Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2011 - Volume 37  - Number 1  (January/February)

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Editorial

1 - Six-minute walk test in chronic respiratory disease: Easy to perform, not always easy to interpret

Teste da caminhada de seis minutos na doença respiratória crônica: Simples de realizar, nem sempre fácil de interpretar

José Alberto Neder

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):1-3

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2 - Video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis

Simpatectomia torácica videoassistida no tratamento da hiperidrose axilar

Paulo Kauffman, José Ribas Milanez de Campos

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):4-5

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Original Article

3 - Thoracic sympathectomy at the level of the fourth and fifth ribs for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis

Simpatectomia torácica ao nível de 4ª e 5ª costelas para o tratamento de hiper-hidrose axilar

Paulo César Buffara Boscardim, Ramon Antunes de Oliveira, Allan Augusto Ferrari Ramos de Oliveira, Juliano Mendes de Souza, Roberto Gomes de Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):6-12

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the clinical results and the degree of satisfaction of patients submitted to thoracic sympathectomy at the level of the fourth and fifth ribs (R4-R5) for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis. Methods: We included 118 patients diagnosed with axillary hyperhidrosis and having undergone axillary sympathectomy at the R4-R5 level between March of 2003 and December of 2007 at the Paraná Federal University Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. All procedures were carried out by the same surgeon. Data regarding the resolution of axillary hyperhidrosis and the degree of patient satisfaction with the surgical outcome, as well as compensatory hyperhidrosis in the early and late postoperative periods (after 7 days and after 12 months, respectively), were collected. Results: Of the 118 patients evaluated, 99 (83.9%) and 81 (68.6%) showed complete resolution of the symptoms in the early and late postoperative periods, respectively. Compensatory hyperhidrosis occurred in 49 patients (41.5%) in the early postoperative period and in 77 (65.2%) in the late postoperative period. Of those 77, 55 (71.4%) categorized the compensatory hyperhidrosis as mild. In the early postoperative period, 110 patients (93.2%) were satisfied with the surgical results, and 104 (88.1%) remained so in the late postoperative period. Conclusions: Sympathectomy at the R4-R5 level is efficient in the resolution of primary axillary hyperhidrosis. The degree of patient satisfaction with the long-term surgical results is high. Mild compensatory hyperhidrosis is the main side effect associated with this technique.

 


Keywords: Hyperhidrosis; Axilla; Sympathectomy; Thoracic surgery, video-assisted.

 

4 - Anxiety and depression in asthma patients: impact on asthma control

Ansiedade e depressão em pacientes com asma: impacto no controle da asma

Aline Arlindo Vieira, Ilka Lopes Santoro, Samir Dracoulakis, Lilian Ballini Caetano, Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):13-18

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Objective: There is evidence that asthma is associated with an increase in psychiatric symptoms and mental disorders. This association can make it difficult to achieve asthma control. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the level of asthma control is associated with anxiety and depression. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 78 patients with confirmed moderate or severe asthma and under regular treatment at the Asthma Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of São Paulo Hospital São Paulo, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The patients were divided into two groups by asthma control status, as assessed by the asthma control test, and were subsequently compared in terms of demographic, clinical, and spirometric data, as well as scores for asthma quality of life and hospital anxiety/depression. Results: The sample was predominantly female. Of the 78 patients, 49 (63%) were classified as having uncontrolled asthma. The prevalence of anxiety and of anxiety+depression was significantly higher among patients with uncontrolled asthma than among those with controlled asthma (78% and 100%; p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively), whereas there were no differences between the two groups in terms of the prevalence of depression, spirometry results, or quality of life score. Conclusions: In this sample, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was higher in the patients with uncontrolled asthma than in those with controlled asthma.In the evaluation of asthma patients, the negative impact of mood states ought to be taken into consideration when asthma control strategies are being outlined.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Anxiety; Depression; Cross-sectional studies.

 

5 - Impact of a short-term educational intervention on adherence to asthma treatment and on asthma control

Impacto de uma intervenção educacional de curta duração sobre a adesão ao tratamento e controle da asma

Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Denis Maltz Grutcki, Paola Paganella Laporte, Paula Borges de Lima, Vinícius Pellegrini Viana, Glauco Luís Konzen, Samuel Millán Menegotto, Mariana Alves Fonseca, Rosemary Petrik Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):19-27

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Objective: To evaluate the effect of a short-term individualized education program on adherence to asthma treatment, inhalation techniques, and asthma control. Methods: A prospective study involving patients aged 14 years or older, with a confirmed diagnosis of asthma and recruited from the asthma outpatient clinic of a university hospital in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The study was conducted in two phases (before and after the educational intervention). At a routine medical visit, the participants completed a general questionnaire in order to assess the level of asthma control and inhalation techniques. The participants also underwent pulmonary function testing. Subsequently, they participated in an asthma education program, which consisted of one individualized session. The participants were reevaluated after three months. Results: Of the 174 patients recruited, 115 completed the study. Between the first and second evaluations, there was a significant improvement in the effective use of inhaled corticosteroids (90.4% vs. 93.3%; p = 0.003), the effective use of long-acting β2 agonists (57.4% vs. 63.5%; p < 0.0001), the effective use of a combined regimen with these two medications (57.4% vs. 62.6%; p < 0.0001), and the self-reported adherence to corticosteroid therapy (p = 0.001). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of patients visiting ERs (30.4% vs. 23.5%; p = 0.012). However, the level of asthma control and the inhalation technique did not improve significantly (p = 0.095 and p = 0.512, respectively). Conclusions: This short-term asthma education program resulted in an improvement in the use of medications for asthma control and a decrease in the number of ER visits, although it had no significant effect on the inhalation technique.

 


Keywords: Ambulatory care; Patient education as topic; Respiratory therapy; Metered dose inhalers.

 

6 - Video-assisted thoracoscopy as an option in the surgical treatment of chylothorax after cardiac surgery in children

Videotoracoscopia como uma opção no tratamento cirúrgico do quilotórax após cirurgia cardíaca pediátrica

Paulo Manuel Pego-Fernandes, Mauro Boldrini Nascimbem, Otávio T. Ranzani, Mônica Satsuki Shimoda, Rosângela Monteiro, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):28-35

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Objective: To evaluate the use of video-assisted thoracoscopy in the surgical treatment of chylothorax developed after the surgical correction of congenital heart disease in children. Methods: We reviewed the medical charts of 3,092 children who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease between February of 2002 and February of 2007 at the Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas, in São Paulo, Brazil. Results: Of the 3,092 children, 64 (2.2%) presented with chylothorax as a postoperative complication. In 50 (78.1%) of those patients, the clinical management was successful, whereas it failed in 14 (21.9%), all of whom were then submitted to thoracic duct ligation by video-assisted thoracoscopy. The thoracic duct ligation was successful in 12 patients (86%) but failed in 2. In the postoperative period, additional clinical measures, such as a low-fat diet and parenteral nutrition, were required in order to resolve those 2 cases. There was no surgical morbidity or mortality. Of the 14 patients who underwent thoracic duct ligation, 5 (35%) died due to cardiac or infectious complications. Conclusions: Video-assisted thoracic duct ligation can be safely performed in patients with severe heart disease, and the outcomes are favorable.

 


Keywords: Chylothorax; Heart defects, congenital; Thoracic duct.

 

7 - Respiratory symptoms as health status indicators in workers at ceramics manufacturing facilities

Sintomas respiratórios como indicadores de estado de saúde em trabalhadores de indústrias de cerâmicas

Edilaura Nunes Rondon, Regina Maria Veras Gonçalves da Silva, Clovis Botelho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):36-45

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Objective: To assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and their association with sociodemographic variables and with the characteristics of the work environment. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 464 workers employed at ceramics manufacturing facilities located in the city of Várzea Grande, Brazil. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire comprising questions regarding sociodemographic variables, work environment characteristics, and respiratory symptoms. Data were analyzed by means of prevalence ratios and their respective 95% CIs between the dependent variable (respiratory symptoms) and the other explanatory variables. In the multivariate analysis, two hierarchical models were built, the response variables being "all respiratory symptoms" and "severe respiratory symptoms". Results: In the sample studied, the prevalence of "all respiratory symptoms" was 78%, whereas that of "severe respiratory symptoms" was 35%. The factors associated with "all respiratory symptoms" were gender, age bracket, level of education, type of occupation, exposure to dust, and exposure to chemical products. The factors associated with "severe respiratory symptoms" were level of education, exposure to dust, and exposure to chemical products. Conclusions: Our results indicate the presence of upper and lower airway disease in the population studied.

 


Keywords: Questionnaires; Occupational diseases/epidemiology; Health status indicators.

 

8 - Effects of expiratory positive airway pressure on the electromyographic activity of accessory inspiratory muscles in COPD patients

Efeitos da pressão positiva expiratória nas vias aéreas sobre a atividade eletromiográfica da musculatura acessória da inspiração em portadores de DPOC

Dannuey Machado Cardoso, Dulciane Nunes Paiva, Isabella Martins de Albuquerque, Renan Trevisan Jost, Andréia Vanessa da Paixão

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):46-53

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Objective: To evaluate the electromyographic activity (EA) of sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and scalene muscles during and after the use of expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) in patients with COPD. Methods: This was a clinical single-blind trial involving 13 healthy subjects as controls and 12 patients with stable COPD. At baseline, we determined EA during spontaneous respiration, lung function parameters, and respiratory muscle strength. Subsequently, EPAP at 15 cmH2O was applied by means of a face mask for 25 min, during which the EA of the SCM and scalene muscles was recorded every 5 min. A final record was obtained 10 min after the mask removal. Results: We found that the behavior of the EA of SCM and scalene muscles was comparable between the controls and the COPD patients (p = 0.716 and p = 0.789, respectively). However, during the use of EPAP, both muscles showed a trend toward an increase in the EA. In addition, there was a significant decrease in the EA of the SCM between the baseline and final measurements (p = 0.034). Conclusions: The use of EPAP promoted a significant reduction in the EA of the SCM in the controls and in the patients with stable COPD. However, this did not occur regarding the EA of the scalene muscle.

 


Keywords: Electromyography; Respiratory muscles; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Positive-pressure respiration.

 

9 - Three physiotherapy protocols: Effects on pulmonary volumes after cardiac surgery

Três protocolos fisioterapêuticos: Efeitos sobre os volumes pulmonares após cirurgia cardíaca

Cristina Márcia Dias, Raquel de Oliveira Vieira, Juliana Flávia Oliveira, Agnaldo José Lopes, Sara Lúcia Silveira de Menezes, Fernando Silva Guimarães

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):54-60

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Objective: To evaluate inspiratory volume in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and to determine the effects that incentive spirometry (IS) and the breath stacking (BS) technique have on the recovery of FVC in such patients. Methods: A prospective, controlled, randomized clinical trial involving 35 patients undergoing cardiac surgery at the Hospital de Força Aérea do Galeão (HFAG, Galeão Air Force Hospital), in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The patients, all of whom performed mobilization and cough procedures, were randomly divided into three groups: exercise control (EC), performing only the abovementioned procedures; IS, performing the abovementioned procedures and instructed to take long breaths using an incentive spirometer; and BS, performing the abovementioned procedures, together with successive inspiratory efforts using a facial mask coupled to a unidirectional valve. Forced spirometry was carried out in the preoperative period and on postoperative days 1 to 5. During the maneuvers, inspiratory volume was measured in the IS and BS groups. Results: On postoperative day 1, FVC significantly decreased in all groups (EC: 87.1 vs. 32.0%; IS: 75.3 vs. 29.5%; and BS: 81.9 vs. 33.2%; p < 0.001 for all), as did inspiratory volume in the IS and BS groups (2.29 vs. 0.82 L; and 2.56 vs. 1.34 L, respectively; p < 0.001 for both). Between postoperative days 1 and 5, FVC partially normalized in all groups (EC: 32.0 vs. 51.3%; IS: 29.5 vs. 46.7%; and BS: 33.3 vs. 54.3%; p < 0.001 for all). During the postoperative period, inspiratory volume was significantly higher in the BS group than in the IS group. Conclusions: The three protocols were equivalent concerning the recovery of FVC on the first five postoperative days. When compared with IS, the BS technique promoted higher inspiratory volumes in this sample of postoperative cardiac patients. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT01074957 [http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/])

 


Keywords: Postoperative complications; Thoracic surgery; Physical therapy modalities.

 

10 - A new approach to the determination of airway resistance: interrupter technique vs. plethysmography

Uma nova abordagem na determinação da resistência das vias aéreas: técnica do interruptor vs. pletismografia

Leandro Antônio Gritti, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):61-68

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Objective: To determine the agreement between interrupter resistance (Rint) and airway resistance (Raw) by plethysmography in order to verify the clinical applicability of the interrupter technique. Methods: The Rint technique was performed with the patients in a sitting position, during exhalation, with a nose clip and cheek support. Plethysmography was carried out in accordance with standard protocols. All measurements were taken prior to and after the administration of an inhaled bronchodilator via a metered dose inhaler with a spacer. Results: The study comprised 99 consecutive patients referred to the Porto Alegre Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, for pulmonary function testing. Patient ages ranged from 18 to 82 years, and 52 of the patients were women. In the patients with FEV1 ≥ 60% of predicted, there was good agreement between the methods (r = 0.8; intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.8). The Rint values were lower than were those of Raw by plethysmography in the patients with more severe disease. However, there was good agreement between Rint ≥ 4 cmH2O  L−1  s−1 and Raw by plethysmography > 2.5 cmH2O  L−1  s−1 (likelihood ratio > 8; kappa coefficient = 0.73). Conclusions: In the patients with less severe disease, there was good agreement between Rint and Raw by plethysmography. The agreement between the two methods was also strong regarding the detection of an increase in Raw. The Rint technique is a potentially useful method for the evaluation of adult patients.

 


Keywords: Plethysmography; Airway resistance; Diagnostic techniques, respiratory system; Respiratory function tests; Airway obstruction/diagnosis.

 

11 - Feasibility of spirometry in preschool children

Viabilidade da realização de espirometria em pré-escolares

Tiago Neves Veras, Leonardo Araujo Pinto

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):69-74

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Objective: To determine the rate at which satisfactory spirometry results are obtained (spirometry success rate) in preschool children. Methods: We analyzed the spirometry results of children ≤ 6 years of age. All tests were conducted between June of 2009 and February of 2010 in the Pulmonary Function Laboratory of the Hospital Infantil Jeser Amarante Faria, located in the city of Joinville, Brazil. The spirometry program employed features an animated incentive (soap bubbles). The procedures were performed by a pediatric pulmonologist, in accordance with the reproducibility and acceptability criteria recommended by the American Thoracic Society. We attempted to achieve an expiratory time of at least 1 s. The following parameters were measured: FVC, FEV0.5, FEV1, and the FEV1/FVC ratio. Results: Our sample comprised 74 children. The spirometry success rate was 82%. Although the performance improved with age, the difference between younger and older children was not significant (p > 0.05). An average of 6.6 attempts/test were needed in order to achieve acceptable, reproducible curves. All 61 successful tests produced satisfactory FEV0.5 and FEV1 values. By calculating Z scores, we found that 21.6% of the children presented with an obstructive pattern. Conclusions: In our sample, the spirometry success rate was high, showing that spirometry is a valid method for assessing pulmonary function in preschool children. The high success rate in our sample might be attributable to the use of an incentive and to the fact that the tests were performed by professionals specializing in pediatrics.

 


Keywords: Spirometry; Feasibility studies; Respiratory function tests.

 

12 - Evaluation of a prediction model for sleep apnea in patients submitted to polysomnography

Avaliação de um modelo de predição para apneia do sono em pacientes submetidos a polissonografia

Silvio Musman, Valéria Maria de Azeredo Passos, Izabella Barreto Romualdo Silva, Sandhi Maria Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):75-84

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Objective: To test a prediction model for sleep apnea based on clinical and sociodemographic variables in a population suspected of having sleep disorders and submitted to polysomnography. Methods: We included 323 consecutive patients submitted to polysomnography because of the clinical suspicion of having sleep disorders. We used a questionnaire with sociodemographic questions and the Epworth sleepiness scale. Blood pressure, weight, height, and SpO2 were measured. Multiple linear regression was used in order to create a prediction model for sleep apnea, the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) being the dependent variable. Multinomial logistic regression was used in order to identify factors independently associated with the severity of apnea (mild, moderate, or severe) in comparison with the absence of apnea. Results: The prevalence of sleep apnea in the study population was 71.2%. Sleep apnea was more prevalent in men than in women (81.2% vs. 56.8%; p < 0.001). The multiple linear regression model, using log AHI as the dependent variable, was composed of the following independent variables: neck circumference, witnessed apnea, age, BMI, and allergic rhinitis. The best-fit linear regression model explained 39% of the AHI variation. In the multinomial logistic regression, mild apnea was associated with BMI and neck circumference, whereas severe apnea was associated with age, BMI, neck circumference, and witnessed apnea. Conclusions: Although the use of clinical prediction models for sleep apnea does not replace polysomnography as a tool for its diagnosis, they can optimize the process of deciding when polysomnography is indicated and increase the chance of obtaining positive polysomnography findings.

 


Keywords: Sleep apnea syndromes; Polysomnography; Sleep apnea, obstructive; Body mass index.

 

13 - Clinical impact of sepsis at admission to the ICU of a private hospital in Salvador, Brazil

Impacto clínico do diagnóstico de sepse à admissão em UTI de um hospital privado em Salvador, Bahia

Verena Ribeiro Juncal, Lelivaldo Antonio de Britto Neto, Aquiles Assunção Camelier, Octavio Henrique Coelho Messeder, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho Farias

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):85-92

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Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and clinical outcomes of patients with and without sepsis admitted to the ICU of a private hospital in the city of Salvador, Brazil, and to identify clinical variables related to a worse prognosis in those with sepsis. Methods: This was a longitudinal study including all patients admitted to the general ICU of the Hospital Português, in the city of Salvador, Brazil, between June of 2008 and March of 2009. At ICU admission, two groups of patients were identified: with sepsis and without sepsis. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data were collected, and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score was calculated. Results: Of the 144 patients in the study, 29 (20.1%) had sepsis. Among the patients with sepsis, males accounted for 55.2%, the mean age was 73.1 ± 14.6 years, and the mean APACHE II score was 23.8 ± 9.1, compared with 36.3%, 68.7 ± 17.7 years, and 18.4 ± 9.5, respectively, among those without sepsis. There were significant associations between a diagnosis of sepsis and the following variables: APACHE II score; in-hospital mortality; ICU mortality; HR; mean arterial pressure; hematocrit level; white blood cell count; and antibiotic use. The use of life support measures and lower hematocrit levels were associated with a worse prognosis in the patients with sepsis. Conclusions: The patients diagnosed with sepsis presented worse clinical outcomes, probably due to their greater severity. Hematocrit level was the only variable that was a predictor of mortality risk in the patients with sepsis.

 


Keywords: Sepsis/epidemiology; Sepsis/mortality; Intensive care units.

