whenever the RHZ scheme cannot be indicated.

 


4 - Education of the asthmatic patient: the nursing approach

Educação de pacientes com asma: atuação do enfermeiro

Ana Rita de Cássia Bettencourt, Maria Alenita de Oliveira, Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes, Miguel Bogossian

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):193-200

Abstract PDF PT

Background: Asthma education programs induce better asthma control and are one of main recommendations in guidelines. The programs recommendations should include a nurse in the educational team applying the structured program. The purpose of the intervention is to bring a change in the daily life of the patient and the family in order to improve disease control and quality of life. Aim: To standardize and apply a structured post-consultation model as part of multidisciplinary care in an educational program for asthmatic patients seen at the outpatient clinic of a public hospital, and to monitor the changes in asthma knowledge and quality of life. Methods: A longitudinal prospective study over six months with regular visits at four week intervals (total = 6 visits), conducted at the outpatient department of Unifesp/EPM/HSP, and the patients were included after signing a consent form. The asthma structured educational plan was conducted by a multidisciplinary team and addressed the following issues: what is asthma, relief and prevention medicines, daily report of symptoms and dyspnea score, training of the correct use of inhaled medication, discussion and actions regarding triggering factors and how to avoid them, and tips to recognize the signals of uncontrolled asthma. A standard questionnaire about general knowledge on asthma and a quality of life questionnaire were applied at the beginning, during the course, and at the end of the program. Results: 26 asthmatics were followed over six months and showed a statistically significant improvement in their identification and management of asthma skills as well as better quality of life indices. Conclusion: The model of care and the approach and training techniques were adequate and useful in the development of a structured educational program for socially deprived patients.

 


Review Article

5 - Minimum requirements for the anatomopathological report in lung cancer: justifications in the pathogenesis

Requisitos mínimos para o laudo de anatomia patológica em câncer de pulmão: justificativas na patogênese

Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Alexandre Muxfeldt Ab'Saber, Alecsander Guillamon Pereira da Silva, Célia Petrossi Gallo, Fernando Brandão

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):201-218

Abstract PDF PT

The lung is source to a large number of cytological and histologic specimens. Pathologists should diagnose these specimens and then participate in the clinical and pathologic staging of the tumor. The first priority of pathologists when evaluating a lung tumor with specific histologic diagnosis can usually be accomplished with routine cytological or histologic preparations. These may be supplemented as necessary with ancillary histochemical or immunohistochemical studies. If adequate diagnostic tissue is available, special studies such as electron microscopy, frozen section immunostaining, cytogenetics, and molecular studies can be performed. In the case of small specimens, all tissue should be routinely processed; if a diagnosis cannot be rendered, subsequent biopsies can be prospectively triaged for the necessary and appropriate special studies. This is typical in cases of malignant lymphoma, in which biopsy specimens may be too small for definitive diagnosis without the aid of immunophenotype studies. The pathologic staging of a primary lung tumor is contingent on appropriate gross and microscopic examination of resection specimens. Standardized and unified staging schemes are necessary for comparative and collaborative studies of lung tumors. The following approach can be applied to segmentectomy, lobectomy, pneumectomy, en bloc resections, and tracheal or bronchial sleeve resections.

 


6 - Diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

Diagnóstico e estadiamento do câncer de pulmão

Angelo Fernandez, Fabio B. Jatene, Mauro Zamboni

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):219-228

Abstract PDF PT

Carcinoma of the lung can present in a number of guises and a number of possible and often complementary diagnostic approaches are available. The choice of procedure should reflect the presentation of the tumor, local expertise, intended management and patient preference. There are different methods of investigation: sputum cytology, fiberbronchoscopy, transbronchial biopsy, transbronchial needle aspiration, transthoracic fine needle aspiration, etc. The association of all of these methods increases the power of diagnosis. Staging is the measurement of the anatomical extent of a tumor in any given patient. The staging of cancer began with Denoix's TNM classification system, and, although several modifications were developed, it remains the basis of lung cancer staging systems up to now. Assigning patients to a particular TNM stage allows choosing the most appropriate therapy and provides prognostic information. Also, the impact of new therapeutic methods can be evaluated for efficacy and a comparison of the expected survival rates can be predicted.

