Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2012 - Volume 38  - Number 1  (January/February)

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Editorial

1 - Dynamic hyperinflation on exertion: much remains unknown

Hiperinsuflação dinâmica no esforço: ainda muito a ser esclarecido

André Luís Pereira de Albuquerque, Bruno Guedes Baldi

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):1-3

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2 - Let us be cautious and prevent unnecessary patient harm

Sejamos cuidadosos prevenindo danos desnecessários aos pacientes

Alan H. Morris

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):4-6

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Special Article

3 - Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in severe hypoxemia: time for reappraisal?

Oxigenação extracorpórea por membrana na hipoxemia grave: hora de revermos nossos conceitos?

Luciano Cesar Pontes Azevedo, Marcelo Park, Eduardo Leite Vieira Costa, Edzângela Vasconcelos Santos, Adriana Hirota, Leandro Utino Taniguchi, Guilherme de Paula Pinto Schettino, Marcelo Brito Passos Amato, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):7-12

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In 2009, during the influenza A (H1N1) epidemic, there were many reported cases of pulmonary infection with severe hypoxemia that was refractory to the ventilatory strategies and rescue therapies commonly used to treat patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Many of those cases were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), which renewed international interest in the technique. The Extracorporeal Support Study Group was created in order to practice ECMO and to employ it in the treatment of patients with severe hypoxemia. In this article, we discuss the indications for using ECMO and report the case of a patient with refractory hypoxemia who was successfully treated with ECMO.

 


Keywords: : Respiratory Insufficiency; Intensive Care Units; Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

 

Original Article

4 - Dynamic hyperinflation during treadmill exercise testing in patients with moderate to severe COPD

Comportamento da hiperinsuflação dinâmica em teste em esteira rolante em pacientes com DPOC moderada a grave

Priscila Kessar Cordoni, Danilo Cortozi Berton, Selma Denis Squassoni, Maria Enedina Aquino Scuarcialupi, José Alberto Neder, Elie Fiss

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):13-23

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Objective: To characterize the presence, extent, and patterns of dynamic hyperinflation (DH) during treadmill exercise testing in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 30 non-hypoxemic patients (FEV1= 43 ± 14% of predicted) who were submitted to a cardiopulmonary exercise test on a treadmill at a constant speed (70-80% of maximum speed) to the tolerance limit (Tlim). Serial inspiratory capacity (IC) maneuvers were used in order to assess DH. Results: Of the 30 patients studied, 19 (63.3%) presented with DH (DH+ group), having greater pulmonary function impairment at rest than did those without DH (DH− group). None of the variables studied correlated with exercise tolerance in the DH− group, whereas Tlim, IC, and perception of dyspnea during exercise did so correlate in the DH+ group (p < 0.05). In the DH+ group, 7 and 12 patients, respectively, presented with a progressive and a stable pattern of DH (ΔICTlim,2min = −0.28 ± 0.11 L vs. 0.04 ± 0.10 L; p < 0.01). Patients with a progressive pattern of DH presented with higher perception of dyspnea/Tlim rate and lower exercise tolerance than did those with a stable pattern (354 ± 118 s and 465 ± 178 s, respectively; p < 0.05). Conclusions: The presence of DH is not a universal phenomenon during walking in COPD patients, even in those with moderate to severe airflow limitation. In the patients who presented DH, a progressive pattern of DH had a greater impact on exercise tolerance than did a stable pattern of DH.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Exercise; Exercise test; Inspiratory capacity.

 

5 - Occurrence of asthma symptoms and of airflow obstruction in amateur swimmers between 8 and 17 years of age

Ocorrência de sintomas asmáticos e de distúrbio obstrutivo em nadadores amadores de 8 a 17 anos de idade

Iara Nely Fiks, André Luis Pereira de Albuquerque, Leonardo Dias, Celso Ricardo Fernandes de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):24-32