 

14 - Epidemiological profile of adult patients with tuberculosis and AIDS in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil: Cross-referencing tuberculosis and AIDS databases

Perfil epidemiológico de pacientes adultos com tuberculose e AIDS no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil: Relacionamento dos bancos de dados de tuberculose e AIDS

Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Antonio Luiz Caus, Murilo Marques, Ethel Leonor Maciel, Jonathan E. Golub, Angélica Espinosa Miranda

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):93-99

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Objective: To evaluate the epidemiological profile of patients with tuberculosis (TB) only and that of patients with TB/AIDS in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, between 2000 and 2006. Methods: For the patients of interest, we collected demographic and clinical data from the Epidemiological Surveillance Center (TB database), Brazilian Case Registry Database, and Brazilian National Mortality Database, as well as the Brazilian National CD4+/CD8+ T Lymphocyte Count and Viral Load Network Laboratory Test Control System and the Logistic Medication Monitoring System (HIV/AIDS databases). All of the compiled data were cross-referenced. Results: During the study period, we identified 9,543 TB patients > 15 years of age, 437 of whom (4.6%) had AIDS. The median age did not differ between TB/AIDS and TB-only patients (35 years vs. 38 years). Of the 437 TB/AIDS patients, 298 (68.2%) were male, and 156 (35.8%) were in the 30-39 age bracket. In terms of TB treatment outcome, 79.0% were cured, 9.7% were referred to other facilities, 6.0% died, 5.2% abandoned treatment, and 0.2% developed multidrug-resistant TB. Death was 4.75 times more common in patients with TB/AIDS than in those with TB only. Pulmonary TB accounted for 82.4% of the cases. The combination of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB was 8.2 times more common in the TB/AIDS patients than in the TB-only patients (95% CI: 6.2-10.8). Conclusions: Our results emphasize the significance of AIDS among TB patients in Brazil, as well as the importance of evaluating secondary data in order to improve their quality and develop public health interventions.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; Brazil.

 

Special Article

15 - Myositis-related interstitial lung disease and antisynthetase syndrome

Doença pulmonar intersticial relacionada a miosite e a síndrome antissintetase

Joshua Solomon, Jeffrey J. Swigris, Kevin K. Brown

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):100-109

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In patients with myositis, the lung is commonly involved, and the presence of anti-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (anti-ARS) antibodies marks the presence or predicts the development of interstitial lung disease (ILD). A distinct clinical entity-antisynthetase syndrome-is characterized by the presence of anti-ARS antibodies, myositis, ILD, fever, arthritis, Raynaud's phenomenon, and mechanic's hands. The most common anti-ARS antibody is anti-Jo-1. More recently described anti-ARS antibodies might confer a phenotype that is distinct from that of anti-Jo-1-positive patients and is characterized by a lower incidence of myositis and a higher incidence of ILD. Among patients with antisynthetase syndrome-related ILD, the response to immunosuppressive medications is generally, but not universally, favorable.

 


Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial; Pneumonia; Infection.

 

Review Article

16 - Six-minute walk test: a valuable tool for assessing pulmonary impairment

Teste de caminhada de seis minutos: uma ferramenta valiosa na avaliação do comprometimento pulmonar

Jaime Eduardo Morales-Blanhir, Carlos Damián Palafox Vidal, María de Jesús Rosas Romero, Mauro Marcos García Castro, Alejandro Londoño Villegas, Mauro Zamboni

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):110-117

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Over the last few years, the use of exercise tests has come to be recognized as a convenient method of evaluating respiratory function, because the reserves of the various systems in the human body should be known in order to provide a more complete portrayal of the functional capacities of the patient. Because walking is one of the main activities of daily living, walk tests have been proposed in order to measure the state or the functional capacity of patients. The six-minute walk test has proven to be reproducible and is well tolerated by patients. It evaluates the distance a person can walk on a flat, rigid surface in six minutes. Its main objective is to determine exercise tolerance and oxygen saturation during submaximal exercise. In this review, we present various clinical areas in which the test can provide useful data.

 


Keywords: Hypertension, pulmonary; Pulmonary circulation; Pulmonary heart disease; Exercise.

 

17 - Women and smoking: Risks, impacts, and challenges

O tabagismo e a mulher: Riscos, impactos e desafios

Elisa Maria Siqueira Lombardi, Gustavo Faibichew Prado, Ubiratan de Paula Santos, Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):118-128

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Smoking among women has drawn increasing attention because of the increase (or less pronounced decrease) in its prevalence when compared with that observed for men, as well as because of the specific effects that smoking has on women's health. For the 2010 "World No Tobacco Day", the World Health Organization chose the theme "Gender and tobacco with an emphasis on marketing to women", with the aim of encouraging policies to combat marketing strategies employed by the tobacco industry and to curb the epidemic of smoking among women. In this article, we discuss the characteristics of smoking among women, addressing factors such as smoking prevalence, nicotine dependence, the role of the tobacco industry, health risks, approaches to smoking cessation, treatment strategies, and prevention measures.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Women's health; Tobacco industry.

 

Case Report

18 - Castleman's disease: An unusual presentation

Doença de Castleman: Uma apresentação pouco frequente

Nicole Murinello, Cristina Matos, Fernando Nogueira

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):129-132

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Castleman's disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder, with focal or systemic lymph node involvement, which rarely affects the lung parenchyma. We report the case of an asymptomatic immunocompetent male patient who had the rarest histological variant of the disease, a nodular parenchymal presentation. The patient underwent lobectomy, and the postoperative evolution was favorable. In the last 10 years, there have been only five reports of Castleman's disease presenting as a solitary pulmonary nodule. This case underscores the fact that Castleman's disease, albeit rare, should be included in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules.

 


Keywords: Giant lymph node hyperplasia; Lymphoproliferative disorders; Solitary pulmonary nodule.

 

Letters to the Editor

19 - Are oral corticosteroids being used excessively in the treatment of wheezing in infants?

O uso de corticosteroide oral para sibilância em lactentes é abusivo?

Herberto José Chong Neto, Nelson Augusto Rosário

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):133-134

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20 - Immediate hypersensitivity to mango manifesting as asthma exacerbation

Exacerbação da asma por hipersensibilidade imediata ao consumo de manga

Richa Sareen, Ayush Gupta, Ashok Shah

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):135-138

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Year 2011 - Volume 37  - Number 2  (March/April)

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Editorial

1 - Guidelines: necessary. . . but applicable?

Diretrizes: necessárias, mas aplicáveis?

Ricardo de Amorim Corrêa

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):139-141

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2 - Is systemic sclerosis interstitial lung disease slowly progressive?

A doença pulmonar intersticial na esclerose sistêmica é lentamente progressiva?

Chitra Lal, Charlie Strange

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):142-143

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Original Article

3 - Systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial pneumonia: evaluation of pulmonary function over a five-year period

Pneumonia intersticial associada à esclerose sistêmica: avaliação da função pulmonar no período de cinco anos

Agnaldo José Lopes, Domenico Capone, Roberto Mogami, Sara Lucia Silveira de Menezes, Fernando Silva Guimarães, Roger Abramino Levy

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):144-151

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate alterations in pulmonary function in patients with systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial pneumonia over a five-year period. Methods: This was a longitudinal study involving 35 nonsmoking patients with systemic sclerosis and without a history of lung disease. At the first evaluation, performed at the time of the diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia, the patients were submitted to HRCT, spirometry, and measurement of DLCO. The patients were subdivided into two groups by the presence or absence of honeycombing on the HRCT scans. Approximately five years after the first evaluation, the patients were submitted to spirometry and measurement of DLCO only. Results: Of the 35 patients, 34 were women. The mean age was 47.6 years. The mean time between the two evaluations was 60.9 months. Honeycombing was detected on the HRCT scans in 17 patients. In the sample as a whole, five years after the diagnosis, FVC, FEV1 and DLCO significantly decreased (81.3 ± 18.2% vs. 72.1 ± 22.2%; 79.9 ± 17.8% vs. 72.5 ± 20.6%; and 74.0 ± 20.5% vs. 60.7 ± 26.8%, respectively; p = 0.0001 for all), and the FEV1/FVC ratio significantly increased (98.5 ± 7.2% vs. 101.9 ± 7.8%; p = 0.008). In the same period, FVC, FEV1, and DLCO values were significantly lower in the patients with honeycombing on the HRCT scans than in those without (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: In systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease, the detection of honeycombing on HRCT is crucial to predicting accelerated worsening of pulmonary function.

 


Keywords: Scleroderma, systemic; Respiratory function tests; Tomography, X-ray computed.

 

4 - Implementation of community-acquired pneumonia guidelines at a public hospital in Brazil

Implementação de uma diretriz para pneumonia adquirida na comunidade em um hospital público no Brasil

Lucieni Oliveira Conterno, Fábio Ynoe de Moraes, Carlos Rodrigues da Silva Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):152-159

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To implement community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) guidelines at a public hospital in Brazil and to evaluate the impact of these guidelines on health care quality. Methods: A quasi-experimental study, with a before-and-after design, involving adult patients diagnosed with CAP and hospitalized between July of 2007 and October of 2008 in the general ward of the Marília School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas, located in the city of Marília, Brazil. Results: During the study period, 68 patients were diagnosed with CAP: 48 before the implementation of the guidelines and 20 after their implementation. After the implementation of the guidelines, 85% of the cases were treated in accordance with the guidelines, and there was a significant increase in the use of antibiotic therapy for atypical bacteria in patients with severe CAP (6.3% vs. 75.0%; p < 0.001). Comparing the pre-implementation and post-implementation periods, we observed a trend toward a decrease in the mortality (35.4% vs. 15.0%; p = 0.09) and toward an increase in the recording of SpO2 in the medical charts of the patients (18% vs. 30%; p = 0.42). During the study period, the degree of severity was not recorded on the medical charts of most patients. In addition, the initiation of antibiotic therapy followed a pre-established schedule, regardless of the severity of the infection. Conclusions: This study showed that, although the development and implementation of CAP guidelines promoted the optimization of the treatment, there were no significant differences regarding the assessment of severity, SpO2 recording, or the initiation of antibiotic therapy. Therefore, strategies that are more effective are needed in order to modify variables related to the work of physicians and nurses.

 


Keywords: Guideline adherence; Pneumonia; Health care quality, access, and evaluation; Community-acquired infections.

 

5 - Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in a general hospital

Profilaxia para tromboembolia venosa em um hospital geral

Fernanda Fuzinatto, André Wajner, Fernando Starosta de Waldemar, João Luiz de Souza Hopf, Juliana Ferro Schuh, Sergio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):160-167

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the use of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in a general hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional cohort study at the Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição, located in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, involving a random sample of patients admitted between October of 2008 and February of 2009. We included patients over 18 years of age and hospitalized for more than 48 h. The exclusion criteria were anticoagulant use, pregnancy, puerperium, and a history of thromboembolic disease. The adequacy of prophylaxis was evaluated in accordance with a protocol created by the Hospital and principally based on the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines, eighth edition. Results: We included 262 patients. The mean age was 59.1 ± 16.6 years. The most common risk factors were immobilization (in 70.6%), infection (in 44.3%), cancer (in 27.5%), obesity (in 23.3%), and major surgery (in 14.1%). The risk of VTE was classified as high and moderate in 143 (54.6%) and 117 (44.7%) of the patients, respectively. Overall, 46.2% of the patients received adequate prophylaxis, 25% of those with ≥ three risk factors for VTE and 18% of those with cancer, the differences between these last two groups and their counterparts (patients with < three risk factors and those without cancer) being statistically significant (p < 0.001 for both). Conclusions: Our data reveal that nearly all patients at our hospital were at risk for VTE, and that less than half received adequate VTE prophylaxis, which is in agreement with the literature. It is surprising that inadequate prophylaxis is more common in high-risk patients.

 


Keywords: Venous thromboembolism/prevention and control; Venous thrombosis/prevention and control; Heparin.

 

6 - Evaluation of the use of transbronchial biopsy in patients with clinical suspicion of interstitial lung disease

Avaliação da utilização de biópsia transbrônquica em pacientes com suspeita clínica de doença pulmonar intersticial

Cristiano Claudino Oliveira, Alexandre Todorovic Fabro, Sérgio Marrone Ribeiro, Julio Defaveri, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Thais Helena Thomaz Queluz, Hugo Hyung Bok Yoo

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):168-175

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To study the clinical, radiological, and histopathological patterns of transbronchial biopsy (TBB) used in order to confirm the diagnosis in patients with clinical suspicion of interstitial lung disease (ILD) treated at a tertiary-care university hospital. Methods: We reviewed the medical records, radiology reports, and reports of transbronchial biopsies from all patients with suspected ILD who underwent TBB between January of 1999 and December of 2006 at the Hospital das Clínicas de Botucatu, located in the city of Botucatu, Brazil. Results: The study included 56 patients. Of those, 11 (19.6%) had a definitive diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the rate of which was significantly higher in the patients in which ILD was a possible diagnosis in comparison with those in which ILD was the prime suspect (p = 0.011), demonstrating the contribution of TBB to the diagnostic confirmation of these diseases. The histopathological examination of the biopsies revealed that 27.3% of the patients with IPF showed a pattern of organizing pneumonia, which suggests greater disease severity. The most common histological pattern was the indeterminate pattern, reflecting the peripheral characteristic of IPF. However, the fibrosis pattern showed high specificity and high negative predictive value. For CT scan patterns suggestive of IPF, the ROC curve showed that the best relationship between sensitivity and specificity occurred when five radiological alterations were present. Honeycombing was found to be strongly suggestive of IPF (p = 0.01). Conclusions: For ILDs, chest CT should always be performed, and TBB should be used in specific situations, according to the suspicion and distribution of lesions.

 


Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial; Diagnosis, differential; Bronchoscopy.

 

7 - Symptoms of dysphagia in patients with COPD

Sintomas indicativos de disfagia em portadores de DPOC

Rosane de Deus Chaves, Celso Ricardo Fernandes de Carvalho, Alberto Cukier, Rafael Stelmach, Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):176-183

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify symptoms of dysphagia in individuals with COPD, based on their responses on a self-perception questionnaire. Methods: The study comprised 35 individuals with COPD and 35 healthy individuals, matched for age and gender. The study group was assessed regarding COPD severity; sensation of dyspnea; body mass index (BMI); and symptoms of dysphagia. The control group was assessed regarding BMI and symptoms of dysphagia. Results: The most common symptoms of dysphagia in the study group were pharyngeal symptoms/airway protection (p < 0.001); esophageal symptoms/history of pneumonia (p < 0.001); and nutritional symptoms (p < 0.001). Positive correlations were found between the following pairs of variables: FEV1 and BMI (r = 0.567; p < 0.001); pharyngeal symptoms/airway protection and dyspnea (r = 0.408; p = 0.015); and esophageal symptoms/history of pneumonia and pharyngeal symptoms/airway protection (r = 0.531; p = 0.001). There was a negative correlation between nutritional symptoms and BMI (r = −0.046; p < 0.008). Conclusions: Our results show that the individuals with COPD presented with symptoms of dysphagia that were associated with the pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing, as well as with the mechanism of airway protection, a history of pneumonia, and nutritional symptoms.

 


Keywords: Deglutition disorders; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Pathological conditions, signs and symptoms.

 

8 - Quality of life assessment in patients with cystic fibrosis by means of the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire

Avaliação da qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibrose cística por meio do Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire

Milena Antonelli Cohen, Maria Ângela Gonçalves de Oliveira Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando Ribeiro, José Dirceu Ribeiro, André Moreno Morcillo

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):184-192

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess the quality of life (QoL) of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) followed at a university referral center for CF. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving application of the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ) and Shwachman score in CF patients between April of 2008 and June of 2009. Results: The sample consisted of 75 patients. The mean age was 12.5 ± 5.1 years (range, 6.1-26.4 years). The patients were divided into three groups by age in years: group I (< 12), II (12-14), and III (≥ 14). The highest and lowest CFQ scores were for the nutrition domain in group III (89.3 ± 16.2) and the social domain in group II (59.5 ± 22.3), respectively. Groups I and III differed significantly regarding the treatment domain (p = 0.001). Regarding Shwachman scores, there were significant differences between patients scoring ≤ 70 and those scoring > 70 in the social (group I; p = 0.045), respiratory (group II; p = 0.053), and digestive (p = 0.042) domains. In group III, severity did not correlate with QoL. In groups I and II, patients with an FEV1 < 80% of predicted did not differ from other patients for any CFQ domain. However, in group III, values for the following domains were significantly lower in patients with an FEV1 < 80%: physical (p = 0.012); body image (p = 0.031); respiratory (p = 0.023), emotional (p = 0.041); and social role (p = 0.024). Conclusions: It is important to assess QoL in CF patients, because it can improve treatment compliance.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Quality of life; Questionnaires.

 

9 - Respiratory muscle strength: Comparison between primigravidae and nulligravidae

Força muscular respiratória: Comparação entre primigestas e nuligestas

Andrea Lemos, Ariani Impieri Souza, Armele Dornelas de Andrade, José Natal Figueiroa, José Eulálio Cabral-Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):193-199

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe and to compare MIP and MEP in primigravidae and nulligravidae in the 20-29 year age bracket and paired by age. Methods: We included 120 primigravidae with low obstetric risk (5th-40th week of gestation) and 40 nulligravidae. All of the participants were of normal weight and none exercised regularly. All were recruited from the metropolitan area of Recife, Brazil. Measurements of MIP and MEP were obtained from RV and TLC, respectively, with a digital manometer. We used Student's t-test to compare the two groups, and we used multiple linear regression in order to determine whether group or chronological age correlated with MIP or MEP. Results: In the primigravida and nulligravida groups, the mean MIP values were 88.50 ± 16.52 cmH2O and 94.22 ± 22.63 cmH2O, respectively, (p = 0.08), whereas the mean MEP values were 99.76 ±18.19 cmH2O and 98.67 ± 20.78 cmH2O (p = 0.75). Gestational age did not correlate with MIP (r = −0.06; p = 0.49) or MEP (r = −0.11; p = 0.22). The relationship between chronological age and MIP/MEP did not differ between primigravidae and nulligravidae (angular coefficient = 0.028 and 0.453, respectively). Conclusions: Within this sample of women in the 20-29 year age bracket, the respiratory pressures of primigravidae remained stable during pregnancy and did not differ significantly from those of nulligravidae.

 


Keywords: Pregnancy; Respiratory function tests; Muscle strength.