 


Case Report

7 - Leptospiral pneumonia

Pneumonia por leptospirose

Maura Dumont Hüttner, Hugo Cataud Pacheco Pereira, Rosimeire Mitsuko Tanaka

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):229-232

Abstract PDF PT

Leptospirosis is an infectious disease characterized by multisystemic involvement. The lung involvement is common, usually mild and frequently neglected. When respiratory manifestations are prominent in a patient with leptospirosis, there is the potential for diagnostic confusion. The authors report a severe case of leptospiral pneumonia, with the objective of highlighting this etiological possibility of community pneumonia, especially when there is suspicion of epidemic features.

 


8 - Lung cancer in workers exposed to silica

Câncer de pulmão em trabalhadores expostos à sílica

Ana Paula Scalia Carneiro, Max Anderson Morales dos Santos, Plínio Vasconcelos Maia, Sandhi Maria Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):233-236

Abstract PDF PT

Silica is one of the main occupational agents associated with lung cancer. It is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 substance, i.e., carcinogenic for humans, since 1996. The objective of this paper is to report two cases of workers previously exposed to silica who developed lung cancer, seen in an out-patient clinic, focusing on important points of the current literature on the subject.

 


9 - Acute chest syndrome as the first manifestation of sickle cell disease in a middle aged adult

Síndrome aguda do tórax como primeira manifestação de anemia falciforme em adulto

Hugo Hyung Bok Yoo, Nilva Regina Pelegrino, Ana Lúcia Oliveira de Carlos, Irma de Godoy, Thais Thomaz Queluz

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):237-240

Abstract PDF PT

Acute chest syndrome is an affection, specially in young adults, of sickle cell disease and is responsible for 25% of the deaths. The authors report the case of an alcoholic 45-year-old mulatto man, without any previous manifestation of sickle cell disease, who presented with a pneumonia-like clinical picture with seven days of duration. The chest X-ray revealed bilateral lung infiltrates and spots of consolidation with air bronchograms, and left pleural effusion. The patient also had anemia and leukocytosis with neutrophilia. Treated with cefoxitin and amicacin, the patient developed acute respiratory insufficiency and died 14 hours after hospitalization. The necropsy showed lungs with intense congestion, intra-alveolar hemorrhage, diffuse alveolar damage, and sickle red blood cells. The progressive, fast, and severe character of the acute chest syndrome, which is frequently mimicked by other illnesses, makes the disease a dramatic and severe event of difficult earlier diagnosis. Therefore, in countries like Brazil, with a large black population, the physicians must always be aware of this possibility.

 


10 - Toxoplasmosis with pulmonary collapse

Toxoplasmose com comprometimento pulmonar

Claudio Luiz Viegas, Andrea M. Santos, André Camurça de Almeida, Arivaldo Araújo Teixeira, Melanio de Paula Barbosa

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):241-243

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The authors describe a case of pulmonary collapse by T. gondii, in a 57 year-old man. Diagnosis was made by serology after an exhaustive clinical radiological evaluation. The clinical variants of polymiositis and of the respiratory system collapse presented by the patient are discussed considering the small number of references to this entity in the Brazilian medical literature.

 


Letters to the Editor

11 - Mortalidade por asma no município de Curitiba e no Estado do Paraná

Sônia Zulato, Denise Carvalho, Nelson A. Rosário

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):244-

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Year 2002 - Volume 28  - Number 5  (September/October)

Editorial

1 - A honra de poder servir à Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia (SBPT)

Thaís Helena Abrahão Thomaz Queluz

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(5):v-

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Original Article

2 - Comparative study of prognostic factors among longer and shorter survival patients with bronchogenic carcinoma

Estudo comparativo dos fatores prognósticos entre os pacientes com maior e menor sobrevida em portadores de carcinoma broncogênico