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Objective: To determine the prevalence of asthma symptoms and of airflow obstruction in amateur swimmers between 8 and 17 years of age, as well as to assess the awareness of asthma and asthma management among these swimmers, their parents, and their coaches. Methods: Our sample comprised 1,116 amateur swimmers who completed a modified version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood written questionnaire, to which questions regarding the reasons to initiate swimming and regarding asthma management had been added. In addition, the participants underwent spirometry prior to a swimming competition. Results:   The prevalence of asthma symptoms in the last 12 months was 11.5%, and 327 (29.4%) of the participants reported "wheezing or whistling" in the past. Of the 223 swimmers who reported "asthma ever" or "bronchitis ever", only 102 (45.7%) reported having ever been treated: the most common "treatment" was swimming (in 37.3%), and only 12.7% used inhaled corticosteroids. Of the 254 participants (22.7%) with airflow obstruction, only 52  (20.5%) reported having asthma symptoms. Conclusions: Asthma symptoms are present in amateur swimmers, and a considerable number of such swimmers have airflow obstruction without symptoms. It is therefore likely that the prevalence of asthma is underestimated in this population. It is worrisome that, in our study sample, the swimmers previously diagnosed with asthma were not using the recommended treatments for asthma. The clinical implications of these findings underscore the importance of implementing educational measures for amateur swimmers, as well as for their parents and coaches, to help them recognize asthma symptoms and the consequent risks in the sports environment, in order to allow prompt diagnosis and early clinical intervention.

 


Keywords: Asthma/diagnosis; Asthma/prevention & control; Sports.

 

6 - Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis and staging of mediastinal lymphadenopathy: initial experience in Brazil

Punção aspirativa guiada por ultrassom endobrônquico no diagnóstico e estadiamento de linfadenopatia mediastinal: experiência inicial no Brasil

Miguel Lia Tedde, Viviane Rossi Figueiredo, Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Hélio Minamoto, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):33-40

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Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a new method for the diagnosis and staging of mediastinal lymph nodes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the preliminary results obtained with EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis of lesions and mediastinal lymph node staging. Methods: We evaluated patients with tumors or mediastinal adenopathy, diagnosed with or suspected of having lung cancer. The procedures were performed with the patients under sedation or under general anesthesia. Material was collected by EBUS-TBNA, after which it was prepared on slides, fixed in either absolute alcohol (for cytology) or formalin (for cell-block analysis). Results: We included 50 patients (30 males). The mean age was 58.3 ± 13.5 years. We performed 201 biopsies of 81 lymph nodes or mediastinal masses (mean of 2.5 punctures/biopsy). The quantity of material was considered sufficient for cytology in 37 patients (74%), 21 (57%) of whom were thus diagnosed with malignancy. Of the remaining 16 patients, 1 was diagnosed with tuberculosis, 6 entered clinical follow-up, and 9  underwent further investigation (2 diagnosed with neoplasm-false-negative results). The yield was higher when the procedure was performed for diagnostic purposes, as well as being higher in patients with lesions in multiple stations and in biopsies involving the subcarinal lymph node station. One patient had endobronchial bleeding, which was resolved with local measures. There were no deaths among the patients evaluated. Conclusions: This preliminary experience shows that EBUS-TBNA is a safe procedure. Our diagnostic yield, although lower than that reported in the literature, was consistent with the learning curve for the method.

 


Keywords: Ultrasonography, interventional; Biopsy, fine-needle; Neoplasm staging; Lung neoplasms; Bronchoscopy.

 

7 - High-resolution computed tomography scores in cystic fibrosis patients colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus

Escore tomográfico em pacientes com fibrose cística colonizados por Pseudomonas aeruginosa ou Staphylococcus aureus

Tania Wrobel Folescu, Elizabeth de Andrade Marques, Márcia Cristina Bastos Boechat, Pedro Daltro, Laurinda Yoko Shinzato Higa, Renata Wrobel Folescu Cohen

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):41-49

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare HRCT findings in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients chronically colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus using the modified Bhalla CT scoring system, as well as to evaluate intraobserver and interobserver reliability of the method. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study involving 41 CF patients, 26 of whom were chronically colonized with P. aeruginosa (Pa group), and 15 of whom were colonized with S. aureus (Sa group).Two independent radiologists evaluated the HRCT scans of these patients using the modified Bhalla CT scoring system in two different moments. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: There was good intraobserver and interobserver agreement (ICC > 0.8). Scores were higher in the Pa group than in the Sa group for observer 1 (mean, 13.50 ± 3.90; median, 13.5 vs. mean, 5.00 ± 5.28; median, 3.0) and for observer 2 (mean, 11.96 ± 5.07; median, 12.0 vs. mean, 5.07 ± 5.65; median, 5.0). In addition, HRCT findings, such as bronchiectasis, bronchial wall thickening, mucus plugging, generation of bronchial divisions, and mosaic attenuation/perfusion pattern, were more prevalent in the Pa group. Conclusions: The modified Bhalla CT scoring system was reproducible and reliable for use in the evaluation of HRCT scans, allowing distinctions to be drawn between the two groups of patients under study. The higher scores in the Pa group provided evidence of greater pulmonary impairment in that group.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Tomography; Staphylococcus aureus; Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