 

10 - Clinical, epidemiological, and etiological profile of inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia at a general hospital in the Sumaré microregion of Brazil

Perfil clínico, epidemiológico e etiológico de pacientes com pneumonia adquirida na comunidade internados em um hospital geral da microrregião de Sumaré, SP

Maria Rita Donalisio, Carlos Henrique Mamud Arca, Paulo Roberto de Madureira

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):200-208

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the clinical, etiological, and epidemiological aspects of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in hospitalized individuals. Methods: We prospectively studied 66 patients (> 14 years of age) with CAP admitted to the Hospital Estadual Sumaré, located in the Sumaré microregion of Brazil, between October of 2005 and September of 2007. We collected data related to clinical history, physical examination, pneumonia severity index (PSI) scores, and laboratory tests (blood culture; sputum smear microscopy and culture; serology for Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila; and detection of Legionella sp. and Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens in urine). Results: The mean age of patients was 53 years. Most had a low level of education, and 55.7% presented with at least one comorbidity at the time of hospitalization. The proportion of elderly people vaccinated against influenza was significantly lower among the inpatients than in the general population of the Sumaré microregion (52.6% vs. > 70%). Fever was less common among the elderly patients (p < 0.05). The clinical evolution was associated with the PSI scores but not with age. The etiology was confirmed in 31 cases (50.8%) and was attributed to S. pneumoniae, principally detected by the urinary antigen test, in 21 (34.4%), followed by C. pneumoniae, in 5 (8.2%). The mortality rate was 4.9%, and 80.3% of the patients were classified as cured at discharge. Conclusions: The knowledge of the etiologic profile of CAP at the regional level favors the appropriate choice of empirical treatment, which is particularly relevant in elderly patients and in those with comorbidities. The lack of influenza vaccination in elderly patients is a risk factor for hospitalization due to CAP.

 


Keywords: Chlamydophila pneumoniae; Community-acquired infections; Pneumonia; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Influenza vaccines.

 

11 - Results and complications of CT-guided transthoracic fine-needle aspiration biopsy of pulmonary lesions

Biópsia aspirativa transtorácica por agulha fina guiada por TC de lesões pulmonares: resultados e complicações

Cristiano Dias de Lima, Rodolfo Acatauassu Nunes, Eduardo Haruo Saito, Cláudio Higa, Zanier José Fernando Cardona, Denise Barbosa dos Santos

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):209-216

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the cytological findings of CT-guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsies of the lung, to demonstrate the diagnostic feasibility of the method in the investigation of pulmonary lesions, and to determine the complications of the procedure, evaluating its safety. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 89 patients with various types of pulmonary lesions who underwent 97 procedures over a period of five years. The patients were divided into groups regarding the indication for the procedure: suspicion of primary lung cancer (stages IIIB or IV); suspicion of lung cancer (stages I, II, or IIIA) and clinical contraindications for surgery; suspicion of pulmonary metastasis from other organs; and pulmonary lesions with benign radiological aspect. All of the procedures were performed with 25-gauge needles and were guided by spiral CT. The final diagnosis was confirmed by surgical biopsy and clinical/oncological follow-up. For the analysis of complications, the total number of procedures was considered. Results: The main indication for the procedure was suspicion of advanced-stage primary lung cancer. The accuracy of the method for malignant lesions was 91.5%. The lesion was confirmed as cancer in 73% of the patients. The major complication was pneumothorax (27.8%), which required chest tube drainage in 12.4% of the procedures. Conclusions: The principal indication for CT-guided fine-needle biopsy was suspicion of primary lung cancer in patients who were not surgical candidates. The procedure has high diagnostic feasibility for malignant pulmonary diseases. The most prevalent complication was pneumothorax. However, in most cases, chest tube drainage was unnecessary. No deaths were related to the procedure.

 


Keywords: Biopsy, fine-needle; Tomography, spiral computed; Lung neoplasms; Pneumothorax.

 

12 - Characteristics of COPD patients admitted to the ICU of a referral hospital for respiratory diseases in Brazil

Características de pacientes com DPOC internados em UTI de um hospital de referência para doenças respiratórias no Brasil

Mariângela Pimentel Pincelli, Ana Cristina Burigo Grumann, Camilo Fernandes, André G C Cavalheiro, Daiane A P Haussen, Israel Silva Maia

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):217-222

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To report data regarding COPD patients admitted to the ICU of a referral hospital for respiratory diseases, including outcomes and treatment evaluation. Methods: Study of a series of patients with respiratory failure and COPD admitted to the ICU of Nereu Ramos Hospital, located in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil, between October of 2006 and October of 2007. Data related to demographics, causes of hospitalization, pharmacological treatment, ventilatory support, length of hospital stay, in-hospital complications, ICU mortality, and 28-day mortality were obtained from the medical charts of the patients. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores were calculated. Mortality at 18 months was assessed by subsequent telephone calls. Results: During the study period, 192 patients were admitted to the ICU, 24 (12.5%) of whom were diagnosed with respiratory failure and COPD. The mean length of ICU stay was 12.0 ± 11.1 days. Noninvasive ventilation was used in 10 of the 24 patients (41.66%) and failed in 5 of those 10. Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) was used in a total of 15 patients (62.5%). Overall ICU mortality and 28-day mortality were 20.83% and 33.33%, respectively. However, 18-month mortality was 62.5%. Conclusions: Respiratory failure associated with COPD was responsible for 12.5% of the ICU admissions. Orotracheal intubation and IMV were necessary in 62.5% of the cases. The ICU mortality rate was in accordance with that predicted by the APACHE II scores. However, late mortality was high.

 


Keywords: Epidemiology; Respiration, artificial; Respiratory insufficiency; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Intensive care units; Mortality.

 

13 - Compliance with tuberculosis treatment after the implementation of the directly observed treatment, short-course strategy in the city of Carapicuíba, Brazil

Adesão ao tratamento da tuberculose após a instituição da estratégia de tratamento supervisionado no município de Carapicuíba, Grande São Paulo

Amadeu Antonio Vieira, Sandra Aparecida Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):223-231

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the compliance with tuberculosis treatment among patients enrolled the tuberculosis control program in the city of Carapicuíba, Brazil, before and after the implementation of the directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) strategy. Methods: A retrospective historical cohort study of operational aspects based on records of attendance and treatment evolution of patients in self-administered treatment (SAT) and of those submitted to DOTS. Monthly treatment outcome tables were created, and the probability of compliance with the treatment was calculated for both groups of patients. Results: A total of 360 patients with tuberculosis met the inclusion criteria: 173 (48.1%) in the SAT group; and 187 (51.9%) in the DOTS group. Treatment compliance was 6.1% higher in the DOTS group than in the SAT group. The proportion of patients completing the six months of treatment was 91.6% and 85.5% in the DOTS group and in the SAT group, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study show that DOTS can be successfully implemented at primary health care clinics. In this population of patients, residents of a city with low incomes and a high burden of tuberculosis infection, DOTS was more effective than was SAT.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Treatment outcome; Medication adherence.

 

14 - Tuberculous pneumonia: a study of 59 microbiologically confirmed cases

Pneumonia tuberculosa: um estudo de 59 casos confirmados microbiologicamente

Jose Moreira, Jamila Belicanta Fochesatto, Ana L Moreira, Marisa Pereira, Nelson Porto, Bruno Hochhegger

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):232-237

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To study the clinical, epidemiological, radiographic and endoscopic features of individuals with tuberculous pneumonia. Methods: We evaluated 2,828 consecutive tuberculosis patients treated at a public health center between December of 2005 and February of 2007. Of those, 59 (2.1%) had pulmonary involvement consistent with fistula between a lymph node and a bronchus. Results: Of the 59 patients studied, 43 (73%) were between 20 and 50 years of age, 31 (53%) were male, and 28 (47%) were Black. The most common symptoms were cough (in 100%), fever (in 88%), expectoration (in 81%), and weight loss (in 40%). Comorbidities were reported in 35 cases (59%), the most common being HIV infection (in 20%) and diabetes (in 15%). On chest X-rays, consolidation was observed, predominantly in the upper lobes (in 68%). The diagnostic confirmation (identification of AFB) was made through the sputum smear microscopy in the majority of the cases and by bronchoscopy (BAL examination or bronchial biopsy) in the remainder. Bronchial lesions were clearly indicative or suggestive of fistula in three cases and five cases, respectively. Conclusions: Tuberculous pneumonia presents as acute respiratory infection, initiating with a dry cough that is followed by fever. Chest X-rays show alveolar consolidation. In most cases, tuberculous pneumonia was accompanied by at least one comorbid condition, the most common being HIV infection, and the etiological diagnosis was made through sputum smear microscopy for AFB. Bronchoscopy findings were indicative of bronchial fistula in eight cases (13%).

 


Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Pneumonia; Bronchial fistula; Lymph nodes.

 

Brief Communication

15 - Suspension laryngoscopy for the thoracic surgeon: When and how to use it

Laringoscopia de suspensão para o cirurgião torácico: Quando e como utilizá-la

Antonio Oliveira dos Santos Júnior, Hélio Minamoto, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Tales Rubens de Nadai, Rafael Turano Mota, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):238-241

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Suspension laryngoscopy is one of the most common otolaryngological procedures for the diagnosis and surgical approach to the larynx. However, most thoracic surgeons are not familiar with the procedure and seldom use it. The indications for its use are similar to those for that of rigid bronchoscopy (dilatation, endoprosthesis insertion, and tumor resection). It can be performed in children and adults. Suspension laryngoscopy is an alternative when rigid bronchoscopy is unavailable and is therefore a viable option for use at smaller facilities. In this communication, we describe the technique and the applications of suspension laryngoscopy in thoracic surgery.

 


Keywords: Trachea; Dilatation; Thoracic Surgery; Laryngoscopy.

 

Review Article

16 - Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest: Current and new applications, with an emphasis on pulmonology

Ressonância magnética do tórax: Aplicações tradicionais e novas, com ênfase em pneumologia

Marcel Koenigkam Santos, Jorge Elias Júnior, Fernando Marum Mauad, Valdair Francisco Muglia, Clóvis Simão Trad

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):242-258

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of the present review study was to present the principal applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest, including the description of new techniques. Over the past decade, this method has evolved considerably because of the development of new equipment, including the simultaneous interconnection of phased-array multiple radiofrequency receiver coils and remote control of the table movement, in addition to faster techniques of image acquisition, such as parallel imaging and partial Fourier acquisitions, as well as the introduction of new contrast agents. All of these advances have allowed MRI to gain ground in the study of various pathologies of the chest, including lung diseases. Currently, MRI is considered the modality of choice for the evaluation of lesions in the mediastinum and in the chest wall, as well as of superior sulcus tumors. However, it can also facilitate the diagnosis of lung, pleural, and cardiac diseases, as well as of those related to the pulmonary vasculature. Pulmonary MRI angiography can be used in order to evaluate various pulmonary vascular diseases, and it has played an ever greater role in the study of thromboembolism. Because cardiac MRI allows morphological and functional assessment in the same test, it has also become part of the clinical routine in the evaluation of various cardiac diseases. Finally, the role of MRI has been extended to the identification and characterization of pulmonary nodules, the evaluation of airway diseases, and the characterization of pleural effusion.

 


Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging; Thorax; Pulmonary medicine.

 

17 - Congenital lung malformations

Malformações pulmonares congênitas

Cristiano Feijó Andrade, Hylas Paiva da Costa Ferreira, Gilberto Bueno Fischer

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):259-271

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Congenital lung malformations are rare and vary widely in their clinical presentation and severity, depending mostly on the degree of lung involvement and their location in the thoracic cavity. They can manifest at any age and can be the source of significant morbidity and mortality in infants and children. Individuals with congenital lung malformations can present with respiratory symptoms at birth or can remain asymptomatic for long periods. Recently, there has been an increase in the early diagnosis of these malformations, a change that is attributable to the routine use of prenatal ultrasound. The clinical manifestation of these malformations varies from respiratory distress in the immediate postnatal period to an incidental finding on chest X-rays. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment offer the possibility of absolutely normal lung development. The treatment of asymptomatic patients with lung malformations is controversial, because the prognosis of these diseases is unpredictable. The management of these lesions depends on the type of malformation and symptoms. Because of the risk of complications, most authors recommend resection of the lesion at the time of diagnosis. Lobectomy is the procedure of choice and yields excellent long-term results. This article describes the principal congenital lung malformations, their diagnosis, and the controversies regarding treatment.

 


Keywords: Cystic adenomatoid malformation of lung, congenital; Bronchopulmonary sequestration; Pulmonary surgical procedures; Diagnosis.

 

Case Report

18 - Treatment of schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension

Tratamento da hipertensão pulmonar esquistossomótica

Ricardo de Amorim Correa, Marcus Vinicius Souza Couto Moreira, Jucielle Marcelina da Silva Saraiva, Eliane Viana Mancuzo, Luciana Cristina dos Santos Silva, José Roberto Lambertucci

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):272-276

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Schistosomiasis mansoni is the third most prevalent endemic parasitic disease in the world. It is estimated that over 200 million people are infected with parasites belonging to one of the Schistosoma species. Of those, 270,000 people (4.6%) suffer from pulmonary arterial hypertension, which is associated with the hepatosplenic form of the disease. This high prevalence makes schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension the leading cause of pulmonary hypertension worldwide. However, no specific treatment for the pulmonary vascular component of the disease has yet been devised. We report the case of a patient with schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension who was treated satisfactorily with a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (sildenafil).

 


Keywords: Schistosomiasis mansoni; Hypertension, pulmonary; Drug therapy.

 

Letters to the Editor

19 - Hemoptysis in a patient with testicular microlithiasis and a germ cell tumor: a rare combination

Hemoptise em um paciente com microlitíase testicular e tumor de células germinativas: uma combinação rara

Arturo Cortés Télles, José de Jesús López Luna, Daniel Mendoza Posada, Luis Torre Bouscoulet

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):277-280

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20 - Environmental assessment of an asthma education program: Relationship between airborne fungi and IgE levels in children and adults

Avaliação ambiental de um programa de educação em asma: Relação dos fungos do ar e os níveis de IgE em crianças e adultos

Geusa Felipa de Barros Bezerra, Maria do Desterro Soares, Maria do Rosário da Silva Ramos Costa, Graça Maria de Castro Viana, Marcos Davi Gomes de Sousa

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):281-282

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Year 2011 - Volume 37  - Number 3  (May/June)

App

Editorial

1 - The image of pulmonary hypertension

A imagem da hipertensão pulmonar

Anton Vonk Noordegraaf

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):

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2 - Works in the field of tuberculosis study published in the Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology between 2004 and 2011: types of articles, study models, level of scientific evidence, and social impact

Publicações na área de tisiologia no Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia entre 2004 e 2011: tipos de artigos, modelos de estudo, grau de evidência científica e impacto social

Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Antonio Ruffino Netto

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):285-287

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Original Article

3 - Is tuberculosis difficult to diagnose in childhood and adolescence?

A tuberculose na infância e na adolescência é difícil de diagnosticar?

João Carlos Coelho Filho, Marwal Araújo Caribé, Simone Castro Couto Caldas, Eduardo Martins Netto

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):288-293

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the sensitivity of the scoring system proposed by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health in 2002 for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in children and adolescents suspected of having the disease. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 316 children and adolescents (0-14 years of age) diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis between 1997 and 2007 at the Brazilian Institute for Tuberculosis Research, located in the city of Salvador, Brazil. After reviewing the medical charts and chest X-rays of the patients, we calculated the tuberculosis scores. Results: The majority of the subjects (80.4%) had a history of close household contact with an AFB-positive adult within the last two years. The tuberculin test was negative in 11 subjects (3.5%). According to the scoring system, 251 (79.4%) were very likely to have tuberculosis (score, ≥ 40), 63 (19.9%) were moderately likely to have tuberculosis (score, 30-35), and 2 (0.7%) were unlikely to have tuberculosis (score, ≤ 25). When a cut-off score of 30 was used, the sensitivity of this scoring system was 99.3%. Conclusions: In our sample, the sensitivity of this scoring system was high when the selected cut-off score was employed. If a cut-off score of 40 had been used, 20% of the subjects would not have been treated. Therefore, scores between 30 and 35 are critical for diagnostic confirmation. Judicious clinical evaluation should prevail in the decision of treating these patients. When the cut-off score of 30 is used, 30% of individuals with other pathologies will be treated for tuberculosis. This highlights the need for improved diagnostic methods for tuberculosis.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Epidemiology; Diagnostic techniques and procedures.

 

4 - Chest X-ray and bacteriology in the initial phase of treatment of 800 male patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

Radiografia torácica e bacteriologia na fase inicial de tratamento de 800 pacientes masculinos com tuberculose pulmonar

Sefa Levent Ozsahin, Sulhattin Arslan, Kursat Epozturk, Remziye El, Omer Tamer Dogan

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):294-301

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate chest X-rays of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine whether the extent of radiographic lesions correlates with bacteriological parameters. Methods: In this retrospective, descriptive study, we evaluated chest X-rays, as well as AFB detection by smear microscopy and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, initially and during the first two months of treatment, in 800 male patients hospitalized between 1995 and the present at a 250-bed hospital in northwestern Turkey. Results: The initial mean ESR was 58 ± 37 mm/h. Initial sputum smears and cultures were positive in 83.8% and 89.5% of the patients, respectively. After the first month of treatment, the proportion of patients with positive sputum culture was higher among those with cavitary tuberculosis than among those with non-cavitary tuberculosis (53.7% vs. 37.7%, p < 0.001). The number of affected zones was not correlated with age, symptom duration, contact with an active tuberculosis patient, or concomitant diabetes (p > 0.05 for all) but was positively correlated with the ESR (r = 0.23, p < 0.001). During the first and second months of treatment, conversion to smear-negative status was less common in patients with bilateral involvement than in those with unilateral involvement (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002 for months 1 and 2, respectively). Disease extent did not correlate with age, symptom duration, contact with an active tuberculosis patient, or concomitant diabetes but did correlate with delayed bacteriological recovery. Conclusions: Chest X-ray and bacteriology are valuable tools for the evaluation of pulmonary tuberculosis

 


Keywords: Radiography, thoracic; Bacteriology; Tuberculosis, pulmonary/drug therapy.

 

5 - Determination of levels of specific IgA to the HspX recombinant antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis

Pesquisa de IgA contra o antígeno recombinante HspX de Mycobacterium tuberculosis no diagnóstico de tuberculose pleural

Loanda Carvalho Sant' Ana Limongi, Liliane Olival, Marcus Barreto Conde, Ana Paula Junqueira-Kipnis

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):302-307

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of determining specific IgA to HspX recombinant antigen in pleural fluid and serum samples for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis in patients with pleural effusion. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Serum and pleural fluid samples of patients with pleural effusion and suspected of having pleural tuberculosis were tested with indirect ELISA in order to determine the optical density of specific IgA to HspX. Results: We evaluated serum and pleural fluid samples from 132 patients: 97 diagnosed with pleural tuberculosis (study group) and 35 diagnosed with pleural effusion due to other causes (control group). The determination of IgA in pleural fluid satisfactorily discriminated between pleural tuberculosis patients and control patients. The sensitivity of the test in pleural fluid and in serum was 69% and 30%, respectively, whereas the specificity was 83% and 84%, respectively. Conclusions: Our data suggest that this test can be used in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis. Further studies, involving larger patient samples and different epidemiological scenarios, are warranted.