Sérgio Jamnik, Ilka Lopes Santoro, César Uehara

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(5):245-249

Abstract PDF PT

Despite the improvements seen in the treatment of lung cancer, little has improved in the survival of these patients, and a great importance is attributed to the factors that have a role to play in such survival. Purpose: To check for possible prognostic factor differences in two populations of lung cancer patients, one of them with short survival (less than six months), and the other with longer survival (more than 24 months). Methods: From 1997 to 1999, 52 patients with histopathologic diagnosis of homogenous carcinoma were studied, and demographics, clinical parameters, smoking pattern, Karnofsky's index, disease staging, and laboratory dosing of lactic dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, carcinoembryonic antigen, and calcium data were surveyed. Results: 29 patients had less than six month survival, and 23 had more than 24 month survival. The three most important factors for short survival were the low initial Karnofsky's index, loss of appetite, and high serum LDH levels. Conclusion: The three prognosis components are: current physical status, prior physical status, and current status of the disease.

 


3 - Evaluation of the risk of bacterial contamination in the patient submitted to bronchoscopy, after reprocessing the bronchoscope

Avaliação do risco de contaminação por bactérias, no paciente submetido à broncoscopia, após o reprocessamento do broncoscópio

Nancy Spekla Grande, Romilda Aparecida Nakayama, Antonia Maria de Oliveira Machado, Fábio Akio Yamaguti, Cesar Uehara

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(5):250-260

Abstract PDF PT

Introduction: Bronchoscopic is a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure performed by introducing a flexible tube in the airways that allows for the visualization even of the smallest airways. In order to prevent or reduce the risk of infection, the bronchoscope must be adequately disinfected with at least high level disinfection. Purpose: Check for the risk of bacterial contamination for patients submitted to bronchoscopy at the Hospital São Paulo of Unifesp University, State of São Paulo. Methods: From 1997 to 1998, bronchoscope reprocessing included cleaning, rinsing with sterile or potable water, followed by rinsing with 2% glutaraldehyde for 20 minutes, rinsing again with sterile or potable water, and rinsing with 70% ethyl alcohol, and forced-air drying through the suction channel. Samples of 65 patients were collected for microbiologic tests by instilling sterile saline solution through the suction channel of the bronchoscope. Results: After reprocessing, the following were found in the samples: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter sp, Acinetobacter baumanni, Streptococcus viridans, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus beta hemoliticus A, Staphylococcus coagulase negative, and mycobacterial growth was found in the culture of five samples. Conclusions: Bronchoscope disinfection with 2% glutaraldehyde was not sufficient to assured disinfection of the scope and the presence of Staphylococcus epidermidis shows that there was bronchoscope contamination due to handling after disinfection.

 


4 - Environment and lung

Ambiente e pulmão

Maria João Marques Gomes

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(5):261-269

Abstract PDF PT

The human body is exposed to different environmental aggressions; accidents, physical, chemical, and microbiological agents are a permanent risk. The respiratory system is particularly exposed to environmental aggressions and is frequently ground of alterations with greater or lesser intensity and danger. The authors review the consequences of air pollution on the respiratory system. They define air pollution, indoor and outdoor pollution, and primary and secondary pollution. They briefly review respiratory system defense mechanisms and describe harmful actions of different air pollutants to airways: SO2, NO2, CO, O3, aerosols and particles. They point to the consequences of tobacco smoking due to its importance to health. They conclude with comments on the intervention that Pneumology and Pneumologists should have in this matter, drawing the attention of the community and authorities to the risks of pollution to health in general and to the respiratory system in particular.