 

8 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene mutations and glutathione S-transferase null genotypes in cystic fibrosis patients in Brazil

Mutações do gene cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator e deleções dos genes glutationa S-transferase em pacientes com fibrose cística no Brasil

Carmen Silvia Passos Lima, Manoela Marques Ortega, Fernando Augusto Lima Marson, Roberto Zulli, Antônio Fernando Ribeiro, Carmen Silvia Bertuzzo

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):50-56

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Objective: To determine the effects that mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene and deletion of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes mu-1 (GSTM1) and theta-1 (GSTT1) have on the clinical course of cystic fibrosis (CF) in patients residing in the southeastern region of Brazil. Methods: The study sample consisted of all consecutive CF patients treated at the Hospital de Clínicas School of Medical Sciences of the State University at Campinas between March of 2002 and March of 2005. We included 66 CF patients. Genomic DNA was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease digestion for the identification of the genotypes. Results: The F508 mutation of the CFTR gene was found in 44 patients (66.7%). The null genotypes GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTM1/GSTT1 were found in 40.9%, 15.2%, and 3.0% of the patients, respectively. The F508 CFTR mutation was more common in patients diagnosed with CF before 2.5 years of age than in those diagnosed later (75.5% vs. 41.2%; p = 0.008). The frequency of the F508 CFTR mutation, as well as of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes, was not found to be associated with gender, ethnicity, pulmonary disease status, or pancreatic disease status. Conclusions: When the patients were stratified by clinical and epidemiological features, the frequencies of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes were similar, suggesting that the inherited absence of these enzymatic pathways does not alter the course of CF. However, the high frequency of the F508 CFTR mutation found in younger children suggests that it influences the age at diagnosis of CF in this region of Brazil.

 


Keywords: : Cystic fibrosis; Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; Glutathione transferase.

 

9 - Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009: risk factors for hospitalization

Influenza pandêmica A (H1N1) 2009: fatores de risco para o internamento

Luana Lenzi, Ângela Maron de Mello, Lineu Roberto da Silva, Mônica Holtz Cavichiolo Grochocki, Roberto Pontarolo

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):57-65

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Objective: To evaluate pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in hospitalized patients in order to identify risk factors for hospitalization and, consequently, for the worsening of the disease. Methods: This retrospective observational study was conducted between March and December of 2010. The data were collected from the Brazilian Ministry of Health National Case Registry Database. We included only patients (inpatients and outpatients) in whom H1N1 infection was confirmed (via laboratory testing) during the study period. The variables regarding demographic and clinical characteristics were statistically evaluated in order to compare the hospitalization rates in the presence or absence of these factors. Risk factors were identified by logistic regression analysis. Results: We included 4,740 patients with laboratory confirmation of H1N1 infection. Of these, 1,911 individuals were hospitalized, and 258 (13.5%) died. The risk factors for hospitalization were age (20-29 years), African or Indigenous ethnicity, presence of specific comorbidities (heart disease, lung disease, kidney disease, hemoglobinopathy, immunosuppression, diabetes, obesity, puerperium, and smoking), a high number of comorbidities, and specific symptoms (dyspnea, diarrhea, vomiting, chest pain, hemoptysis, pneumonia, and wheezing). Higher levels of education and early use of oseltamivir were found to be protective factors. Hospitalization contributed to an increase in survival. Conclusions: Knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics that can be associated with hospitalization, disease severity, and mortality can be helpful in the adoption of preventive measures, as well as in the early diagnosis and treatment of disease, which might contribute to the reduction in the numbers of hospitalizations and deaths.

 


Keywords: Influenza A virus, H1N1 subtype; Hospitalization; Risk factors; Oseltamivir.