 


Keywords: Pleural effusion; Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

 

6 - Diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases: use of TNF-alpha-targeting biological products

Diagnóstico e tratamento da tuberculose latente em pacientes com doenças inflamatórias crônicas e uso de imunobiológicos inibidores do TNF-α

Diana Maria de Almeida Lopes, Valéria Goes Ferreira Pinheiro, Helena Serra Azul Monteiro, José Ajax Nogueira Queiroz, Lucivaldo dos Santos Madeira, Mônica Maria de Almeida Lopes

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):308-316

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients who are candidates for TNF-α inhibitor use and are classified as having latent tuberculosis (LTB), as well as to evaluate the outcomes of prophylactic treatment with isoniazid. Methods: A prospective descriptive analysis followed by an analytical, observational, cross-sectional study of the outcomes of prophylactic treatment in a group of 45 candidates for TNF-α inhibitor use. We evaluated the patients through anamnesis, clinical examination, chest X-ray, and tuberculin skin test (TST) using the Mantoux method. Results: The mean age was 45 years, and 56.0% of the patients were female. Chronic rheumatic diseases, chronic dermatological diseases, and Crohn's disease were present in 46.7%, 40.0%, and 13.3% of the patients, respectively. The mean TST induration was 14.6 mm (range: 5-30 mm). The majority (n = 30) of the 45 patients (66.7%) had an induration > 10 mm. In the 16 patients with BCG vaccination scars, the mean induration was 15.7 mm, and 14 of those patients had an induration > 10 mm. Chest X-ray results were considered normal, with minimal alterations, in 64.4% and 35.6% of the patients, respectively. The treatment with isoniazid was abandoned by 1 patient (2.2%) and completed by 41 (91.2%), whereas it was interrupted because of drug-induced hepatitis in 2 (4.4%), and 1 patient (2.2%) was transferred to another hospital. Of those who completed the treatment, 5 experienced mild side effects. Conclusions: Determining the profile of candidates for TNF-α inhibitor use is important for the management of LTB treatment and for the establishment of clinical protocols for the use and monitoring of the use of these medications.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Latent tuberculosis; Tuberculin test; Isoniazid; Tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

 

7 - Impact that an educational intervention carried out by community health agents has on environmental conditions in the households of children with asthma

Repercussão de uma intervenção educativa com agentes comunitários de saúde nas condições ambientais de domicílios de crianças asmáticas*

Maria Wanderleya de Lavor Coriolano, Marinus de Moraes Lima, Gabriela Cunha Schechtman Sette, Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti Sarinho, Luciane Soares de Lima

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):317-325

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the impact that an educational intervention employing problem-solving strategies for the environmental control of aeroallergens has on environmental conditions in the households of children with asthma. The intervention was carried out by community health agents. Methods: This was a prospective intervention study. The community health agents visited 95 households in which there were children (2-10 years of age) who had recurrent episodes of wheezing and dyspnea. All of the households investigated were in the city of Iguatu, Brazil. The educational interventions involved focus groups and community health agents. The focus groups were asked to brainstorm the educational measures to be implemented, in order to devise problem-solving strategies. After the intervention, 84 households were revisited and reevaluated. Results: After the intervention, there was a significant decrease in the use of brooms for cleaning the floor (p = 0.02), in the use of coal-burning stoves (p = 0.001), and in the number of stuffed toys (p = 0.05). There was also a significant post-intervention improvement in the environmental control of aeroallergens in the bedrooms of the children (p = 0.003). Conclusions: The educational intervention applied in this study proved to be an important tool for the target population, improving environmental conditions in the households of children with asthma.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Primary health care; Family health program; Health education.

 

8 - Prevalence and severity of asthma in obese adult candidates for bariatric surgery

Prevalência e gravidade de asma brônquica em adultos obesos com indicação de cirurgia bariátrica

Saulo Maia Davila Melo, Valdinaldo Aragão de Melo, Raimundo Sotero de Menezes Filho, Antônio J. Alves Júnior

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):326-333

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of asthma in a group of obese adult candidates for bariatric surgery and to evaluate the severity of asthma in this group of patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 363 obese adults (body mass index ≥ 35 kg/m2) evaluated by a pulmonologist, using clinical evaluation as a diagnostic tool for asthma. All patients underwent clinical evaluation and spirometry and were divided into two groups (asthma and control). The patients with asthma were stratified by the severity of asthma. Results: The prevalence of asthma in the obese population studied was 18.5% (95% CI: 14.5-22.4). That prevalence was 20.4% (95% CI: 16.2-24.5) and 13.7% (95% CI: 10.1-17.2) in the women and the men, respectively. Asthma symptoms in the last twelve months were present in 8.0% (95% CI: 5.2-10.7), and the initial manifestation of asthma symptoms occurred during childhood/adolescence in 17.4% (95% CI: 13.5-21.3). In the asthma group, intermittent asthma was present in 29 patients (43.3%), mild persistent asthma in 7 (10.4%), moderate asthma in 25 patients (37.3%), and severe persistent asthma in 6 (9.0%). Conclusions: Using clinical evaluation as the diagnostic criterion, we found the prevalence of asthma to be high in this group of obese adults. Asthma was more common in females, and the initial manifestation of asthma symptoms more commonly occurred during childhood/adolescence. The severity of asthma in this group of obese adults was within the range of mean values predicted for the general population. Intermittent asthma, mild persistent asthma, and moderate persistent asthma predominated.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Cross-sectional studies; Spirometry; Respiratory function tests; Obesity, morbid.

 

9 - Patients admitted to the ICU for acute exacerbation of COPD: two-year mortality and functional status

Exacerbação aguda da DPOC: mortalidade e estado funcional dois anos após a alta da UTI

Cassiano Teixeira, Cláudia da Rocha Cabral, Jaqueline Sangiogo Hass, Roselaine Pinheiro de Oliveira, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira Vargas, Ana Paula da Rocha Freitas, Alessandra Hofstadler Deiques Fleig, Erika Cristine Treptow, Márcia Inês Boff Rizzotto

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):334-340

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess ICU patients with COPD, in terms of in-hospital characteristics, two-year mortality and two-year functional status of survivors. Methods: A prospective cohort study involving patients with acute exacerbation of COPD admitted to the ICUs of two hospitals in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, between July of 2005 and July of 2006. At two years after discharge, survivors were interviewed by telephone in order to determine Karnofsky scores and scores on a scale regarding activities of daily living (ADL). Results: The sample comprised 231 patients. In-hospital mortality was 37.7%, and two-year post-discharge mortality was 30.3%. Of the 74 survivors, 66 were interviewed (89%). The mean age at ICU admission was 74 ± 10 years, and the mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 18 ± 7. Two or more comorbidities were present in 87.8% of the patients. Of the 66 interviewees, 57 (86.3%) lived at home, 58 (87.8%) were self-sufficient, 12 (18.1%) required oxygen therapy, and 4 (6.1%) still required ventilatory support. There was a significant reduction in the quality of life and autonomy of the survivors, as evidenced by the Karnofsky scores (85 ± 9 vs. 79 ± 11, p = 0.03) and ADL scale scores (29 ± 5 vs. 25 ± 7; p = 0.01), respectively. Conclusions: In this patient sample, two-year mortality was quite high. Although there was a noticeable reduction in the functional status of the survivors, they remained self-sufficient.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/mortality; Quality of life; Intensive care units.

 

10 - Nebulizers in cystic fibrosis: a source of bacterial contamination in cystic fibrosis patients?

Nebulizadores: fonte de contaminação bacteriana em pacientes com fibrose cística?

Lorena Xavier Costa Brzezinski, Carlos Antônio Riedi, Paulo Kussek, Helena Homem de Melo de Souza, Nelson Rosário

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):341-347

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether nebulizers are a source of microbial contamination in patients with cystic fibrosis, as well as whether the technique and frequency of disinfection of these devices is appropriate. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, uncontrolled observational study. Samples were collected from 28 patients with cystic fibrosis. Samples were collected at the homes of the patients, who were not previously informed of the purpose of the visit. Three samples were collected from each patient: one from the nebulizer chamber, one from the mask/mouthpiece, and one from the patient (oropharyngeal swab/sputum). The samples were properly stored and taken for analyses. The patients, their parents, or their legal guardians completed a questionnaire regarding nebulizer cleaning and disinfecting methods. Results: We collected 84 samples from the 28 patients. Of those 28 patients, 15 (53.5%) were male. The median age of the patients was 11 years (range, 1-27 years). Of the 28 patients, 15 presented with positive oropharyngeal swab/sputum sample cultures. The most common bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (in 8 patients) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (in 4 patients). Although the samples obtained from the nebulizers presented with various pathogens in culture, no specific species predominated. In 27 cases (96.7%), there were no associations between the samples obtained from the nebulizers and those obtained from the patients in terms of the results of the cultures. Cleaning and disinfection of nebulizers were inappropriate in 22 cases (78.6%). Conclusions: In this sample of patients, despite the inappropriate disinfection techniques, nebulizers were not found to be a source of microbial contamination.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Nebulizers and vaporizers; Disinfection.

 

11 - Cellular composition of induced sputum in healthy adults

Composição celular do escarro induzido em adultos saudáveis

Tiago Neves Veras, Emilio Pizzichini, Leila John Marques Steidle, Cristiane Cinara Rocha, Pablo Moritz, Márcia Margarete Menezes Pizzichini

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):348-353

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To establish reference values for cellularity in induced sputum samples collected from healthy adults. Methods: Induced sputum samples were obtained from 88 healthy adult never-smokers (39 males). The mean age was 36 years (range, 18-68 years). The participants had been residing in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil (a medium-sized non-industrial city) for at least two years. After the samples had been processed, we obtained total and differential cell counts. Results: The mean total cell count was 4.8 ± 4.2 × 106 cells/g. There was a predominance of macrophages (mean, 77.5 ± 14.7%) and neutrophils (mean, 23.4 ± 14.3%). Eosinophils were virtually absent (mean, 0.1 ± 0.3%). Lymphocytes and bronchial epithelial cells were scarce. Neither age nor atopy had any effect on the total or differential cell counts. Conclusions: In the induced sputum of this healthy adult population, macrophages and neutrophils predominated. However, the proportion of neutrophils was lower than that reported in previous studies, which suggests that reference values might vary depending on geographic location.

 


Keywords: Sputum; Reference values; Brazil.

 

12 - Adjuvant therapy for non-small cell lung cancer

Tratamento adjuvante em câncer de pulmão de células não pequenas

Letícia Barbosa França, Márcia Aparecida Oliveira, Isabele Ávila Small, Mauro Zukin, Luiz Henrique de Lima Araújo

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):354-359

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended for most patients submitted to resection due to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) staged as II or IIIA. However, although various chemotherapy regimens that include cisplatin have been used in phase III trials, the best choice remains unclear. The objective of this study was to describe the experience of the Instituto Nacional do Câncer (INCA, Brazilian National Cancer Institute), located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with the use of the cisplatin-etoposide combination in such patients, with a special focus on survival data. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the medical charts of the patients receiving adjuvant therapy for NSCLC at the INCA between 2004 and 2008. Results: We included 51 patients, all of whom were treated with the cisplatin-etoposide combination. The median follow-up period was 31 months, and the median overall survival was 57 months. In the univariate analysis, median survival was lower in the patients submitted to chemotherapy plus radiotherapy than in those submitted to chemotherapy alone (19 vs. 57 months; p < 0.001), and there was a trend toward lower median survival in stage III patients than in stage I-II patients (34 vs. 57 months; p = 0.22). Overall survival was not significantly associated with gender (p = 0.70), histological pattern (p = 0.33), or cisplatin dose (p = 0.13). Conclusions: Our results support the use of adjuvant chemotherapy, and our survival data are similar to those reported in major randomized clinical trials. However, long-term follow-up is warranted in this population.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Chemotherapy, adjuvant; Survival analysis.

 

13 - Smoking among undergraduate health sciences students: prevalence and knowledge

Tabagismo em universitários de ciências da saúde: prevalência e conhecimento

Clovis Botelho, Ana Maura Pereira da Silva, Claudia Duarte Melo

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):360-366

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of smoking and the level of knowledge about smoking among undergraduate health sciences students. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. A self-administered structured questionnaire was completed in the classroom by senior undergraduate health sciences students in the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, Brazil. We evaluated students at one public university and two private universities. Five variables were studied: age, gender, type of course, smoking status, and knowledge about smoking. The knowledge variable was divided into five parts: smoking as a disease; smoking/nicotine as a cause of dependence; specific education on smoking; major obstacles to the success of smoking cessation; and forms of smoking treatment. Only the medical students responded to questions related to the last two items. Results: The prevalence of smoking ranged from 9.3% at the public university to 21.1% at one of the two private universities. Approximately 30% of the respondents were unable to identify nicotine as the cause of dependence, 20.8% did not consider smoking a disease, and 47.2% reported that they had never received any instruction on the topic of smoking. The medical students enrolled at the public university showed the highest level of knowledge regarding the various forms of smoking treatment. Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking among the university students in our sample was high. Their knowledge about smoking was insufficient, which suggests inadequacy of the curricula at these universities.

 


Keywords: Tabagismo/epidemiologia; Estudantes; Questionários.

 

14 - Mortality and associated factors in a thoracic surgery ICU

Mortalidade e fatores associados em uma UTI de cirurgia torácica

Ekrem Senturk, Zehra Senturk, Serdar Sen, Mevlut Ture, Nursen Avkan

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):367-374

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess mortality and identify mortality risk factors in patients admitted to a thoracic surgery ICU. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 141 patients admitted to the thoracic surgery ICU of the Denizli State Hospital, located in the city of Denizli, Turkey, between January of 2006 and August of 2008. We collected data regarding gender, age, reason for admission, invasive interventions and operations, invasive mechanical ventilation, infections, and length of ICU stay. Results: Of the 141 patients, 103 (73.0%) were male, and 38 (23.0%) were female. The mean age was 52.1 years (range, 12-92 years), and the mortality rate was 16.3%. The most common reason for admission was trauma. Mortality was found to correlate with advanced age (p < 0.05), requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (OR = 42.375; p < 0.05), prolonged ICU stay (p < 0.05), and specific reasons for admission-trauma, gunshot wound, stab wound, and malignancy (p < 0.05 for all). Conclusions: Among patients in a thoracic surgery ICU, the rates of morbidity and mortality are high. Increased awareness of mortality risk factors can improve the effectiveness of treatment, which should reduce the rates of morbidity and mortality, thereby providing time savings and minimizing costs.

 


Keywords: Intensive care units; Thoracic surgery/mortality; Hospital mortality; Risk factors.

 

Brief Communication

15 - Evolution of pulmonary function after treatment with goserelin in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis

Evolução da função pulmonar após tratamento com goserelina em pacientes com linfangioleiomiomatose

Bruno Guedes Baldi, Pedro Medeiros Junior, Suzana Pinheiro Pimenta, Roberto Iglesias Lopes, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):375-379

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In the atypical smooth muscle cells that are characteristic of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), there are estrogen and progesterone receptors. Therefore, anti-hormonal therapy, despite having produced controversial results, can be considered a treatment option. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate hormonal and spirometric data for nine women with LAM after one year of treatment with goserelin. The mean increase in FEV1 and FVC was 80 mL and 130 mL, respectively. There was effective blockage of the hormonal axis. It is still not possible to exclude a potential beneficial effect of the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues in LAM patients, which underscores the need for randomized trials.

 


Keywords: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis; Spirometry; Goserelin.

 

Review Article

16 - Peripheral muscle dysfunction in COPD: lower limbs versus upper limbs

Disfunção muscular periférica em DPOC: membros inferiores versus membros superiores

Eduardo Foschini Miranda, Carla Malaguti, Simone Dal Corso

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):380-388

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

O prejuízo funcional parece diferir entre membros superiores e membros inferiores de pacientes com DPOC. Dois possíveis mecanismos explicam os sintomas importantes de dispneia e fadiga relatados pelos pacientes ao executar tarefas com membros superiores não sustentados: a disfunção neuromecânica dos músculos respiratórios e a alteração dos volumes pulmonares durante as atividades realizadas com membros superiores. A disfunção neuromecânica está relacionada à alteração do padrão respiratório e à simultaneidade de estímulos aferentes e eferentes musculares, o que causaria a dissincronia na ação dos músculos respiratórios em pacientes com DPOC durante esse tipo de exercício. Adicionalmente, o aumento da ventilação durante os exercícios com membros superiores em pacientes com DPOC induz à hiperinsuflação dinâmica em diferentes cargas de trabalho. Nos membros inferiores, há redução da força e da endurance muscular do quadríceps femoral nos pacientes com DPOC comparados a indivíduos saudáveis. Uma explicação para essas reduções é a anormalidade no metabolismo muscular (diminuição da capacidade aeróbia), a dependência do metabolismo glicolítico e o acúmulo rápido de lactato durante o exercício. Quando contrastadas as atividades de membros superiores e membros inferiores, os exercícios com membros superiores resultam em maior demanda metabólica e ventilatória com mais intensa sensação de dispneia e fadiga. Devido às diferenças nas adaptações morfofuncionais dos músculos dos membros superiores e membros inferiores em pacientes com DPOC, protocolos específicos de treinamento de força e/ou endurance devem ser desenvolvidos e testados para os grupos musculares desses segmentos corporais.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Muscle fatigue; Upper extremity; Lower extremity.

 

17 - The role of imaging techniques in the assessment of pulmonary circulation

O papel dos exames de imagem na avaliação da circulação pulmonar

André Hovnanian, Eduardo Menezes, Susana Hoette, Carlos Jardim, Dany Jasinowodolinski, Rogério Souza

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):389-403

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Knowledge of the structure and function of pulmonary circulation has evolved considerably in the last few decades. The use of non-invasive imaging techniques to assess the anatomy and function of the pulmonary vessels and heart has taken on added importance with the recent advent of novel therapies. Imaging findings not only constitute a diagnostic tool but have also proven to be essential for prognosis and treatment follow-up. This article reviews the myriad of imaging methods currently available for the assessment of pulmonary circulation, from the simple chest X-ray to techniques that are more complex and promising, such as electrical impedance tomography.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary circulation; Diagnostic imaging; Hypertension, pulmonary.

 

Case Report

18 - Infectious giant bulla associated with lung cancer

Bolha gigante infecciosa associada a câncer de pulmão

Nobuhiro Asai, Yoshihiro Ohkuni, Ryo Matsunuma, Kei Nakashima, Takuya Iwasaki, Norihiro Kaneko

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):404-408

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

A 79 year-old man sought treatment in the emergency room complaining of persistent fever, chest pain, and general fatigue. A chest X-ray showed a giant infectious bulla (24 cm in diameter) in the left lung. The patient had no history of abnormalities on X-rays, and his latest medical check-up, conducted in the preceding year, had produced no abnormal findings. Diagnostic procedures, including bronchoscopy, revealed lung cancer (large cell carcinoma) in the left lower bronchus. The tumor obstructed the airway. Although there have been various reports of giant bullae, their etiology remains unknown. We suggest that an obstruction, such as that caused by the tumor in this case, can lead to air trapping, resulting in the formation of a bulla. In the case of a giant bulla that rapidly increases in size, lung cancer should be included in the differential diagnosis.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms/complications; Infection; Drainage.