 


5 - Evaluation of glucose metabolism in active lung tuberculosis by positron-emission tomography (18F-FDG PET)

Estudo do metabolismo da glicose na tuberculose pulmonar ativa utilizando a tomografia por emissão de pósitrons (18F-FDG PET)

Sidney Bombarda, José Soares Júnior, Mário Terra Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(5):270-276

Abstract PDF PT

Current methods to evaluate lung tuberculosis include chest radiography and computed tomography. Nuclear medicine imaging techniques are performed after administration of specific radiopharmaceuticals that accumulate in the organs of interest. Alterations of glucose metabolism can be observed by positron-emission tomography, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET). These findings are present in the neoplasms, but also in inflammatory and infectious diseases. Tuberculosis is a granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, that uses glucose as an energy source. Purpose: The study of glucose metabolism in lung tuberculosis by PET and the comparison of this results to CT scan findings. Material and methods: Twenty patients with active lung tuberculosis were evaluated. The 18F-FDG PET and computed tomography were performed in all patients, after the diagnosis and until 30 days of treatment. Results of both methods were compared. Results: All patients showed 18F-FDG positive uptake. On the computed tomography, all patients showed signs compatible with tuberculosis. The sensitivity of both methods was of 100%. There was significant concordance between the two methods (K = 0.27). Conclusions: The study concludes that glucose metabolism is modified in lung tuberculosis. There was concordance in the anatomic changes observed on computed tomography.

 


Case Report

6 - Non-conventional therapies to manage refractory acute asthma attack

Uso de terapias não convencionais no manejo da crise aguda de asma refratária

Raquel Hermes Rosa Oliveira, Alexandre de Oliveira Ribeiro, Gustavo Adolpho Junqueira Amarante, Miguel Lia Tedde

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(5):277-280

Abstract PDF PT

A patient with an acute asthma attack refractory to inhaled and intravenous b2-agonist, aminophylline and corticosteroids was submitted to mechanical ventilation and treated with non-conventional therapies: bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage using N-acetylcysteine and halothane inhalation. The ventilatory parameters improved after lavage, however, bronchospasm resolution occurred only after anesthesia which was followed by extubation and discharge from the ICU. A review of the use of these non-conventional therapeutic modalities for the management of acute asthma attack is presented.

 


7 - Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

Pneumonia eosinofílica crônica

Alessandra Isabel Zille, Christiano Perin, Geraldo Resin Geyer, Jorge Lima Hetzel, Adalberto Sperb Rubin

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(5):281-284

Abstract PDF PT

Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare disease of unknown cause characterized by eosinophilic alveolar and interstitial infiltration. The authors describe the case of a 49-year-old caucasian woman, presenting dyspnea on minimum effort, with insidious beginning and progressive course in the last six months. The main findings were serum eosinophilia and in the sputum, chest radiographs showing multifocal infiltrations of irregular distribution in both lungs and a restrictive functional impairment. The patient was submitted to an open lung biopsy, which demonstrated a chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. There was a dramatic clinical, radiological, and functional response after corticosteroid therapy.

 


8 - Pleural effusion: an extraintestinal complication of Crohn's disease

Derrame pleural: uma complicação extra-intestinal da doença de Crohn

Elie Fiss, Flavio Steinwaurz, Andrea Barranjard Vannucci, Camila de Menezes Succi

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(5):285-287

Abstract PDF PT

A 34-year-old patient had had Crohn's disease (CD) for eight years; she was seen for complaints of thoracic pain and fever, without gastrointestinal manifestations. Initial laboratory exams were compatible with the presence of inflammatory activity (VHS = 45 mm for normal value of 20 mm and PCR+). The physical exam revealed signs of pleural effusion in the left hemithorax base, which was confirmed by thoracic RX. The pleural liquid analysis showed that the cells were 100% of lymphocytes, with negative BAAR research. The pleural biopsy evidenced non caseous granuloma. Despite the tuberculosis treatment, the patient only got better when corticotherapy was introduced in high doses, suggesting the activity of CD as the cause of the pleural effusion. This case establishes a connection between activity of CD and manifestations of lung disease.

