Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2007 - Volume 33  - Number 1  (January/February)


1 - In search of total quality

Em busca da qualidade total

José Antônio Baddini Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):i-iii

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2 - Pharmacological economics and asthma treatment

A farmacoeconomia e o tratamento da asma

José Roberto Jardim

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):iv-vi

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3 - Respiratory repercussions of obesity

Repercussões respiratórias da obesidade

Roberto Stirbulov

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):vii-viii

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Original Article

4 - Comparing asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in terms of symptoms of anxiety and depression

Asma e doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica: uma comparação entre variáveis de ansiedade e depressão

Neide Suzane Carvalho, Priscila Robles Ribeiro, Marcos Ribeiro, Maria do Patrocínio Tenório Nunes, Alberto Cukier, Rafael Stelmach

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):1-6

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Objective: To evaluate the presence and severity of symptoms of anxiety and depression in individuals with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: In order to evaluate symptoms of anxiety and depression, specific instruments of quantification (the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory, respectively) were administered to patients at an outpatient clinic for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The population comprised 189 randomly and prospectively selected patients that were divided into three study groups (each with a different therapeutic objective): 40 patients with controlled asthma, 100 patients with uncontrolled asthma, and 49 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Included among the variables studied, as part of the methodology, were symptoms of anxiety and depression. The data obtained were compared taking into consideration demographic and functional aspects, as well as the severity of the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Results: Among the asthma patients, the prevalence of moderate or severe anxiety was significantly higher than that observed among those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p <  0.001). The uncontrolled asthma group presented significantly higher rates of depressive symptoms than did the controlled asthma group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The frequency of symptoms of anxiety and depression is greater among asthma patients than among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which can make clinical control difficult.


Keywords: Anxiety; Depression; Asthma; Pulmonary disease; Chronic obstructive


5 - Comparison between the drug treatment used in children up to five years of age treated in an emergency room and the guidelines established in the III Brazilian Consensus on Asthma Management

Comparação entre o tratamento farmacológico aplicado em crianças de zero a cinco anos atendidas em uma unidade de emergência e as diretrizes do III Consenso Brasileiro no Manejo da Asma

Ana Paula Ochoa Santos, Luciane Soares de Lima, Almir Gonçalves Wanderley

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):7-14

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Objective: To evaluate the management of asthma attacks in children up to five years of age treated in the pediatric emergency room of a hospital in the metropolitan area of the city of Recife, Brazil, as well as to determine whether the way in which asthma attacks are managed can influence the duration of emergency room visits for such children. Methods: A descriptive, exploratory study employing a quantitative, cross-sectional approach. The study sample comprised 246 children treated for asthma attacks in an emergency room. The approach used was evaluated in comparison with the approach recommended in the III Brazilian Consensus on Asthma Management, as was the length of time each child spent in the emergency room. Results: In 69 (28.1%) of the cases, the medications were used in accordance with the Consensus guidelines. In 34 (13.8%) of the cases, the doses used were those recommended in the Consensus guidelines, and the guidelines regarding nebulization procedures were followed in 33 cases (13.4%). No correlation was found between the approach taken and the length of the emergency room visit. In the logistic regression analysis, we observed that the adjusted risk of being released from the emergency room sooner than recommended in the Consensus guidelines (a length of time sufficient to allow the response to the treatment to be analyzed) was four times and fifteen times greater, respectively, for children with mild persistent asthma and for those with intermittent asthma. Conclusion: Although there are obstacles to using the asthma management approach recommended in the Consensus guidelines (such obstacles including the lack of familiarity with the guidelines on the part of the multidisciplinary team, as well as the lack of recommended material and therapeutic resources), the duration of emergency room visits was found to be related to the degree of asthma severity.


Keywords: Emergency medicine; Pediatrics; Asthma; Status asthmaticus


6 - Impact that a program to control severe asthma has on the use of Unified Health System resources in Brazil

Impacto de um programa para o controle da asma grave na utilização de recursos do Sistema Único de Saúde

Eduardo Ponte, Rosana Abreu Franco, Adelmir Souza-Machado, Carolina Souza-Machado, Álvaro Augusto Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):15-19

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Objective: To quantify the use of health care resources among patients enrolled in the Bahia State Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Control Program. Methods: As of January of 2006, 1405 patients had enrolled in the program, which is carried out in four referral centers in the city of Salvador. These patients formed the basis of this retrospective/prospective, observational cohort study. The preliminary analysis involved 269 consecutive patients, all above the age of 12 and diagnosed with severe asthma. After being seen by pulmonologists, nurses, pharmacologists and psychologists, the patients received inhaled asthma medications. Based on patient interviews and charts, the year preceding enrollment in the program was compared with the first year enrolled in the program in terms of the following quantifiable parameters: hospital admissions; emergency room visits; courses of oral corticosteroids; and days of school/work missed due to asthma attacks. Results: In this sample of patients with severe asthma, enrollment in the program resulted in significant reductions in the number of emergency room visits and hospital admissions (of 85% and 90%, respectively). There were also reductions in the number of school/work days missed due to asthma attacks and in the number of courses of oral corticosteroids (of 86% and 67%, respectively). Conclusion: A program designed to control severe asthma in referral outpatient clinics and including pharmacological services at no charge can lead to a pronounced reduction in the demand for Unified Health Care System resources.


Keywords: Asthma/therapy; Asthma/prevention  control; Hospitalization; National Health System (BR)


7 - Prevalence of asthma attacks treated in public health facilities in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil

Prevalência dos atendimentos por crises de asma nos serviços públicos do Município de Juiz de Fora (MG)

Oscarina da Silva Ezequiel, Gilberto Salles Gazeta, Nicolau Maués da Serra Freire

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):20-27

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Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of asthma attacks treated in public health facilities in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil from February 1, 2002 to January 31, 2003. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving monthly analyses performed in order to evaluate the asthma attacks treated. The variables analyzed were patient gender, age, and place of residence, as well as the profile of the visits by age bracket and by the site of the visit. In addition, we attempted to determine whether asthma attacks correlated with temperature or relative humidity. Results: A total of 25,243 patients were treated for asthma attacks, accounting for 11.1% of the total number of visits to pediatric clinics and 2.7% of the total number visits to medical clinics. The mean age of the patients was 11.6 years (median, 4 years), and 52.9% of the patients were male. The analysis of the annual distribution revealed an increase in the number of asthma attacks treated in the months of May (11.5%), June (10.8%), and July (10.9%). Asthma attack presented a strong inverse correlation with temperature (-0.86) and a weak inverse correlation with relative humidity (-0.27). Statistically significant differences, in terms of mean age and gender, were found between patients with asthma attacks treated in emergency rooms and those treated in basic health clinics. The evaluation by age bracket revealed a predominance of males among patients younger than 12 years of age and a predominance of females among those aged 12 or older. Conclusion: We found that asthma represents a significant public health problem in this city. Local strategies are urgently needed in order to increase in the availability of prophylactic treatment.


Keywords: Asthma/epidemiology; Prevalence; Public Hospitals; Brazil


8 - Prevalence of and the potential physiopathological mechanisms involved in dyspnea in individuals with class II or III obesity

Prevalência de dispnéia e possíveis mecanismos fisiopatológicos envolvidos em indivíduos com obesidade graus 2 e 3

Christiane Aires Teixeira, José Ernesto dos Santos, Gerusa Alves Silva, Elisa Sebba Tosta de Souza, José Antônio Baddini Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):28-35

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Objective: To investigate dyspnea in individuals with Class II or III obesity and look for correlations among the respiratory data related to such individuals. Methods: This study involved 49 subjects with a body mass index >35 kg/m2, divided into two groups (those with dyspnea and those without). The baseline dyspnea index was evaluated, as were spirometry findings, maximal respiratory pressures and arterial blood gas analysis. Results: Of the 49 subjects evaluated, 37 reported dyspnea and 12 reported no dyspnea. The baseline dyspnea index differed between the two groups. The mean values were within the range of normality for all subjects and all parameters, except for the following: ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity; expiratory reserve volume; and the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. The subjects with dyspnea presented significantly lower values for expiratory reserve volume, maximal expiratory pressure and arterial pH. In all subjects, body mass index correlated significantly with the following: baseline dyspnea index; the residual volume/total lung capacity ratio; the forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ratio; forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity; arterial oxygen tension; the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient; and arterial carbon dioxide tension. The baseline dyspnea index was found to correlate significantly with the following parameters: residual volume/total lung capacity ratio; expiratory reserve volume; arterial oxygen tension; the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient; and arterial carbon dioxide tension. Conclusion:  Dyspnea is a common complaint in individuals with class II or III obesity. Such individuals present a pronounced reduction in expiratory reserve volume and an increase in the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. The correlations found suggest that obese individuals present dysfunction of the lower airways, and that obesity itself plays a role in the genesis of dyspnea.


Keywords: Obesity/complications; Dyspnea/epidemiology; Dyspnea/physiopathology; Respiratory function tests


9 - Pre-operative and post-operative spirometry in bone marrow transplant patients

A espirometria na avaliação pré e pós-transplante de medula óssea

Eliane Viana Mancuzo, Walace Espada da Silva, Nilton Alves de Rezende

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):36-42

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Objective: To analyze the spirometry findings in patients undergoing bone marrow transplant, determining the importance of such findings in predicting postoperative pulmonary complications and looking for correlations with postoperative outcomes. Methods: The spirometry findings in 120 male and female patients, all above the age of 12, were evaluated retrospectively and compared in terms of the following parameters: the type of bone marrow transplant; the underlying disease; cytomegalovirus serology; source of the transplanted cells; smoking; pulmonary infection; history of lung disease; duration of the hematological disease; chemotherapy employed; conditioning regimen; acute or chronic rejection of the transplant; and post-operative mortality. Results: In the pre-operative spirometry, 16 patients (13.3%) presented alterations: 6 (5%) presented pure obstruction; 7 (5.8%) presented pure restriction; and 3 (2.5%) presented obstruction accompanied by a reduction in vital capacity. In the post-operative spirometry, 29 patients (24.2%) presented alterations. The chance of presenting post- operative spirometry alterations was greater in patients presenting acute transplant rejection (p = 0.02), patients older than 30 (p = 0.02), female patients (p = 0.02) and patients receiving stem cells (p = 0.01). Having a history of lung disease was found to be associated with greater mortality, as was suffering from chronic transplant rejection. No relationship was found between pre-operative spirometry alterations and post-operative mortality. Conclusion: In bone marrow transplant patients, the alterations found through pre-operative spirometry were not predictive of post-operative pulmonary complications or mortality. Nor were such alterations determinant of whether or not a given patient was a good candidate for bone marrow transplant. Simple spirometry seems to be of little practical importance in the evaluation of such patients.


Keywords: Spirometry; Bone marrow transplantation/adverse effects; Bone marrow transplantation/mortality


10 - Comparison between azithromycin and amoxicillin in the treatment of infectious exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Comparação entre a azitromicina e a amoxicilina no tratamento da exacerbação infecciosa da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Mara Rúbia Andre-Alves, José Roberto Jardim, Rodney Frare e Silva, Elie Fiss, Denison Noronha Freire, Paulo José Zimermann Teixeira

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):43-50

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Objective: To compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of azithromycin and amoxicillin in the treatment of patients with infectious exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: This study was conducted at six medical centers across Brazil and included 109 patients from 33 to 82 years of age. Of those, 102 were randomized to receive either azithromycin (500 mg/day for three days, n = 49) or amoxicillin (500 mg every eight hours for ten days, n = 53). The patients were evaluated at the study outset, on day ten, and at one month. Based on the clinical evaluation of the signs and symptoms present on day ten and at one month, the outcomes were classified as cure, improvement, or treatment failure. The microbiological evaluation was made through the culture of sputum samples that were considered appropriate samples only after leukocyte counts and Gram staining. Secondary efficacy evaluations were made in order to analyze symptoms (cough, dyspnea, and expectoration) and pulmonary function. Results: There were no differences between the groups treated with azithromycin or amoxicillin in terms of the percentages of cases in which the outcomes were classified as cure or improvement: 85% vs. 78% (p = 0.368) on day ten; and 83% vs. 78% (p = 0.571) at one month. Similarly, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the secondary efficacy variables or the incidence of adverse effects. Conclusion: Azithromycin and amoxicillin present similar efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


Keywords: Amoxicillin/therapeutic use; Azithromycin/therapeutic use; Bronchitis, chronic/drug therapy;


11 - Adverse events after pneumococcal vaccination

Eventos adversos após vacinação contra o pneumococo

Maria Rita Donalisio, Somnia Marlene Cadogan Piraggini Rodrigues, Elisa Teixeira Mendes, Mariana Krutman

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):51-56

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Objective: To study the occurrence of adverse events after administration of a capsular polysaccharide vaccine against 23 pneumococcal serotypes in individuals for whom such vaccination is indicated. Methods: This was a prospective study, conducted in a general hospital in the city of Sumaré, in which 152 individuals were evaluated after intramuscular vaccination with 0.5 mL of the Pneumo 23® vaccine. The study variable was subject complaint of at least one symptom forming a temporal nexus with the vaccine (appearing within 48 h after its administration). The subjects were evaluated at five to seven days after vaccination. The covariables age, gender and clinical profile were tested using the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression, with the level of significance set at 5%. Results: The age of the population ranged from 5 to 86 years (mean, 61.8 years). For nearly all (99%) of the subjects, the vaccination evaluated was their first dose of the vaccine. Events occurring at the injection site were reported in 36 subjects (23.7%). Of those 36 events, 24 (68%) were mild and had no repercussions for the daily activities of the subjects. Pain at the site of the injection was the most common symptom, being reported by 97.2% of the subjects. Erythema and localized edema were found in 6.3% and 5.1% of the subjects, respectively. Of the subjects evaluated, 12.8% reported general symptoms (malaise, fever, sleepiness and generalized pain). In the bivariate analysis, none of the covariables were found to present a statistically significant correlation with adverse events (p > 0.20). The same held true in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Although, the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine provokes few reactions in the first dose, it is still rarely recommended in the region, even for patients at risk.


Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae; Pneumonia; Pneumococcal/prevention & control; Pneumococcal vaccines/adverse effects


12 - Physicochemical properties of human tracheobronchial sputum maintained at room temperature

O muco traqueobrônquico humano mantido em temperatura ambiente e suas propriedades físico-químicas

Renata Claudia Zanchet, Gilvânia Feijó, Ada Clarice Gastaldi, José Roberto Jardim

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):57-61

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Objective: To evaluate the effect that maintaining tracheobronchial sputum at room temperature has on the analysis of ciliary transport and cough, as well as on the contact angle. Methods: Hyaline sputum was collected from 30 individuals without pulmonary diseases, and purulent sputum was collected from patients with bronchiectasis. The samples were analyzed immediately after collection and again after 24 h. Results: After 24 h at room temperature, the purulent sputum presented an increase in cough-induced dislodgment (96 ± 50 vs. 118 ± 61 mm) and a decrease in the contact angle (32 ± 6 vs. 27 ± 6 degrees) (p < 0.05). For the hyaline sputum, there were no alterations in the parameters analyzed. Conclusion:  Hyaline tracheobronchial sputum can be stored in room temperature for 24 h without presenting alterations in ciliary transport or contact angle. However, purulent sputum should not be stored at room temperature for many hours, since ciliary transport and contact angle might be altered as a result.


Keywords: Temperature; Sputum; Cough; Mucociliary clearance


13 - The effect of adenotonsillectomy on oxygen saturation in children with sleep disordered breathing

O efeito da adenotonsilectomia na saturação de oxigênio em crianças com distúrbios respiratórios do sono

Jaime Luís Freitas Arrarte, José Faibes Lubianca Neto, Gilberto Bueno Fischer

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):62-68

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Objective: To evaluate the effect of adenotonsillectomy on oxygen saturation measured through nocturnal pulse oximetry in children with sleep disordered breathing. Methods: A pre- and post-intervention study was carried out using nocturnal pulse oximetry. The study involved 31 children who were suspected of having sleep disordered breathing and had been referred for adenotonsillectomy. Results: A total of 27 children completed the study. The mean age was 5.2 ± 1.8 years, and 18 (66.7%) of them were male. Upon physical examination, 23 (85.2%) of the children presented class III or class IV hyperplasia of the palatine tonsils. There was significant improvement in the post-operative period over the pre-operative period in terms of the oxygen desaturation rate (OR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.5-1.3 vs. OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.1-2.4; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Adenotonsillectomy significantly improved oxygen saturation, as measured through nocturnal pulse oximetry, in children with sleep disordered breathing.


Keywords: Sleep apnea obstructive; Tonsillectomy; Oximetry; Child


14 - Evaluation of the limited participation by university students in a smoking cessation program

Avaliação da participação de pequeno número de estudantes universitários em um programa de tratamento do tabagismo

Wilson Paloschi Spiandorello, Liliana Zugno Filippini, Angélica Dal Pizzol, Fernanda Kreische, Diogo Sandri Soligo, Tiago Spiandorello, Raquel Boff, Mauricio Michele

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):69-75

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Objective: To evaluate the limited participation by university students in a smoking cessation program. Methods: A cross-sectional, comparative study was conducted at the University of Caxias do Sul, located in Caxias do Sul, Brazil, involving students who enrolled in a smoking cessation program, together with those who did not. Results: Of the 108 student who did not enroll in the program, 102 (94.4%) stated that they had no intention to quit smoking (95% confidence interval: 88.29-97.93%. Comparisons between the enrolled and nonenrolled students revealed the following statistical differences: in mean age (35 vs. 23 years, p < 0.01); mean duration of the smoking habit (19.42 vs. 7.36 years, p < 0.01); considering oneself addicted (100% vs. 58.5%, p = 0.047); believing oneself able to stop smoking at any time (7.1% vs. 22.6%, p = 0.02); having no knowledge of any reasons to quit smoking (37.5% vs. 12%, p = 0.03); having suffered discrimination (42.9% vs. 9.3%, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Among the university students evaluated, there was a phase, classified as precontemplative or contemplative, during which they were refractory to smoking cessation. Although all of the students were aware of the diseases caused by smoking, 41.5% did not consider themselves addicted. The concept of substance dependence does not apply to these students. It would seem more appropriate to define nicotine dependence as resulting from the lifetime consumption of at least 100 cigarettes. These students do not perceive that they are passing through the initial phase of the natural history of tobacco use disorder and do not realize that they are increasing their risk of presenting smoking-related diseases in the future.


Keywords: Smoking; Students; Smoking cessation


15 - Characteristics of smoking among physicians in the Federal District of Brazil

Características do tabagismo na categoria médica do Distrito Federal

Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas, Ana Paula Alves de Andrade, Rosangela da Silva Silvestre

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):76-80

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Objective: To profile the characteristics of smoking among physicians working in the Federal District of Brazil. Methods: A questionnaire on smoking, adapted from that used by the World Health Organization, was mailed to all physicians registered with the Federal District Regional Council of Medicine. Of the 7023 questionnaires mailed, 830 (12%) were duly completed and returned. Results: Among the physicians participating in the study, the prevalence of smoking was 7.2% (5.9% being regular smokers and 1.3% being occasional smokers). The remainder of the sample consisted of nonsmokers (70.1%) and former smokers (22.7%). In terms of gender, approximately 8.5% of the male physicians were smokers, compared with 5.3% of the female physicians (p > 0.05). Of the physicians who smoked, 80% had taken up the habit before the age of 20, 13% from 21 to 30, and 7% after the age of 31. The prevalence of smoking by specialty was as follows: Surgeons, 10.3%; Anesthesiologists, 10.3%; Clinicians, 9.1%; Gynecologists, 2.9%; and Pediatricians, 2.4%. Approximately 75% of the smoking physicians had been advised by their own doctors to stop smoking, although only 34.9% had tried to quit smoking with the preceding year. Of the physicians responding, 57.1% agreed that smoking is a health hazard, and 26.3% reported smoking in hospitals or doctors' offices. Conclusion: Efforts to control smoking in the Federal District should be intensified and, despite the fact that the prevalence of smoking is declining among physicians, smoking cessation programs should target this population.