 

Letters to the Editor

19 - Incidence of fatal venous thromboembolism in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis

Incidência de tromboembolismo venoso fatal em vasculite associada a anticorpo anticitoplasma de neutrófilos

Alfredo Nicodemos Cruz Santana, Teresa Yae Takagaki, Carmen Silvia Valente Barbas

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):409-411

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20 - Pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma presenting with a diffuse micronodular pattern in an HIV-infected patient

Linfoma do tecido linfoide associado à mucosa no pulmão com padrão micronodular difuso em paciente HIV positivo

João Pedro Steinhauser Motta, Leonardo Palermo Bruno, Luana de Souza Andrade, Monique França, Rafael Barcelos Capone, Edson Marchiori, Domenico CaponeFigura

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):412-415

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21 - Subglottic and mediastinal hemangioma in a child:treatment with propranolol

Hemangioma subglótico e mediastinal em criança:tratamento com propranolol

Mauro Tamagno, Benoit Jacques Bibas, Helio Minamoto,Fernanda Sobreiro Alfinito, Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Fabio Biscegli JateneCarta

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):416-418

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Year 2011 - Volume 37  - Number 4  (July/August)

App

Editorial

1 - Pharmacological treatment of COPD

Terapêutica medicamentosa da DPOC

Roberto Stirbulov, Fernando Luiz Cavalcanti Lundgren

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):419-421

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2 - The way forward in lymphangioleiomyomatosis: a trial for every patient, every patient in a trial

O caminho à frente da linfangioleiomiomatose: um ensaio para cada paciente, cada paciente em um ensaio

Francis X. McCormack

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):422-423

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Original Article

3 - Doxycycline use in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: safety and efficacy in metalloproteinase blockade

Doxiciclina em pacientes com linfangioleiomiomatose: segurança e eficácia no bloqueio de metaloproteinases

Suzana Pinheiro Pimenta, Bruno Guedes Baldi, Milena Marques Pagliarelli Acencio, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):424-430

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the frequency of near-fatal asthma in a group of severe asthma patients, as well as the clinical characteristics and prognosis of these patients within a one-year follow-up period. Methods: A prospective study involving 731 low-income patients with severe asthma treated at a referral outpatient clinic located in the city of Salvador, Brazil. The patients were submitted to spirometry at admission, received medications for asthma, and were monitored regarding the frequency of asthma exacerbations during the follow-up period. A subsample of 511 patients also completed questionnaires regarding asthma symptoms and asthma-related quality of life. Results: Of the 731 patients studied, 563 (77%) were female. The median age was 47 years, and 12% were illiterate. Most of the patients had rhinitis, and 70 patients (10%) reported near-fatal asthma prior to admission. Of these 70 patients, 41 (59%) reported having been intubated previously. The patients reporting a history of near-fatal asthma at admission were more likely to have asthma exacerbations during the follow-up period and to respond poorly to therapy than were those not reporting such a history. At the end of the follow-up period, the scores on the two questionnaires were similar between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: The frequency of near-fatal asthma was high in this group of low-income patients with severe asthma. The patients with a history of near-fatal asthma had a worse prognosis than did those without such a history, although both groups had received the same kind of treatment. Curiously, the intensity of symptoms and the quality of life at the end of the study were similar between the two groups.

 


Keywords: Asthma/prevention and control; Asthma/complications; Quality of life; Prognosis.

 

4 - Clinical characteristics and prognosis in near-fatal asthma patients in Salvador, Brazil

Características clínicas e prognóstico em pacientes com asma quase fatal em Salvador, Bahia

Eduardo Vieira Ponte, Adelmir Souza-Machado, Carolina Souza-Machado, Rosana Franco, Álvaro Augusto Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):431-437

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the frequency of near-fatal asthma in a group of severe asthma patients, as well as the clinical characteristics and prognosis of these patients within a one-year follow-up period. Methods: A prospective study involving 731 low-income patients with severe asthma treated at a referral outpatient clinic located in the city of Salvador, Brazil. The patients were submitted to spirometry at admission, received medications for asthma, and were monitored regarding the frequency of asthma exacerbations during the follow-up period. A subsample of 511 patients also completed questionnaires regarding asthma symptoms and asthma-related quality of life. Results: Of the 731 patients studied, 563 (77%) were female. The median age was 47 years, and 12% were illiterate. Most of the patients had rhinitis, and 70 patients (10%) reported near-fatal asthma prior to admission. Of these 70 patients, 41 (59%) reported having been intubated previously. The patients reporting a history of near-fatal asthma at admission were more likely to have asthma exacerbations during the follow-up period and to respond poorly to therapy than were those not reporting such a history. At the end of the follow-up period, the scores on the two questionnaires were similar between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: The frequency of near-fatal asthma was high in this group of low-income patients with severe asthma. The patients with a history of near-fatal asthma had a worse prognosis than did those without such a history, although both groups had received the same kind of treatment. Curiously, the intensity of symptoms and the quality of life at the end of the study were similar between the two groups.

 


Keywords: Asthma/prevention and control; Asthma/complications; Quality of life; Prognosis.

 

5 - Epidemiological characteristics of sarcoidosis patients in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Características epidemiológicas de pacientes com sarcoidose na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

Vinicius Lemos-Silva, Paula Barroso Araújo, Christiane Lopes, Rogério Rufino, Cláudia Henrique da Costa

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):438-445

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of sarcoidosis patients in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: A descriptive, case-control study involving 100 sarcoidosis patients under outpatient treatment between 2008 and 2010 at the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis was based on clinical, radiological, biochemical, and histopathological criteria. Results: There was a predominance of females in the 35-40 year age bracket (range, 7-69 years), who accounted for 65% of the sample, although there was a second peak at approximately 55 years of age. The most common symptom was dyspnea (in 47%), and the most common radiological findings were pulmonary and lymph node involvement (stage II; in 43%), followed by stage III (in 20%), stage I (in 19%), stage 0 (in 15%), and stage IV (in 3%). No pleural effusion or digital clubbing was observed at diagnosis. The tuberculin skin test was negative in 94 patients. Spirometric findings at diagnosis were normal in 61 patients; indicative of obstructive lung disease in 21; and indicative of restrictive lung disease in 18. The most common biopsy sites were the lungs (principally by bronchoscopy) and the skin, the diagnosis being confirmed by biopsy in 56% and 29% of the cases, respectively. Treatment with prednisone was initiated in 75% of the patients and maintained for more than 2 years in 19.7%. Conclusions: This study corroborates the findings of previous studies regarding the epidemiological characteristics of sarcoidosis patients.

 


Keywords: Sarcoidosis/epidemiology; Sarcoidosis/diagnosis; Sarcoidosis/therapy.

 

6 - Dyspnea descriptors developed in Brazil: application in obese patients and in patients with cardiorespiratory diseases

Uso de descritores de dispneia desenvolvidos no Brasil em pacientes com doenças cardiorrespiratórias ou obesidade

Christiane Aires Teixeira, Antonio Luiz Rodrigues Júnior, Luciana Cristina Straccia, Élcio dos Santos Oliveira Vianna, Geruza Alves da Silva, José Antônio Baddini Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):446-454

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To develop a set of descriptive terms applied to the sensation of dyspnea (dyspnea descriptors) for use in Brazil and to investigate the usefulness of these descriptors in four distinct clinical conditions that can be accompanied by dyspnea. Methods: We collected 111 dyspnea descriptors from 67 patients and 10 health professionals. These descriptors were analyzed and reduced to 15 based on their frequency of use, similarity of meaning, and potential pathophysiological value. Those 15 descriptors were applied in 50 asthma patients, 50 COPD patients, 30 patients with heart failure, and 50 patients with class II or III obesity. The three best descriptors, as selected by the patients, were studied by cluster analysis. Potential associations between the identified clusters and the four clinical conditions were also investigated. Results: The use of this set of descriptors led to a solution with seven clusters, designated sufoco (suffocating), aperto (tight), rápido (rapid), fadiga (fatigue), abafado (stuffy), trabalho/inspiração (work/inhalation), and falta de ar (shortness of breath). Overlapping of descriptors was quite common among the patients, regardless of their clinical condition. Asthma was significantly associated with the sufoco and trabalho/inspiração clusters, whereas COPD and heart failure were associated with the sufoco, trabalho/inspiração, and falta de ar clusters. Obesity was associated only with the falta de ar cluster. Conclusions: In Brazil, patients who are accustomed to perceiving dyspnea employ various descriptors in order to describe the symptom, and these descriptors can be grouped into similar clusters. In our study sample, such clusters showed no usefulness in differentiating among the four clinical conditions evaluated.

 


Keywords: Dyspnea; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Asthma; Heart failure.

 

7 - Dyspnea descriptors translated from English to Portuguese: application in obese patients and in patients with cardiorespiratory diseases

Uso de descritores de dispneia traduzidos da língua inglesa em pacientes com doenças cardiorrespiratórias ou obesidade

Christiane Aires Teixeira, Antonio Luiz Rodrigues Júnior, Luciana Cristina Straccia, Élcio dos Santos Oliveira Vianna, Geruza Alves da Silva, José Antônio Baddini Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):455-463

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate the usefulness of descriptive terms applied to the sensation of dyspnea (dyspnea descriptors) that were developed in English and translated to Brazilian Portuguese in patients with four distinct clinical conditions that can be accompanied by dyspnea. Methods: We translated, from English to Brazilian Portuguese, a list of 15 dyspnea descriptors reported in a study conducted in the USA. Those 15 descriptors were applied in 50 asthma patients, 50 COPD patients, 30 patients with heart failure, and 50 patients with class II or III obesity. The three best descriptors, as selected by the patients, were studied by cluster analysis. Potential associations between the identified clusters and the four clinical conditions were also investigated. Results: The use of this set of descriptors led to a solution with nine clusters, designated expiração (exhalation), fome de ar (air hunger), sufoco (suffocating), superficial (shallow), rápido (rapid), aperto (tight), falta de ar (shortness of breath), trabalho (work), and inspiração (inhalation). Overlapping of the descriptors was quite common among the patients, regardless of their clinical condition. Asthma, COPD, and heart failure were significantly associated with the inspiração cluster. Heart failure was also associated with the trabalho cluster, whereas obesity was not associated with any of the clusters. Conclusions: In our study sample, the application of dyspnea descriptors translated from English to Portuguese led to the identification of distinct clusters, some of which were similar to those identified in a study conducted in the USA. The translated descriptors were less useful than were those developed in Brazil regarding their ability to generate significant associations among the clinical conditions investigated here.

 


Keywords: Dyspnea; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Asthma; Heart failure.

 

8 - Early termination of exhalation: effect on spirometric parameters in healthy preschool children

Efeito da terminação precoce da expiração nos parâmetros espirométricos em crianças pré-escolares saudáveis

Edjane Figueiredo Burity, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira, José Ângelo Rizzo, Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti Sarinho, Marcus Herbert Jones

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):464-470

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the acceptability and reproducibility of spirometry in preschool children; to estimate the effect size of early termination of exhalation (ETE) on FVC, FEV1 and FEV0.5; and to evaluate the validity of FEV0.5 in curves with ETE. Methods: Spirometric data were obtained from 240 healthy preschool children, who were selected by simple sampling. On the basis of the best curve from each child according to the end of exhalation, three groups were formed: no ETE (nETE); ETE and flow ≤ 10% of the highest PEF (ETE≤10); and ETE and flow > 10% of the highest PEF value (ETE>10). The reproducibility of FVC, FEV1 and FEV0.5 was compared among the three groups. The effect of ETE on FVC, FEV1, and FEV0.5 was assessed. Results: Of the 240 children tested, 112 (46.5%)-82 (34.0%) of those in the nETE group and 30 (12.5%) of those in the ETE≤10 group-had acceptable curves for all the parameters. In 64 (27.0%) of those in the ETE>10 group, the curves were acceptable only for FEV0.5, increasing the proportion of children with valid FEV0.5 to 73.0%. There were no significant differences between the nETE and ETE≤10 groups in terms of the mean values of the parameters assessed. Conclusions: Maneuvers with ETE and flow ≤ 10% of the highest PEF are valid. In individuals with a flow > 10% of the highest PEF value, these maneuvers are only valid for FEV0.5.

 


Keywords: Spirometry; Child, preschool; Vital capacity; Forced expiratory volume; Reproducibility of results.

 

9 - Mouth breathing and forward head posture: effects on respiratory biomechanics and exercise capacity in children

Respiração bucal e anteriorização da cabeça: efeitos na biomecânica respiratória e na capacidade de exercício em crianças

Renata Tiemi Okuro, André Moreno Morcillo, Maria Ângela Gonçalves Oliveira Ribeiro, Eulália Sakano, Patrícia Blau Margosian Conti, José Dirceu Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):471-479

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate submaximal exercise tolerance and respiratory muscle strength in relation to forward head posture (FHP) and respiratory mode in children, comparing mouth-breathing (MB) children with nasal-breathing (NB) children. Methods: This was a controlled, analytical cross-sectional study involving children in the 8-12 year age bracket with a clinical otorhinolaryngology diagnosis of MB, recruited between October of 2010 and January of 2011 from the Mouth Breather Clinic at the State University of Campinas Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Campinas, Brazil. The exclusion criteria were obesity, asthma, chronic respiratory diseases, heart disease, and neurological or orthopedic disorders. All of the participants underwent postural assessment and the six-minute walk test (6MWT), together with determination of MIP and MEP. Results: Of the 92 children in the study, 30 presented with MB and 62 presented with NB. In the MB group, the differences between those with moderate or severe FHP and those with normal head posture, in terms of the mean MIP, MEP and six-minute walk distance (6MWD), were not significant (p = 0.079, p = 0.622, and p = 0.957, respectively). In the NB group, the mean values of MIP and MEP were higher in the children with moderate FHP than in those with normal head posture (p = 0.003 and p = 0.004, respectively). The mean MIP, MEP, and 6MWD were lower in the MB group than in the NB group. Values of MIP and MEP were highest in the children with moderate FHP. Conclusions: Respiratory biomechanics and exercise capacity were negatively affected by MB. The presence of moderate FHP acted as a compensatory mechanism in order to improve respiratory muscle function.

 


Keywords: Mouth breathing; Posture; Exercise tolerance; Respiratory mechanics.

 

10 - Smoking cessation among patients at a university hospital in Curitiba, Brazil

Cessação de tabagismo em pacientes de um hospital universitário em Curitiba

Rodney Luiz Frare e Silva, Eliane Ribeiro Carmes, Alain Felipe Schwartz, Denise de Souza Blaszkowski, Raphael Henrique Déa Cirino, Renata Dal-Prá Ducci

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):480-487

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of smoking and the frequency of smoking cessation counseling among patients at a university hospital, as well as to compare smokers and former smokers in terms of smoking history. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 629 patients at the Federal University of Paraná Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Results: Of the 629 patients, 206 (32.7%) were male, 76 (12.1%) were smokers, 179 (28.5%) were former smokers, and 374 (59.5%) were nonsmokers. The mean age of the patients was 49.9 ± 15.0 years (range, 18-84 years). Of the 76 smokers and 179 former smokers, 72 (94.7%) and 166 (92.7%), respectively, were questioned about tobacco use. Smoking history and degree of nicotine dependence were higher among the former smokers (p = 0.0292 and p = 0.0125, respectively). Gender, age at smoking initiation, physician inquiry about tobacco use, and smoking cessation counseling were comparable between the two groups. The smoking cessation rate was 0.70. The prevalence of heavy smoking varied by gender and by age bracket, being higher in males and in the 41-70 year age bracket. Conclusions: The smoking prevalence in this group of patients was lower than that reported for patients at another university hospital, for adults in Curitiba, and for adults in Brazil. The smoking cessation rate was higher in these patients than in the general population of Curitiba. Smokers and former smokers differed regarding age, smoking history, and degree of nicotine dependence. Heavy smoking and a moderate or high degree of nicotine dependence were not obstacles to smoking cessation.

 


Keywords: Smoking/prevention & control; Smoking cessation; Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data.

 

11 - Smoking among inpatients at a university hospital

Tabagismo em pacientes internados em um hospital universitário

Ângela Santos Ferreira, Antonio Carlos Ferreira Campos, Isabela Pereira Arraes dos Santos, Mariana Roque Beserra, Eduardo Nani Silva, Vilma Aparecida da Silva Fonseca

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):488-494

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of smoking among inpatients at a university hospital, as well as to evaluate their motivation, interest, and need for help in quitting smoking. Methods: A prospective study involving inpatients treated between May of 2008 and April of 2009 on the cardiovascular disease wards at the Antonio Pedro University Hospital, located in the city of Niterói, Brazil. All inpatients were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to collect data regarding demographics, reasons for admission, and smoking status. The smokers also responded to additional questions regarding their smoking habits. The level of nicotine dependence was determined with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. Results: Of the 136 inpatients who participated in the study, 68 (50.0%) were male. The mean age was 60.7 years. The prevalence of smoking was 13.2%. Among the 49 patients with coronary disease, 36 (73.5%) were smokers or former smokers. The majority of the patients presented with a high level of nicotine dependence and reported withdrawal symptoms during hospitalization. Although most smokers were motivated to quit smoking, they admitted that they needed help to do so. Conclusions: Because smoking is forbidden in the hospital environment and most inpatients who smoke are highly motivated to quit, health professionals should view the hospitalization period as an opportunity to promote smoking cessation.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Inpatients; Smoking cessation.

 

12 - Comparing the accuracy of predictors of mortality in ventilator-associated pneumonia

Comparação da acurácia de preditores de mortalidade na pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica

Renato Seligman, Beatriz Graeff Santos Seligman, Paulo José Zimermann Teixeira

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):495-503

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Levels of procalcitonin, midregional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), C-terminal provasopressin (copeptin), and C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores, are associated with severity and described as predictors of outcome in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). This study sought to compare the predictive value of these biomarkers for mortality in VAP. Methods: An observational study of 71 patients with VAP. Levels of procalcitonin, MR-proANP, copeptin, and CRP, together with SOFA scores, were determined at VAP onset, designated day 0 (D0), and on day 4 of treatment (D4). Patients received empirical antimicrobial therapy, with modifications based on culture results. Patients who died before D28 were classified as nonsurvivors. Results: Of the 71 patients evaluated, 45 were classified as survivors. Of the 45 survivors, 35 (77.8%) received appropriate antimicrobial therapy, compared with 18 (69.2%) of the 26 nonsurvivors (p = 0.57). On D0 and D4, the levels of all biomarkers (except CRP), as well as SOFA scores, were lower in eventual survivors than in eventual nonsurvivors. For D0 and D4, the area under the ROC curve was largest for procalcitonin. On D0, MR-proANP had the highest positive likelihood ratio (2.71) and positive predictive value (0.60), but procalcitonin had the highest negative predictive value (0.87). On D4, procalcitonin had the highest positive likelihood ratio (3.46), the highest positive predictive value (0.66), and the highest negative predictive value (0.93). Conclusions: The biomarkers procalcitonin, MR-proANP, and copeptin can predict mortality in VAP, as can the SOFA score. Procalcitonin alone has the greatest predictive power for such mortality.

 


Keywords: Pneumonia, ventilator-associated/mortality; Biological markers/analysis; Health Status Indicators.