 

10 - Streptococcus pneumoniae: susceptibility to penicillin and moxifloxacin

Streptococcus pneumoniae: sensibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina

Flávia Rossi, Maria Renata Gomes Franco, Heleni Mota de Pina Rodrigues, Denise Andreazzi

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):66-71

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Objective: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated at a hospital center. Methods: In-vitro, prospective study involving 100 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients who had been treated, between October of 2008 and July of 2010, at the Hospital das Clínicas complex of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolates were obtained from respiratory tract cultures or blood samples unrelated to meningeal infections, and they were tested for penicillin and moxifloxacin susceptibility by E-test. The MIC category interpretations were based on updated standards. Results: All isolates were fully susceptible to parenteral penicillin (MIC ≤ 2 µg/mL), and, consequently, they were also susceptible to amoxicillin, ampicillin, third/fourth generation cephalosporins, and ertapenem. Of the S. pneumoniae strains, 99% were also susceptible to moxifloxacin, and only one strain showed an MIC = 1.5 µg/mL (intermediate). Conclusions: Our results showed high susceptibility rates to parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin among S. pneumoniae isolates unrelated to meningitis, which differs from international reports. Reports on penicillin resistance should be based on updated breakpoints for non-meningitis isolates in order to guide the selection of an antimicrobial therapy and to improve the prediction of the clinical outcomes.

 


Keywords: Drug resistance; Penicillin G; Pneumococcal infections; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Respiratory tract infections. Drug resistance; Penicillin G; Pneumococcal infections; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Respiratory tract infections.

 

11 - Smoking among patients hospitalized at a university hospital in the south of Brazil: prevalence, degree of nicotine dependence, and motivational stage of change

Tabagismo entre pacientes internados em um hospital universitário no sul do Brasil: prevalência, grau de dependência e estágio motivacional

Rafael Balsini Barreto, Mariângela Pimental Pincelli, Rafael Steinwandter, André Pacheco Silva, Jóice Manes, Leila John Marques Steidle

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):72-80

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Objective: To determine the prevalence and profile of smoking among hospitalized patients at a university hospital in the south of Brazil. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving patients over 18 years of age hospitalized for over 24 h at the Federal University of Santa Catarina University Hospital, located in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil. The patients were interviewed on two distinct occasions. We collected demographic data, socioeconomic data, and data regarding smoking. Results: We interviewed 235 patients: 44 (18.7%) were smokers; 77 (32.8%) were former smokers; 114 (48.5%) were nonsmokers; and 109 (46.7%) were passive smokers. The mean age of the smokers was 45.7 ± 15.2 years, and 29 (65.9%) were male. Among the smokers, the median age at smoking initiation was 15 years; the mean smoking history was 32 ± 30.2 pack-years; 36 (81.9%) smoked up to 20 cigarettes/day; 20 (45.4%) had a high or very high degree of nicotine dependence; 32 (72.7%) had already tried to quit smoking; 39 (88.7%) would like to quit smoking; 32 (72.7%) would accept smoking cessation treatment; 13 (29.5%) smoked during hospitalization; and 13 (29.5%) suffered withdrawal syndrome. Regarding the motivation to quit smoking, the number of patients in the "preparation" and "action" stages of change increased from admission to discharge (from 31.8% to 54.8%). Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking in this study was similar to that reported in other studies conducted in Brazil. The results suggest that our sample was significant regarding the population of hospitalized smokers, who are motivated to quit smoking during hospitalization and require a systematized approach for doing so.

 


Keywords: Smoking/epidemiology; Hospitalization; Smoking cessation.

 

12 - Audiometric evaluation of patients treated for pulmonary tuberculosis

Avaliação audiométrica de pacientes em tratamento para tuberculose pulmonar

Karla Anacleto de Vasconcelos, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Silvana Frota, Marco Antonio de M Tavares de Lima

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):81-87

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Objective: To evaluate the hearing status of patients being treated for pulmonary tuberculosis at referral hospitals in Brazil. Methods: This was a descriptive study involving 97 male and female inpatients/outpatients between 18 and 60 years of age who were undergoing treatment for active pulmonary tuberculosis at one of two referral hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro. After being interviewed, all of the patients underwent pure tone audiometry. Results: Of the 97 patients studied, 65 (67%) were male, 52 (54%) were receiving first-line treatment, and 45 (46%) were receiving second-line treatment, which included aminoglycosides. Smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to noise, and ototoxic medication use were identified in 65 (67%), 51 (53%), 53 (55%), and 45 (46.4%) of the patients, respectively. The most common auditory and vestibular complaints were dizziness, in 28 patients (28.8%); tinnitus, in 27 (27.8%); and hypoacusis, in 23 (23.7%). Conclusions: Due to the great number of patients with hearing loss in the present study, we recommend that all patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis be submitted to auditory monitoring.

 


Keywords: Audiometry; Hearing loss; Tuberculosis; Drug toxicity.