 


Review Article

9 - Superior vena cava syndrome

Síndrome de veia cava superior

Samuel Zuínglio de Biasi Cordeiro, Paulo de Biasi Cordeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(5):288-293

Abstract PDF PT

Lung cancer is now the main cause of blood flow obstruction in the superior vena cava and of its clinical manifestations. History tells that in the 18th Century, syphilis and tuberculosis were responsible for 40% of the known cases. The knowledge of hemodynamic changes seen in this syndrome and the improvement of diagnostic and cytopathologic techniques allow for a safer and more comfortable treatment of the patient than 10 years ago. Contrast CT and MR added to the identification and location of the obstruction, and older techniques such as cavography could be abandoned. SVC obstruction diagnosis and Doppler studies carried out at the bed of the patient contribute to deobstruction procedures such as transluminal percutaneous angioplasty in cases of thrombosis and venous stenosis. In addition, the use of prostheses is of great importance in the management of cases utilization of traumatic lesion to the SVC during lung or mediastinal cancer surgeries. In the realm of radiotherapy, the fractionating technique allows for the administration of high doses of irradiation to cancer patients with benefits to 70% of the cases on the average.

 


10 - Screening for lung cancer: past, present and future

Protocolos de rastreamento para o diagnóstico precoce do câncer de pulmão: passado, presente e futuro

Thamine Lessa E.S. Andrade, Soria Ramos-Barbosa, Jorge L. Pereira-Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(5):294-301

Abstract PDF PT

Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer. More people die each year of bronchial carcinoma than of colon, breast, and prostate cancer combined. More than 50% of the patients will have distant metastases at diagnosis and only 20-25% of these will be localized and potentially resectable, with a five-year survival of 14%. Prior chest radiographs and sputum cytology studies lead to clinically meaningful improvements in stage distribution, resectability and survival, but no disease-specific mortality reductions have been demonstrated. More recently, these techniques have evolved to those of screening by low-dose spiral computed tomography and by the use of specific biomarkers for early detection, thus bringing back interest in lung cancer screening. The authors review screening for lung cancer made in the past, analyze more recent prospective studies, and the prospects for the future, and they point to their main limitations, methodological problems in design, major biases, all of which may invalidate the interpretation of results.

 


Letters to the Editor

Year 2002 - Volume 28  - Number 6  (November/December)

Editorial

1 - O sonho dos mil gatos

Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(6):305-306

PDF PT


2 - A pesquisa experimental na pneumologia brasileira

Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(6):307-308

PDF PT


Original Article

3 - Study on the effect of amiodarone on the body weight and on lung morphologic and cytopathologic parameters of male and female Wistar, Wistar-Kyoto, and SHR rats

Estudo do efeito da amiodarona sobre o peso corpóreo e sobre determinantes morfológicos e citopatológicos do pulmão em ratos machos e fêmeas das linhagens Wistar, Wistar-Kyoto e SHR

Thais Thomaz Queluz, Maria Helena de Castro e Silva, Silméia Garcia Zanatti, Frederico Sobral de Oliveira, Rodrigo Bazan, Júlio Defaveri

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(6):309-316

Abstract PDF PT

Introduction: Most of the experimental studies on amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity have been performed in male Fischer-344 rats. Objective: To investigate the effect of amiodarone on body weight and on lung morphological and cytopathologic parameters in both genders of other rat strains. Methods: Groups of male and female Wistar, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats received, 175 mg/kg/day of amiodarone suspended in saline by gavage for four weeks. Controls received saline alone. Body weight gain, total cellularity, and differential of the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung histopathology were studied. Results: Mortality due to amiodarone was observed in treated WKY rats, mostly in males. Treated male and female SHR animals had less body weight gain among all strains studied. Male Wistar and SHR treated rats presented more body weight gain than females of the respective strains. BAL of treated SHR rats were hemorrhagic. BAL cellularity was higher in treated males (WKY > Wistar > SHR). In WKY males and females, however, the differential count showed a lesser percent of macrophages and higher of neutrophils than in the other strains. BAL macrophages of treated Wistar rats presented phospholipidosis, whereas most macrophages of treated SHR rats were normal. In lung anatomicopathologic examination, no difference was found related to gender and no pneumonitis was observed. In Wistar rats, the examination was characterized by a marked quantity of intra-alveolar "foamy" macrophages, numerous intraparenchymal abscesses were found in WKY rats, and alveolar hemorrhage was present in SHR rats. Conclusions: 1) amiodarone induces more foamy macrophages in Wistar rats than in the WKY and SHR strains, although they do not develop pneumonitis in the model used; 2) amiodarone has greater effect on lung morphological and cytopathologic parameters of male rats.