 

13 - Retreatment of tuberculosis patients in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil: outcomes

Desfechos do retratamento de pacientes com tuberculose com o uso do esquema 3 em Porto Alegre, Brasil

Pedro Dornelles Picon, Carlos Fernando Carvalho Rizzon, Sergio Luiz Bassanesi, Luiz Carlos Correa da Silva, Maria de Lourdes Della Giustina

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):504-511

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the outcomes of retreatment in tuberculosis patients receiving the regimen known, in Brazil, as regimen 3 (streptomycin, ethambutol, ethionamide, and pyrazinamide for 3 months + ethambutol and ethionamide for 9 months) after treatment failure with the basic regimen (rifampin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide for 2 months + rifampin and isoniazid for 4 months). Methods: A descriptive, uncontrolled, historical cohort study involving adult tuberculosis patients treated with regimen 3. We evaluated adverse drug effects, recurrence, treatment outcomes, and associated factors. Results: The study included 229 patients. The overall cure rate was 62%. For the patients who used the medications regularly and those who did not, the cure rate was 88% and 31%, respectively. Adverse events occurred in 95 patients (41.5%), and most of those events were related to the gastrointestinal tract. In the five-year follow-up period, relapse occurred in 17 cases (12.0%). Conclusions: Overall, the outcomes of treatment with regimen 3 were unsatisfactory, in part because this regimen was administered to a selected population of patients at high risk for noncompliance with treatment, as well as because it presents high rates of adverse effects, especially those related to the gastrointestinal tract, which might be caused by ethionamide. However, for those who took the medications regularly, the cure rate was satisfactory. The recurrence rate was higher than that recommended in international consensus guidelines, which might be attributable to the short (12-month) treatment period. We believe that regimen 3, extended to 18 months, represents an option for patients with proven treatment compliance.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary/therapy; Treatment outcome; Retreatment.

 

14 - Factors associated with delayed diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Fatores associados ao atraso no diagnóstico da tuberculose pulmonar no estado do Rio de Janeiro

Audry Cristina de Fátima Teixeira Machado, Ricardo Ewbank Steffen, Olivia Oxlade, Dick Menzies, Afrânio Kritski, Anete Trajman

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):512-520

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To estimate the total time elapsed between symptom onset and diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (patient delay plus health care system delay), analyzing the factors associated with delayed diagnosis in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based survey involving 218 pulmonary tuberculosis patients treated for two months at 20 health care clinics and 3 hospitals in eight cities within the state of Rio de Janeiro. We collected socioeconomic and demographic data, as well as data regarding the health care system and the medical history of the patients. Results: The median time elapsed from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 68 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 35-119 days). The median patient delay (time from symptom onset to initial medical visit) was 30 days (IQR: 15-60 days), and the median health care system delay (time from initial medical visit to diagnosis) was 21 days (IQR: 8-47 days). A cut-off point of 21 days was adopted. The factors independently associated with patient delay were female gender, cough, and unemployment [adjusted OR (95% CI) = 2.7 (1.3-5.6); 11.6 (2.3-58.8); and 2.0 (1.0-3.8), respectively], whereas only female gender was independently associated with health care system delay (OR= 3.2; 95% CI: 1.7-6.0). Conclusions: Delayed diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis remains a problem in Rio de Janeiro, increasing the risk of transmission and mortality, that risk being greater for women and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. Patients might not recognize the significance of chronic cough as a health problem. Tuberculosis education programs targeting women might improve this situation.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Neoplasm metastasis; Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols; Radiotherapy, computer-assisted.

 

15 - Identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from clinical sterile sites in patients at a university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Identificação de micobactérias não tuberculosas isoladas de sítios estéreis em pacientes em um hospital universitário na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

Simone Gonçalves Senna, Ana Grazia Marsico, Gisele Betzler de Oliveira Vieira, Luciana Fonseca Sobral, Philip Noel Suffys, Leila de Souza Fonseca

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):521-526

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolated from sterile sites in patients hospitalized between 2001 and 2006 at the Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: During the study period, 34 NTM isolates from sterile sites of 14 patients, most of whom were HIV-positive, were submitted to phenotypic identification and hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA). Results: Most isolates were identified as Mycobacterium avium, followed by M. monacense, M. kansasii, and M. abscessus. Conclusions: The combination of PRA, a relatively simple and inexpensive method, with the evaluation of a few phenotypic characteristics can allow NTM to be accurately identified in the routine of clinical laboratories.

 


Keywords: Mycobacteria, atypical; Molecular biology; Polymerase chain reaction.

 

Review Article

16 - Pharmacological treatment of COPD

Tratamento farmacológico da DPOC

Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Silvia Elaine Cardozo Macedo, Ricardo Bica Noal, Jussara Fiterman, Alberto Cukier, José Miguel Chatkin, Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes; Grupo de Trabalho da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia, Grupo de Trabalho do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Epidemiologia da

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):527-543

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Approximately seven million Brazilians over 40 years of age have COPD. In recent years, major advances have been made in the pharmacological treatment of this condition. We performed a systematic review including original articles on pharmacological treatments for COPD. We reviewed articles written in English, Spanish, or Portuguese; published between 2005 and 2009; and indexed in national and international databases. Articles with a sample size < 100 individuals were excluded. The outcome measures were symptoms, pulmonary function, quality of life, exacerbations, mortality, and adverse drug effects. Articles were classified in accordance with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria for the determination of the level of scientific evidence (grade of recommendation A, B, or C). Of the 84 articles selected, 40 (47.6%), 18 (21.4%), and 26 (31.0%) were classified as grades A, B, and C, respectively. Of the 420 analyses made in these articles, 236 were regarding the comparison between medications and placebos. Among these 236 analyses, the most commonly studied medications (in 66, 48, and 42 analyses, respectively) were long-acting anticholinergics; the combination of long-acting 2 agonists and inhaled corticosteroids; and inhaled corticosteroids in isolation. Pulmonary function, adverse effects, and symptoms as outcomes generated 58, 54, and 35 analyses, respectively. The majority of the studies showed that the medications evaluated provided symptom relief; improved the quality of life and pulmonary function of patients; and prevented exacerbations. Few studies analyzed mortality as an outcome, and the role that pharmacological treatment plays in this outcome has yet to be fully defined. The medications studied are safe to use in the management of COPD and have few adverse effects.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/therapy; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/mortality; Review.

 

17 - Pulmonary rehabilitation programs for patients with COPD

Programas de reabilitação pulmonar em pacientes com DPOC

Fernando César Wehrmeister, Marli Knorst, José Roberto Jardim, Silvia Elaine Cardozo Macedo, Ricardo Bica Noal, Jeovany Martínez-Mesa, David Alejandro González, Samuel Carvalho Dumith, Maria de Fátima Maia, Pedro Curi Hallal, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):544-555

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pulmonary rehabilitation programs are aimed at providing benefits to COPD patients, in various aspects. Our objective was to review the literature on COPD patient rehabilitation. This systematic review involved articles written in English, Spanish, or Portuguese; published between 2005 and 2009; and indexed in national and international databases. Articles were classified in accordance with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria for the determination of the level of scientific evidence (grade of recommendation A, B, or C). The outcome measures were exercise, quality of life, symptoms, exacerbations, mortality, and pulmonary function. Treatments were classified as standard rehabilitation, partial rehabilitation, strength exercises, and resistance exercises. Of the 40 articles selected, 4, 18, and 18 were classified as grades A, B, and C, respectively. Of the 181 analyses made in these articles, 61, 50, 23, 23, 20, and 4, respectively, were related to the outcome measures quality of life, exercise, symptoms, exacerbations, pulmonary function, and mortality. The standard rehabilitation programs showed positive effects on all of the outcomes evaluated, except for mortality (because of the small number of analyses). However, we found no differences among the various rehabilitation programs regarding their effects on the outcomes studied. Rehabilitation programs can be considered important tools for the treatment of COPD. Therefore, health administrators should implement public policies including such programs in the routine of health care facilities.

 


Keywords: Rehabilitation; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Review.

 

Case Report

19 - Cutaneous metastasis as the initial manifestation of lung adenocarcinoma

Metástase cutânea como primeira manifestação de adenocarcinoma pulmonar

Marcos Pantarotto, Liliana Lombo, Helena Pereira, Antonio Araújo

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):556-559

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We report the case of a 58-year-old male patient who was referred for oncology consultation due to an epigastric mass that had been growing rapidly for three months. Diagnostic investigation revealed that the mass was a metastasis of stage IV lung adenocarcinoma. The patient received five cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine as a first-line treatment, which was interrupted due to major adverse events. Although the pulmonary disease stabilized, the cutaneous disease progressed. The patient then received pemetrexed as a second-line chemotherapy, together with concurrent external radiotherapy, which was well tolerated. There was complete remission of the epigastric mass. However, the patient died three months after the treatment. Here, we emphasize the importance of a multidisciplinary approach and of its role in individualizing the treatment.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Neoplasm metastasis; Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols; Radiotherapy, computer-assisted.

 

Letters to the Editor

20 - Takotsubo cardiomyopathy triggered by 2 adrenergic agonist

Cardiomiopatia de takotsubo desencadeada pelo uso de agonista β2-adrenérgico

Vera Maria Cury Salemi, Edmar Atik, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla, Eduardo Lira Queiroz, Leonardo Vieira da Rosa, Roberto Kalil Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):560-562

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


21 - Talc asbestosis and pulmonary tuberculosis in a patient exposed to the talc used in the production of soccer balls

Talcoasbestose e tuberculose pulmonar em paciente exposta a talco em confecção de bolas de futebol

Olívia Meira Dias, Mauro Canzian, Mário Terra-Filho, Ubiratan de Paula Santos

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):563-566

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


22 - Severe persistent asthma responsive to off-label use of omalizumab despite high and low levels of total serum IgE

Asma persistente grave com resposta ao uso off label de omalizumabe, não obstante a IgE sérica total ser alta ou baixa

Nobuhiro Asai, Yoshihiro Ohkuni, Akina Komatsu, Ryo Matsunuma, Kei Nakashima, Norihiro Kaneko

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):567-570

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Year 2011 - Volume 37  - Number 5  (September/October)

App

Editorial

1 - The new irrationalism in weaning

A nova irracionalidade no desmame

Martin J. Tobin

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


2 - Six-minute walk test: necessary in order to understand patient limitations

Valores de referência: uma necessidade para compreendermos a limitação dos nossos pacientes

Celso Ricardo Fernandes Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Original Article

3 - Six-minute walk test: reference values for healthy adults in Brazil

Teste de caminhada de seis minutos: valores de referência para adultos saudáveis no Brasil

Maria Raquel Soares, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):576-583

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To develop regression equations for six-minute walk distance (6MWD) in healthy adults (20-80 years of age) in Brazil. Methods: We included 132 volunteers (66 males) without respiratory disease, cardiac disease, or comorbidities that affect ambulation. The volunteers completed three six-minute walk tests. Prior to and at the end of each test, we obtained SpO2 and maximal HR, as well as the Borg scale scores for sensation of dyspnea and lower limb fatigue. The data included in the final analysis were derived from the test with the greatest 6MWD. Results: The mean 6MWD values were 566 ± 87 m and 538 ± 95 m in males and females, respectively (p = 0.08). The 6MWD was greater in taller individuals and decreased in parallel with increases in age or body index mass (BMI). The best adjusted model was the quadratic model. We derived the following equation (valid for both genders): 6MWD = 511 + stature2 (cm) × 0.0066 − age2 × 0.030 − BMI2 × 0.068. This equation explained 55% of the variance in 6MWD. Conclusions: Reference values explaining a high proportion of the variance were derived by a quadratic regression model in healthy adults (of a wide range of ages) in Brazil. Keywords: Reference values; Exercise test; Walking.

 


Keywords: Reference values; Exercise test; Walking.

 

4 - Acute asthma management in children: knowledge of the topic among health professionals at teaching hospitals in the city of Recife, Brazil

Manejo de crises asmáticas em crianças: conhecimento de profissionais de saúde quanto ao tópico em hospitais-escola do Recife (PE)*

Giovanna Menezes de Medeiros Lustosa, Murilo Carlos Amorim de Britto, Patrícia Gomes de Matos Bezerra

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):584-588

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: Knowledge of acute asthma management in children is a subject that has rarely been explored. The objective of this study was to assess the level of such knowledge among health professionals in the city of Recife, Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey involving 27 pediatricians and 7 nurses, all with at least two years of professional experience, at two large pediatric teaching hospitals in Recife. The participants completed a self-administered multiple-choice questionnaire. Results: The pediatricians and nurses all possessed insufficient knowledge regarding the use of metered dose inhalers, nebulization, and types/doses of medications, as well as techniques for decontamination and disinfection of the equipment. Conclusions: Insufficient knowledge of acute asthma management in children can lead to less effective treatment in hospitals such as those evaluated here. Educational programs should be developed in order to minimize this problem.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Health knowledge, attitudes, practice; Nebulizers and vaporizers.

 

5 - An experimental rat model of ex vivo lung perfusion for the assessment of lungs after prostacyclin administration: inhaled versus parenteral routes

Modelo experimental de perfusão pulmonar ex vivo em ratos: avaliação de desempenho de pulmões submetidos à administração de prostaciclina inalada versus parenteral

Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Rogério Pazetti, Henrique Takachi Moriya, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Francine Maria de Almeida, Aristides Tadeu Correia, Karina Fechini, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):589-597

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To present a model of prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) administration (inhaled vs. parenteral) and to assess the functional performance of the lungs in an ex vivo lung perfusion system. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were anesthetized and placed on mechanical ventilation followed by median sterno-laparotomy and anticoagulation. The main pulmonary artery was cannulated. All animals were maintained on mechanical ventilation and were randomized into four groups (10 rats/group): inhaled saline (IS); parenteral saline (PS); inhaled PGI2 (IPGI2); and parenteral PGI2 (PPGI2). The dose of PGI2 used in the IPGI2 and PPGI2 groups was 20 and 10 µg/kg, respectively. The heart-lung blocks were submitted to antegrade perfusion with a low potassium and dextran solution via the pulmonary artery, followed by en bloc extraction and storage at 4°C for 6 h. The heart-lung blocks were then ventilated and perfused in an ex vivo lung perfusion system for 50 min. Respiratory mechanics, hemodynamics, and gas exchange were assessed. Results: Mean pulmonary artery pressure following nebulization decreased in all groups (p < 0.001), with no significant differences among the groups. During the ex vivo perfusion, respiratory mechanics did not differ among the groups, although relative oxygenation capacity decreased significantly in the IS and PS groups (p = 0.04), whereas mean pulmonary artery pressure increased significantly in the IS group. Conclusions: The experimental model of inhaled PGI2 administration during lung extraction is feasible and reliable. During reperfusion, hemodynamics and gas exchange trended toward better performance with the use of PGI2 than that with the use of saline.

 


Keywords: Prostaglandins; Lung transplantation; Reperfusion; Models, animal; Rats.

 

6 - Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: pulmonary function tests and post-transplant mortality

Testes de função pulmonar e mortalidade após o transplante de células-tronco hematopoiéticas

Eliane Viana Mancuzo, Nilton Alves de Rezende

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):598-606

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether the results of pulmonary function tests carried out in patients subsequently submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are associated with post-HSCT mortality. Methods: This was a prospective study involving patients older than 15 years of age who were submitted to allogenic HSCT between January of 2007 and March of 2008 at the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, located in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Prior to HSCT, all of the patients underwent spirometry, determination of lung volumes, and determination of DLCO. Those same tests were repeated six months, one year, and two years after HSCT. Kaplan-Meier curves and two-tailed log-rank tests were used for survival analysis. The relative risk (RR) and 95% CI were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model. The Cox regression model was used in the multivariate analysis. Results: The pre-HSCT pulmonary function results were normal in 40 (74.1%) of the 54 patients evaluated, 19 (35.2%) of whom died within the first 100 days after HSCT. By the end of the two-year follow-up period, 23 patients (42.6%) had died, the most common causes of death being septicemia, observed in 11 (47.8%), and septicemia-related respiratory insufficiency, observed in 10 (43.4%). The only variables significantly associated with post-HSCT mortality were alterations in spirometry results prior to HSCT (RR = 3.2; p = 0.016) and unrelated donor (RR = 9.0; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Performing spirometry prior to HSCT provides baseline values for future comparisons. Although alterations in spirometry results reveal a higher risk of post-HSCT mortality, such alterations do not contraindicate the procedure.

 


Keywords: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation/mortality; Respiratory function tests; Donor selection.

 

7 - Reference equations for the performance of healthy adults on field walking tests

Equações de referência para os testes de caminhada de campo em adultos saudáveis

Victor Zuniga Dourado, Milena Carlos Vidotto, Ricardo Luís Fernandes Guerra

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):607-614

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To develop regression equations for predicting six-minute and incremental shuttle walk distances (6MWD and ISWD, respectively), based on demographic characteristics, anthropometric variables, and grip strength. Methods: We evaluated 6MWD and ISWD in 98 healthy adults. Height, weight, and grip strength were also assessed. Using data from 90 of the participants (40 males; 60 ± 9 years of age), we devised linear equations adjusted for age, gender, height, and weight, and we developed alternate models that included grip strength. We prospectively applied the equations in the 8 remaining participants (4 males; 59 ± 10 years), who had been randomly separated from the initial sample. Results: Age, gender, height, and weight collectively explained 54.5% and 64.9% of the variance in 6MWD and ISWD, respectively, whereas age, height, weight, and grip strength collectively explained 54.4% and 69.0% of the respective variances. There was no significant difference between the measured and predicted 6MWD using equations with and without grip strength (14 ± 57 vs. 13 ± 67 m). Similar results were observed for ISWD (25 ± 104 vs. 25 ± 93 m). Conclusions: Grip strength is a determinant of ISWD and 6MWD; however, it could not improve the power of equations adjusted by demographic and anthropometric variables. The validity of our models including grip strength should be further evaluated in patients with skeletal muscle dysfunction.

 


Keywords: Walking; Exercise; Reference Values; Exercise test.

 

8 - Spirometric reference values for healthy adults in the Mazandaran province of Iran

Valores de referência para espirometria em adultos saudáveis na província de Mazandaran, Irã

Siavash Etemadinezhad, Ahmad Alizadeh

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):615-620

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: One of the major issues in the use of spirometry is the evaluation of the values obtained in comparison with standardized reference values. Such reference values should be determined by studying populations similar to the population in which they are intended to be used. Considering the anthropometric differences among races and the effect of regional issues, such as climate and air quality, it is recommended that these standards be set and used regionally. The objective of this study was to measure the spirometric values in residents of the Mazandaran province in Iran, as well as to determine which standardized reference values most closely correlate with the values obtained and to devise predictive equations for the target population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 1,499 volunteers, from whom demographic and anthropometric data were collected. After having been instructed in the correct procedure, each volunteer underwent spirometry. From each volunteer, we obtained three spirometry curves that met the acceptability criteria established by the American Thoracic Society. The test with the highest values of FEV1 and FVC was employed in the analysis. Results: We observed significant correlations between the measured values and the reference values, for both genders. The strongest correlations were with the European Respiratory Society reference values and with the 18-20 year age bracket. The predictive equations devised were based on the regression coefficients obtained and the demographic data collected. Conclusions: Our results show that the European Respiratory Society standard is the most appropriate standard for use in the population studied.

 


Keywords: Spirometry/statistics  numerical data; Climate effects; Reference values; Iran.