Keywords: Smoking; Physicians; Smoking cessation


Review Article

16 - Chronic respiratory failure in patients with neuromuscular diseases: diagnosis and treatment

Insuficiência respiratória crônica nas doenças neuromusculares: diagnóstico e tratamento

Ilma Aparecida Paschoal, Wander de Oliveira Villalba, Mônica Corso Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):81-92

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Neuromuscular diseases affect alveolar air exchange and therefore cause chronic respiratory failure. The onset of respiratory failure can be acute, as in traumas, or progressive (slow or rapid), as in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophies, diseases of the myoneural junction, etc. Respiratory muscle impairment also affects cough efficiency and, according to the current knowledge regarding the type of treatment available in Brazil to these patients, it can be said that the high rates of morbidity and mortality in these individuals are more often related to the fact that they cough inefficiently rather than to the fact that they ventilate poorly. In this review, with the objective of presenting the options of devices available to support and substitute for natural ventilation in patients with neuromuscular diseases, we have compiled a brief history of the evolution of orthopedic braces and prostheses used to aid respiration since the end of the 19th century. In addition, we highlight the elements that are fundamental to the diagnosis of alveolar hypoventilation and of failure of the protective cough mechanism: taking of a clinical history; determination of peak cough flow; measurement of maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures; spirometry in two positions (sitting and supine); pulse oximetry; capnography; and polysomnography. Furthermore, the threshold values available in the literature for the use of nocturnal ventilatory support and for the extension of this support through the daytime period are presented. Moreover, the maneuvers used to increase cough efficiency, as well as the proper timing of their introduction, are discussed.


Keywords: Respiratory insufficiency/diagnosis; Chronic disease; Respiratory insufficiency/therapy;


17 - Physiopathology of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

Síndrome da apnéia-hipopnéia obstrutiva do sono. Fisiopatologia

Andrea Barral Martins, Sérgio Tufik, Sonia Maria Guimaraes Pereira Togeiro Moura

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):93-100

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The physiopathology of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is multifactorial. Gender and obesity status, as well as genetic, anatomic, and hormonal factors, together with ventilatory drive, interact in a diverse manner in the physiopathology and clinical expression of the disease. Obesity is the main risk factor, since increases in body mass index, visceral fat, and neck circumference are strong predictors of the disease. Progesterone increases the activity of the upper airway dilator muscles and therefore plays a protective role in premenopausal women. This explains the fact that the prevalence of the disease is higher in postmenopausal patients, in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, as well as in males. Evidence supports the fact that, as individuals grow older, there is a decrease in muscle tonus, with a consequent reduction in the dimensions of the upper airway lumen. Craniofacial anomalies, such as in retrognathia or micrognathia, are accompanied by posterior positioning of the tongue and can result in narrowing of the upper airway lumen. Finally, decreased ventilatory drive has been detected in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and hypercapnia.


Keywords: Sleep apnea obstructive/physiopathology; Body mass index; Obesity


Case Report

18 - Idiopathic tracheal stenosis. A report of four cases

Estenose idiopática de traquéia. Relato de quatro casos

Carolina Rossi, Fernanda Colombari, Alda Losi Guembarowsky, Olavo Franco Ferreira Filho, João Carlos Thomson

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):101-104

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Idiopathic tracheal stenosis is uncommon. Herein, we report four cases, all presenting a similar clinical profile: diagnosed through bronchoscopy and having a history of being treated unsuccessfully for bronchospasm. Three of the patients were treated with dilatation and an oral corticosteroid. One of those three underwent tracheoplasty. In the remaining patient, the stenosis was more extensive (2 cm, with a 70% reduction in the size of the lumen), and dilatation was not an option. Therefore, that patient underwent laryngotracheal resection. In all four patients, the evolution was favorable. Idiopathic tracheal stenosis should be contemplated in cases of 'bronchitis' that are not resolved using conventional treatments. Bronchoscopy and dilatation have provided satisfactory results. Occasionally, laryngotracheal reconstruction is necessary.


Keywords: Trachea/surgery; Constriction; Pathologic; Case reports [publication type].


19 - Tracheoesophageal fistula after caustic ingestion

Fístula esôfago-traqueal após ingestão cáustica

Eduardo Crema, Marcelo Cunha Fatureto, Marcel Noronha Gonzaga, Ricardo Pastore, Alex Augusto da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):105-108

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Tracheoesophageal fistulas are uncommon and present diverse etiologies, among which is burning of the esophagus due to caustic ingestion. Herein, we report the case of a 27-year-old male patient having ingested a caustic substance 14 days prior and presenting burning retrosternal pain, weakness, productive cough with purulent sputum and dyspnea accompanied by hoarseness for the preceding 24 h. Endoscopy of the upper digestive tract revealed a tracheoesophageal fistula. Treatment consisted of cervical exclusion of the esophageal transit, together with gastrostomy. Subsequently, the nutrient transit was reconstructed through pharyngocoloplasty. The postoperative evolution was favorable.


Keywords: Tracheoesophageal fistula/etiology; Tracheoesophageal fistula/surgery; Esophageal perforation/chemically induced; Colon/surgery


20 - Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: a rare cause of severe anemia

Telangiectasia hemorrágica hereditária: uma causa rara de anemia grave

José Wellington Alves dos Santos, Tiago Chagas Dalcin, Kelly Ribeiro Neves, Keli Cristina Mann, Gustavo Luis Nunes Pretto, Alessandra Naimaier Bertolazi

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):109-112

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Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is an autosomal dominant disease in which arteriovenous communications are typically seen in the skin, mucosal surfaces, lungs, brain and gastrointestinal tract. This disease typically presents as epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding and arteriovenous malformations (in the brain and lungs). Although the epistaxis and gastrointestinal bleeding can result in anemia, patients diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia rarely present severe anemia. Herein, we report the case of a 49-year-old man with severe anemia and undiagnosed hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.


Keywords: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia; Iron deficiency anemia; Case reports [publication type].


21 - Mediastinal teratoma mimicking pleural effusion on chest X-rays

Teratoma do mediastino simulando derrame pleural no estudo radiológico do tórax

Miguel Angelo Martins de Castro Júnior, Nelson Perelman Rosemberg, Miguel Angelo Martins de Castro, Angela Potter de Castro, Cacio Wietzycoscki, Cleiton Mespaque

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):113-115

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Teratomas account for 8-13% of all mediastinal tumors. A 27-year-old patient presented with chest pain and dyspnea of prolonged evolution. A chest X-ray revealed near total opacification of the right hemithorax. On a tomography scan of the chest, a collection of heterogeneous fluid, with irregular borders and 10.1 x 11.7 cm in size, was seen in the pleura of the lower two-thirds of the right hemithorax but was not encroaching on any of the adjacent structures. Based on the hypothesis that these findings represented a benign mediastinal teratoma, an exploratory thoracotomy was performed, during which such a teratoma was found and completely excised. The post-operative evolution was favorable. The atypical presentation and considerable growth of the tumor hindered the pre-operative diagnosis.


Keywords: Teratoma; Mediastinal neoplasms; Pleural effusion; Radiography thoracic


Year 2007 - Volume 33  - Number 2  (March/April)


1 - Brazilian political proposal for asthma programs on primary health care

Carta aberta em favor da criação de programas de asma no Brasil (CAPA)

Alcindo Cerci Neto, Mauro Musa Zamboni, Márcia Alcântara Holanda

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):9-10

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2 - Asthma and gastroesophageal reflux

Asma e refluxo gastroesofágico

Mílton de Arruda Martins

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):11-12

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3 - Another parameter for identifying obstructive respiratory disorder - FEV1/FEV6 in focus

Mais um parâmetro para identificar o distúrbio ventilatório obstrutivo - VEF1/VEF6 na berlinda

Ricardo Marques Dias

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):13-14

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Original Article

4 - Evaluation of pantoprazol treatment response of patients with asthma and gastroesophageal reflux: a randomized prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study

Avaliação da resposta de pacientes asmáticos com refluxo gastroesofágico após terapia com pantoprazol: estudo prospectivo, randomizado, duplo cego e placebo-controlado

Leandro Heusi dos Santos, Iana Oliveira e Silva Ribeiro, Pablo Gerardo Sánchez, Jorge Lima Hetzel, José Carlos Felicetti, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):119-127

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Objectives: To determine the effect that the treatment of GERD has on the clinical management, as well as the respiratory function, of patients with asthma and to evaluate the clinical characteristics of this group of patients. Methods: Patients with asthma and concomitant GERD, documented using 24 h pH-metry, were evaluated by means of quality of life questionnaires, as well as questionnaires related to respiratory and digestive symptoms. In addition, esophageal manometry, spirometry and the determination of peak expiratory flow were also performed prior to and after the study. Forty-nine individuals who were diagnosed with GERD by means of 24 h esophageal pH-metry were selected and participated in a clinical randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, involving the administration of 40 mg/day of pantoprazol for 12 consecutive weeks. Results: Forty-four individuals completed the study (n = 22 per group). There was significant improvement in the scores for respiratory symptoms and quality of life only in the group that received pantoprazol (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively). No respiratory function parameters changed in either group. Conclusions: In this study, the effective treatment of GERD improved patient quality of life, and the symptoms of asthma significantly decreased in the group that received the medication. There were no changes in pulmonary function parameters.


Keywords: Asthma; Gastroesophageal reflux/treatment; Diagnosis; Antacids.


5 - Accuracy of the stair climbing test using maximal oxygen uptake as the gold standard

Acurácia do teste de escada utilizando o consumo máximo de oxigênio como padrão-ouro

Daniele Cristina Cataneo, Antonio José Maria Cataneo

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):128-133

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Objective: To determine the accuracy of the variables related to the fixed-height stair climbing test (SCT) using maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) as the gold standard. Methods: The SCT was performed on a staircase consisting of 6 flights (72 steps; 12.16 m total height), with verbal encouragement, in 51 patients. Stair-climbing 'time' was measured, and the variables 'work' and 'power' also being calculated. The VO2 max was measured using ergospirometry according to the Balke protocol. We calculated the Pearson linear correlation (r), as well as the values of p, between the SCT variables and VO2 max. To determine accuracy, the VO2 max cut-off point was set at 25 mL/kg/min, and individuals were classified as normal or altered. The cut-off points for the SCT variables were determined using the receiver operating characteristic curve. The Kappa statistic (k) was used in order to assess concordance. Results: The following values were obtained for the variable 'time': cut-off point = 40 s; x_ = 41 ± 15.5 s; r = −0.707; p < 0.005; specificity = 89%; sensibility = 83%; accuracy = 86%; and k = 0.724. For 'power', the values obtained were as follows: cut-off point = 200 w; x_ = 222.3 ± 95.2 w; r = 0.515; p < 0.005; specificity = 67%; sensibility = 75%; accuracy = 71%; and k = 0.414. Since the correlation between 'work' and VO2 max was not significant, that variable was discarded. Conclusion: Of the SCT variables tested, using VO2 max as the gold standard, the variable 'time' was the most accurate.


Keywords: Exercise test; Respiratory function tests; Heart function tests; Spirometry; Ergometry


6 - Mediastinal lymph node distribution, size and number: definitions based on an anatomical study

Distribuição, tamanho e número dos linfonodos mediastinais: definições por meio de estudo anatômico

Aurelino Fernandes Schmidt Júnior, Olavo Ribeiro Rodrigues, Roberto Storte Matheus, Jorge Du Ub Kim, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):134-140

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Objective: To create a reference map of mediastinal lymph nodes through the analysis of their size, number and distribution in various lymph node stations. Method: A total of 50 cadavers, 38 males and 12 females, were studied. Of those 50, 39 were Caucasian. The mean age was 59.9 ± 14.1 years, the mean height was 173.1 ± 7.6 cm, and the mean weight was 71.0 ± 12.0 kg. A bilateral mediastinal dissection was performed in order to resect and isolate all lymph nodes. The area, as well as the major and minor transverse diameters, of each lymph node was determined by radiographic imaging analysis. Results: In a sample of 485 chains, 1742 lymph nodes were dissected (2.58 ± 1.89 lymph nodes/station), revealing a mean number of 21.2 ± 8.5 lymph nodes on the right and 13.6 ± 6.3 on the left. The lymph node stations 1, 2R, 4R, 5, and 7 were present in more than 90% of the sample. Only the 4R and 7 lymph node stations were always present. The lymph node stations 2L, 3p, and 8 were present in 32, 36, and 54% of the sample, respectively. Mediastinal lymph nodes were present in greater numbers in the 2R, 4R and 7 lymph node stations. In addition, these stations presented the largest mediastinal lymph nodes. Conclusion: Composing a reference map for lymph node sizes was feasible. No alterations were observed in the distribution, number, or size of lymph nodes in the age brackets studied, regardless of gender, race, weight, or height.


Keywords: Lymph nodes; Mediastinum; Cadaver; Anatomy.


7 - Comparative study of the resistance of manual and mechanical sutures in the bronchial stump of dogs submitted to left pneumonectomy

Estudo comparativo entre a resistência das suturas manual e mecânica do coto brônquico em cães submetidos a pneumonectomia esquerda

Antônio Mauro Bof, Abrão Rapoport, Danilo Nagib Salomão Paulo, Luiz Carlos Filgueiras Leiro, Márcio Rogério Alcalá Gomes, Roberto Ruben Pando-Serrano

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):141-147

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Objective: To compare the resistance of manual suture with that of mechanical suture immediately after the suture of the left bronchial stump of dogs submitted to pneumonectomy. Methods: A total of 15 mixed-breed dogs of both genders, each weighing between 8 and 23 kg, were randomly divided into 2 groups. In group I (n = 7), the bronchial stump was sutured manually (the Sweet method) and, in group II (n = 8), it was stapled. Immediately after the closure of the bronchial stump, the intratracheal pressure was progressively increased in a controlled manner. Results: The mean rupture pressure of the bronchial stump suture line was 33.71 mmHg in group I and 89.87 mmHg in group II (p < 0.01). Conclusion: These data allowed us to conclude that mechanical suture of the bronchial stump, submitted to pressure immediately after closure, is more resistant than is manual suture in dogs submitted to pneumonectomy.


Keywords: Comparative study; Suture techniques; Bronchial fistula; Pneumonectomy.


8 - Determination of the efficacy of FEV6 as a surrogate for FVC in the diagnostic screening for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease through the comparison of FEV1/FVC and FEV1/FEV6 ratios

Determinação da eficiência do VEF6 como substituto da CVF na triagem diagnóstica da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica através da comparação entre as relações VEF1/CVF e VEF1/VEF6

Fernando Luiz Cavalcanti Lundgren, Marília Montenegro Cabral, Danielle Cristina Silva Clímaco, Liana Gonçalves de Macedo, Marta de Andrade Lima Coelho, Ana Lúcia Pereira Lima Alves Dias

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):148-151

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Objective: To determine the efficacy of using forced expiratory volume in six seconds (FEV6) as a surrogate for forced vital capacity (FVC) in the diagnostic screening for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by comparing FEV1/FVC ratios with FEV1/FEV6 ratios. Methods: In November of 2003, on World COPD Day, we conducted a campaign of diagnostic screening for COPD. The participants completed the clinical questionnaire of the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease, and those who responded affirmatively to at least three questions underwent spirometry. Results: A total of 134 individuals responded to three questions affirmatively and underwent spirometry. Of those, 59 were excluded: 45 for being non-smokers and 14 due to the fact that their tests did not meet the American Thoracic Society criteria for satisfactory spirometry. The number of tests in which the FEV1/FEV6 ratio was below 70% was similar to that found for the FEV1/FVC ratio. The sensitivity of FEV1/FEV6 in diagnosing airway obstruction (defined as FEV1/FVC below 70%) was 92%, and its specificity was 99%. The positive predictive value was 100%, and the negative predictive value was 98%. The Kendall correlation test revealed r = 0.99 (p < 0.0001). The t-test for paired samples revealed a negative correlation: t = −5.93 (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The FEV1/FEV6 proved efficient for use in the diagnostic screening for COPD. There is a strong correlation between FEV1/FVC and FEV1/FEV6.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, Chronic obstructive; Diagnosis; Spirometry; Forced expiratory volume; Vital capacity.


9 - Effect of theophylline associated with short-acting or long-acting inhaled β2-agonists in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review

Efeito da teofilina associada ao β2-agonista inalatório de curta ou longa duração, em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica estável: revisão sistemática

Eliane Cristina Zacarias, Aldemar Araújo Castro, Sônia Cendon

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):152-160

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Objectives: To determine whether, in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, administration of theophylline in combination with short-acting or long-acting inhaled β2-agonists is more efficacious than is a placebo or each of these drugs used in isolation. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out. All randomized and double-blind clinical trials found in the literature were selected. Results: A total of eight studies were included. In comparing the effect of theophylline combined with β2-agonists to that of a placebo, we found a statistically significant improvement in mean FEV1 (0.27 L; 95%CI: 0.11 to 0.43) and mean dyspnea (-0.78; 95%CI: -1.26 to -0.29). None of the meta-analyses performed detected any difference between the results obtained using theophylline combined with β2-agonists and those obtained using β2-agonists alone. When the administration of theophylline combined with β2-agonists was compared to that of theophylline alone, there was a statistically significant improvement in mean dyspnea (-0.19; 95%CI: -0.34 to 0.04). Conclusion: In patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, theophylline combined with β2 agonists is more efficacious than is a placebo in terms of improving FEV1 and dyspnea. In addition, theophylline combined with β2 agonists is more efficacious than is theophylline in improving dyspnea. Furthermore, administration of theophylline combined with β2 agonists is no more efficacious, for any of the variables studied, than is the use of β2-agonists in isolation.


Keywords: Lung diseases, Obstructive; Bronchodilator agents; Xanthines; Pulmonary disease, Chronic obstructive.


10 - Influence of the oxygen delivery system on the quality of life of patients with chronic hypoxemia

Influência do sistema de fornecimento de oxigênio na qualidade de vida de pacientes com hipoxemia crônica

Suzana Erico Tanni, Simone Alves Vale, Paula S Lopes, Marcelo M Guiotoko, Ilda Godoy, Irma Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):161-167

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Objective: To evaluate the health-related quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease receiving long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) at home through oxygen cylinders and compare these results with those obtained six months after the transition from oxygen cylinders to oxygen concentrators. Methods: A total of 45 patients were evaluated. Of those, 24 had chronic hypoxemia and 21 presented no evidence of hypoxemia. The patients with chronic hypoxemia had been regularly receiving LTOT for at least the last six months and were evaluated at baseline, while using cylinders, and six months after the transition from cylinders to concentrators. The non-hypoxemic patients were evaluated at the same time points as were the hypoxemic patients. In order to evaluate quality of life, a version of the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), translated and validated for use in Brazil, was administered. Results: At baseline, quality of life, as evaluated using the total score and the symptom and impact domain scores of the SGRQ, was more impaired in the hypoxemic patients than in the non-hypoxemic patients. After six months of using the concentrators, the hypoxemic patients presented a significant improvement in the quality of life, and, at that time, no difference was found between the patients with and without hypoxemia. Conclusion: Our findings show that quality of life is impaired in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic hypoxemia, that their quality of life can be improved through regular use of LTOT, and that the oxygen delivery system has an influence on this improvement.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, Chronic obstructive; Anoxemia; Oxygen inhalation therapy; Quality of life.