 


4 - Clinical and radiographic spectrum of organizing pneumonia: retrospective analysis of 38 cases

O espectro clínico e radiológico da pneumonia em organização: análise retrospectiva de 38 casos

Fabrício Piccoli Fortuna, Cristiano Perin, Juliano de Bortoli, Geraldo Resin Geyer, Nelson da Silva Porto, Adalberto Sperb Rubin

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(6):317-323

Abstract PDF PT

Organizing pneumonia, whether or not accompanied by bronchiolitis obliterans, is a specific anatomicopathological condition of the lungs that can present in a variety of clinical and radiographic ways. It can be either idiopathic or secondary to a number of diseases, including infection and drugs. Objectives: To describe the clinical manifestations, radiographic and spirometric data seen in patients with organizing pneumonia. Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with a diagnosis of organizing pneumonia. Results: 38 patients were included in the analysis. Fourteen also had clinical conditions related to organizing pneumonia, and they presented more frequently with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates (three of four cases) and associated bronchiolitis obliterans (57% vs. 20%, p = 0,05). Of the 13 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans, only one was asymptomatic and two had localized lesions (15%). Of the eight asymptomatic patients with localized lesions, no one had associated bronchiolitis obliterans, and the radiographic appearance often resembled bronchial carcinoma. Spirometry was generally of little value to diagnosis, probably because of the high prevalence of smoking in the sample. Conclusion: The clinical and radiographic presentation of organizing pneumonia is variable. Factors that suggest the absence of coexisting bronchiolitis obliterans are the absence of symptoms and localized radiographic lesions, and this form of the disease has to be more often differentiated from bronchial carcinoma in clinical practice.

 


5 - Study of correlation between functional respiratory tests and the six minute walk test in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Estudo de correlação entre provas funcionais respiratórias e o teste de caminhada de seis minutos em pacientes portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Sérgio Leite Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(6):324-328

Abstract PDF PT

Introduction: Spirometry and analysis of blood gases data have been extensively used to assess ventilatory limitation and prognosis of COPD patients. However, functional physical tests, such as the six-minute walk test (6wt) have been used for the dynamic assessment of COPD patients. Objective: To determine correlations between respiratory function test data and the six-minute walk test in COPD patients. Patients and methods: 45 patients were submitted to clinical history survey and complete physical examination performed by the medical staff of the Pneumology Department of the Brasilia University Hospital, followed by spirometry, analysis of arterial blood gases, maximal respiratory pressures data, and the six-minute walk test. Results: Concerning the spirometric, analysis of blood gases and maximal respiratory pressures data, statistically significant positive correlations (p < 0.05) between FEV1, PaO2, SpO2, MEP and the six-minute walk test were obtained. Conclusions: For the studied group, the six minute walk test has significant correlation with FEV1, PaO2, SpO2 and MEP, and can be used as an alternative functional assessment of COPD patients.

 


6 - Profile of 300 workers exposed to silica seen in an university outpatient clinic

Perfil de 300 trabalhadores expostos à sílica atendidos ambulatorialmente em Belo Horizonte

Ana Paula Scalia Carneiro, Luciano de Oliveira Campos, Marcelo Fonseca Coutinho Fernandes Gomes, Ada Ávila Assunção

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(6):329-334

Abstract PDF PT

Introduction: Silicosis is the most prevalent pneumoconiosis in Brazil, with most of the registered cases occurring in the State of Minas Gerais. Although it is a preventable disease, silicosis is still epidemic in some areas. Objective: To describe the profile of workers seen at the Clinics Hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais. Patients and methods: 300 medical records of silica-exposed workers in different occupations, seen between 1989-2000, were reviewed. Clinical and occupational information, radiographic and spirometric data were analyzed. Statistical methods included univariate analyses with chi-square and t tests. Results and conclusion: The mean age of the exposed patients was 51 years, with mean exposure duration of 15.6 years. 126/300 (42%) were radiologically classified as cases of silicosis. Increasing grades of profusion were associated with lower spirometric indices and more frequent associations with tuberculosis and chronic airflow limitation. Most of the workers were regularly registered employees and the main occupational activity was mining, accounting for the exposure of 197 (66%) workers. Non-registered workers presented more severe radiological grades of silicosis, suggesting, possibly, worse conditions of silica exposure in this group of workers.