 

9 - Influenza A (H1N1)-associated pneumonia

Pneumonia associada a influenza A (H1N1)

Antonello Nicolini, Simonassi Claudio, Fabrizio Rao, Lorenzo Ferrera, Michele Isetta, Monica Bonfiglio

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):621-627

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the characteristics of patients with influenza A (H1N1)-associated pneumonia treated at two hospitals in the region of Liguria, Italy, as well as to describe their treatment and outcomes. Methods: This was a prospective observational study including all patients older than 16 years of age with a confirmed diagnosis of influenza A (H1N1) who were admitted to Villa Scassi Hospital, in the city of Genoa, Italy, or to the Sestri Levante General Hospital, in the city of Sestri Levante, Italy, between September of 2009 and January of 2010. The primary outcome measure was mortality within 60 days after diagnosis. Secondary outcome measures were the need for mechanical ventilation and the length of hospital stay. Results: Of the 40 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of influenza A (H1N1), 27 presented pneumonia during the study period. The mean age of the 27 patients was 42.8 ± 14.8 years, and the mean length of hospital stay was 11.6 ± 8.2 days. Of the 27 patients, 20 had respiratory failure, 4 underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 5 underwent noninvasive ventilation. One patient had comorbidities, developed multiple organ failure, and died. Conclusions: During the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, the associated mortality rate was lower in Italy than in other countries, and cases reported in the country typically had a milder course than did those reported elsewhere. Nevertheless, 9 of our cases (33%) rapidly evolved to respiratory failure, requiring mechanical ventilation.

 


Keywords: Pneumonia; Influenza A virus, H1N1 subtype; Respiratory insufficiency.

 

10 - Restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene in clinical isolates from patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresina, Brazil

Análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 de isolados clínicos de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar em Teresina, Piauí

Maria das Graças Motta e Bona, Maria José Soares Leal, Liline Maria Soares Martins, Raimundo Nonato da Silva, José Adail Fonseca de Castro, Semiramis Jamil Hadad do Monte

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):628-635

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify mycobacterial species in the sputum of patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine the impact that the acquisition of this knowledge has on the therapeutic approach. Methods: We evaluated 106 patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and referred to the pulmonology department of a public hospital in the city of Teresina, Brazil. Morning sputum specimens were evaluated for the presence of mycobacteria by sputum smear microscopy and culture. We used PCR and restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene (PRA-hsp65) to identify the strains of mycobacteria isolated in culture. Results: A total of 206 sputum samples were analyzed. Patient ages ranged from 15 to 87 years, and 67% were male. There was cough in 100% of the cases. The predominant radiographic pattern was moderate disease, observed in 70%. Smear positivity was 76%, and isolation in culture occurred in 91% of the cultures. Traditional tests identified nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 9% of the isolates. The PRA-hsp65 method confirmed these data, showing seven band patterns that were able to identify the isolated species of NTM: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5; and M. gordonae 7. All of the patients with NTM were over 60 years of age, and bronchiectasis was seen in 88% of the X-rays. There were two cases of reinfection, initially attributed to M. abscessus and M. kansasii. Conclusions: In immunocompetent patients, NTM can infect the lungs. It is important to identify the specific NTM in order to establish the correct diagnosis and choose the most appropriate therapeutic regimen. The PRA-hsp65 method is useful in identifying NTM species and can be implemented in molecular biology laboratories that do not specialize in the identification of mycobacteria. Keywords:

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mycobacteria, atypical; Polymerase chain reaction; Brazil.

 

11 - Active tuberculosis among health care workers in Portugal

Tuberculose ativa entre profissionais de saúde em Portugal

José Castela Torres da Costa, Rui Silva, José Ferreira, Albert Nienhaus

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):636-645

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the incidence of active tuberculosis (TB) in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs). Methods: Descriptive study of active TB cases identified in an occupational health screening of 6,112 HCWs between 2005 and 2010. Cases of active TB were defined as those in which Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified by direct microscopy or culture; those in which there were symptoms or clinical signs of TB and necrotizing granuloma, as detected by histology; and those in which the radiological findings were consistent with active TB. Results: Among the 6,112 HCWs evaluated, we identified 62 cases of active TB: pulmonary TB (n = 43); pleural TB (n = 15); lymph node TB (n = 2); pericardial TB (n = 1); and cutaneous TB (n = 1). Seven HCWs were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. Of the 62 cases of active TB, 48 developed within the first 10 years of occupational exposure in the workplace, 36 of those occurring within the first 5 years. Physicians and nurses accounted for the highest numbers of cases (22 and 21, respectively). Conclusions: In HCWs employed in Portugal, the TB burden is high. Physicians and nurses are the HCWs who are at the highest risk of developing active TB. We found the risk of developing this disease to be highest in the first years of exposure, as has been reported in previous studies. In high-incidence countries, TB screening of HCWs is important for controlling the transmission of this disease.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Occupational health; Health personnel.

 

12 - Tuberculin skin test: operational research in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

Teste tuberculínico: pesquisa operacional no Mato Grosso do Sul

Sandra Maria do Valle Leone de Oliveira, Antônio Ruffino-Netto, Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago, Olcinei Alves de Oliveira, Marli Marques, Rivaldo Venâncio da Cunha, Renato Andreotti

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):646-654

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate operational aspects of tuberculin skin test (TST) use in tuberculosis control programs and at specialized Brazilian National Sexually Transmitted Diseases/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis Program health care clinics in priority municipalities for tuberculosis control in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, epidemiological survey. Data on qualifications/training of professionals administering TSTs, timing of the TST, procedures in cases of loss to follow-up (reading), material availability, and material storage were collected through interviews and technical visits. For the 2008-2009 period, we determined the numbers of screenings in vulnerable populations, of TSTs performed, and of patients treated for latent tuberculosis. Results: We interviewed 12 program managers in six municipalities. Some programs/clinics did not perform TSTs. Nursing teams administered the TSTs, results were read by non-specialists, and specialization/refresher courses were scarce. The PPD RT23 was stored in 5-mL flasks under appropriate conditions. Insulin syringes were commonly used. Testing was available during business hours, three times a week. In cases of loss to follow-up, telephone calls or home visits were made. Of the 2,305 TSTs evaluated, 1,053 (46%) were performed in indigenous populations; 831 (36%) were screenings in prisons, performed for training; and only 421 (18%) involved contacts of tuberculosis patients or vulnerable populations. Four vulnerable patients and 126 indigenous subjects were treated for latent tuberculosis. Conclusions: These priority municipalities showed operational difficulties regarding human resources, materials, and data records.

 


Keywords: Tuberculin test; Health services research; HIV; Latent tuberculosis; Chemoprevention.

 

Brief Communication

13 - Occurrence of influenza among patients hospitalized for suspicion of influenza A (H1N1) infection in 2010 at a sentinel hospital in São Paulo, Brazil

Ocorrência de influenza em pacientes hospitalizados com suspeita de infecção por influenza A (H1N1) em 2010 em um hospital sentinela na cidade de São Paulo

Thaís Boim Melchior, Sandra Baltazar Guatura, Clarice Neves Camargo, Aripuanã Sakurada Aranha Watanabe, Celso Granato, Nancy Bellei

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):655-658

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In 2010, 96 patients suspected of being infected with the influenza A (H1N1) virus were hospitalized at the Hospital São Paulo, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Of those 96 patients, 4 (4.2%) were found to be infected with influenza A virus-3 with influenza A (H1N1) and 1 with seasonal influenza A-and 2 patients (2.1%) were found to be infected with influenza B virus. Most (63.5%) of the suspected cases occurred in children, as did half of the positive cases. The second wave of influenza A (H1N1) infection was weaker in São Paulo. The decrease in the number of hospitalizations for H1N1 infection in 2010 might be attributable to vaccination.

 


Keywords: Influenza A virus, H1N1 subtype; Influenza, human; Pneumonia; Pandemics.

 

14 - Negative expiratory pressure test: a new, simple method to identify patients at risk for obstructive sleep apnea

Teste de pressão negativa expiratória: um novo método simples para identificar pacientes com risco para apneia obstrutiva do sono

Luis Vicente Franco de Oliveira, Salvatore Romano, Raquel Pastréllo Hirata, Newton Santos de Faria Júnior, Lílian Chrystiane Giannasi, Sergio Roberto Nacif, Fernando Sergio Studart Leitão Filho, Giuseppe Insalaco

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):659-663

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of this article was to describe a new method for assessing expiratory flow limitation during spontaneous breathing, using the negative expiratory pressure test to identify patients at risk for obstructive sleep apnea. Upper airway collapsibility is evaluated by measuring decreases in flow and in expired volume in the first 0.2 seconds after negative expiratory pressure application at 10 cmH2O. The negative expiratory pressure test is easily applied and could be adopted for the evaluation of expiratory flow limitation caused by upper airway obstruction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

 


Keywords: Sleep apnea, obstructive/diagnosis; Sleep apnea, obstructive/prevention and control; Airway resistance.

 

15 - Identification of Mycobacterium bovis among mycobacterial isolates from human clinical specimens at a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Identificação de Mycobacterium bovis em cepas micobacterianas isoladas de espécimes clínicos humanos em um complexo hospitalar na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

Luciana Fonseca Sobral, Rafael Silva Duarte, Gisele Betzler de Oliveira Vieira, Marlei Gomes da Silva, Neio Boechat, Leila de Souza Fonseca

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):664-668

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In 2005 and 2006, 8,121 clinical specimens submitted to the Mycobacteriology Laboratory of the Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital/Thoracic Diseases Institute, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were inoculated on Löwenstein-Jensen medium containing glycerol and pyruvate. There were 79 mycobacteria isolates that presented growth only on pyruvate-containing medium, and those isolates were selected for the presumptive identification of Mycobacterium bovis. The selected isolates were screened with biochemical tests, PCR amplification (with the specific primers Rv0577 and Rv1510), and pyrazinamide susceptibility tests. All of the strains isolated showed specific phenotypical and genotypical patterns characteristic of M. tuberculosis, and no M. bovis strains were detected.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium bovis; Polymerase chain reaction.

 

Review Article

16 - Predictive parameters for weaning from mechanical ventilation

Parâmetros preditivos para o desmame da ventilação mecânica

Sérgio Nogueira Nemer, Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):669-679

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The use of predictive parameters for weaning from mechanical ventilation is a rather polemic topic, and the results of studies on this topic are divergent. Regardless of the use of these predictive parameters, the spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) is recommended. The objective of the present study was to review the utility of predictive parameters for weaning in adults. To that end, we searched the Medline, LILACS, and PubMed databases in order to review articles published between 1991 and 2009, in English or in Portuguese, using the following search terms: weaning/desmame, extubation/extubação, and weaning indexes/indices de desmame. The use of clinical impression is an inexact means of predicting weaning outcomes. The most widely used weaning parameter is the RR/tidal volume (VT) ratio, although this parameter presents heterogeneous results in terms of accuracy. Other relevant parameters are MIP, airway occlusion pressure (P0.1), the P0.1/MIP ratio, RR, VT, minute volume, and the index based on compliance, RR, oxygenation, and MIP. An index created in Brazil, the integrative weaning index, has shown high accuracy. Although recommended, the SBT is inaccurate, approximately 15% of extubation failures going unidentified in SBTs. The main limitations of the weaning indexes are related to their use in specific populations, the cut-off points selected, and variations in the types of measurement. Since the SBT and the clinical impression are not 100% accurate, the weaning parameters can be useful, especially in situations in which the decision as to weaning is difficult.

 


Keywords: Weaning; Intensive care units; Ventilators, mechanical; Respiration, artificial.

 

17 - Gastroesophageal reflux disease and airway hyperresponsiveness: concomitance beyond the realm of chance?

Doença do refluxo gastroesofágico e hiperresponsividade das vias aéreas: coexistência além da chance?

Jaqueline Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Ratier, Emilio Pizzichini, Marcia Pizzichini

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):680-688

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Gastroesophageal reflux disease and asthma are both quite common the world over, and they can coexist. However, the nature of the relationship between these two diseases remains unclear. In this study, we review controversial aspects of the relationships among asthma, airway hyperresponsiveness, and gastroesophageal reflux disease in adults and in children.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Bronchial hyperreactivity; Gastroesophageal reflux.

 

Case Report

18 - Pulmonary actinomycosis as a pseudotumor: A rare presentation

Actinomicose pulmonar na forma pseudotumoral: Uma apresentação rara

Hylas Paiva da Costa Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Almeida de Araújo, Jeancarlo Fernandes Cavalcanti, Roberta Lacerda Almeida de Miranda, Rachel de Alcântara Oliveira Ramalho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):689-693

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Some lung diseases are true diagnostic challenges due to their various clinical presentations. Actinomycosis is one such disease, potentially affecting various organs and systems. We report the case of a patient with pulmonary actinomycosis as a pseudotumor, which is usually only diagnosed by thoracotomy or thoracoscopy.

 


Keywords: Actinomycosis; Thoracic neoplasms; Bacterial infections and mycoses.

 

Letters to the Editor

19 - Robotic thymectomy for myasthenia gravis

Timectomia robótica para miastenia gravis

Rodrigo Afonso da Silva Sardenberg, Ricardo Zugaib Abadalla, Igor Renato Louro Bruno Abreu, Eli Faria Evaristo, Riad Naim Younes

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):694-696

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


20 - Diaphragmatic pacing: unusual indication with successful application

Marca-passo diafragmático: indicação incomum, aplicação bem-sucedida

Rodrigo Afonso da Silva Sardenberg, Liliana Bahia Pereira Secaf, Adriana Cordeiro Pinotti, Mário Augusto Taricco, Roger Schmidt Brock, Riad Naim Younes

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):697-699

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21 - Nonfunctional middle mediastinal paraganglioma: diagnostic and surgical management

Paraganglioma não funcional de mediastino médio: diagnóstico e manejo cirúrgico

Marcelo Cunha Fatureto, João Paulo Vieira dos Santos, Evelyne Gabriela Schmaltz Chaves Marques, Tarcísio Barcelos Evangelista, Wilson Alves Marques da Costa

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):700-702

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Year 2011 - Volume 37  - Number 6  (November/December)

App

Editorial

1 - The impact factor for the Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology is arriving

O fator de impacto do Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia está chegando

Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):703-704

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Original Article

2 - Asthma control and quality of life in patients with moderate or severe asthma

Controle da asma e qualidade de vida em pacientes com asma moderada ou grave

Eanes Delgado Barros Pereira, Antonio George de Matos Cavalcante, Eduardo Nolla Silva Pereira, Pedro Lucas, Marcelo Alcântara Holanda

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):704-711

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the association between degree of asthma control and health-related quality of life in patients with moderate or severe asthma. Methods: This was a descriptive observational study involving 59 outpatients with moderate or severe asthma under treatment at the Asthma Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of Ceará Walter Cantídio University Hospital, in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. The patients were evaluated regarding sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as spirometric parameters. The asthma control status was assessed using the asthma control test (ACT), and quality of life was assessed using the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Results: The mean age of the patients was 55.0 ± 12.4 years, and 76.3% were female. The ACT score showed statistically significant negative correlations with all SGRQ scores: total (r = −0.72); symptoms (r = −0.78); activity (r = −0.67); and impact (r = −0.68). Multiple regression analysis showed that the most robust predictive variables for SGRQ total score were ACT score (coefficient = −3.18; 95% CI: −4.14 to −2.23) and duration of disease (coefficient = −0.29; 95% CI: −0.54 to −0.03). The ACT score also explained the linear variation of the SGRQ domains: symptoms (coefficient = −3.41; 95% CI: −4.45 to −2.37); activity (coefficient = −3.07; 95% CI: −4.57 to −1.57); and impact (coefficient = −2.68; 95% CI: −3.71 to −1.65). Conclusions: The degree of asthma control appears to have a significant impact on health-related quality of life.

 


Keywords: Asthma/prevention and control; Quality of life; Questionnaires.

 

3 - Analysis of physiological variables during acute hypoxia and maximal stress test in adolescents clinically diagnosed with mild intermittent or mild persistent asthma

Análise de variáveis fisiológicas de adolescentes com diagnóstico clínico de asma leve intermitente ou leve persistente quando submetidos a hipóxia aguda e teste de esforço máximo

Martin Maldonado, Luiz Osório Cruz Portela

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):712-719

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze adolescents clinically diagnosed with asthma, in terms of the physiological changes occurring during acute hypoxia and during a maximal stress test. Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study involving 48 adolescents (12-14 years of age) who were divided into three groups: mild intermittent asthma (MIA, n = 12); mild persistent asthma (MPA, n = 12); and control (n = 24). All subjects were induced to acute hypoxia and were submitted to maximal stress testing. Anthropometric data were collected, and functional variables were assessed before and after the maximal stress test. During acute hypoxia, the time to a decrease in SpO2 and the time to recovery of SpO2 (at rest) were determined. Results: No significant differences were found among the groups regarding the anthropometric variables or regarding the ventilatory variables during the stress test. Significant differences were found in oxygen half-saturation pressure of hemoglobin prior to the test and in PaO2 prior to the test between the MPA and control groups (p = 0.0279 and p = 0.0116, respectively), as was in the oxygen extraction tension prior to the test between the MIA and MPA groups (p = 0.0419). There were no significant differences in terms of the SpO2 times under any of the conditions studied. Oxygen consumption and respiratory efficiency were similar among the groups. The use of a bronchodilator provided no significant benefit during the hypoxia test. No correlations were found between the hypoxia test results and the physiological variables. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that adolescents with mild persistent asthma have a greater capacity to adapt to hypoxia than do those with other types of asthma.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Adolescent; Cell hypoxia; Exercise test.

 

4 - Use of inhaler devices and asthma control in severe asthma patients at a referral center in the city of Salvador, Brazil

Manuseio de dispositivos inalatórios e controle da asma em asmáticos graves em um centro de referência em Salvador

Ana Carla Carvalho Coelho, Adelmir Souza-Machado, Mylene Leite, Paula Almeida, Lourdes Castro, Constança Sampaio Cruz, Rafael Stelmach, Álvaro Augusto Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):720-728

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the use of inhaler devices by patients with severe asthma treated via the Programa para o Controle da Asma e Rinite Alérgica na Bahia (ProAR, Bahia State Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Control Program), recording the frequency of their errors in performing key steps and the relationship between such errors and the lack of asthma control. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 467 patients enrolled in the ProAR in the city of Salvador, Brazil. The devices evaluated were metered dose inhalers (MDIs), with or without a spacer, and dry powder inhalers (DPIs; Pulvinal® or Aerolizer®). For the assessment of the inhalation technique, a checklist was used; the patients were asked to demonstrate the technique so that an interviewer could observe all of the steps performed. For the assessment of asthma control, we used the 6-item asthma control questionnaire. Results: Most of the patients showed appropriate inhalation techniques when using the devices. When using an MDI, few patients made mistakes in the key step of "coordinating activation and inhalation" (5.2% and 9.1% with and without the use of a spacer, respectively). During Pulvinal® use, 39% of the patients did not inhale quickly and deeply, compared with only 5.8% during Aerolizer® use. Of the patients that made use of Aerolizer® alone, 71.3% appropriately performed all of the essential steps, and their asthma was controlled. Conclusions: Most of the patients in this sample, all of whom had been submitted to periodic checks of their inhalation technique (as part of the program), used the devices appropriately. Proper inhalation technique is associated with asthma symptom control.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Administration, inhalation; Metered dose inhalers; Dry powdered inhalers.