11 - Comparative analysis and reproducibility of the modified shuttle walk test in normal children and in children with cystic fibrosis

Análise comparativa e reprodutibilidade do teste de caminhada com carga progressiva (modificado) em crianças normais e em portadoras de fibrose cística

Cristiane Cenachi Coelho, Evanirso da Silva Aquino, Dorcas Costa de Almeida, Gisele Caroline Oliveira, Roberta de Castro Pinto, Ivana Mara Oliveira Rezende, Cíntia Passos

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):168-174

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Objective: To analyze the shuttle walk test, and its respective retest, comparing children with cystic fibrosis (CF) to normal children. Methods: The children were divided into two groups: the CF group, composed of children in whom the diagnosis had been confirmed through sweat testing; and the control group, composed of normal children with no history of pulmonary diseases and no alterations in respiratory function. The children were submitted to at least two consecutive tests, 30 min apart. We evaluated distance walked, cardiac overload, peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and subjective perception of exertion (dyspnea at rest scale and Borg dyspnea scale). Results: A total of 28 children were evaluated. Ages ranged from 7 to 15 years (11.57 ± 2.50 and 11.28 ± 1.85 years for the CF and control groups, respectively). The Borg scale scores were significantly higher in the controls (p = 0.007). No differences were found regarding cardiac overload and SpO2. In relation to the intergroup retest, the controls presented significant improvements on the second test, both in the distance walked and in dyspnea at rest (p = 0.014 and p = 0.036, respectively). The CF group presented a significant improvement only in the dyspnea at rest score (p = 0.168 and p = 0.042, respectively). Conclusion: The cardiac overload imposed by the test did not differ between the groups. The greater fatigue at the beginning of the second test suggests that the 30 min rest between the tests was insufficient.


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Exercise test; Heart rate.


12 - Impact of the implementation of a therapeutic guideline on the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia acquired in the intensive care unit of a university hospital

Impacto da implantação de um guia terapêutico para o tratamento de pneumonia nosocomial adquirida na unidade de terapia intensiva em hospital universitário

Joseani Coelho Pascual Garcia, Olavo Franco Ferreira Filho, Cíntia Magalhães Carvalho Grion, Claudia Maria Dantas de Maio Carrilho

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):175-184

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Objective: To evaluate the impact that the implementation of therapeutic guidelines has on the empirical treatment of nosocomial pneumonia. Methods: A clinical trial, using historical controls and involving current ICU patients who had acquired nosocomial pneumonia, was carried out from June of 2002 to June of 2003. All were treated according to therapeutic guidelines developed by the Commission for Nosocomial Infection Control of the institution (group with intervention). As controls, the medical charts of the patients who acquired nosocomial pneumonia between June of 2000 and June of 2001 (group without intervention) were analyzed. Mortality and mean treatment period, as well as the length of hospital and ICU stays, were determined for the patients who acquired nosocomial pneumonia. Results: Mortality associated with pneumonia was lower in the group treated according to the therapeutic guidelines (26 vs. 53.6%; p = 0.00). As for overall mortality, there was no statistically significant difference between the two periods (51 vs. 57.9%; p = 0.37). There was also no difference in the type of microorganisms isolated, treatment period, length of hospital stay or length of ICU stay. Conclusion: The implementation of therapeutic guidelines for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia acquired in the ICU can be efficacious in decreasing mortality rates.


Keywords: Pneumonia/treatment; Cross infection; Intensive care units; Mortality.


13 - Evaluation of serum and pleural levels of the tumor markers CEA, CYFRA21-1 and CA 15-3 in patients with pleural effusion

Avaliação dos valores sérico e pleural dos marcadores tumorais CEA, CYFRA21-1 e CA 15-3 em portadores de derrame pleural

Isabella Coimbra Wagner, Murilo José de Barros Guimarães, Lilian Karine Neves da Silva,Francisco Montenegro de Melo, Maria Tereza Cartaxo Muniz

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):185-191

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Objective: To determine the levels of the tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) and carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) in the blood and pleural fluid of patients with benign or malignant pleural effusion, evaluating the sensitivity of each marker in these fluids. Methods: We prospectively evaluated 85 patients with pleural effusion. The study of the pleural fluid observed the criteria established in the literature. Levels of the markers were determined using electrochemiluminescence. The sensitivity was determined on the condition that the specificity was ≥ 90%. Results: Of the 85 cases, 36 (42.4%) were malignant, 30 (35.3%) were benign, and the results were inconclusive in 19 (22.3%). In the malignant cases, the CEA and CYFRA21-1 levels were higher in the pleural fluid than in the blood, which was not observed for CA 15-3. In the benign cases, the CYFRA21-1 levels were higher in the pleural fluid than in the blood, whereas the opposite was found for CEA and CA 15-3. There were significant differences between malignant and benign cases for all markers, in pleural fluid and blood. In the pleural fluid, the sensitivity of CEA, CYFRA21-1 and CA 15-3 was 69.4, 69.4 and 66.7%, respectively, and the combined sensitivity was 80.6%. In the blood, the sensitivity was 57.1%, 71.4% and 48.6% for CEA, CYFRA21-1 and CA 15-3, respectively, and the combined sensitivity was 77%. Conclusion: The results suggest that these markers might be useful in the differentiation between malignant and benign pleural effusion.


Keywords: Biological tumor marker; Cyfra 21.1; CEA; CA 15.3; Pleural effusion.


14 - Descriptive study of the implementation and impact of the directly observed treatment, short-course strategy in the São José do Rio Preto municipal tuberculosis control program (1998-2003)

Estudo descritivo sobre a implantação da estratégia de tratamento de curta duração diretamente observado no controle da tuberculose em São José do Rio Preto e seus impactos (1998-2003)

Cláudia Eli Gazetta, Silvia Helena Fiqueiredo Vendramini, Antônio Ruffino-Netto, Maria Rita de Cássia Oliveira, Tereza Cristina Scatena Villa

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):192-198

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Objective: To describe treatment outcomes (cure, noncompliance or death) after the implementation of the Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course (DOTS) strategy for tuberculosis control in the city of São José do Rio Preto, Brazil, between 1998 and 2003. Methods: A descriptive study, based on secondary data (National Case Registry database, Tuberculosis Epidemiology database, and the 'Black Book' Registry), was conducted using a specific instrument. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: After the implementation of the DOTS strategy, there was a decrease in noncompliance and case detection rates as well as an increase in cure and death rates. The increase in the number of tuberculosis-related deaths might be attributable to three factors: the predominance of the disease in individuals over 50 years of age, tuberculosis/HIV co-infection, and the presence of accompanying diseases. Conclusion: The implementation of the DOTS strategy strengthened the decentralization of the tuberculosis control plans as well as the integration of the Basic Health Care Clinic teams with the Tuberculosis Control Program team. Political commitment of the administrator to tuberculosis control, in conjunction with the policy of benefits and incentives, is essential for the sustainability of the DOTS strategy.


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Epidemiology; Health services; Politics; Directly observed therapy.


15 - Profile of patients with tuberculosis: evaluation of the Brazilian national tuberculosis control program in Bagé, Brazil

Perfil dos pacientes com tuberculose e avaliação do programa nacional de controle da tuberculose em Bagé (RS)

Marysabel Pinto Telis Silveira, Raquel Fabiane Roscoff de Adorno, Tiago Fontana

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):199-205

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Objective: To present epidemiological data on patients diagnosed with tuberculosis, as well as on associated factors, and to determine the efficacy of the National Tuberculosis Control Program in Bagé, Brazil. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out at the Pablo Barcellos Center, analyzing cases of tuberculosis reported from January 2001 to December 2004. Data were collected through the review of clinical charts and from the National Case Registry database. Results: During this period, of the 4468 sputum smear microscopies performed, 131 were positive, with higher prevalence among males aged 26 to 35 years old. Prevalence was lower among those aged 65 and above. Over 50% of the patients were Caucasian, had only 1 to 3 years of schooling and worked in low-income jobs (mean salary, 265 Brazilian reals/month). There was no significant difference between smokers and former smokers/nonsmokers, and only one of the 131 cases was HIV positive. Conclusion: The number of sputum smear microscopies performed in Bagé increased in the past four years. In 2003 and 2004, it exceeded the goal of the National Tuberculosis Control Program. However, the number of new cases decreased, demonstrating the efficacy of the active search for tuberculosis cases in the city.


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Epidemiology; Communicable disease control.


Review Article

16 - Transfusion-related acute lung injury

Lesão pulmonar aguda associada à transfusão

Antonio Fabron Junior, Larissa Barbosa Lopes, José Orlando Bordin

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):206-212

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Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious clinical syndrome associated with the transfusion of plasma-containing blood components. Recently, TRALI has come to be recognized as the leading cause of transfusion-related death in the United States and United Kingdom. This complication typically presents as shortness of breath, hypoxemia, hypotension, fever and noncardiogeneic pulmonary edema, all occurring during or within 6 h after transfusion. Although the mechanism of TRALI has not been fully elucidated, it has been associated with human leukocyte antigen antibodies (class I, class II or neutrophil alloantigens) and with biologically active mediators in stored cellular blood components. Most of the donors implicated in cases of TRALI are multiparous women. Rarely diagnosed, TRALI can be confused with other causes of acute respiratory failure. Greater knowledge regarding TRALI on the part of clinicians could be crucial in preventing and treating this severe complication of blood transfusion.


Keywords: Blood transfusion; Respiratory insufficiency; HLA antigens.


17 - Diabetes mellitus in patients with cystic fibrosis

Diabetes melito: uma importante co-morbidade da fibrose cística

Crésio de Aragão Dantas Alves, Renata Arruti Aguiar, Ana Cláudia S Alves, Maria Angélica Santana

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):213-221

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Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is the principal extra-pulmonary complication of cystic fibrosis, occurring in 15-30% of adult cystic fibrosis patients. The number of cystic fibrosis patients who develop diabetes is increasing in parallel with increases in life expectancy. The aim of this study was to review the physiopathology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of CFRD. A bibliographic search of the Medline and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature databases was made. Articles were selected from among those published in the last twenty years. Insulin deficiency, caused by reduced β-cell mass, is the main etiologic mechanism, although insulin resistance also plays a role. Presenting features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, CFRD typically affects individuals of approximately 20 years of age. It can also be accompanied by fasting, non-fasting or intermittent hyperglycemia. Glucose intolerance is associated with worsening of nutritional status, increased morbidity, decreased survival and reduced pulmonary function. Microvascular complications are always present, although macrovascular complications are rarely seen. An oral glucose tolerance test is recommended annually for patients ≥ 10 years of age and for any patients presenting unexplained weight loss or symptoms of diabetes. Patients hospitalized with severe diseases should also be screened. If fasting hyperglycemia persists for more than 48 h, insulin therapy is recommended. Insulin administration remains the treatment of choice for diabetes and fasting hyperglycemia. Calories should not be restricted, and patients with CFRD should be managed by a multidisciplinary team.


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Diabetes mellitus.


Case Report

18 - Mediastinal lymph node amyloidosis in a patient with sarcoidosis

Amiloidose ganglionar mediastinal em paciente com sarcoidose

Lilian Schade, Eliane Ribeiro Carmes, João Adriano de Barros

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):222-225

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A 27-year-old male patient presented with respiratory symptoms, bilateral enlargement of the cervical lymph nodes and enlarged liver. In the imaging studies, bilateral enlargement of the hilar nodes was observed, together with pulmonary infiltrate. The patient was submitted to lung and liver biopsies, which revealed noncaseating granulomas. The clinical, radiological and histopathological findings were consistent with sarcoidosis and lymph node amyloidosis. The combination of sarcoidosis and amyloidosis has rarely been reported.


Keywords: Amyloidosis; Sarcoidosis; Lymph nodes.


19 - Castleman disease or angiofollicular hyperplasia as a solitary pulmonary nodule: case report

Doença de Castleman ou hiperplasia angiofolicular como nódulo pulmonar solitário: relato de caso

Guilherme Andrade Krawczun, Cristiano de Morais Garcia, Kazuhiro Ito, Olavo Franco Ferreira Filho, João Carlos Thomson

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):226-228

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Castleman disease is a rare disorder generally characterized by a mediastinal nodule, with a great variety of alternative presentations regarding age, clinical manifestations and evolution. This case report describes a 40-year-old female patient presenting with uncharacteristic chest pain for a few years. A chest X-ray revealed a hypotransparency on the right side. Computed tomography and pulmonary arteriography did not elucidate the diagnosis, which was made through surgical resection and anatomopathological examination of the nodule, which presented characteristics of angiofollicular hyperplasia, or Castleman disease. This article emphasizes the importance of adding this disease to the list of morbidities in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary solitary nodules.


Keywords: Giant lymph node hyperplasia; Angiography; Coin lesion, Pulmonary; Case reports [publication type].


20 - Pulmonary lymphangiomatosis: a report of two cases

Linfangiomatose pulmonar: relato de dois casos

Adma Silva de Lima, Mariane Gonçalves Martynychen, Roseni Teresinha Florêncio, Lêda Maria Rabello, João Adriano de Barros, Dante Luis Escuissato

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):229-233

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Lymphangiomatosis, a rare diseases of controversial origin, occurs in individuals of any age, regardless of gender, but is predominantly seen in younger individuals. It often presents with thoracic involvement, although, the bones, spleen and liver can also be affected. Histologically, the pulmonar involvement includes proliferation, complex anastomoses and secondary dilatation of the lymphatic vessels. Clinically, the presentation is variable. Although radiographic findings can be suggestive of the disease, the final diagnosis is made histologically. We report two cases of lymphangiomatosis, both in females: one was oligosymptomatic and is being treated for the disease; the other had a more progressive form, was diagnosed quite late and ultimately died of the disease.


Keywords: Lymphangioma; Lymphatic System; Pleural Effusion; Lymphatic Diseases; Lymphatic System/abnormalities; Lung Diseases, Interstitial.


21 - Pulmonary metastases in men: primary tumor in an unusual location

Metástases pulmonares em homem: localização incomum do tumor primário

Daniel Brito de Araújo, Nilton Haertel Gomes, Décio Valente Renck, Ricardo Bertolino Silva, Danise Senna Oliveira, Fábio Eduardo Nunes Vieira

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):234-237

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We report a case of breast cancer identified in a 72-year-old male as an accidental finding during the course of the investigation of a primary tumor and the search for pulmonary metastases. We address aspects related to the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this condition in males.


Keywords: Neoplasm metastasis/lung; Breast neoplasms; Male.


Year 2007 - Volume 33  - Number 3  (May/June)


1 - Video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy in the treatment of primary hyperhidrosis

Simpatectomia torácica por videotoracoscopia para tratamento da hiperidrose primária

José Ribas Milanez de Campos, Paulo Kauffman

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):15-17

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2 - Respiratory repercussions of sickle cell anemia

Repercussões respiratórias da anemia falciforme

Gustavo Antonio Moreira

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):18-20

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Original Article

3 - Self-expanding stent made of polyester mesh with silicon coating (Polyflex®) in the treatment of inoperable tracheal stenoses

Endoprótese auto-expansível de malha de poliéster revestida por silicone (Polyflex®) no tratamento de estenoses traqueais não-cirúrgicas

Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Helio Minamoto, Miguel Lia Tedde, José Luiz Jesus de Almeida, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):241-247

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the Polyflex® stent in terms of its efficacy, ease of implantation, and complications in patients with tracheobronchial affections. Methods: This was a prospective study, in which sixteen patients with inoperable tracheal stenosis secondary to orotracheal intubation (n = 12), neoplasia (n = 3), or Wegener's granulomatosis (n = 1) were monitored. Of these patients, eleven were women, and five were men. The mean age was 42.8 years (range, 21-72 years). Patients were submitted to implantation of a total of 21 Polyflex® stents. All procedures were carried out in the operating room under general anesthesia, and the stents were implanted via suspension laryngoscopy using the stent applicator. Results: Stents were implanted and symptoms were resolved in all cases. The stents remained in place for a mean period of 7.45 months, ranging from 2 to 18 months. The complications observed in the immediate postoperative period were dysphonia (in two patients, 12.5%) and odynophagia (in two patients, 12.5%). Late complications were cough (in ten patients, 62.5%), migration (in seven patients, 43.75%), granuloma formation (in two patients, 12.5%), and pneumonia (in one patient, 6.25%). Conclusion: The Polyflex® stent is easily implanted, easily removed, well tolerated by patients and effective in resolving symptoms. However, its use is associated with a high rate of migration, especially in patients with post-orotracheal intubation stenosis.


Keywords: Tracheal stenosis; Intubation, intratracheal; Prostheses and implants; Stents.


4 - Video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy in the treatment of primary hyperhidrosis: a retrospective study of 521 cases comparing different levels of ablation

Simpatectomia torácica por videotoracoscopia para tratamento da hiperidrose primária: estudo retrospectivo de 521 casos comparando diferentes níveis de ablação

Jorge Montessi, Edmílton Pereira de Almeida, João Paulo Vieira, Marcus da Matta Abreu, Renato Lucas Passos de Souza, Oswaldo Victor Duarte Montessi

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):248-254

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare different levels of ablation in terms of the degree of patient satisfaction and extent of postoperative reflex sweating in sympathectomized patients. Methods: A retrospective study involving 521 patients with primary hyperhidrosis, submitted to thoracic sympathectomy at the Monte Sinai Hospital and University Hospital of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora, from January of 2001 to December 2005. All patients were submitted to thermal ablation of the sympathetic stem and were divided into three groups: up to T2 (group I, n = 162); up to T3 (group II, n = 65); and up to T4 (group III, n = 294). Results: Optimal postoperative control of palmar/axillary hyperhidrosis was achieved in, respectively, 94/82% of the patients of group I, 89/89% of those in group II and 80/80% of those in group III. Postoperative reflex sweating was observed in 67% of the patients in groups I and II, compared with 61.29% of those in group III. Severe reflex sweating occurred in 32% of the group I patients, 9% of the group II patients and 4% of the group III patients. Conclusion: Sympathectomy provided excellent patient satisfaction and a low incidence of complications. There was no significant difference between the levels of ablation in terms of reflex sweating, although the intensity of this complication decreased when lower levels of blockage, principally at the T4 level, were employed.


Keywords: Sympathectomy; Thoracoscopy; Hyperhidrosis.


5 - Mechanical model for simulating the conditioning of air in the respiratory tract

Modelo mecânico para simulação do condicionamento pulmonar do ar respirado

Nelson Bergonse Neto, Luiz Carlos Von Bahten, Luís Mauro Moura, Marlos de Souza Coelho, Wilson de Souza Stori Junior, Gilberto da Fontoura Rey Bergonse

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):255-262

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To create a mechanical model that could be regulated to simulate the conditioning of inspired and expired air with the same normal values of temperature, pressure, and relative humidity as those of the respiratory system of a healthy young man on mechanical ventilation. Methods: Using several types of materials, a mechanical device was built and regulated using normal values of vital capacity, tidal volume, maximal inspiratory pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, and gas temperature in the system. The device was submitted to mechanical ventilation for a period of 29.8 min. The changes in the temperature of the air circulating in the system were recorded every two seconds. Results: The statistical analysis of the data collected revealed that the device was approximately as efficient in the conditioning of air as is the respiratory system of a human being. Conclusion: By the study endpoint, we had developed a mechanical device capable of simulating the conditioning of air in the respiratory tract. The device mimics the conditions of temperature, pressure, and relative humidity seen in the respiratory system of healthy individuals.


Keywords: Thermodynamics; Respiration, artificial; Temperature.