 

13 - Predictors of tuberculosis treatment outcomes

Preditores dos desfechos do tratamento da tuberculose

Renata de Lima Orofino, Pedro Emmanuel Americano do Brasil, Anete Trajman, Carolina Arana Stanis Schmaltz, Margareth Dalcolmo, Valéria Cavalcanti Rolla

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):88-97

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Objective: To analyze tuberculosis treatment outcomes and their predictors. Methods: This was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2004 and 2006 at the Instituto de Pesquisa Evandro Chagas, in the city of Rio de Janeiro. We estimated adjusted risk ratios (ARRs) for the predictors of treatment outcomes. Results: Among 311 patients evaluated, the rates of cure, treatment abandonment, treatment failure, and mortality were 72%, 19%, 2%, and 6%, respectively. Changes in the treatment regimen due to adverse events occurred in 8%. The factors found to reduce the probability of cure were alcoholism (ARR, 0.30), use of the streptomycin+ethambutol+ofloxacin (SEO) regimen (ARR, 0.32), HIV infection without the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART; ARR, 0.36), and use of the rifampin+isoniazid+pyrazinamide+ethambutol regimen (ARR, 0.58). Being younger and being alcoholic both increased the probability of abandonment (ARR, 3.84 and 1.76, respectively). It was impossible to determine the ARR for the remaining outcomes due to their low prevalence. However, using the relative risk (RR), we identified the following potential predictors of mortality: use of the SEO regimen (RR, 11.43); HIV infection without ART (RR, 9.64); disseminated tuberculosis (RR, 9.09); lack of bacteriological confirmation (RR, 4.00); diabetes mellitus (RR, 3.94); and homosexual/bisexual behavior (RR, 2.97). Low income was a potential predictor of treatment failure (RR, 11.70), whereas disseminated tuberculosis and HIV infection with ART were potential predictors of changes in the regimen due to adverse events (RR, 3.57 and 2.46, respectively). Conclusions: The SEO regimen should not be used for extended periods. The data confirm the importance of ART and suggest the need to use it early.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; HIV; Rifampin; Drug toxicity; Risk factors; Medication adherence.

 

14 - Low tidal volume mechanical ventilation and oxidative stress in healthy mouse lungs

Ventilação mecânica com baixo volume corrente e estresse oxidativo em pulmões saudáveis de camundongos

Karla Maria Pereira Pires, Adriana Correa Melo, Manuella Lanzetti, Natália Vasconcelos Casquilho, Walter Araújo Zin, Luís Cristóvão Porto, Samuel Santos Valença

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):98-104

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Objective: Mechanical ventilation (MV) itself can directly contribute to lung injury. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate early biomarkers concerning oxidant/antioxidant balance, oxidative stress, and inflammation caused by short-term MV in healthy mouse lungs. Methods: Twenty male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: MV, submitted to low tidal volume (VT, 6 mL/kg) MV for 30 min; and spontaneous respiration (SR), used as controls. Lung homogenate samples were tested regarding the activity of various antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α expression. Results: In comparison with the SR group, the MV group showed a significant decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (≈35%; p < 0.05), together with an increase in the activity of catalase (40%; p < 0.01), glutathione peroxidase (500%; p < 0.001), and myeloperoxidase (260%; p < 0.001), as well as a reduction in the glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio (≈50%; p < 0.05) and an increase in TNF-α expression in the MV group. Oxidative damage, assessed by lipid peroxidation, was also greater in the MV group (45%; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results show that short-term low VT MV can directly contribute to lung injury, generating oxidative stress and inflammation in healthy mouse lungs.

 


Keywords: Lesão pulmonar induzida por ventilação mecânica; Respiração artificial; Estresse oxidativo; Inflamação; Camundongos.

 

Review Article

15 - Magnetic resonance of the lung: a step forward in the study of lung disease

Ressonância magnética de pulmão: um novo passo no estudo das doenças pulmonares

Bruno Hochhegger, Edson Marchiori, Klaus Irion, Arthur Soares Souza Junior, Jackson Volkart, Adalberto Sperb Rubin

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):105-115

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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lung has progressed tremendously in recent years. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use. The main advantage of MRI of the lung is its unique combination of structural and functional assessment in a single imaging session. We review the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lung: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular disease; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

 


Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging; Lung; Lung diseases; Carcinoma, non-small-cell lung; Lung diseases, interstitial; Pneumonia.