 

5 - Ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive in partial lobectomy in rats

Adesivo cirúrgico de etil-2-cianoacrilato em lobectomia parcial em ratos

Ariani Cavazzani Szkudlarek, Paula Sincero, Renato Silva de Sousa, Rosalvo Tadeu Hochmuller Fogaça

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):729-734

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the efficacy of ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate adhesive in repairing the lung parenchyma after partial lobectomy in rats, in terms of hemostasis/aerostasis, scarring, and surgical time. Methods: The study involved 30 Wistar rats, randomly divided into five groups (one control group and four study groups). In the study groups, the lung parenchyma was repaired with either cyanoacrylate adhesive or surgical suture following resection of a small or large fragment (25% or 50%, respectively) of the left caudal lung lobe. Results: Surgical time and hemostasis time were shorter in the two groups treated with the adhesive than in the two submitted to suture. There were no significant differences among the groups regarding specific lung compliance. Adherences and inflammatory reactions were more severe in the groups submitted to suture. Conclusions: In this study, the use of cyanoacrylate adhesive helped reduce the surgical time and the intensity of inflammatory reactions, as well as preserving lung compliance. Cyanoacrylate adhesives should be considered an option for lung parenchyma repair, decreasing the risk of complications after partial lobectomy in humans.

 


Keywords: Lung; Pneumonectomy; Cyanoacrylates.

 

6 - Functional performance on the six-minute walk test in patients with cystic fibrosis

Desempenho funcional de pacientes com fibrose cística e indivíduos saudáveis no teste de caminhada de seis minutos

Fabíola Meister Pereira, Maria Ângela Gonçalves de Oliveira Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando Ribeiro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera Toro, Gabriel Hessel, José Dirceu Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):735-744

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare patients with cystic fibrosis and healthy individuals in terms of their functional performance on the six-minute walk test (6MWT). Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study involving healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis treated at a referral university hospital in the city of Campinas, Brazil. The 6MWT was administered in accordance with the American Thoracic Society guidelines, and it was repeated after a 30-min rest period. For all of the participants, RR, HR, SpO2, and Borg scale scores were obtained. For the cystic fibrosis patients, nutritional status and spirometric values were determined. Patients with pulmonary exacerbation were excluded. Spearman's correlation coefficient and repeated measures ANOVA were used. Results: The cystic fibrosis group comprised 55 patients, and the control group comprised 185 healthy individuals. The mean ages were 12.2 ± 4.3 and 11.3 ± 4.3 years, respectively. The six-minute walk distance (6MWD) was significantly shorter in the cystic fibrosis group than in the control group for both tests (547.2 ± 80.6 m vs. 610.3 ± 53.4 m for the first and 552.2 ± 82.1 m vs. 616.2 ± 58.0 m for the second; p < 0.0001 for both). The 6MWD correlated with age, weight, and height only in the cystic fibrosis group. During the tests, SpO2 remained stable, whereas HR and RR increased. Conclusions: In our sample, functional performance on the 6MWT was poorer among the cystic fibrosis patients than among the healthy controls in the same age bracket, and we found immediate repetition of the test to be unadvisable.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Exercise tolerance; Dyspnea.

 

7 - Bronchodilator effect on maximal breath-hold time in patients with obstructive lung disease

Efeito do broncodilatador no tempo de apneia voluntária máxima em pacientes com distúrbios ventilatórios obstrutivos

Raqueli Biscayno Viecili, Paulo Roberto Stefani Sanches, Denise Rossato Silva, Danton Pereira da Silva, André Frota Muller, Sergio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):745-751

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify the role of bronchodilators in the maximal breath-hold time in patients with obstructive lung disease (OLD). Methods: We conducted a case-control study including patients with OLD and a control group. Spirometric tests were performed prior to and after the use of a bronchodilator, as were breath-hold tests, using an electronic microprocessor and a pneumotachograph as a flow transducer. Respiratory flow curves were displayed in real time on a portable computer. The maximal breath-hold times at end-inspiratory volume and at end-expiratory volume (BHTmaxVEI and BHTmaxVEE, respectively) were determined from the acquired signal. Results: A total of 35 patients with OLD and 16 controls were included. Prior to the use of a bronchodilator, the BHTmaxVEI was significantly lower in the OLD group than in the control group (22.27 ± 11.81 s vs. 31.45 ± 15.73 s; p = 0.025), although there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the post-bronchodilator values (24.94 ± 12.89 s vs. 31.67 ± 17.53 s). In contrast, BHTmaxVEE values were significantly lower in the OLD group than in the control group, in the pre- and post-bronchodilator tests (16.88 ± 6.58 s vs. 22.09 ± 7.95 s; p = 0.017; and 21.22 ± 9.37 s vs. 28.53 ± 12.46 s; p = 0.024, respectively). Conclusions: Our results provide additional evidence of the clinical usefulness of the breath-hold test in the assessment of pulmonary function and add to the existing knowledge regarding the role of the bronchodilator in this test.

 


Keywords: Respiratory function tests; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Bronchodilator agents; Apnea.

 

8 - Spirometry with bronchodilator test: effect that the use of large-volume spacers with antistatic treatment has on test response

Prova broncodilatadora na espirometria: efeito do uso de espaçador de grande volume com tratamento antiestático na resposta ao broncodilatador

Flávia de Barros Araújo, Ricardo de Amorim Corrêa, Luis Fernando Ferreira Pereira, Carla Discacciati Silveira, Eliane Viana Mancuso, Nilton Alves de Rezende

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):752-758

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate whether the use of inhaled albuterol via a metered-dose inhaler with a large-volume spacer with antistatic treatment modifies the bronchodilator test results when compared with the usual technique (no spacer). Methods: A prospective study involving 24 patients, 18-45 years of age, clinically suspected of having asthma, and under treatment at the Outpatient Pulmonary Clinic of the Federal University of Minas Gerais Hospital das Clínicas, located in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. All of the patients underwent two bronchodilator tests: one with and one without the use of a large-volume spacer. Results: There was no significant difference in the variation of FEV1 prior to and after bronchodilator use between the two techniques (mean FEV1 = 0.01 L; 95% CI: −0.05 to 0.06; p = 0.824). No statistically significant difference was found between the two techniques regarding the qualitative results on the bronchodilator test (p = 1.00). There was concordance between the techniques in terms of the bronchodilator test results (kappa coefficient = 0.909; p < 0.005). Conclusions: According to the results of this study, the use of large-volume spacers does not significantly modify bronchodilator test results.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Spirometry; Inhalation spacers.

 

9 - Effect of seasonality on the occurrence of respiratory symptoms in a Brazilian city with a tropical climate

Efeito da sazonalidade climática na ocorrência de sintomas respiratórios em uma cidade de clima tropical

José Laerte Rodrigues da Silva Júnior, Thiago Fintelman Padilha, Jordana Eduardo Rezende, Eliane Consuelo Alves Rabelo, Anna Carolina Galvão Ferreira, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):759-767

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the effect that seasonality has on the occurrence of respiratory symptoms in a Brazilian city with a tropical climate. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, in which data related to subjects who sought outpatient treatment at a primary health care clinic in the city of Goiânia, Brazil, were correlated with daily meteorological data. Over a one-year period, all the patients who met the inclusion criteria were interviewed on 44 distinct, randomly selected days (11 days per season). We used ANOVA in order to compare the means of the dependent variables by season. Correlations were drawn between each dependent variable and each meteorological variable. The effects of the meteorological variables were analyzed with an AutoRegressive Moving Average with eXogenous input (ARMAX) model. Results: Of the 3,354 participants, 494 (14.6%) had respiratory symptoms. Although temperature variation alone had no effect on the number of individuals with respiratory symptoms, the low levels of humidity during winter resulted in a statistically significant difference among the seasons (p < 0.01). The mean minimum relative humidity on the three days prior to the interviews correlated negatively with the number of subjects with respiratory symptoms (p = 0.04). An ARMAX model including the same variable showed a statistically significant coefficient (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: In this sample, the number of subjects with respiratory symptoms increased significantly when the relative humidity dropped, and this increase could be predicted using meteorological data.

 


Keywords: Seasons; Tropical climate/adverse effects; Signs and symptoms, respiratory; Logistic models.

 

10 - Clinical, radiological, and laboratory characteristics in pulmonary tuberculosis patients: comparative study of HIV‑positive and HIV-negative inpatients at a referral hospital

Manifestações clínicas, radiológicas e laboratoriais em indivíduos com tuberculose pulmonar: estudo comparativo entre indivíduos HIV positivos e HIV negativos internados em um hospital de referência

Aline Besen, Guilherme Jönck Staub, Rosemeri Maurici da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):768-775

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare clinical, radiological, and laboratory characteristics of individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis co-infected or not with HIV. Methods: A cross-sectional study, in which signs and symptoms were assessed by anamnesis and physical examination in patients hospitalized with pulmonary tuberculosis. The results of sputum smear microscopy and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as hemoglobin levels and CD4+ T-cell counts, were obtained from medical records, and chest X-ray reports were consulted. Results: We included 50 pulmonary tuberculosis patients, who were divided into two groups (HIV-positive and HIV-negative; n = 25 per group). The mean age of the participants was 38.4 ± 10.5 years; 46 (92%) were males; and 27 (54%) were White. Expectoration was presented by 21 (84%) and 13 (52%) of the patients in the HIV-negative and HIV-positive groups, respectively (p = 0.016). Radiological findings of cavitation were present in 10 (43%) and 2 (10%) of the patients in the HIV-negative and HIV-positive groups, respectively (p = 0.016), whereas an interstitial pattern was observed in 18 (78%) and 8 (40%), respectively (p = 0.012). The mean hemoglobin level was 11.1 ± 2.9 g/dL and 9.3 ± 2.2 g/dL in the HIV-negative and HIV-positive groups, respectively (p = 0.015). Conclusions: In our sample of tuberculosis patients, expectoration was less prevalent, hemoglobin levels were lower, and cavitation was less common, as was an interstitial pattern, among those co-infected with HIV than among those without HIV co-infection.

 


Keywords: HIV; Tuberculosis; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

 

11 - Pulmonary tuberculosis treatment regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health: predictors of treatment noncompliance in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil

Fatores preditores para o abandono do tratamento da tuberculose pulmonar preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil na cidade de Porto Alegre (RS)

Simone Teresinha Aloise Campani, José da Silva Moreira, Carlos Nunes Tietbohel

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):776-782

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare clinical, radiological, and laboratory characteristics of individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis co-infected or not with HIV. Methods: A cross-sectional study, in which signs and symptoms were assessed by anamnesis and physical examination in patients hospitalized with pulmonary tuberculosis. The results of sputum smear microscopy and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as hemoglobin levels and CD4+ T-cell counts, were obtained from medical records, and chest X-ray reports were consulted. Results: We included 50 pulmonary tuberculosis patients, who were divided into two groups (HIV-positive and HIV-negative; n = 25 per group). The mean age of the participants was 38.4 ± 10.5 years; 46 (92%) were males; and 27 (54%) were White. Expectoration was presented by 21 (84%) and 13 (52%) of the patients in the HIV-negative and HIV-positive groups, respectively (p = 0.016). Radiological findings of cavitation were present in 10 (43%) and 2 (10%) of the patients in the HIV-negative and HIV-positive groups, respectively (p = 0.016), whereas an interstitial pattern was observed in 18 (78%) and 8 (40%), respectively (p = 0.012). The mean hemoglobin level was 11.1 ± 2.9 g/dL and 9.3 ± 2.2 g/dL in the HIV-negative and HIV-positive groups, respectively (p = 0.015). Conclusions: In our sample of tuberculosis patients, expectoration was less prevalent, hemoglobin levels were lower, and cavitation was less common, as was an interstitial pattern, among those co-infected with HIV than among those without HIV co-infection.

 


Keywords: HIV; Tuberculosis; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

 

12 - Outcomes of tuberculosis treatment among inpatients and outpatients in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

Desfechos de tratamento de tuberculose em pacientes hospitalizados e não hospitalizados no município de São Paulo

Mirtes Cristina Telles Perrechi, Sandra Aparecida Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):783-790

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare inpatient and outpatient treatment of tuberculosis, in terms of outcomes, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, as well to determine which variables are most frequently associated with hospitalization. Methods: A prospective, longitudinal study carried out between January and December of 2007, at two large hospitals and at outpatient clinics, in two regions of the city of São Paulo. For inpatients, data were collected with a structured questionnaire. Additional data were obtained from the São Paulo State Department of Health Tuberculosis Database. Results: Of the 474 patients included in the study, 166 were inpatients, and 308 were outpatients. The multivariate analysis showed that hospitalization for tuberculosis was associated with hospital/emergency room diagnosis of tuberculosis (OR = 55.42), with HIV co-infection (OR = 18.57), with retreatment (OR = 18.51), and with having previously sought treatment at another health care facility (OR = 12.32). For the inpatient and outpatient groups, the overall cure rates were 41.6% and 78.3%, respectively, compared with 30.4% and 58.5% for those who were co-infected with HIV, whereas the overall mortality rates were 29.5% and 2.6%, respectively, compared with 45.7% and 9.8% for those who were co-infected with HIV. Conclusions: Among inpatients, tuberculosis appears to be more severe and more difficult to diagnose, resulting in lower cure rates and higher mortality rates, than among outpatients. In addition, tuberculosis patients co-infected with HIV have less favorable outcomes.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Hospitalization; Primary health care; Treatment outcome.

 

Brief Communication

13 - Ex vivo experimental model: split lung block technique

Modelo experimental ex vivo com bloco pulmonar dividido

Alessandro Wasum Mariani, Israel Lopes de Medeiros, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Flávio Guimarães Fernandes, Fernando do Valle Unterpertinger, Lucas Matos Fernandes, Mauro Canzian, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):791-795

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Since they were first established, ex vivo models of lung reconditioning have been evaluated extensively. When rejected donor lungs are used, the great variability among the cases can hinder the progress of such studies. In order to avoid this problem, we developed a technique that consists of separating the lung block into right and left blocks and subsequently reconnecting those two blocks. This technique allows us to have one study lung and one control lung.

 


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Transplantation conditioning; Organ preservation; Organ preservation solutions.

 

Case Series

14 - Minimally invasive bronchoscopic resection of benign tumors of the bronchi Ressecção minimamente invasiva por broncoscopia de tumores brônquicos benignos

Ressecção minimamente invasiva por broncoscopia de tumores brônquicos benignos

Ascedio Jose Rodrigues, David Coelho, Sérvulo Azevedo Dias Júnior, Márcia Jacomelli, Paulo Rogério Scordamaglio, Viviane Rossi Figueiredo

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):796-800

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Primary benign tumors of the trachea and main bronchi are uncommon. Interventional bronchoscopy allows the diagnosis and the treatment of some of these lesions. Methods: We reviewed four cases endoscopically treated at our institution. Results: Two patients had hamartoma, and two patients had endobronchial lipoma. In all of the cases, the interventional technique for the resection was the use of a polypectomy snare and electrocautery. The only complication reported was one episode of bronchospasm. Conclusions: Minimally invasive bronchoscopic resection is a safe, effective method for treating selected benign tumors of the main airway and has a low complication rate.

 


Keywords: Bronchoscopy; Bronchial neoplasms; Hamartoma; Lipoma.

 

Special Article

15 - Evaluation of articles on pulmonology published in Brazilian journals other than the Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

Avaliação dos artigos de pneumologia publicados em periódicos brasileiros além do Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia

Bruno Guedes Baldi, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):801-808

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In Brazil, research on pulmonology has become increasingly more visible in recent years. In addition to the Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology, other journals have contributed to that by publishing relevant articles in this area. The objective of this article was to briefly report the most relevant studies on pulmonology that were published in other important Brazilian journals between 2009 and 2010. Altogether, there were 56 articles related to the various subareas that compose the field of respiratory diseases.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary medicine; Research; Brazil.

 

Original Article

16 - Treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis: update

Atualização do tratamento das vasculites associadas a anticorpo anticitoplasma de neutrófilos

Alfredo Nicodemos Cruz Santana, Viktoria Woronik, Ari Stiel Radu Halpern, Carmen S V Barbas

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):809-816

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In its various forms, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is characterized by a systemic inflammation of the small and medium-sized arteries (especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, as well as in the kidneys). The forms of AAV comprise Wegener's granulomatosis (now called granulomatosis with polyangiitis), microscopic polyangiitis, renal AAV, and Churg-Strauss syndrome. In this paper, we discuss the phases of AAV treatment, including the induction phase (with cyclophosphamide or rituximab) and the maintenance phase (with azathioprine, methotrexate, or rituximab). We also discuss how to handle patients who are refractory to cyclophosphamide.

 


Keywords: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis; Wegener granulomatosis; Antibodies, antineutrophil cytoplasmic.

 

Case Report

17 - 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography as a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of primary pulmonary artery sarcoma

Tomografia por emissão de pósitrons com 18F fluordesoxiglicose como exame não invasivo para o diagnóstico de sarcomas primários de artéria pulmonar

Olívia Meira Dias, Elisa Maria Siqueira Lombardi, Mauro Canzian, José Soares Júnior, Lucas de Oliveira Vieira, Mário Terra Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):817-822

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pulmonary artery sarcomas are rare, difficult-to-diagnose tumors that frequently mimic chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. We report the cases of two female patients with clinical signs of dyspnea and lung masses associated with pulmonary artery filling defects on chest CT angiography. We performed 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, which revealed increased radiotracer uptake in those lesions. Pulmonary artery sarcoma was subsequently confirmed by anatomopathological examination. We emphasize the importance of this type of tomography as a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of these tumors.

 


Keywords: Positron-emission tomography; Pulmonary artery; Pulmonary embolism; Leiomyosarcoma; Histiocytoma, malignant fibrous.

 

Letters to the Editor

18 - Acute pulmonary schistosomiasis: HRCT findings and clinical presentation

Esquistossomíase pulmonar aguda: achados na TCAR e apresentação clínica

Andréa de Lima Bastos, Isabela Lage Alves de Brito

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):823-825

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


19 - International participation in collaborative studies published in pulmonology journals: where does the Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology rank?

Participação internacional em estudos colaborativos publicados em revistas de pneumologia: onde está o Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia?

Rodrigo Abensur Athanazio, Samia Zahi Rached, Pedro Rodrigues Genta, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):826-828

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20 - A novel position for postural relief of dyspnea

Uma posição incomum para alívio postural da dispneia

José Antônio Baddini Martinez, Heloise Baldan Otero Rodrigues, Alexandre Martins Portelinha

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):829-830

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Index of Issues

21 - SUBJECT INDEX FOR V.37 (1-6)

Índice remissivo de assuntos do volume 37 (1-6), 2011

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):

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Index of Authors

22 - AUTHOR INDEX FOR V.36 (1-6)

Índice remissivo de autores do volume 37 (1-6), 2011

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):

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Relationship of Reviewers

23 - REVIEWERS FOR V. 37 (1-6)

Relação de revisores - 2011

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):

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