6 - Submaximal exercise capacity in adolescent and adult patients with cystic fibrosis

Capacidade submáxima de exercício em pacientes adolescentes e adultos com fibrose cística

Bruna Ziegler, Paula Maria Eidt Rovedder, Janice Luisa Lukrafka, Claudine Lacerda Oliveira, Sérgio Saldanha Menna-Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):263-269

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the submaximal exercise capacity of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by means of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), correlating the results with clinical score, nutritional status, radiographic score, and pulmonary function tests. Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study involving patients aged 16 or older enrolled in a program for adults with CF. The patients were submitted to clinical evaluation, determination of maximal respiratory pressures, 6MWT, spirometry, and chest X-ray. Results: The study comprised 41 patients. The mean age was 23.7 ± 6.5 years, and the mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was 55.1 ± 27.8%. On the 6MWT, 30 (73.2%) of the patients covered a distance (mean, 556.7 ± 76.5 m) that was less than the predicted normal value. The distance walked did not correlate significantly with body mass index, clinical score, radiographic score, maximal respiratory pressures, peripheral oxygen saturation at rest, desaturation during the 6MWT, sensation of dyspnea, or fatigue, although it did so with age at diagnosis, FEV1 in liters, and forced vital capacity in liters. Worsening of pulmonary function was associated with greater desaturation during the 6MWT. Conclusion: This study showed that most patients attending an adult CF program had reduced submaximal exercise capacity. The 6MWT can be valuable for identifying patients who might experience oxygen desaturation and physical impairment in daily activities.


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Respiratory function tests; Exercise tolerance.


7 - Comparative study of elderly inpatients clinically diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia, with or without radiological confirmation

Estudo comparativo entre pacientes idosos internados com diagnóstico clínico de pneumonia comunitária, com ou sem confirmação radiológica

Daniel Knupp Augusto, Luís Felipe José Ravic de Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Gazinelli Cruz, Ênio Roberto Pietra Pedroso

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):270-274

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objectives: To compare clinical and radiological aspects, as well as aspects regarding the course of the disease, of elderly inpatients clinically diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia, with or without radiological confirmation. Methods: A total of 141 patients over the age of 60 were retrospectively studied. Results: Radiological findings corroborated the clinical diagnosis in 45 patients, whereas, in 96 patients, radiology did not correlate with the clinical suspicion. The signs, symptoms, treatment, and outcomes of these two groups were compared. The findings of the study suggest that there were no significant differences between the groups according to the criteria analyzed. Conclusion: The prevalence of chest X-rays compatible with pneumonia in patients suspected of the disease was slightly higher than 30%. Having low specificity in the elderly, the clinical diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia should be used with caution. In view of the small number of patients studied, further studies on this topic are needed in order to confirm the findings.


Keywords: Pneumonia; Aged; Diagnosis; Radiology; Hospitalization.


8 - Quality of sleep and pulmonary function in clinically stable adolescents with sickle cell anemia

Qualidade de sono e função pulmonar em adolescentes portadores de anemia falciforme clinicamente estáveis

Lisliê Capoulade Nogueira Arrais de Souza, Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):275-281

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate quality of sleep and pulmonary function in clinically stable adolescents with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 50 patients with SCA submitted to nocturnal polysomnography and spirometry at the Brasília University Hospital. Anthropometric, polysomnographic and pulmonary function data were analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2) during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep: SpO2 ≤ 93%; and SpO2 > 93%. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, chi-square test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used. Results: Mean age was 13.9 ± 2.5 years. Total sleep time and REM sleep percentage were lower, whereas REM sleep latency, the number of awakenings, movement during sleep, changes in sleep stage, sleep-disordered breathing index and obstructive apnea index were higher. Two patients (4%) did not present REM. There were statistically significant differences between the groups in most of the polysomnographic variables. The SpO2 in REM sleep presented a strong positive correlation with waking SpO2 and with SpO2 in non-REM sleep, whereas it presented a strong negative correlation with the percentage of total sleep time during which SPO2 was < 90%. Mean spirometric values were within normal ranges. Residual volume and the residual volume/total lung capacity/functional residual capacity ratio were elevated. Conclusion: Sleep impairment in clinically stable patients with SCA is probably due to hemoglobin desaturation and not to individual alterations in pulmonary function.


Keywords: Sleep disorders; Polysomnography; Adolescent; Anemia, sickle cell; Spirometry.


9 - Smoking cessation program as a tool for the early diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Programa de cessação de tabagismo como ferramenta para o diagnóstico precoce de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Ilda de Godoy, Suzana Erico Tanni, Liana Sousa Coelho, Rosana dos Santos e Silva Martin, Luciana Cristina Parenti, Luiz Mauro Andrade, Irma Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):282-286

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is underestimation as a result of underdiagnosis and undertreatment. The objective of this study was to determine whether using spirometry to evaluate smokers enrolled in smoking cessation programs facilitates early diagnosis of COPD. Methods: The medical records of 158 smokers enrolled in the smoking cessation program at the Botucatu School of Medicine (Botucatu, Brazil) between January of 2003 and November of 2005 were evaluated retrospectively. All were over 40 years old (mean age: 55 ± 8.5 years), and 99 (62.6%) were female. We analyzed the clinical data, the previous medical diagnosis, and the spirometry results. Results: The diagnostic criteria for COPD were met by 57 (36.1%) of the 158 individuals evaluated, and 14 individuals (8.9%) were considered to be at risk for the development of the disease. Of those 57 individuals meeting the criteria for a diagnosis of COPD, 39 (68.4%) were receiving their first diagnosis of COPD, whereas 18 (31.6%) were receiving confirmation of a prior diagnosis. Of the 18 individuals previously diagnosed, 10 (56%) presented the mild/moderate form of the disease, and 8 (44%) presented the severe form. Of the 39 newly diagnosed individuals, 38 (97,4%) presented the mild/moderate for of the disease, and only 1 (2,6%) had severe COPD. Seven patients previously diagnosed with COPD presented pulmonary function test results inconsistent with the diagnostic criteria. Conclusion: Using spirometry in the initial evaluation of smokers enrolling in smoking cessation program might be a useful tool for early diagnosis of COPD.


Keywords: Smoking cessation; Spirometry; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.


10 - Analysis of the Tuberculosis Control Program in the city of Cáceres, Brazil, prior to and after the implementation of a Family Health Program

Análise do Programa de Controle da Tuberculose em Cáceres, Mato Grosso, antes e depois da implantação do Programa de Saúde da Família

Eliane Ignotti, Beatriz Fátima Alves de Oliveira, Shaiana Hartwig, Hellen Caroline de Oliveira, João Henrique Gurtler Scatena

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):287-294

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of the Tuberculosis Control Program, in conjunction with the recently incorporated Family Health Program, in the city of Cáceres, Brazil, between 1999 and 2004. Methods: This was a descriptive epidemiological study, based on the registry of tuberculosis cases diagnosed and treated in Cáceres, according to the characteristics of the cases diagnosed, whether or not the protocol for diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of patients was followed, as well as the type of health care facility involved. Results: The incidence of tuberculosis was reduced from 99.4 to 49.8 (per 100,000 inhabitants) between 1999 and 2004. The patients presented characteristics similar to those of patients from other regions of Brazil, with a predominance of males during their most economically productive years. Among the patients presenting pulmonary forms and treated via the Family Health Program, there was a reduction in the number of sputum smear microscopies performed at the moment of diagnosis (OR = 0.33; 95%CI: 0.16-0.66) and prior to discharge (OR = 0.32; 95%CI: 0.18‑0.59). The patients monitored via the Family Health Program presented a 16.4% lower cure rate than did those treated at the referral center, as well as being more likely to abandon treatment (OR = 2.93; 95%CI: 1.15-7.46) and to die (OR = 5.71; 95%CI: 1.85‑18.1). Conclusion: The decentralization of the treatment services to the family health clinics did not improve the treatment or monitoring of tuberculosis cases in the city of Cáceres.


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; Community Health Services; Health care reform/Brazil.


11 - Association between paracoccidioidomycosis and tuberculosis: reality and misdiagnosis

Associação entre paracoccidioidomicose e tuberculose: realidade e erro diagnóstico

Reynaldo Quagliato Júnior, Tiago de Araújo Guerra Grangeia, Reinaldo Alexandre de Carvalho Massucio, Eduardo Mello De Capitani, Sílvio de Moraes Rezende, Alípio Barbosa Balthazar

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):295-300

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the frequency of the real association between paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) and tuberculosis (TB) as well as the rate of previous TB misdiagnosis in individuals with PCM among the patients treated in the Pulmonology Division of the State University of Campinas Hospital das Clínicas, Campinas, Brazil. Methods: A retrospective study of 227 adult patients with PCM (chronic form) treated between 1980 and 2005. Results: Of the 227 patients studied, 36 (15.8%) had been previously treated for TB. However, only 18 (7.9%) presented positive sputum smear microscopy results. The remaining 18 (7.9%) neither presented positive sputum smear microscopy nor showed improvement after receiving specific anti-TB treatment. Conclusion: Although the existence of an association between PCM and TB has been documented in the literature, misdiagnosis is common due to the superimposition of and the similarity between their clinical and radiographic presentations, thereby warranting the need for bacteriological diagnosis before initiating specific treatment.


Keywords: Paracoccidioidomycosis; Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Diagnosis, differential.


12 - Evaluation of the reporting of tuberculosis cases occurring in ten cities in the Entorno region of the state of Goiás and reported in the neighboring Federal District: analysis of the incidence of tuberculosis in those cities

Avaliação da notificação no Distrito Federal de casos de tuberculose residentes em dez municípios goianos do Entorno e análise da incidência de tuberculose nestas localidades

Maria Auxiliadora Carmo Moreira, Aline Sampaio Bello, Maristela dos Reis Luz Alves, Miramar Vieira da Silva, Vincenza Lorusso

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):301-310

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate cases of tuberculosis occurring in the Entorno region of the state of Goiás but reported in the Federal District (FD) and to analyze the influence that this has on the effectiveness of the local tuberculosis control program, as well as on the socioeconomic and demographic data related to tuberculosis incidence rates. Methods: Rates of tuberculosis incidence, cure, noncompliance, treatment failure, mortality and referral, as well as socioeconomic and demographic data, were reviewed for patients from ten cities in Goiás. Results: From 2000 to 2004 in the cities under study, 714 new cases of tuberculosis were reported, 436 (61.0%) of which were treated in the FD, and therefore, were not included in the Goiás database. Among patients treated only in Goiás, the mean incidence of tuberculosis ranged from 4.40 to 10.02/100,000 inhabitants. When those treated in the FD were included, the incidence significantly increased, ranging from 15.16 to 20.54/100,000 inhabitants (p < 0.001). The rate at which contacts of tuberculosis patients were investigated was low, and treatment outcomes were unsatisfactory in Goiás and in the DF. Socioeconomic and demographic data were consistent with the tuberculosis incidence. Conclusion: The number of tuberculosis patients treated in the city in which they reside was lower than expected. Treatment in another city might compromise tuberculosis control. The recalculated tuberculosis incidence is consistent with the socioeconomic and demographic profile of the region. A federal surveillance system can be efficiently optimized, improving the control of this disease.


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; Epidemiologic studies; Government programs.


13 - Factors associated with death by tuberculosis in the eastern part of São Paulo city, 2001

Fatores associados ao óbito por tuberculose na zona leste da cidade de São Paulo, 2001

Monica Hid Haddad Pelaquin, Rebeca Souza e Silva, Sandra Aparecida Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):311-317

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify factors associated with death from TB, evaluating TB cases reported for 2001 in the city of São Paulo (specifically in the neighborhoods of Cidade Tiradentes, Guaianazes, Itaquera and São Mateus) and comparing those evolving to death with those evolving to cure. Methods: We investigated all deaths in which TB was given as the principal cause (n = 48), analyzing medical charts and conducting home visits to interview the caregiver(s). In parallel, we investigated 96 TB cases in which the patient had been discharged after a cure had been achieved. Patients with HIV were excluded from both groups. Results: There were no differences between the two groups in terms of the clinical form of tuberculosis, laboratory test confirmation of the diagnosis and type of treatment. Death from TB was found to be associated, in a statistically significant manner, with being male, being over 50 years of age, having had less than 3 years of schooling, suffering from alcoholism and being unemployed. The logistic regression showed that the variables presenting the strongest associations with death from TB were suffering from alcoholism and being over 50, whereas being a new treatment and being employed were found to be protective. The combination of suffering from alcoholism, being unemployed and being over 50 increased the chance of evolving to death by 25 times (95%CI: 6.43-97.20). Conclusion: Ongoing education of health professionals, prompt epidemiological interventions and efficient patient referral systems could improve the indices related to this disease.


Keywords: Tuberculosis/mortality; Epidemiologic studies; Death certificates.


14 - Peculiarities of tuberculosis control in a scenario of urban violence in a disadvantaged community in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Peculiaridades do controle da tuberculose em um cenário de violência urbana de uma comunidade carente do Rio de Janeiro

Fabiana Barbosa Assumpção de Souza, Tereza Cristina Scatena Villa, Solange Cesar Cavalcante, Antonio Ruffino Netto, Luciane Blanco Lopes, Marcus Barreto Conde

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):318-322

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the difficulties and peculiarities encountered by health professionals during the treatment and investigation of contacts of tuberculosis (TB) patients in disadvantaged communities. Methods: A qualitative study carried out at health care facilities in Health Programming Area 1.0, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which has a TB incidence rate of 240/100,000 inhabitants. From among the professionals responsible for visiting and treating TB cases and their contacts, two home visit agents and one clinical nurse were selected to be interviewed for the study. Data were transcribed and structured in the form of quotations, emphasizing the predominant ideas. Results: The central ideas focus on the issue of violence, one significant facet of which is the set of rules imposed by narcotraffickers, and on the barriers to the movement of patients/health professionals for TB treatment, as well as on public safety (police). Conclusion: This study provides public health officials, as well as institutions that graduate health professionals, data for reflection and analysis of the difficulties that urban violence creates for the control of TB in a disadvantaged community.


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Prevention and control; Violence; Directly observed therapy; Community health nursing.


Review Article

15 - Immunological diagnosis of tuberculosis: problems and strategies for success

Diagnóstico imunológico da tuberculose: problemas e estratégias para o sucesso

Henrique Couto Teixeira, Clarice Abramo, Martin Emilio Munk

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):323-334

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Tuberculosis remains a serious social and public health problem, affecting millions of people annually. The bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine, used prophylactically, does not impede the progression of the disease, which usually manifests as decreased cellular immunity. Early diagnosis, together with polychemotherapy, can control the dissemination of the tuberculosis infection. The current diagnostic methods present certain problems. Such problems include the low sensitivity of sputum smear microscopy, the fact that performing microbiological cultures is quite time-consuming, and the low specificity of the skin test with the purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. New diagnostic methods, which use specific antigens such as the early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa and culture filtrate protein 10‑kDa, are being evaluated. The genes that encode these antigens are located in the DNA region of difference 1 of M. tuberculosis, M. africanum and M. bovis. However, they are absent from the M. bovis (BCG) and from most environmental mycobacteria. Diagnostic methods such as QuantiFERON-TB® and T SPOT.TB®, which are based on the production of interferon-gamma by T lymphocytes, in response to those antigens, are being tested and have been found to outstrip the purified protein derivative skin test in the following characteristics: greater sensitivity; lower cross-reactivity due to BCG vaccination or infection with environmental mycobacteria; and execution time. The introduction of diagnostic methods that are more specific and sensitive, together with gaining a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the parasite-host interaction, can increase the efficiency of strategies devised to combat tuberculosis.


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Diagnosis; Antigens, bacterial/ESAT-6 protein; Immunity.


16 - Interrelationship among asthma, atopy, and helminth infections

Inter-relação entre asma, atopia e infecções helmínticas

Eduardo Vieira Ponte, José Ângelo Rizzo, Álvaro Augusto Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):335-342

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

To describe the principal evidence in the literature regarding the interrelationship among helminth infections, atopy, and asthma, a nonsystematic review of the literature was conducted. Among the publications on the subject, we found a number in which there was controversy regarding the capacity of geohelminth infections to inhibit responsiveness to skin allergy tests and to minimize the symptoms of allergic diseases. However, although small in number, studies of patients infected with Schistosoma spp. suggest that these helminths can inhibit the responsiveness to skin allergy testing and minimize asthma symptoms. Evidence provided by in vitro studies suggests that helminthiases inhibit T helper 1- and T helper 2-type immune responses. This opens new therapeutic possibilities for the treatment of immune system diseases.


Keywords: Asthma; Helminths; Hypersensitivity; Epidemiology.


Case Report

17 - Pulmonary amyloidosis: radiographic finding of nodular opacities in a heavy smoker

Amiloidose pulmonar: relato de caso de achado radiológico da apresentação nodular em grande fumante

Jorge Montessi, Edmilton Pereira de Almeida, João Paulo Vieira, Cândida Maria Horta, Marcus da Matta Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Dainezzi Bolognani, Sandra Márcia Carvalho Ribeiro Costa

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):343-346

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pulmonary amyloidosis is a rare disease, characterized by extracellular deposition of fibrillary protein in the lungs. Amyloidosis is a generic term for a heterogeneous group of diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the respiratory system, it appears in various forms: tracheobronchial; nodular pulmonary; and alveolar septal (diffuse parenchymal). We present the case of a woman who was a 20 pack-year smoker and had nodular pulmonary amyloidosis, as diagnosed through tests performed prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy.


Keywords: Amyloidosis/diagnosis; Lymphoproliferative disorders; Neoplasms; Lung.


18 - Application of the anthropometric index for the assessment of Pectus excavatum in patients submitted to the Nuss technique: two cases

Aplicação do índice antropométrico para avaliação do Pectus excavatum em pacientes submetidos à técnica de Nuss: relato de 2 casos

Rodrigo Ribeiro Brigato, José Ribas Milanez de Campos, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):347-350

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pectus excavatum (PEX) is the most frequent congenital deformity of the anterior chest wall and is defined as the dislocation of the medial or inferior portion of the sternal region toward the spinal column. There are various ways to measure the deformity. In this study, we present an objective method of assessing such deformity, the anthropometric index for PEX (AI-PEX). The AI-PEX was developed in the Thoracic Surgery Department of the Heart Institute - University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas. The anthropometric measurements are taken during the physical examination. We herein report two cases involving patients with PEX assessed using the AI-PEX and treated with the minimally invasive Nuss technique. The measurements were always taken at the point of greatest deformity. The patients were assessed on the day of the operation and again at 60 days after the surgery. The AI-PEX allowed us to obtain a satisfactory assessment of the defect. In both patients, the post-operative evolution was favorable.


Keywords: Thoracic wall; Thoracic surgery, Video-assisted; Funnel chest.


19 - Trauma-related thoracoplasty: case report

Toracoplastia traumática: relato de caso

Gabriela Addor, Andreia Salarini Monteiro, David Henrique Nigri, Luiz Felippe Judice, Rui Haddad, Carlos Alberto de Barros Franco

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):351-354

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Trauma primarily affects young people and is the leading cause of death in the first three decades of life. Flail chest is observed in approximately 10% of all patients with severe chest trauma, and the mortality rate among such patients is 10-15%. We report herein the case of a car accident victim with chest trauma causing hemopneumothorax and multiple rib fractures, intense pain and deformity of the chest wall. Surgical stabilization was performed, with good results. Therapeutic options are also discussed.


Keywords: Thoracic injuries; Flail chest; Thoracoplasty.


20 - Tuberculosis of the thymus

Tuberculose do timo

Mauro Tadeu Ajaj Saieg, Fabíola del Carlo Bernardi, Roberto Gonçalves, Márcio Botter, Roberto Saad Junior, Geanete Pozzan

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):355-357

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Tumors of the anterior mediastinum include several entities with different radiological and clinical manifestations, constituting a heterogeneous group of congenital, inflammatory, and neoplastic conditions. Among these lesions, the most common primary tumor of the mediastinum is thymoma, nearly followed by germ cell tumors and lymphomas. Tuberculosis of the thymus, an extremely rare condition, typically involves the mediastinal lymph nodes. We present, in this study, pathological, radiological, and clinical findings of one case of tuberculosis of the thymus in an 18-year-old patient who presented thoracic pain, dyspnea upon minimal effort, and progressive worsening of the symptoms in one week. The chest X-ray showed a large mass in the mediastinum, and computed tomography scans indicated that it was located anteriorly. The patient was submitted to surgery in order to excise the mass. Microscopy revealed a massive inflammatory response and granulomas in the thymic tissue. Ziehl-Neelsen staining for acid-fast bacilli yielded positive results, and a diagnosis of tuberculosis was made. Surgeons and pathologists should remain alert for this condition and should include it in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal masses.