 

16 - The use of step tests for the assessment of exercise capacity in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic lung disease

O uso de testes do degrau para a avaliação da capacidade de exercício em indivíduos saudáveis e pacientes com doenças pulmonares crônicas

Carlos Henrique Silva de Andrade, Reinaldo Giovanini Cianci, Carla Malaguti, Simone Dal Corso

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):116-124

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Step tests are typically used to assess exercise capacity. Given the diversity of step tests, the aim of this review was to describe the protocols that have been used in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic lung disease. Step tests for use in healthy subjects have undergone a number of modifications over the years. In most step tests, the duration is variable (90 s-10 min), but the step height (23.0-50.8 cm) and stepping rate (22.5-35.0 steps/min) remain constant throughout the test. However, the use of a fixed step height and constant stepping rate might not provide adequate work intensity for subjects with different levels of fitness, the workload therefore being above or below individual capacity. Consequently, step test protocols have been modified by introducing changes in step heights and stepping rates during the test. Step tests have been used in patients with chronic lung diseases since the late 1970s. The protocols are quite varied, with adjustments in step height (15-30 cm), pacing (self-paced or externally paced), and test duration (90 s-10 min). However, the diversity of step test protocols and the variety of outcomes studied preclude the determination of the best protocol for use in individuals with chronic lung disease. Shorter protocols with a high stepping rate would seem to be more appropriate for assessing exercise-related oxygen desaturation in chronic lung disease. Symptom-limited testing would be more appropriate for evaluating exercise tolerance. There is a need for studies comparing different step test protocols, in terms of their reliability, validity, and ability to quantify responses to interventions, especially in individuals with lung disease.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Asthma; Cystic fibrosis; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; Exercise tolerance; Exercise test.

 

Case Series

17 - Aspergillus fumigatus fungus ball in the pleural cavity

Bola fúngica por Aspergillus fumigatus em cavidade pleural

Luciana Silva Guazzelli, Cecília Bittencourt Severo, Leonardo Santos Hoff, Geison Leonardo Fernandes Pinto, José Jesus Camargo, Luiz Carlos Severo

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):125-132

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To report the cases of 6 patients with fungus ball caused by Aspergillus fumigatus (aspergilloma) in the pleural cavity. Methods: Between 1980 and 2009, 391 patients were diagnosed with aspergilloma at the Santa Casa Hospital Complex in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The diagnosis of aspergilloma in the pleural cavity was made through imaging tests revealing effusion and pleural thickening with air-fluid level; direct mycological examination revealing septate hyphae, consistent with Aspergillus sp.; and positive culture for A. fumigatus in the surgical specimen from the pleural cavity. Results: Of the 391 patients studied, 6 (2%) met the established diagnostic criteria. The mean age of those 6 patients was 48 years (range, 29-66 years), and 5 (83%) were male. The most common complaints were cough, expectoration, and hemoptysis. Four patients (67%) had a history of tuberculosis that had been clinically cured. All of the patients were submitted to surgical removal of the aspergilloma, followed by intrapleural instillation of amphotericin B, in 4; and 2 received systemic antifungal treatment p.o. There was clinical improvement in 5 patients, and 1 died after the surgery. Conclusions: In adult patients with a history of cavitary lung disease or pleural fistula, a careful investigation should be carried out and fungal infection, especially aspergilloma, should be taken into consideration. In such cases, laboratory testing represents the most efficient use of the resources available to elucidate the diagnosis.

 


Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus; Tuberculosis; Empyema, pleural; Pleural effusion.

 

Case Report

18 - Carcinoid tumor and pulmonary sequestration

Tumor carcinoide e sequestro pulmonar

Fernando Luiz Westphal, Luís Carlos de Lima, José Corrêa Lima Netto, Maria do Socorro Lucena Cardoso, Márcia dos Santos da Silva, Danielle Cristine Westphal

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):133-137

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Pulmonary sequestration is defined as a mass of lung tissue separated from the tracheobronchial tree and irrigated by an anomalous systemic artery. It is rarely seen in conjunction with lung neoplasms. We report the case of a 39-year-old female patient diagnosed with a carcinoid tumor, located in the intermediate bronchus and accompanied by bronchiectasis in the right lower lobe. The patient underwent thoracotomy for the resection of the affected area. During surgery, she presented with significant hemorrhage resulting from the transection of the anomalous artery that irrigated an intralobar pulmonary sequestration, which was located in right lower lobe and had not been identified in pre-operative examinations.