 


Case Report

7 - Bronchiolitis obliterans in nodular form

Bronquiolite obliterante na forma nodular

Paulo de Almeida, Murilo J.B. Guimarães, Mario Gesteira Costa, Vital Lyra, Isabella Coimbra, Luiz Adriano de Albuquerque Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(6):335-338

Abstract PDF PT

A 54 year old female patient, public servant, ex-smoker, after two weeks of a common cold complained of cough with yellow sputum, nasal obstruction and facial pain. A chest X-ray showed a solitary nodular lesion in the upper left lobe. The patient was submitted to a left thoracotomy, which established the diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP).

 


8 - Bronchogenic cyst with videothoracoscopic approach

Cisto broncogênico com abordagem videotoracoscópica

Nelson Perelman Rosenberg, Celso Schuler, Fernando Delgiovo, José Augusto Ferreira Bittencourt

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(6):339-341

Abstract PDF PT

Bronchogenic cysts are the most common cause of mediastinal cystic mass and surgical resection is the treatment of choice. The authors report a case of bronchogenic cyst with successful treatment by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). They emphasize the benefits of VATS in the management of this pathology and compare this technique to conventional thoracotomy.

 


9 - Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

Carcinoma mucoepidermóide

Cristiano Feijó Andrade, Spencer Marcantônio Camargo, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, José Carlos Felicetti

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(6):342-344

Abstract PDF PT

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm of the tracheobronchial tree, of unknown etiology. Its preferred endobronchial location often results in respiratory symptoms such as obstruction of the airways and lung diseases of slow recovery. They usually are slow growing tumors although they may present an aggressive behavior with local invasion and lymph node metastases depending on their histopathologic characteristics. The mainstay therapy is complete surgical resection either by means of lobectomy or by lung sparing procedures such as bronchotomy and bronchoplasty. Prognosis depends upon the degree of cellular differentiation of the tumors. The authors report a case of this rare neoplasia and describe the clinical and radiographic characteristics, and the surgical treatment.

 


Review Article

10 - Radiotherapy in lung cancer

Radioterapia no câncer de pulmão

Heloisa de Andrade Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(6):345-350

Abstract PDF PT

A review of the role of radiotherapy in lung cancer is presented, with the most recent innovations. Indications for postoperative irradiation and chemo-radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer are discussed. Recommendations are made for prophylactic cranium irradiation and perspectives of thoracic radiotherapy for small cell lung cancer. Recent techniques and results of the "Brazilian Consensus on Lung Cancer - Radiotherapy" are also presented.

 


Upgrading

11 - Liquid ventilation: literature review

Ventilação líquida: revisão da literatura

Cristiano Feijó Andrade, Elaine Aparecida Felix Fortis, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(6):351-361

Abstract PDF PT

New methods of ventilation are being studied in different settings of pulmonary insufficiency in which the ultimate goal is to improve gas exchange and to minimize aggression to the lung parenchyma. The use of liquid perfluorocarbons administered directly in the airways has been ostensibly studied in pulmonary lesion models and in some clinical essays with good results relating to gas exchange, ventilatory mechanics, and anti-inflammatory properties. PFCs are substances with low surface tension, high density, they are not soluble in water, and allow for high diffusion of oxygen and carbonic gas. They act by recruiting collapsed alveoli, improving the gas exchange, protecting pulmonary architecture, and they wash out alveoli debris. This review article focuses on the different liquid ventilation strategies with perfluorocarbons, and provides information on the state of the art of liquid ventilation.

 


 


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