Keywords: Thymus; Tuberculosis; Thoracic surgery; Pathology.


Special Article

21 - Situational study of seven Latin-American pulmonology journals

Estudio situacional de siete revistas latinoamericanas de neumología

Manuel Oyarzún Gómez, Alejandra Ramírez Venegas, Adalberto Agüero Fernández, José Antônio Baddini Martínez, Mary Bermúdez Gómez, Jorge O. Cáneva, Jaime E. Morales Blandir, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To characterize the situation of pulmonology journals published in Latin America. Methods: A survey was conducted in a meeting sponsored by the Latin American Thoracic Society. Each journal editor presented a report and answered a questionnaire. Results: Improving information acquisition is the main motivation for pulmonology societies to edit their own journals, whereas disseminating medical knowledge and reporting experiences are the main motivations for authors to submit papers. The most common failing in the manuscripts submitted is poor compliance with the journal guidelines. Improving author-editor-reviewer relationships would be the best strategy for improving the quality of manuscripts. Suggestions for improving Latin American journals included the following: promoting professionalism in editorial tasks; encouraging manuscript reviewers to be more meticulous; and embracing international norms for editing medical journals. The following major problems were reported: a lack of regular, appropriate periodicity of issues; a shortage of original papers that are considered 'milestones' in the specialty; a low rejection rate for submitted papers; a high turnover of editors. Conclusion: Based on our findings, we can make the following recommendations: although many journals are available in electronic form, they should also be maintained in print form; each journal should divulge its subscription fee, even if it is included in the annual society membership dues; although each Latin American country might decide to publish its own pulmonology journal, the feasibility of publishing a multinational Latin American pulmonology journal should be explored.


Keywords: Periodicals; Manuscripts; Latin America; Respiratory tract diseases.


Year 2007 - Volume 33  - Number 4  (July/August)


1 - Spirometry: what's normal?

Espirometria: o que é normal?

Luiz Carlos Corrêa da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):21-22

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2 - Assessing the severity and prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: is it still sufficient to measure FEV1 alone?

Avaliando a gravidade e o prognóstico da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica: a medida do VEF1 ainda é suficiente?

Irma de Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):23-24

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3 - Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: diagnostic hurdles

Lesão pulmonar aguda e síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo: dificuldades diagnósticas

Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):25-26

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Original Article

4 - Asthma-related hospitalizations and lack of outpatient follow-up treatment

A hospitalização por asma e a carência de acompanhamento ambulatorial

Emanuel Sarinho, Gladys Reis e Silva de Queiroz, Maria Laura Campelo de Melo Dias, Alexandre Jorge Queiroz e Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):365-371

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether the children and adolescents with acute asthma attacks admitted to two public hospitals in the city of Recife, Brazil underwent outpatient follow-up treatment for the prevention and control of asthma. Methods: A prospective case series study of hospitalized patients with asthma. The patients were asked to complete a questionnaire at admission in order to determine the frequency of prophylactic outpatient follow-up treatment. Patients presenting two or more attacks of asthma that were responsive to bronchodilators were classified as having asthma. Results: In the intervals between asthma attacks, 67% (112/167 - data regarding 2 patients were not available) of the patients had been treated only in the emergency room. Although 53.3%(89/167 - data regarding 2 patients were not provided) of the patients had been referred to outpatient treatment, only 16% (27/169) had visited an outpatient asthma clinic regularly for preventive treatment, and only 13% (22/169) had used prophylactic medication. Conclusion: Most of the children and adolescents hospitalized with asthma had not undergone preventive outpatient follow-up treatment. Various problems related to the health care system, such as non-referral for outpatient follow-up treatment at hospital discharge, limited access to outpatient clinics, and the cost of prophylactic medication, might have contributed to the low rate of outpatient follow-up treatment in the population studied. Public health care policies that allow asthma control programs to work effectively should be implemented.


Keywords: Asthma; Hospitalization; Ambulatory care.


5 - Causes of death in asthma patients enrolled in the Bahia State Program for the Control of Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis

Causas de óbitos entre asmáticos graves admitidos no Programa de Controle da Asma e da Rinite Alérgica na Bahia

Adelmir Souza-Machado, Carolina Souza-Machado, Daisy Freitas Silva, Eduardo Vieira Ponte, Alvaro A. Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):372-379

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To report demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with asthma who evolved to death, as well as to describe the conditions related to this outcome in a subgroup of patients admitted to the Program for the Control of Asthma and Rhinitis in Bahia (ProAR). Methods: A descriptive, retrospective, observational study. Data from clinical charts and death certificates of 16 patients of 930 subjects with severe asthma monitored at the ProAR Central Reference Center from December 2003 to June 2006 were reviewed. Results: Of the 930 patients participating in the program, 16 (1.72%) died. Of these, there were 10 males and 6 females, ranging in age from 39 to 74 years (median, 55 years); 12 (75%) of the patients were black. Time since diagnosis ranged from 1 to 68 years (median, 30 years). In 43.8 and 53.8%, respectively, there was a personal or family history of atopy. Ex-smokers (<10 pack-years) accounted for 37.5% of the cases. Causes of death listed on the death certificates were as follows: asthma or asthma exacerbations in 8 (50%); respiratory failure in 3 (18.75%); acute heart infarction in 2 (12.5%); hepatitis in 1 (6.25%); hypovolemic shock in 1 (6.25%); and cardiorespiratory arrest in 1 (6.25%). Of the 16 deaths, 13 (81.25%) occurred inside hospitals. Conclusion: Asphyxia and cardiovascular diseases were the most common atributed causes of mortality in this subgroup of patients with severe asthma. Hospital-based mortality, male gender, advanced age, long-term disease and fixed airflow obstruction were the aspects most frequently observed in the cases studied.


Keywords: Mortality; Rhinitis/treatment; Asthma/treatment; Cardiovascular diseases.


6 - Respiratory manifestations and respiratory diseases: prevalence and risk factors among pig farmers in Braço do Norte, Brazil

Manifestações respiratórias e doenças de vias aéreas: prevalência e fatores de risco em suinocultores de Braço do Norte, Santa Catarina

Marcelo Costa, Paulo José Zimermann Teixeira, Paulo Fontoura Freitas

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):380-388

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the prevalence of signs and symptoms of respiratory disease among pig farmers in Braço do Norte, Santa Catarina, Brazil, evaluating the characteristics of swine confinement buildings and identifying potential risk factors. Methods: An exploratory, cross-sectional, observational study involving interviews and pulmonary function tests (spirometry). Aspects related to job history, work conditions, and environment, as well as to respiratory status and smoking, were evaluated. Odds ratios were used to estimate the chances of exposure when comparing pig farmers according to the signs and symptoms of respiratory disease. Results: The prevalence of clinical signs and symptoms of respiratory disease was 84.3%, clinical manifestations of bronchial asthma were detected in 5.6% of the farmers evaluated, and chronic bronchitis was diagnosed in 5.1% of the workers over the age of 40. Only 2.6% used specific individual respiratory protection devices. Respiratory disease was positively associated with low socioeconomic level, low level of education, smoking, the use of wood stoves, and the use of disinfectants. Work load and length of employment were both apparently associated with a lower prevalence of respiratory disease. Conclusion: The association between duration of employment and lower prevalence of respiratory disease can be attributed to the healthy worker effect. However, the evident respiratory impairment among pig farmers and the limited use of personal protective equipment draw attention to the need to implement a program to monitor exposure and regulate environmental factors.


Keywords: Occupational Exposure; Occupational Diseases/epidemiology; Swine; Animal husbandry; Respiratory tract diseases.


7 - Inspiratory capacity, exercise limitation, markers of severity, and prognostic factors in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Capacidade inspiratória, limitação ao exercício, e preditores de gravidade e prognóstico, em doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Clarice Guimarães de Freitas, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):389-396

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Objective: To correlate the postbronchodilator (post-BD) inspiratory capacity (IC), % of predicted, with other markers of severity and prognostic factors in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Eighty stable patients with COPD performed forced vital capacity and slow vital capacity maneuvers, as well as the 6-min walk test, prior to and after receiving albuterol spray (400 μg). Patients were divided into four groups, based on post-BD forced expiratory volume in one second. Several variables were tested to establish correlations with the post-BD distance walked, using univariate and multivariate analysis. Post-BD IC was found to correlated with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) staging and with the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index. Results: Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the distance walked, % predicted, correlated significantly with the IC post-BD, % predicted (p = 0.001), long-term oxygen use (p = 0.014), and number of medications used in the treatment (p = 0.044). IC ≤ 70% was observed in 56% patients in GOLD stages 3 or 4 vs. 20% in GOLD 1 or 2 (p < 0.001). IC ≤ 70% was observed in (60%) patients with BODE score 3 or 4 vs. (33%) BODE score 1 or 2 (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Post-BD IC% predicted is the best functional predictor of distance walked and is significantly associated with GOLD staging and BODE index. Therefore, We propose that the inspiratory capacity should be added to the routine evaluation of the COPD patients.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Walking; Respiratory function tests; Inspiratory capacity.


8 - New reference values for forced spirometry in white adults in Brazil

Novos valores de referência para espirometria forçada em brasileiros adultos de raça branca

Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira, Taeko Sato, Sílvia Carla Rodrigues

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):397-406

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe spirometric reference equations for healthy Brazilian adults who have never smoked and to compare the predicted values with those derived in 1992. Methods: Reference equations for spirometry were derived in 270 men and 373 women living in eight cities in Brazil. Ages ranged from 20 to 85 years in women and from 26 to 86 years in men. Spirometry examinations followed the recommendations of the Brazilian Thoracic Society. Lower limits were derived by the analysis of the fifth percentiles of the residuals. Results: Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC and FEV1/forced expiratory volume in six seconds (FEV6) were best fitted by linear regression. Flows were best fitted using log equations. For both genders, greater height resulted in lower values for FEV1/FVC, FEV1/FEV6 and flow/FVC ratios. The reference values for FEV1 and FVC in the present study were higher than those derived for Brazilian adults in 1992. Conclusion: New predicted values for forced spirometry were obtained in a sample of white Brazilians. The values are greater than those obtained in 1992, probably due to technical factors.


Keywords: Spirometry; Reference Values; Respiratory Function Tests.


9 - Ultrasound evaluation of diaphragmatic mobility in different postures in healthy subjects

Avaliação ultra-sonográfica da mobilidade do diafragma em diferentes posturas em sujeitos saudáveis

Wellington Pereira dos Santos Yamaguti, Elaine Paulin, Simone Shibao, Sérgio Kodaira, Maria Cristina Chammas, Celso Ricardo Fernandes Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):407-413

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Objective: To assess, using ultrasound, the effects that changes in body position have on diaphragmatic mobility in healthy subjects during spontaneous breathing. Methods: The study involved seven healthy female volunteers, all of whom were nonsmokers, well nourished, and free of any cardiopulmonary disease. They were submitted to pulmonary function testing and ultrasound evaluation of the mobility of the right diaphragm by the craniocaudal displacement of the left branch of the portal vein using an ultrasound device in mode B. The mobility of the right diaphragm was evaluated in right decubitus and in left decubitus. The order of evaluation was previously determined in a random drawing. Results: The average mobility of the right diaphragm in right decubitus (51.30 ± 9.69 mm) was significantly higher (p = 0.03) than that observed in left decubitus (45.93 ± 10.37 mm). Conclusion: The results suggest that, during spontaneous ventilation, the dependent portion of the diaphragm presents greater mobility than does the nondependent portion, and that the technique used was sufficiently sensitive to detect variations in diaphragmatic mobility related to changes in posture.


Keywords: Diaphragm; Ultrasonography; Respiratory function tests; Posture.


10 - Applicability of the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis

Aplicabilidade do questionário de qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde - the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey - em pacientes portadores de esclerose sistêmica progressiva

Thamine Lessa Andrade, Aquiles Assunção Camelier, Fernanda Warken Rosa, Marcia Pina Santos, Sérgio Jezler, Jorge Luiz Pereira e Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):414-422

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To evaluate the applicability of the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) as an instrument to measure health-related quality of life in a sample of patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) through the analysis of its reproducibility and its correlation with functional and clinical parameters. Methods: A test-retest reproducibility study for the comparative analysis of the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of the SF-12 and the SF-36. A total of 46 patients diagnosed with PSS were studied, regardless of the presence of respiratory symptoms. Results: The physical component summary 12 (PCS-12) score had an ICC of 0.47 (95%CI: 0.05-0.71; p < 0.02), whereas the mental component summary (MCS-12) score had an ICC of 0.72 (95%CI: 0.49-0.84; p < 0.001). The PCS-36 score had an ICC of 0.88 (95%CI: 0.78-0.93; p < 0.001), and the MCS-36 score also had an ICC of 0.88 (95%CI: 0.78-0.93; p < 0.001). Conclusion: The SF-12 is a reliable instrument for measuring health-related quality of life in patients with PSS, since it has been proven to be reproducible. However, this version of the SF-12 should only be used in clinical research settings.


Keywords: Quality of life; Questionnaires; Statistics; Scleroderma, systemic.


11 - Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome in comparison with autopsy findings

Precisão do diagnóstico clínico da síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo quando comparado a achados de necropsia

Bruno Valle Pinheiro, Fabiana Sayuri Muraoka, Raimunda Violante Campos Assis, Raul Lamin, Sérgio Paulo dos Santos Pinto, Paulo Justiniano Ribeiro Júnior, Júlio César Abreu de Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):423-428

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Objective: To compare the American-European Consensus Conference (AECC) definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to autopsy findings. Methods: All patients who died in the intensive care unit of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora University Hospital between 1995 and 2003 and were submitted to autopsy were included in the study. Patient clinical charts were reviewed to establish whether cases met the AECC criteria for a diagnosis of ARDS, histologically defined as the presence of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Results: During the study period, 592 patients died, and 22 were submitted to autopsy. Of those 22 patients, 10 (45%) met the AECC criteria, and 7 (32%) met the histopathological criteria for DAD. The AECC clinical criteria presented a sensitivity of 71% (95%CI: 36-92%) and a specificity of 67% (95%CI: 42-85%). The positive and negative predictive values were, respectively, 50 and 83%, whereas the positive and negative likelihood ratios were, respectively, 2.33 and 0.47. The histopathological findings in the 5 patients who met AECC criteria but did not present DAD were pneumonia (n = 2), pulmonary embolism (n = 1), tuberculosis (n = 1), and cryptococcosis (n = 1). Conclusion: The accuracy of the AECC definition of ARDS was godless than satisfactory. Due to the low positive predictive value and the low positive likelihood ratio, other hypotheses must be considered when ARDS is suspected.


Keywords: Respiratory distress syndrome, adult; Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures; Autopsy.


12 - Differences in the clinical and radiological presentation of intrathoracic tuberculosis in the presence or absence of HIV infection

Diferenças na apresentação clínico-radiológica da tuberculose intratorácica segundo a presença ou não de infecção por HIV

Pedro Dornelles Picon, Maria Luiza Avancini Caramori, Sérgio Luiz Bassanesi, Sandra Jungblut, Marcelo Folgierini, Nelson da Silva Porto, Carlos Fernando Carvalho Rizzon, Roberto Luiz Targa Ferreira, Tânia Mariza de Freitas, Carla Adriane Jarczewski

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):429-436

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Objective: To describe the differences in the clinical and radiological presentation of tuberculosis in the presence or absence of HIV infection. Methods: A sample of 231 consecutive adults with active pulmonary tuberculosis admitted to a tuberculosis hospital were studied, assessing HIV infection, AIDS, and associated factors, as well as re-evaluating chest X-rays. Results: There were 113 HIV-positive patients (49%) Comparing the 113 HIV-positive patients (49%) to the 118 HIV-negative patients (51%), the former presented a higher frequency of atypical pulmonary tuberculosis (pulmonary lesions accompanied by intrathoracic lymph node enlargement), hematogenous tuberculosis, and pulmonary tuberculosis accompanied by superficial lymph node enlargement, as well as presenting less pulmonary cavitation. The same was found when HIV-positive patients with AIDS were compared to those without AIDS. There were no differences between the HIV-positive patients without AIDS and the HIV-negative patients. Median CD4 counts were lower in HIV-positive patients with intrathoracic lymph node enlargement and pulmonary lesions than in the HIV-positive patients with pulmonary lesions only (47 vs. 266 cells/mm3; p < 0.0001), in HIV-positive patients with AIDS than in those without AIDS (136 vs. 398 cells/mm3; p < 0.0001) and in patients with atypical pulmonary tuberculosis than in those with other forms of tuberculosis (31 vs. 258 cells/mm3; p < 0.01). Conclusion: Atypical forms and disseminated disease predominate among patients with advanced immunosuppression. In regions where TB prevalence is high, the presence of atypical pulmonary tuberculosis or pulmonary tuberculosis accompanied by superficial lymph node enlargement should be considered an AIDS-defining condition.


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; HIV infections; Radiography, thoracic.


13 - Using polymerase chain reaction with primers based on the plcB-plcC intergenic region to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples

Deteção de Mycobacterium tuberculosis em amostras clínicas por reação em cadeia da polimerase utilizando primers baseados na região intergênica plcB-plcC

Hermides Pinto Júnior, Claudia Giuliano Bica, Moisés Palaci, Reynaldo Dietze, Luiz Augusto Basso, Diógenes Santiago Santos

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):437-442

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Objective: To develop a system for the molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), constructing primers based on the difference in gene organization of the intergenic region of phospholipase C (plcB-plcC region), which differentiates Mycobacterium tuberculosis from other mycobacteria. Methods: A PCR product of the expected size (432 bp) was obtained from M. tuberculosis and M. africanum only. A total of 33 mycobacterial isolates and 273 clinical samples from patients suspected of having tuberculosis were examined. These were used in the comparative study of the PCR technique versus culture. Results: For PCR versus culture, the data showed 93.8% accuracy (p < 0.0001), 93.1% sensitivity (CI: 88.7-96.0), and 96.4% specificity (CI: 96.1-99.4). The Kappa value (0.82) shows that there was a near-perfect concordance between the two tests. Conclusion: The use of the plcB-plcC region in PCR amplification was found to be an important and reliable tool for the specific diagnosis of tuberculosis in the samples analyzed.


Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction; Diagnosis; Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis


Brief Communication

14 - A retrospective study of the epidemiological aspects of tuberculosis in the Complexo de Manguinhos, an urban slum area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2000-2002

Um estudo retrospectivo dos aspectos epidemiológicos da tuberculose na comunidade do Complexo de Manguinhos localizado em área urbana do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 2000‑2002

Joycenea Matsuda Mendes, Leila de Souza Fonseca, Maria Cristina Lourenço, Rosa Maria Carvalho Ferreira, Maria Helena Feres Saad

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):443-447

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

To describe some aspects of tuberculosis in a low-income community (the Complexo de Manguinhos, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), a retrospective study was carried out. Of the 290 cases reported in the 2000-2002 period, 75.8% were new cases. The annual incidence rates were 157/100,000 (2000), 205/100,000 (2001), and 145/100,000 (2002). Although there was a tendency toward a decrease in the number of cases over the period studied, the difference was not significant, suggesting that tuberculosis continues to be endemic in the area. Therefore, despite the existence of local public health care services, more efficient strategies should be implemented in order to increase the effectiveness of tuberculosis control programs in the area.


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; Poverty areas; Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


15 - Technical modification of unilateral lung transplantation in rats

Modificação da técnica de alotransplante pulmonar unilateral em ratos

Pablo Gerardo Sánchez, Lucas Krieger Martins, Frederico Krieger Martins, Ricardo Schimer, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Cristiano Feijó Andrade

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):443-447

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The increasing demand in transplantation research requires efficient and less expensive animal models in order to obtain reliable results that are reproducible in larger animal models and, ultimately, applied clinically. The model of unilateral left lung transplantation in rats has proven to be a useful alternative for those purposes. We demonstrate a technical modification of this model, which consists of the isolation and ligation of the contralateral (right) pulmonary artery, allowing blood circulation exclusively in the transplanted lung. This model is feasible and reproducible. However, the short survival time restricts the assessment of the transplanted lung to a maximum period of three hours.