 


Keywords: Bronchopulmonary sequestration; Hemorrhage; Carcinoid tumor.

 

Letter to the Reader

19 - Subglottic cyst: a rare cause of laryngeal stridor

Cisto subglótico: uma causa rara de estridor laríngeo

Ascedio José Rodrigues, Silvia Regina Cardoso, Diamari Caramelo Ricci Cereda, Manoel Ernesto Peçanha Gonçalves

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):138-139

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20 - Protective ventilation and alveolar recruitment maneuver in a patient with leptospirosis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome

Estratégia ventilatória protetora e manobra de recrutamento alveolar em paciente com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo por leptospirose

Natália Paula Gomes, Zilaís Linhares Carneiro Menescal, Marcelo Alcântara Holanda

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):140-142

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Letters to the Editor

21 - Sickle cell anemia: a significant potential cause of pulmonary hypertension in Brazil

Anemia falciforme: uma importante causa potencial de hipertensão pulmonar no Brasil

Adriana Ignacio de Padua, José Antônio Baddini Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):

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Year 2012 - Volume 38  - Number 2  (March/April)

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Editorial

1 - Recommendations and implementation of guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia: more problems than solutions

Recomendações e implementação de diretrizes sobre pneumonia adquirida na comunidade: mais problemas do que soluções

Jorge Luiz Pereira-Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):148-157

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Original Article

2 - Adherence to guidelines and its impact on outcomes in patients hospitalized with community- acquired pneumonia at a university hospital

Adesão a diretrizes e impacto nos desfechos em pacientes hospitalizados por pneumonia adquirida na comunidade em um hospital universitário

Carla Discacciati Silveira, Cid Sérgio Ferreira, Ricardo de Amorim Corrêa

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):148-157

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the agreement between the criteria used for hospitalization of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and those of the Brazilian Thoracic Association guidelines, and to evaluate the association of that agreement with 30-day mortality. Secondarily, to evaluate the agreement between the treatment given and that recommended in the guidelines with length of hospital stay, microbiological profile, 12-month mortality, complications, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and 30-day mortality. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving adult patients hospitalized between 2005 and 2007 at the Federal University of Minas Gerais Hospital das Clínicas, located in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Medical charts and chest X-rays were reviewed. Results: Among the 112 patients included in the study, admission and treatment criteria were in accordance with the guidelines in 82 (73.2%) and 66 (58.9%), respectively. The 30-day and 12-month mortality rates were 12.3% and 19.4%, respectively. The 30-day mortality rate was lower for patients in whom the CRB-65 (mental Confusion, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure, and age ≥ 65 years) score was 1-2 and the antibiotic therapy was in accordance with the guidelines (p = 0.01). Cerebrovascular disease and appropriate antibiotic therapy showed independent associations with 30-day mortality. There was a trend toward an association between guideline-concordant antibiotic therapy and shorter hospital stay. Conclusions: In the population studied, admission and treatment criteria that were in accordance with the guidelines were associated with favorable outcomes in hospitalized patients with CAP. Cerebrovascular disease, as a risk factor, and guideline-concordant antibiotic therapy, as a protective factor, were associated with 30-day mortality.

 


Keywords: Pneumonia/therapy; Pneumonia/mortality; Hospitalization; Guideline adherence.

 

3 - Persistent pulmonary function impairment in children and adolescents with asthma

Função pulmonar persistentemente reduzida em crianças e adolescentes com asma

Fernanda Luisi, Leonardo Araujo Pinto, Laura Marostica, Marcus Herbert Jones, Renato Tetelbom Stein, Paulo Márcio Pitrez

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):158-166

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Objective: Asthma is the most common chronic pulmonary disease, characterized by bronchial inflammation. Some children with asthma have persistent pulmonary function impairment. The prevalence and etiology of this abnormality in children with asthma in developing countries remain unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the proportion of patients with impaired pulmonary function who were unresponsive to treatment in a group of children and adolescents with asthma, and to describe the phenotypic characteristics of the sample. Methods: Using a standardized questionnaire, we selected outpatients (5-17 years of age) diagnosed with persistent asthma. These patients underwent spirometry and skin prick tests for sensitivity to common aeroallergens. Persistent pulmonary function impairment was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio < 0.80, even after 10 days of treatment with bronchodilators and oral corticosteroids. We used the atopic index to differentiate between patients with little or no response to the skin prick test and those with a strong response (cut-off point: 4 allergens). Results: We included 96 patients with a mean age of 10.6 years. Of those, 52 (54.1%) were male, and 89 (92.7%) were atopic. Of the 96 patients, 8 (8.3%) had impaired pulmonary function even after the treatment. Among those patients, 8 (100%) were atopic, 7 (87.5%) had moderate or severe asthma, and 7 (87.5%) had a history of hospitalization for acute bronchiolitis. Conclusions: Children and adolescents with moderate or severe asthma can present with impaired pulmonary function and be unresponsive to treatment. This clinical situation has been little studied in developing countries, and its risk factors and etiology will be better understood only through birth cohort studies.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Respiratory function tests; Allergy and immunology.