Review Article

16 - The role of breastfeeding, diet and nutritional status in the development of asthma and atopy

O papel do aleitamento materno, da dieta e do estado nutricional no desenvolvimento de asma e atopia

Aline Petter Schneider, Renato Tetelbom Stein, Carlos Cezar Fritscher

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):454-462

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In many populations, the prevalence of asthma and atopy has increased in recent years. As a result, both conditions have become major public health problems. The possible influence of nutrition-related factors has been demonstrated in an increasing number of studies. Information regarding the role of breastfeeding, diet, nutritional status (obesity in particular), as well as regarding the immunologic responses triggered, helps to improve our understanding of the correlation between oxidative stress, bronchial inflammation, and the development of atopic and asthma symptoms. The article presents a review of the published literature on the relationships established between and among nutrition, asthma, and atopy over the last two decades.


Keywords: Asthma; Nutritional status; Breast feeding; Diet.


17 - Pectus carinatum

Pectus carinatum

Marlos de Souza Coelho, Paulo de Souza Fonseca Guimarães

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):463-474

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Among the deformities of the thoracic wall,pectus carinatum has not received the same attention as has pectus excavatum. Few pulmonologists, pediatricians, and thoracic surgeons are aware of the approaches to treating this condition. As a consequence, patients with pectus carinatum are not referred for treatment. This deformity, with an incidence of 1:1000 teenagers, is oligosymptomatic. However, for aesthetic and emotional reasons, it accounts for a large number of medical appointments. Such patients are introverted and do not engage in physical activities, since they are unwilling to expose their chest, which also discourages them from going to the beach or to swimming pools. The diagnosis is clinical and visual, and details are obtained through chest X-rays and computed tomography. The treatment is based on a well-known organogram that summarizes orthopedic and surgical procedures. Dynamic compression, combined with physical exercises, is indicated for teenagers with flexible thorax in inferior and lateral pectus carinatum, with limited indication for those with superior pectus carinatum. For individuals of any age with rigid thorax, surgery is indicated for aesthetic reasons. Among the techniques described, the modified sternum chondroplasty stands out due to the excellent aesthetic results achieved.


Keywords: Thoracic wall; Bone Diseases, Developmental/therapeutics; Surgery


Case Report

18 - Gastrobronchial fistula as a rare complication of gastroplasty for obesity. A report of two cases

Fístula gastrobrônquica como complicação rara de gastroplastia para obesidade. Relato de dois casos

Josemberg Marins Campos, Luciana Teixeira de Siqueira, Marconi Roberto de Lemos Meira, Álvaro Antônio Bandeira Ferraz, Edmundo Machado Ferraz, Murilo José de Barros Guimarães

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):475-479

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Gastrobronchial fistula is a rare condition as a complication following bariatric surgery. The management of this condition requires the active participation of a pulmonologist, who should be familiar with aspects of the main types of bariatric surgery. Herein, we report the cases of two patients who presented recurrent subphrenic and lung abscess secondary to fistula at the angle of His for an average of 19.5 months. After relaparotomy was unsuccessful, cure was achieved by antibiotic therapy and, more importantly, by stenostomy and endoscopic dilatation, together with the use of clips and fibrin glue in the fistula. These pulmonary complications should not be treated in isolation without a gastrointestinal evaluation since this can result in worsening of the respiratory condition, thus making anesthetic management difficult during endoscopic procedures.


Keywords: Fistula; Lung abscess; Subphrenic abscess; Obesity, surgery; Endoscopy.


19 - Postemetic rupture of the esophagus: Boerhaave's syndrome

Ruptura pós-emética do esôfago: a síndrome de Boerhaave

Henrique José da Mota, Manoel Ximenes Netto, Aldo da Cunha Medeiros

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):480-483

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Postemetic rupture of the esophagus, also known as spontaneous rupture or Boerhaave's syndrome, was first described by Herman Boerhaave in 1724. This is a severe disease that causes high mortality rates and is difficult to diagnose not only because it is rare but also because it is frequently confused with other severe clinical conditions, such as acute myocardial infarction, perforated peptic ulcer, and acute pancreatitis. Herein, we describe three cases of patients with this syndrome. Two underwent primary repair of the rupture, and one underwent esophagectomy followed by reconstruction. There was one death due to septic shock in the immediate postoperative period. The other two patients presented favorable long-term evolution.


Keywords: Esophageal diseases; Rupture, spontaneous; Mediastinitis; Esophagectomy.


20 - Endobronchial inflammatory pseudotumor: a case report

Pseudotumor inflamatório endobrônquico: relato de caso

Pablo Gerardo Sanchez, Gabriel Ribeiro Madke, Eduardo Sperb Pilla, Rafael Foergnes, José Carlos Felicetti, Enio do Valle, Geraldo Geyer

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):484-486

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Inflammatory pseudotumor of the lung is a rare form of benign neoplasia and is generally characterized by a solitary pulmonary nodule. The endobronchial presentation is uncommon. Conservative surgery remains the treatment of choice, and surgeons should always strive to achieve tumor-free margins due to the possibility of local recidivism. This article reports the case of a 36-year-old male patient with recurrent attacks of wheezing and cough. The patient underwent successful bronchoplasty for the resection of an endobronchial inflammatory pseudotumor.


Keywords: Granuloma, plasma cell; Coin lesion, pulmonary; Surgery.


21 - Fatal outcome in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma

Linfoma do tecido linfóide associado ao brônquio com evolução fatal

Romulo Loss Mattedi, Fabiola del Carlo Bernardi, Carlos Eduardo Bacchi, Sheila Aparecida Coelho Siqueira, Thais Mauad

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):487-491

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Primary pulmonary lymphoma is rare. The most common histological type is the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. This type of lymphoma has an indolent course and excellent response to therapy. One-third of all cases are diagnosed incidentally. However, due to the rarity of this disease, little is known about its natural history in terms of dissemination and evolution. Herein, we report the unusual case of a 61-year-old man who refused treatment after being diagnosed with bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and died 2 years later from massive lung infiltration without dissemination to other organs.


Keywords: Lung; Autopsy; Lymphoma.


Year 2007 - Volume 33  - Number 5  (September/October)


1 - Recurrence of tuberculosis

Recidiva da tuberculose

Antonio Ruffino-Netto

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):27-28

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2 - Lung cancer mortality

Mortalidade por câncer do pulmão

Carlos Alberto Guimarães

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):29-30

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Original Article

3 - Investigation of factors associated with difficult-to-control asthma

Investigação de fatores associados à asma de difícil controle

Ana Carla Sousa de Araujo, Érica Ferraz, Marcos de Carvalho Borges, João Terra Filho, Elcio Oliveira Vianna

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):495-501

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of factors associated with difficult-to-control asthma. Methods: Patients with severe asthma were selected from the outpatient asthma clinic of the Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas. The patients were divided into two groups: controlled severe asthma and difficult-to-control severe asthma. After new attempts to optimize the severe asthma treatment, a questionnaire was applied, and additional tests for factors associated with difficult-to-control asthma, such as environmental and occupational exposure, smoking history, social factors, rhinitis/sinusitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), obstructive sleep apnea, congestive heart failure (CHF), pulmonary embolism, cystic fibrosis, vocal cord dysfunction, α-1 antitrypsin deficiency, and Churg-Strauss syndrome, were performed. Results: 77 patients with severe asthma were selected, of which 47 suffered from hard-to-control asthma, being 68.1% female, with mean age of 44.4 years (±14.4), and forced expiratory volume in one second of 54.7% (±18.3). The most factors most often associated with difficult-to-control asthma were noncompliance with treatment (68%), rhinitis/sinusitis (57%), GERD (49%), environmental exposure (34%), occupational exposure (17%), smoking history (10%), obstructive sleep apnea (2%), and CHF (2%). At least one of these factors was identified in every case. Conclusions: Noncompliance with treatment was the factor most often associated with difficult-to-control asthma, underscoring the need to investigate comorbidities in the evaluation of patients with this form of the disease.


Keywords: Asthma; Smoking; Gastroesophageal reflux; Patient compliance; Rhinitis; Sinusitis.


4 - Quantitative assessment of elastic fibers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Avaliação quantitativa das fibras elásticas na doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Rogerio Rufino, Kalil Madi, Heitor Siffert Pereira de Souza, Cláudia Henrique da Costa, Eduardo Haruo Saito, José Roberto Lapa e Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):502-509

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To quantify elastic fibers (EFs) and smooth muscle (SM) cells, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Surgical specimens were obtained from 15 COPD patients, 18 smokers without airflow limitation, and 14 nonsmokers. Histological and immunohistochemical methods were employed in order to quantify EFs, SM cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells. Results: There was no significant difference in EF numbers among the three groups (p > 0.05). The number of EFs per unit area of lung tissue (mm2) and the percentage of EFs in the lung tissue were similar among the three groups. The numbers of SM cells were found to be higher in the COPD patients than in the smokers (p = 0.003) or in the nonsmokers (p = 0.009). There was a tendency toward an increase in CD8+ T-cell counts in the COPD patients. In specimens collected from the COPD patients, CD4+ T-cell counts were lower than in those collected from the smokers (p = 0.015) or from the nonsmokers (p = 0.003). There was a weak correlation between CD4+ T-cell count and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (r2 = 0.003). Conclusions: The EF counts were similar among the three groups. Hypertrophy/hyperplasia of airway wall SM cells was found in the COPD patients and in the smokers, indicating that airway remodeling occurs in smokers. The CD4/CD8 ratio was lower in the COPD patients.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; CD4 Lymphocyte Count; Elastic tissue; Muscle, smooth.


5 - Induced sputum and peripheral blood cell profile in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Perfil celular do escarro induzido e sangue periférico na doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Rogerio Rufino, Cláudia Henrique da Costa, Heitor Siffert Pereira de Souza, Kalil Madi, José Roberto Lapa e Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):510-518

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Objective: To determine cell profiles, as well as to identify CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subgroups, in induced sputum (IS) and peripheral venous blood (PVB) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Total cell counts and counts of individual cell types, including CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, were determined in the IS and PVB of 85 subjects (38 with COPD without exacerbation, 29 smokers without obstruction and 18 nonsmokers). Mann-Whitney and Spearman non-parametric tests were used in the statistical analysis, and values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Comparing the IS of subjects with COPD to that of nonsmokers, neutrophil, eosinophil and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts were higher (respectively p = 0.005, p < 0.05 and p < 0.05), whereas the percentage of macrophages was lower (p = 0.003). There were weak linear correlations (r2 < 0.1) between each cell type in IS and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC ratio. Eosinophil and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts were also higher in PVB (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02). Conclusions: In patients with stable COPD, CD8+ T lymphocyte counts were higher in PVB, whereas total leukocyte counts were similar to those of the other two groups analyzed, suggesting systemic inflammatory involvement. The CD8+ T lymphocyte count in blood can be a useful marker of systemic inflammation and can help identify smokers who already present a COPD inflammatory pattern.


Keywords: Sputum; T-lymphocytes; Neutrophils; Macrophages; Eosinophils; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.


6 - Reliability and accuracy of cirtometry in healthy adults

Precisão e acurácia da cirtometria em adultos saudáveis

Valéria da Silva Caldeira, Célia Cristina Duarte Starling, Raquel Rodrigues Britto, Jocimar Avelar Martins, Rosana Ferreira Sampaio, Verônica Franco Parreira

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):519-526

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the intrarater and interrater reliability of cirtometry (measurements of the circumference of the chest and abdomen taken during respiratory movements) as well as its correlation with pulmonary volumes measured by respiratory inductive plethysmography. Methods: A total of 40 healthy individuals were evaluated. The mean age was 28 years. The measurements were taken in the supine position at three different time points: at rest, at maximal inspiration, and at maximal expiration. Two trained investigators, each of whom was blinded as to the results obtained by the other, performed the measurements. The Friedman test was used to determine intrarater reliability, and the Wilcoxon test, together with the intraclass correlation coefficient, were used to determine interrater reliability. The correlation between the cirtometry measurements and the plethysmography results was obtained using Spearman's correlation coefficient. The level of significance was set at 0.05 for all tests. Results: Intrarater reliability was satisfactory. Regarding interrater reliability, statistically significant differences (2.8 cm at the most) were found in all sets of measurements. However, through the analysis of the intraclass correlation coefficient, the investigators were found to be responsible only for a small portion of the variability (1.2-5.08%) found among the measurements. When the cirtometry measurements were compared to the volumes measured by respiratory inductive plethysmography, low correlations (range, r = 0.170-0.343) were found. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that, although cirtometry is a reliable measurement, it does not accurately measure pulmonary volumes.


Keywords: Reproducibility of results; Lung volume measurements; Plethysmography; Statistics, nonparametric.


7 - Validation of new Brazilian predicted values for forced spirometry in Caucasians and comparison with predicted values obtained using other reference equations

Validação de novos valores previstos brasileiros para a espirometria forçada na raça branca e comparação com os valores previstos obtidos por outras equações de referência

Andrezza Araújo de Oliveira Duarte, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira, Silvia Carla Sousa Rodrigues

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):527-535

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Objective: To compare the most recent (2006) predicted values of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second for spirometry in Brazilians with those obtained using other reference equations and to validate the findings through comparisons with a new sample of normal Brazilians. Methods: Forced spirometry was performed, in accordance with the Brazilian Thoracic Society guidelines, in 643 nonsmoking adult Caucasians. The predicted values obtained by Brazilian researchers in 1992 and those obtained by four groups of foreign researchers were compared with the new Brazilian predicted values obtained in 2006. In the second phase, the mean values obtained in 65 adult females and 79 adult males were compared with the predicted values obtained using the various reference equations. Results: A t-test for paired samples revealed significant differences between the predicted values obtained using the six equations and those obtained using the 2006 Brazilian equation. In the second phase, the mean predicted values obtained by Crapo et al., as well as those obtained by Hankinson et al. for Mexican-Americans, were similar to those found in the new sample. However, when the predicted values obtained in the new sample were compared with those obtained by those authors, discrepancies were found, with high and low predicted values. The mean values obtained using the 2006 Brazilian equation presented the smallest differences in comparison with the mean values obtained in the new sample. Conclusions: These results underscore the importance of using prediction equations for spirometry that are appropriate for our population.


Keywords: Spirometry; Reference values; Respiratory function tests.


8 - Lung cancer, cancer of the trachea, and bronchial cancer: mortality trends in Brazil, 1980-2003

Tendência de mortalidade do câncer de pulmão, traquéia e brônquios no Brasil, 1980-2003

Deborah Carvalho Malta, Lenildo de Moura, Maria de Fátima Marinho de Souza, Maria Paula Curado, Airlane Pereira Alencar, Gizelton Pereira Alencar

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):536-543

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Objective: To describe the mortality trends for lung cancer, cancer of the trachea, and bronchial cancer in relation to gender and age brackets in Brazil. Methods: Data related to mortality between 1980 and 2003 were collected from the Brazilian Mortality Database. A trend analysis of mortality was carried out, nationwide and in selected states, using the LOWESS technique for rate smoothing and model adjustments. Results: In Brazil, the standardized mortality rate for lung cancer, cancer of the trachea, and bronchial cancer increased from 7.21/100,000 inhabitants in 1980 to 9.36/100,000 inhabitants in 2003. Specific mortality rates decreased in males in the 30-49 and 50-59 age brackets. In the 60-69 age bracket, the rates for males increased from 1980 to 1995 and declined thereafter. There was a trend toward higher mortality rates in males over 70, as well as in females over 30, throughout the period evaluated. Conclusions: The decrease in the mortality rates in younger males might have resulted from recent national interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence of smoking and reducing exposure in younger cohorts. High mortality rates in older populations remained constant due to prior tobacco use. Increased mortality rates in females are a worldwide trend and are attributable to the recent increase in smoking prevalence in females.


Keywords: Lung neoplasms/epidemiology; Mortality/trends; Brazil.


9 - Temporal trend in and spatial distribution of lung cancer mortality in Brazil between 1979 and 2004: magnitude, regional patterns, and gender-related differences

Tendência temporal e distribuição espacial da mortalidade por câncer de pulmão no Brasil entre 1979 e 2004: magnitude, padrões regionais e diferenças entre sexos

Antonio Fernando Boing, Tiana Fávero Rossi

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):544-551

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Objectives: To describe the temporal trend in and spatial distribution of mortality from tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancer in Brazil from 1979 to 2004. Methods: Mortality data by gender and geographic region were obtained from the Mortality Database created by the Ministry of Health in 1975. Demographic data were collected from the national censuses, from population counts, and from population estimates made in non-census years. Mortality rates were standardized according to the direct method, and the trends were analyzed by gender and geographic region using the Prais-Winsten method for generalized linear regression. Results: Lung cancer mortality accounted for approximately 12% of the overall neoplasia-related mortality during the period. There was a trend toward an increase for both genders and in all regions, except for the male population in the southeast region, whose rates remained steady between 1979 and 2004. The highest rates were observed in the south and southeast regions. However, the northeast region was the one that presented the greatest increase, followed by the central-west and north regions. In all regions, the increase in mortality rates was higher in women. Conclusions: The increase in lung cancer mortality in Brazil between 1979 and 2004 requires public measures that can minimize exposition to risk factors, mainly tobacco, and allow greater access to health care facilities for diagnosis and treatment.


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Epidemiology; Brazil.


10 - Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: high-resolution computed tomography findings in 10 patients

Microlitíase alveolar pulmonar: achados na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax em 10 pacientes

Edson Marchiori, Carolina Marinho Gonçalves, Dante Luiz Escuissato, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos Teixeira, Rosana Rodrigues, Miriam Menna Barreto, Mauro Esteves

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):552-557

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Objective: To present the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. Methods: The HRCT scans of 10 adult patients (seven females and three males; mean age, 38.7 years) were retrospectively analyzed. The films were studied independently by two radiologists. Results: The most common tomographic findings were ground-glass attenuation and linear subpleural calcifications, which were seen in 90% of the patients. Other relevant findings were small parenchymal nodules, calcification along the interlobular septa, nodular cissures, subpleural nodules, subpleural cysts, dense consolidations, and a mosaic pattern of attenuation. Conclusions: The HRCT findings presented by individuals with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis are distinct. In most cases, such findings can form the basis of the diagnosis, eliminating the need to perform a lung biopsy.


Keywords: Tomography, X-Ray Computed; Lithiasis/lung; Lung diseases.


11 - Variables related to smoking initiation among students in public and private high schools in the city of Belém, Brazil

Variáveis relacionadas à iniciação do tabagismo entre estudantes do ensino médio de escola pública e particular na cidade de Belém - PA

Denise da Silva Pinto, Sandra Aparecida Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):558-564

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Objetive: To analyze the variables related to smoking initiation among adolescent students in two high schools (one public and one private) in the city of Belém, Brazil, in 2005. Methods: An anonymous self-report questionnaire - comprising 27 closed questions regarding smoking experimentation, smoking habit, access to buying cigarettes, reasons for smoking experimentation, self-perception regarding academic performance, conversations about smoking with the family, and socioeconomic level - was used for data collection. The study comprised 1520 students: 724 (47.6%) from the private school and 796 (52.4%) from the public school. Results: Mean age of participants was 16.5 years. Of the 1520 students evaluated, 669 (44%) reported experimenting with smoking, and 11% smoked regularly. In the public school and the private school, respectively, 51.2% and 36.7% of the participants had experimented with smoking (p = 0); 14.6% and 7%, respectively, were regular smokers (p = 0). We found that, in both schools, the following factors were associated with smoking initiation and current smoking: curiosity, presence of smokers as social contacts, not being praised for not smoking, and perceiving oneself as having poor or mediocre academic performance. Socioeconomic level was found to be associated with experimentation and current smoking only among experimenters of higher socioeconomic classes (A and B) in the private school. Conclusions: Among the students evaluated, the variable most closely associated with smoking was curiosity. Experimentation and regular tobacco use were more common in the public school than in the private school.


Keywords: Smoking; Epidemiologic factors; Students.


12 - Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients hospitalized with tuberculosis in Brasil between 1994 and 2004

Características clínico-demográficas de pacientes hospitalizados com tuberculose no Brasil, no período de 1994 a 2004

Norma Pinheiro Franco Severo, Clarice Queico Fujimura Leite, Marisa Veiga Capela, Maria Jacira da Silva Simões

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):565-571

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Objective: To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with tuberculosis hospitalized in the Nestor Goulart Reis Hospital, located in the city of Américo Brasiliense, Brazil. Methods: Epidemiological investigation by means of an observational, retrospective, descriptive study based on the medical charts of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and hospitalized between 1994 and 2004. Results: There were 1787 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis during the period evaluated. Of those, 117 (7%) were females, 1670 (93%) were males; 1215 (68%) were single, separated or widowed. Most of the patients (74%) had not completed middle school, and most (63%) were between 30 and 50 years of age. In addition, 61% suffered from alcoholism. The most common occupation was farm worker (25% of the patients), and 70% of the patients were unemployed. The most common clinical form of the disease was the pulmonary form (in 92%). The rate of medical discharge was 60%. The treatment regimen differed from the standard (rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide) in 34% of the cases. Conclusions: The profile of the patients with tuberculosis hospitalized in the hospital studied showed that they had special requirements: they were unable to take care of themselves (social cases) and required alternative treatment regimens, which justified their hospitalization. This hospital played an important social role in the treatment and guidance of these patients.


Keywords: Hospitalization; Tuberculosis; Demography.


13 - Risk factors for recurrence of tuberculosis

Fatores de risco para a recidiva da tuberculose

Pedro Dornelles Picon, Sergio Luiz Bassanesi, Maria Luiza Avancini Caramori, Roberto Luiz Targa Ferreira, Carla Adriane Jarczewski, Patrícia Rodrigues de Borba Vieira

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):572-578

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Objective: To identify risk factors for recurrence of tuberculosis. Methods: We studied a cohort of 610 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis who were enrolled for treatment between 1989 and 1994 and cured using a three-drug treatment regimen of rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide (RHZ). The risk factors studied were age, gender, race, duration of symptoms, lesion cavitation, extent of disease, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, HIV infection, delayed negative sputum conversion, treatment compliance, and medication doses. In order to detect recurrence, the patients were monitored through the Rio Grande do Sul State Healt Department Information System for 7.7 ± 2.0 years after cure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t-test, the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, and Cox regression models. Results: There were 26 cases of recurrence (4.3%), which corresponds to 0.55/100 patients-year. The recurrence rate was 5.95 and 0.48/100 patients-year in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients, respectively (p < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, HIV infection [RR = 8.04 (95% CI: 2.35-27.50); p = 0.001] and noncompliance [RR = 6.43 (95% CI: 2.02-20.44); p = 0.002] proved to be independently associated with recurrence of tuberculosis. Conclusions: Recurrence of tuberculosis was more common in HIV-positive patients and in patients who did not comply with the self-administered treatment (RHZ regimen). Patients presenting at least one of these risk factors can benefit from the implementation of a post-treatment surveillance system for early detection of recurrence. An alternative to prevent noncompliance with tuberculosis treatment would be the use of supervised treatment.


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Recurrence; Risk factors.


Brief Communication

14 - Drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from sputum samples from symptomatic outpatients - Complexo de Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Resistência a drogas em cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis isoladas de amostras de escarro de pacientes ambulatoriais sintomáticos - Complexo de Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Joycenea Matsuda Mendes, Maria Cristina Lourenço, Rosa Maria Carvalho Ferreira, Leila de Souza Fonseca, Maria Helena Feres Saad

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):579-582

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This study aimed to assess drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from sputum samples. To that end, sputum samples were collected from 263 patients suspected of having tuberculosis. All subjects lived in the Complexo de Manguinhos, which is located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cultures testing positive between October of 2000 and December of 2002 were tested to determine strain susceptibility to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, ethionamide, and ethambutol. Of the 75 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis, resistance to at least one of the drugs was found in 16 (21.4%). Of those 16 patients, 8 (50%) were new cases, and 8 (50%) had previously been treated. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was identified in 8 (10.6%) of the 75 patients, being associated with previous treatment in 6 (8%). The incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis might have been underestimated, since M. tuberculosis was not isolated from all of the samples testing positive for acid-fast bacilli. However, at least, our findings shed some light on the problem.


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Drug resistance; Drug resistance, multiple.


Review Article

15 - Sickle cell anemia-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension

Hipertensão arterial pulmonar associada à anemia falciforme

Roberto Ferreira Pinto Machado

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):583-591

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Pulmonary hypertension is a common complication of sickle cell anemia. Despite the fact that the elevations in pulmonary artery pressures are slight, morbidity and mortality are high. In adult sickle cell anemia patients, pulmonary hypertension is emerging as a major risk factor for death. The pathogenesis of sickle cell anemia-related pulmonary hypertension is multifactorial, including hemolysis, impaired nitric oxide bioavailability, chronic hypoxemia, thromboembolism, chronic liver disease and asplenia. In the majority of patients, pulmonary arterial hypertension is the main cause of elevated pulmonary artery pressures. However, pulmonary venous hypertension also plays a role in a subgroup of patients. Specific data on the effects of treatment modalities for pulmonary hypertension in patients with sickle cell anemia are scarce. It is likely that all patients would benefit from maximization of sickle cell anemia therapy, and that patients with the severe form of the disease would benefit from treatment with selective pulmonary vasodilators and antiproliferative agents. Large trials evaluating the effects of treatment for pulmonary hypertension in the sickle cell anemia population are underway.


Keywords: Anemia, Sickle cell; Hemolysis; Hypertension, pulmonary; Nitric oxide.


16 - Psychological characteristics associated with tobacco smoking behavior

Características psicológicas associadas ao comportamento de fumar tabaco

Regina de Cássia Rondina, Ricardo Gorayeb, Clóvis Botelho

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):592-601

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This article is a literature review of the psychological aspects of smoking behavior, highlighting personality characteristics of the smoker as an obstacle to smoking cessation. It describes the relation between smoking behavior and personality, and between smoking and the principal psychiatric disorders. Studies reveal that smokers tend to be more extroverted, anxious, tense, and impulsive, and show more traits of neuroticism and psychoticism than do ex-smokers or nonsmokers. The literature also reveals a strong association between smoking and mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and depression. Understanding the psychological factors associated with tobacco smoking and dependence can further the development and improvement of therapeutic strategies to be used in smoking-cessation programs, as well as of programs aimed at prevention and education.


Keywords: Personality; Mental disorders; Smoking.


Case Series

17 - Primary ciliary dyskinesia: Considerations regarding six cases of Kartagener syndrome

Discinesia ciliar primária: Considerações sobre seis casos da síndrome de Kartagener

Hugo Alejandro Vega Ortega, Nelson de Araujo Vega, Bruno Quirino dos Santos, Guilherme Tavares da Silva Maia

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):602-608

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Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), previously known as immotile cilia syndrome, is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease that includes various patterns of ciliary ultrastructural defects. The most serious form is Kartagener syndrome (KS), which accounts for 50% of all cases of PCD. The incidence of PCD ranges from 1:20,000 to 1:60,000. Since PCD causes deficiency or even stasis of the transport of secretions throughout the respiratory tract, it favors the growth of viruses and bacteria. As a result, patients have lifelong chronic and recurrent infections, typically suffering from bronchitis, pneumonia, hemoptysis, sinusitis, and infertility. Bronchiectasis and other chronic conditions infections can be the end result of the irreversible bronchial alterations, leading to chronic cor pulmonale and its consequences. Only half of the patients affected by PDC present all of the symptoms, a condition designated complete KS, compared with incomplete KS, typically defined as cases in which situs inversus does not occur. The diagnosis is made clinically and confirmed through transmission electron microscopy. Since there is no specific therapy for PCD, it is recommended that, upon diagnosis, secondary infections be treated with potent antibiotics and prophylactic interventions be implemented. In this paper, we report six cases of PCD (five cases of complete KS and one case of KS) and review the related literature, focusing on the diagnostic, therapeutic and clinical aspects of this disease.


Keywords: Kartagener syndrome; Ciliary motility disorders; Bronchiectasis; Dextrocardia.


Case Report

18 - Carcinomatous lymphangitis as the initial manifestation of ovarian adenocarcinoma

Linfangite carcinomatosa pulmonar como manifestação inicial de adenocarcinoma de ovário

Mariane Gonçalves Martynychen, Lêda Maria Rabelo, Rodney Luiz Frare e Silva, Dante Luiz Escuissato

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):609-611

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Carcinomatous lymphangitis accounts for approximately 8% of all cases of metastatic pulmonary tumors. The most common primary sites are breast, lung, stomach, prostate and pancreas. We describe herein the case of a 42-year-old woman in whom the first manifestation of an ovarian adenocarcinoma was carcinomatous lymphangitis of the lung, an unusual presentation of the disease.


Keywords: Lymphangitis; Lung neoplasms; Ovarian neoplasms; Lymphatic metastasis; Hypertension, pulmonary.


19 - Intrapulmonary teratoma

Teratoma intrapulmonar maduro

Ricardo Alexandre Faria, José Alexandre Bizon, Roberto Saad Junior, Vicente Dorgan Neto, Marcio Botter, Mauro Ajaj Saieg

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):612-615

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Case report of a 49-year-old man, presenting chest pain and bloody sputum for six months. Chest X-ray and computed tomography scan showed opacification on the left upper lobe. The bronchoscopy showed bronchial hemorrhage in the lingular bronchial segment. Due to diagnostic and therapeutic needs, this patient underwent a left inframammilary thoracotomy. The anatomopathological analysis of the surgical sample revealed an intrapulmonary teratoma. The patient presented favorable evolution and is now under outpatient follow-up treatment.


Keywords: Teratoma; Lung; Neoplasms.


20 - Tracheal polyp

Pólipo traqueal

Bruno Guedes Baldi, Caio Júlio César dos Santos Fernandes, João Marcos Salge, Teresa Yae Takagaki

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):616-620

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Benign tracheal tumors are rare, recurrent papillomatosis being the most common. They often simulate obstructive pulmonary diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and patients with benign tracheal tumors often undergo long-term treatment for such diseases, without any improvement, Therefore, these tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting tracheobronchial tree obstruction. This report describes the case of a patient with a tracheal polyp. The patient presented symptoms for three years, and the spirometry findings suggested intrathoracic obstruction. The patient presented complete clinical and spirometric recovery after bronchoscopic resection of the tumor.


Keywords: Polyps; Airway obstruction; Spirometry; Bronchoscopy.


Letters to the Editor

23 - Video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy

Simpatectomia torácica por videotoracoscopia

Jorge Montessi, Edmílton Pereira de Almeida, João Paulo Vieira, Marcus da Matta Abreu, Renato Lucas Passos de Souza, Oswaldo Victor Duarte Montessi

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):624-

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Year 2007 - Volume 33  - Number 6  (November/December)


1 - Taking stock

Época de balanços

José Antônio Baddini Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):33-35

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2 - Defining asthma control: time to look for new definitions?

Definindo o controle da asma: tempo de procurar novas definições?

Emilio Pizzichini

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):34-36

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3 - Tracheostomy in patients on mechanical ventilation: when is it indicated?

Traqueostomia em pacientes sob ventilação mecânica: quando indicar?

Arthur Vianna

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):37-38

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Original Article

4 - Immunophenotyping and gene rearrangement analysis in lymphoid/lymphoproliferative disorders of the lungs

Imunofenotipagem e rearranjo gênico em doenças pulmonares linfocíticas e linfoproliferativas

Camila Cristina Ishikawa, Alexandre Muxfeldt Ab'Saber, Edwin Roger Parra, Chin Jia Lin, Carmen Silvia Valente Barbas, Vera Luiza Capelozzi

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):625-634

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Objetivo: Determinar a utilidade, na prática rotineira, da análise da clonalidade dos linfócitos T e B nos tecidos pulmonares por reação em cadeia da polimerase no diagnóstico das doenças linfoproliferativas pulmonares. Métodos: Avaliaram-se, mediante análise imunohistoquímica e rearranjo molecular dos genes, 8 casos de pneumonia intersticial linfocítica (PIL) e 7 casos de doenças linfoproliferativas pulmonares. Resultados: Todos os 8 casos de PIL expressaram imunocoloração moderada a forte para CD3, em contraste com apenas 2 casos de linfoma e 1 caso de pseudolinfoma. Rearranjo gênico foi detectado em 4 de 8 casos de PIL, o que mudou o diagnóstico de PIL para linfoma, indicando, assim, a importância da detecção de rearranjo gênico em casos de PIL. Nesta situação, rearranjo gênico usando-se os pares de primers VH/JH e Vγ11/Jγ12 foi detectado em 3 e 1 casos de PIL, respectivamente, e não foram detectadas anormalidades gênicas usando-se as pares Dβ1/Jβ2 e Vγ101/Jγ12. Uma associação positiva foi detectada entre a intensidade de imunoexpressão CD20 e CD68 e rearranjo gênico usando-se o par de primers VH/JH. Antes do rearranjo gênico, 4 pacientes com PIL morreram rapidamente, enquanto que, após o rearranjo gênico, apenas 1 paciente com PIL morreu. Conclusões: A detecção de células B e T monoclonais por imunofenotipagem e reação em cadeia da polimerase mostrou impacto no diagnóstico de linfomas pulmonares em pacientes previamente diagnosticados com PIL. Portanto, imunofenotipagem e reação em cadeia da polimerase devem ser incluídas como métodos de 'padrão ouro' na rotina diagnósticObjetivo: Determinar a utilidade, na prática rotineira, da análise da clonalidade dos linfócitos T e B nos tecidos pulmonares por reação em cadeia da polimerase no diagnóstico das doenças linfoproliferativas pulmonares. Métodos: Avaliaram-se, mediante análise imunohistoquímica e rearranjo molecular dos genes, 8 casos de pneumonia intersticial linfocítica (PIL) e 7 casos de doenças linfoproliferativas pulmonares. Resultados: Todos os 8 casos de PIL expressaram imunocoloração moderada a forte para CD3, em contraste com apenas 2 casos de linfoma e 1 caso de pseudolinfoma. Rearranjo gênico foi detectado em 4 de 8 casos de PIL, o que mudou o diagnóstico de PIL para linfoma, indicando, assim, a importância da detecção de rearranjo gênico em casos de PIL. Nesta situação, rearranjo gênico usando-se os pares de primers VH/JH e Vγ11/Jγ12 foi detectado em 3 e 1 casos de PIL, respectivamente, e não foram detectadas anormalidades gênicas usando-se as pares Dβ1/Jβ2 e Vγ101/Jγ12. Uma associação positiva foi detectada entre a intensidade de imunoexpressão CD20 e CD68 e rearranjo gênico usando-se o par de primers VH/JH. Antes do rearranjo gênico, 4 pacientes com PIL morreram rapidamente, enquanto que, após o rearranjo gênico, apenas 1 paciente com PIL morreu. Conclusões: A detecção de células B e T monoclonais por imunofenotipagem e reação em cadeia da polimerase mostrou impacto no diagnóstico de linfomas pulmonares em pacientes previamente diagnosticados com PIL. Portanto, imunofenotipagem e reação em cadeia da polimerase devem ser incluídas como métodos de 'padrão ouro' na rotina diagnóstica.


5 - Perception of asthma control in asthma patients

A percepção do controle dos sintomas em pacientes asmáticos

Eduardo Vieira Ponte, Jaqueline Petroni, Daniela Campos Borges Ramos, Luciana Pimentel, Daise Naiane Freitas, Álvaro A Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):635-640

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Objective: To determine the proportion of asthma patients with poor perception of asthma control and to evaluate the characteristics of this subgroup. Methods: A cross-sectional study in which consecutive outpatients (over the age of 12) with mild, moderate, or severe asthma were selected. The patients underwent clinical examination, and pulmonary function tests, as well as being assessed for depression and perception of asthma control. The degree of concordance between patients and physicians regarding the perception of asthma control was determined. Patients with good perception of asthma control were compared, in terms of characteristics, with those presenting poor perception. Results: The degree of concordance between patients and physicians regarding the perception of asthma control was low (kappa index = 0.5). Of the 289 patients included, 66 (23%) presented poor perception of asthma control. The preliminary univariate analysis revealed that the patients with poor perception of asthma control were older, had a lower income, and presented a lower degree of asthma severity. Those factors did not change in the multivariate analysis. There were no differences between the groups in terms of gender, frequency of having literate patients, duration of asthma symptoms, having been diagnosed with rhinitis, frequency of depression, pulmonary function, or treatment compliance. Conclusions: The incidence of poor perception of asthma control in asthma patients is high, especially in elderly patients with lower income and a lower degree of asthma severity.


Keywords: Asthma; Signs and symptoms; Asthma/therapy.


6 - Relationship between body mass index and asthma severity in adults

Relação entre o índice de massa corporal e a gravidade da asma em adultos

Nilva Regina Gelamo Pelegrino, Márcia Maria Faganello, Fernanda Figueirôa Sanchez, Carlos Roberto Padovani, Irma de Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):641-646

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Objective: Elevated values of body mass index (BMI) have been associated with higher prevalence of asthma in adults. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association between obesity and asthma severity. Methods: Medical records of two hundred patients older than 20 years of age were evaluated retrospectively. Asthma severity was established after the evaluation of the medical history and diagnosis recorded, spirometry results and the medicines prescribed. BMI was calculated and patients were classified as obese when the BMI was ≥ 30 kg/m2. Results: 23% of the patients presented intermittent asthma, 25.5% presented mild persistent asthma, 24% presented moderate persistent asthma, and 27.5% presented severe persistent asthma. Values of BMI ≤ 29.9 kg/m2 were observed in 68% of the patients and in 32% the BMI was ≥ 30 kg/m2. The odds ratio of the correlation between obesity and asthma severity was 1.17 (95% CI: 0.90-1.53; p > 0.05). Conclusions: In the sample evaluated in this study no correlation between obesity and asthma severity was found for either gender.


Keywords: Asthma; Body mass index, Sex distribution; Obesity.


7 - Concordance between clinical and pathological staging in patients with stages I or II non-small cell lung cancer subjected to surgical treatment

Concordância entre os estadiamentos clínico e patológico em pacientes com câncer de pulmão não-pequenas células, estádios I e II, submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico

Pedro Augusto Reck dos Santos, Rodrigo Sponchiado da Rocha, Maurício Pipkin, Marner Lopes da Silveira, Marcelo Cypel, Jayme Oliveira Rios, José Antonio Lopes de Figueiredo Pinto

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):647-654

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare clinical and pathological staging in patients with non-small cell lung cancer submitted to surgical treatment, as well as to identify the causes of discordance. Methods: Data related to patients treated at the Department of Thoracic Surgery of the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul São Lucas Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were calculated for clinical stages IA, IB, and IIB. The kappa index was used to determine the concordance between clinical and pathological staging. Results: Of the 92 patients studied, 33.7% were classified as clinical stage IA, 50% as IB, and 16.3% as IIB. The concordance between clinical and pathological staging was 67.5% for stage IA, 54.3% for IB, and 66.6% for IIB. The accuracy of the clinical staging was greater for stage IA, and a kappa of 0.74, in this case, confirmed a substantial association with pathological staging. The difficulty in evaluating nodal metastatic disease is responsible for the low concordance in patients with clinical stage IB. Conclusions: The concordance between clinical and pathological staging is low, and patients are frequently understaged (in the present study, only one case was overstaged). Strategies are necessary to improve clinical staging and, consequently, the treatment and prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.


Keywords: Neoplasm staging; Lung neoplasms/diagnosis; Lung neoplasms/surgery; Prognosis.


8 - Effects of hyperoxia on Wistar rat lungs

Efeitos da hiperóxia sobre o pulmão de ratos Wistar

Samuel dos Santos Valença, Milena Leonarde Kloss, Frank Silva Bezerra, Manuella Lanzetti, Fabiano Leichsenring Silva, Luís Cristóvão Porto

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):655-662

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To study the effects of short-term exposure to high oxygen concentrations (hyperoxia) on Wistar rat lungs. Methods: Animals were divided into three groups exposed to hyperoxia for 10', 30' and 90' (O10', O30', O90', respectively), together with a control group (exposed to room air). The animals were sacrificed 24 h after exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, and the lungs were removed for histological and stereological analysis. Results: In the O10', O30', and O90' groups, respectively and in comparison with the controls, we observed an increase in the numbers of macrophages (2169.9 ± 118.0, 1560.5 ± 107.0, and 1467.6 ± 39.0 vs. 781.3 ± 78.3) and neutrophils (396.3 ± 35.4, 338.4 ± 17.3, and 388.7 ± 11.7 vs. 61.6 ± 4.2), concomitant with an increase in oxidative damage (143.0 ± 7.8%, 180.4 ± 5.6%, and 235.0 ± 13.7% vs. 100.6 ± 1.7%). The histological and stereological analyses revealed normal alveoli and alveolar septa in the controls (83.51 ± 1.20% and 15 ± 1.21%), in the O10' group (81.32 ± 0.51% and 16.64 ± 0.70%), and in the O30' group (78.75 ± 0.54% and 17.73 ± 0.26%). However, in the O90' group, inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the alveoli and alveolar septa. Red blood cells extravasated from capillaries to the alveoli (59.06 ± 1.22%), with evidence of congestion, hemorrhage, and septal edema (35.15 ± 0.69%). Conclusion: Hyperoxia for 90' caused injury of the lung parenchyma, resulting in oxidative damage and inflammatory cell infiltration.


Keywords: Hyperoxia; Lung/injuries; Oxidative stress.


9 - Adherence to treatment in patients with cystic fibrosis

Adesão ao tratamento em pacientes com fibrose cística

Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Greice Rampon, Lílian Rech Pasin, Gretchem Mesquita Ramon, Claudine Lacerda de Oliveira Abrahão, Viviane Ziebell de Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):663-670

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objectives: To evaluate the self-reported degree of adherence to treatment in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), investigating associations with characteristics of the disease and with the degree of adherence perceived by health professionals. Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study involving patients with CF monitored at a Program for Adults with CF. The degree of adherence was evaluated using a questionnaire. Patients were divided into two groups: greater degree of adherence and moderate/poor degree of adherence. Clinical data, Shwachman-Kulczycki clinical score, Brasfield radiographic score and spirometry data were obtained for all patients. Results: Out of 38 patients studied, 31 (81.6%) were classified as presenting a greater degree of adherence and 7 (18.4%) as presenting a moderate/poor degree of adherence. The self-reported patient adherence score correlated with the clinical score (r = −0.36, p = 0.028). The self-reported patient adherence score (median = 0.79) was higher than that perceived by health professionals (median = 0.71, p = 0.003). A greater degree of adherence was self-reported for respiratory therapy (by 84.2%), exercise (by 21.1%), prescribed diet (by 65.8%), pancreatic enzymes (by 96.3%), vitamins (by 79.4%), inhaled antibiotic therapy (by 76.7%) and inhaled DNase (by 79.4%). Conclusions: Self-reported adherence of patients attending a Program for Adults with CF was good. The self-reported patient adherence score correlated inversely with the clinical score. Self-reported patient adherence was greater than the adherence perceived by health professionals.


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Patient compliance; Therapeutics.


10 - Correlation of tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in nonsmoking patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Correlação dos achados tomográficos com parâmetros de função pulmonar na fibrose pulmonar idiopática em não fumantes

Agnaldo José Lopes, Domenico Capone, Roberto Mogami, Daniel Leme da Cunha, Pedro Lopes de Melo, José Manoel Jansen

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):671-678

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To correlate tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out, in which 30 nonsmoking patients with IPF were evaluated. Using a semiquantitative scoring system, the following high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) findings were quantified: total interstitial disease (TID), reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and ground-glass opacity (GGO). The functional variables were measured by spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT), helium dilution method, as well as the single-breath method of measuring diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Results: Of the 30 patients studied, 18 were female, and 12 were male, with a mean age of 70.9 years. We found that TID and reticular abnormality and honeycombing correlated significantly (negative correlations) with the measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), DLCO, and dynamic respiratory compliance were found, as well as that GGO correlated significantly (and positively) with residual volume/TLC. The ratio of forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC to FVC (FEF25-75%/FVC) correlated positively with TID, reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and GGO. Conclusion: In IPF patients, the measurements of volume, diffusion, and dynamic compliance are the physiological variables which best reflect the extent of the interstitial disease on HRCT scans.


Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial; Pulmonary fibrosis; Tomography, X-ray computed; Respiratory function tests.


11 - Effect of a muscle stretching program using the Global Postural Reeducation method on respiratory muscle strength and thoracoabdominal mobility of sedentary young males

Efeito de um programa de alongamento muscular pelo método de Reeducação Postural Global sobre a força muscular respiratória e a mobilidade toracoabdominal de homens jovens sedentários

Marlene Aparecida Moreno, Aparecida Maria Catai, Rosana Macher Teodori, Bruno Luis Amoroso Borges, Marcelo de Castro Cesar, Ester da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):679-686

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the effect that respiratory muscle stretching using the global postural reeducation (GPR) method has on respiratory muscle strength, thoracic expansion and abdominal mobility in sedentary young males. Methods: This was a randomized study involving 20 sedentary volunteers, aged 22.7 ± 2.5 years, divided into two groups of 10: a control group, composed of subjects not performing any exercises, and a group of subjects submitted to the GPR method. The protocol consisted of a program to stretch the respiratory muscles with participants in the 'open-arm, open hip joint angle' position, which was regularly performed twice a week for 8 weeks, totaling 16 sessions. The two groups were submitted to measurements of maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal expiratory pressure, thoracic expansion and abdominal mobility, prior to and after the intervention period. Results: The initial and final values for maximal respiratory pressures, thoracic expansion and abdominal mobility for the control group showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). However, for the GPR group, all values increased after the intervention (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Respiratory muscle stretching using the GPR method was efficient in promoting an increase in maximal respiratory pressures, thoracic expansion and abdominal mobility, suggesting that it could be used as a physiotherapy resource to develop respiratory muscle strength, thoracic expansion and abdominal mobility.


Keywords: Posture; Muscle Strength; Respiratory Muscles; Muscle Stretching Exercises.


12 - Tracheostomy in the ICU: is it worthwhile?

Traqueostomia na UTI: vale a pena realizá-la?

João Aléssio Juliano Perfeito, Caio Augusto Sterse da Mata, Vicente Forte, Martin Carnaghi, Nikei Tamura, Luiz Eduardo Villaca Leão

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):687-690

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the feasibility of performing tracheostomy in the intensive care unit (ICU) environment and to assess procedurerelated complications and mortality. Methods: The medical records of the 73 patients submitted to tracheostomy in the ICU of the Federal University of São Paulo Hospital São Paulo between January and November of 2003 were evaluated retrospectively. All operations were performed by surgical residents, under the supervision of a thoracic surgeon, using the open technique standardized at the facility. Results: The mean age of the patients was 55.2 years. Of the 73 patients evaluated, 47 (64.4%) were male and 26 (35.6%) were female. The most common indication was prolonged orotracheal intubation (76.7%). There was no procedure-related mortality, and, in all patients, the procedure was successfully performed in the ICU. Early complications occurred in 2 patients (2.7%), who presented increased local bleeding, which was controlled using compression. The late complication was infection at the incision site, which occurred in 2 patients (2.7%) and was treated by applying local dressings, without further clinical repercussions. Conclusions: Based on the results of our analysis, which are comparable to those found in the literature regarding tracheostomy performed in the operating room, we concluded that tracheostomy in the ICU is feasible and presents a low rate of complications, even when performed in critically ill patients and by surgeons in training. Therefore, in our view, it is possible to state that performing tracheostomy in the ICU is worthwhile.


Keywords: Tracheostomy; Intensive care units; Mortality.


13 - Analysis of the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in elderly patients at a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Análise do tratamento da tuberculose pulmonar em idosos de um hospital universitário do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

João Paulo Cantalice Filho, Márcio Neves Bóia, Clemax Couto Sant`Anna

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):691-698

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the clinical and therapeutic aspects of pulmonary tuberculosis and compare the adverse effects of the treatment and its outcome in elderly and nonelderly patients. Methods: This was a case-control study of 117 elderly individuals (over the age of 60 years) and 464 nonelderly individuals (aged 15-49 years). All subjects presented pulmonary tuberculosis that had been diagnosed and treated at the Thoracic Diseases Institute of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro between 1980 and 1996. Results: In the elderly group, pulmonary tuberculosis was found to be correlated with diabetes (OR = 3.98; 95% CI = 2.07-7.65; p = 0.001), lung disease (OR = 7.24; 95% CI = 3.64‑14.46; p = 0.001) and heart disease (OR = 5.86; 95% CI = 2.88-11.95; p = 0.001). Smoking (OR = 2.07; 95% CI = 1.26‑3.42; p = 0.002) and alcohol abuse (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.01-2.68; p = 0.041) were also more common in the elderly group. In the elderly group, the treatment more frequently resulted in adverse reactions (OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.04-2.54; p = 0.024), especially gastrointestinal reactions (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.01-2.77; p = 0.047), and treatment efficacy was lower: cure rate, 51%; mortality rate, 24%. Treatment adherence was low (approximately 77%) in both groups. Conclusions: In the elderly group, adverse reactions were more common, treatment outcomes were less favorable, there was a greater frequency of clinical complications and deaths related to drug toxicity, and the prevalence of concomitant diseases was higher.


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Aged; Drug therapy; Treatment outcome.


14 - Clinical aspects of pulmonary tuberculosis in elderly patients from a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Aspectos clínicos da tuberculose pulmonar em idosos atendidos em hospital universitário do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

João Paulo Cantalice Filho, Clemax Couto Sant`Anna, Márcio Neves Bóia

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):699-706

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate clinical aspects and the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PT) in the aged. Methods: We compared 117 patients over 60 years of age (elderly group) and 464 patients aged 15 to 49 years old (nonelderly group) treated at the Thoracic Diseases Institute of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, from 1980 to 1996. Results: Previous history of PT was predominant in the elderly group (OR = 2.09; 95% CI = 1.26-3.45; p = 0.002), whereas household contact with PT was predominant in the nonelderly group (OR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.10-0.66; p = 0.002). Mean time for diagnosis was 90 days in the elderly group and 60 days in the nonelderly group. In the elderly group, dyspnea (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.06-2.53; p = 0.018) and weight loss (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.01-2.82; p = 0.047) were predominant. In the nonelderly group, hemoptysis (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.32-0.81; p = 0.002), chest pain (OR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.40-0.97; p = 0.027) and fever (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.35-0.86; p = 0.006) were more common. The most common radiological abnormalities were infiltrates and cavitations. Bilateral involvement was more common in the elderly patients (OR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.12-2.78; p = 0.009). There were no differences between the two groups regarding positivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis identified through tuberculin skin testing, sputum smear microscopy and culture. Conclusions: There are few clinical and laboratory differences between the age groups. The delayed diagnosis in the elderly group can be explained by the low clinical suspicion in these patients.


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Aged; Signs and symptoms, respiratory; Diagnosis.


15 - Detection of cord factor for the presumptive identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

Avaliação do crescimento em cordas na identificação presuntiva do complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Andrea Gobetti Vieira Coelho, Liliana Aparecida Zamarioli, Clemira Martins Pereira Vidal Reis, Bruno Francisco de Lima Duca

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):707-711

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Virulent strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, under certain appropriate conditions, grow as characteristic ropes, bundles or serpentine cords known as cord factor or growth in cords. The objective of the present study was to evaluate cord factor detection as a method of achieving presumptive identification of the M. tuberculosis complex, comparing it to conventional typing tests. Methods: A total of 743 strains were analyzed from January of 2002 to December of 2005 in the Mycobacteria Sector of the Adolfo Lutz Institute, located in the city of Santos, Brazil. Samples were obtained from clinical specimens collected from patients with respiratory symptoms treated at basic health clinics in the greater metropolitan area of Santos. Ziehl-Neelsen-stained smears were prepared, 301 (40.5%) in MB/BacT broth and 442 (59.5%) on solid media, either Lowenstein-Jensen or Ogawa-Kudoh. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value obtained during the performance comparison of the two methods (cord factor detection and conventional typing) using both isolation media were, respectively, 98.5, 88, 97 and 93%. The method was more sensitive on solid medium (100%), and the difference in sensitivity between the two media types was only 2.7%. Conclusions: Taking into consideration the results obtained, we conclude that, in laboratories with a high incidence of M. tuberculosis complex isolation and limited economic resources, cord factor detection is a fast and valid criterion for identifying these mycobacteria using liquid or solid medium. It also enables subsequent conclusive identification tests, as well as additional sensitivity tests when necessary.


Keywords: Laboratory techniques and procedures; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Cord factors


Review Article

16 - Smoking and changes in body weight: can physiopathology and genetics explain this association?

Tabagismo e variação ponderal: a fisiopatologia e genética podem explicar esta associação?

Raquel Chatkin, José Miguel Chatkin

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death in most countries, including Brazil. Smoking cessation is an important strategy for reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with tobacco-related diseases. An inverse relationship between nicotine use and body weight has been reported, in which body weight tends to be lower among smokers than among nonsmokers. Smoking abstinence results in an increase in body weight for both males and females. On average, sustained quitters gain from 5 to 6 kg, although approximately 10% gain more than 10 kg. Pharmacological treatment for smoking cessation attenuates weight gain. The importance of smoking cessation as a contributing cause of the current obesity epidemic has been little studied. In the USA, the rate of obesity attributable to smoking cessation has been estimated at approximately 6.0% and 3.2% for males and females, respectively. Although the mechanisms are unclear, there is evidence that dopamine and serotonin are appetite suppressants. The administration of nicotine, regardless of the delivery system, acutely raises the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, reducing the need for energy intake and consequently suppressing appetite. In addition, nicotine has a direct effect on adipose tissue metabolism, influencing the rate of weight gain following smoking cessation. Leptin, ghrelin and neuropeptide Y are substances that might constitute factors involved in the inverse relationship between nicotine and body mass index, although their roles as determinants or consequences of this relationship have yet to be determined.


Keywords: Smoking; Body weight changes; Nicotine; Body mass index; Leptin; Peptide hormones/ghrelin.


17 - Chest X-ray and computed tomography in the evaluation of pulmonary emphysema

Radiograma de tórax e tomografia computadorizada na avaliação do enfisema pulmonar

Klaus Loureiro Irion, Bruno Hochhegger, Edson Marchiori, Nelson da Silva Porto, Sérgio de Vasconcellos Baldisserotto, Pablo Rydz Santana

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):720-732

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Emphysema is a condition of the lung, characterized by the abnormal increase in the size of the airspace distal to the terminal bronchioles. Currently, emphysema is the fourth leading cause of death in the USA, affecting 14 million people. The present article describes the principal tools in the imaging diagnosis of emphysema, from the early days until the present. We describe traditional techniques, such as chest X-ray, together with the evolution of computed tomography (CT) to more advanced forms, such as high resolution CT, as well as three-dimensional CT densitometry and volumetric assessment.


Keywords: Emphysema; Radiology; Tomography, X-Ray computed; Radiography, thoracic.


Case Report

18 - Accelerated form of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in the native lung after single lung transplantation

Forma acelerada da fibrose pulmonar idiopática no pulmão nativo após transplante pulmonar unilateral

Rogério Rufino, Kalil Madi, Omar Mourad, Angelo Judice, Giovanni Marsico, Carlos Henrique Boasquevisque

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):733-737

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We report the case of a 56-year-old patient who underwent left single lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Despite the high level of immunosuppression after the surgery, there was rapid progression to IPF in the native (right) lung as demonstrated by thoracoscopic lung biopsy. After 104 days on mechanical ventilation, the patient underwent right lung transplant and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 26.


Keywords: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; Lung transplantation; Case reports [publication type].


19 - Pulmonary hamartoma as a differential diagnosis of breast cancer metastasis: case report

Hamartoma pulmonar como diagnóstico diferencial de metástase de carcinoma de mama: relato de caso

Vanessa Assis da Silva, Paula Kataguiri, Damila Cristina Trufelli, Leandro Luongo de Matos, João Carlos das Neves-Pereira, José Ribas Milanez de Campos

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):738-742

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We present the case of a 60-year-old female patient who had been in menopause for 14 years and presented a pulmonary nodule on chest X-ray diagnosed in the postoperative follow-up evaluation of breast cancer. The patient had a history of mastectomy and ipsilateral axillary lymphadenectomy for invasive ductal breast carcinoma, as well as of hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and adjuvant radiotherapy. After thoracoscopic nodulectomy, the frozen section analysis revealed a pulmonary hamartoma. Recent studies show that 75% of patients who undergo surgery for pulmonary nodules after a curative mastectomy for breast cancer present lung metastases, 11.5% present primary lung cancer, and 13.5% present benign lesions, including hamartoma.


Keywords: Hamartoma; Breast neoplasms; Lung neoplasms; Neoplasm metastasis.


20 - Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis treated with azathioprine in a child

Hemossiderose pulmonar idiopática tratada com azatioprina: relato de caso em criança

Clemax Couto Sant`Anna, Angélica Almada Horta, Mônica Tessinari Rangel Tura, Maria de Fatima Bazhuni Pombo March, Sidnei Ferreira, Rafaela Baroni Aurilio, Débora Brandão Vieira

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):743-746

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH), the main cause of pulmonary hemosiderosis in children, is characterized by intermittent alveolar bleeding and hemosiderin-laden macrophages in sputum and in gastric lavage. The treatment is based on corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs, under special conditions. We describe the case of a 7-year-old girl with IPH who achieved partial clinical remission with high doses of corticosteroids. However, the treatment had to be discontinued because the patient developed Cushing's syndrome. Treatment was started with an azathioprine-corticosteroid combination and then changed to azathioprine alone, which was maintained for four years, with excellent results.


Keywords: Hemosiderosis; Azathioprine; Hemorrhage; Case reports [publication type].


21 - Acute respiratory failure as a manifestation of eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome associated with L-tryptophan intake

Insuficiência respiratória aguda como manifestação da síndrome de eosinofilia-mialgia associada à ingestão de L-triptofano

Tiago de Araujo Guerra Grangeia, Marcelo Schweller, Ilma Aparecida Paschoal, Lair Zambon, Mônica Corso Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):747-751

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome was described in 1989 in patients who presented progressive and incapacitating myalgia and eosinophilia in blood, fluids and secretions. Most patients report previous L-tryptophan intake. Respiratory manifestations are found in up to 80% of the cases, occasionally as the only manifestation. Treatment includes drug discontinuation and administration of corticosteroids. Here, we describe the case of a 61-year-old female admitted with acute respiratory failure after using L-tryptophan, hydroxytryptophan and other drugs. The patient presented eosinophilia, together with elevated eosinophil counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage and pleural effusion. After discontinuation of the drugs previously used, corticosteroids were administered, resulting in clinical and radiological improvement within just a few days.


Keywords: Respiratory insufficiency; Tryptophan; Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome.


Relationship of Reviewers

24 - Relação de Revisores

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):765-768

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