 

4 - Bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with negative sputum smear microscopy results

Broncoscopia no diagnóstico de tuberculose pulmonar em pacientes com baciloscopia de escarro negativa

Márcia Jacomelli, Priscila Regina Alves Araújo Silva, Ascedio Jose Rodrigues, Sergio Eduardo Demarzo, Márcia Seicento, Viviane Rossi Figueiredo

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):167-173

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Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of bronchoscopy in patients with clinical or radiological suspicion of tuberculosis who were unable to produce sputum or with negative sputum smear microscopy results. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study involving 286 patients under clinical or radiological suspicion of having pulmonary tuberculosis and submitted to bronchoscopy-BAL and transbronchial biopsy (TBB). The BAL specimens were submitted to direct testing and culture for AFB and fungi, whereas the TBB specimens were submitted to histopathological examination. Results: Of the 286 patients studied, 225 (79%) were diagnosed on the basis of bronchoscopic findings, as follows: pulmonary tuberculosis, in 127 (44%); nonspecific chronic inflammation, in 51 (18%); pneumocystis, fungal infections, or nocardiosis, in 20 (7%); bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, alveolites, or pneumoconiosis, in 14 (5%); lung or metastatic neoplasms, in 7 (2%); and nontuberculous mycobacterium infections, in 6 (2%). For the diagnosis of tuberculosis, BAL showed a sensitivity and a specificity of 60% and 100%, respectively. Adding the TBB findings significantly increased this sensitivity (to 84%), as did adding the post-bronchoscopy sputum smear microscopy results (total sensitivity, 94%). Minor post-procedure complications occurred in 5.6% of the cases. Conclusions: Bronchoscopy is a reliable method for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, with low complication rates. The combination of TBB and BAL increases the sensitivity of the method and facilitates the differential diagnosis with other diseases.

 


Keywords: Bronchoscopy; Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Sputum; Bronchoalveolar lavage; Biopsy.

 

5 - Optical coherence tomography in conjunction with bronchoscopy

Tomografia de coerência óptica broncoscópica

Ascedio José Rodrigues, Celso Kiyochi Takimura, Pedro Alves Lemos Neto, Viviane Rossi Figueiredo

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):174-180

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of bronchoscopy in patients with clinical or radiological suspicion of tuberculosis who were unable to produce sputum or with negative sputum smear microscopy results. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study involving 286 patients under clinical or radiological suspicion of having pulmonary tuberculosis and submitted to bronchoscopy-BAL and transbronchial biopsy (TBB). The BAL specimens were submitted to direct testing and culture for AFB and fungi, whereas the TBB specimens were submitted to histopathological examination. Results: Of the 286 patients studied, 225 (79%) were diagnosed on the basis of bronchoscopic findings, as follows: pulmonary tuberculosis, in 127 (44%); nonspecific chronic inflammation, in 51 (18%); pneumocystis, fungal infections, or nocardiosis, in 20 (7%); bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, alveolites, or pneumoconiosis, in 14 (5%); lung or metastatic neoplasms, in 7 (2%); and nontuberculous mycobacterium infections, in 6 (2%). For the diagnosis of tuberculosis, BAL showed a sensitivity and a specificity of 60% and 100%, respectively. Adding the TBB findings significantly increased this sensitivity (to 84%), as did adding the post-bronchoscopy sputum smear microscopy results (total sensitivity, 94%). Minor post-procedure complications occurred in 5.6% of the cases. Conclusions: Bronchoscopy is a reliable method for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, with low complication rates. The combination of TBB and BAL increases the sensitivity of the method and facilitates the differential diagnosis with other diseases.

 


Keywords: Bronchoscopy; Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Sputum; Bronchoalveolar lavage; Biopsy.

 

6 - Differentiating between tuberculosis-related and lymphoma‑related lymphocytic pleural effusions by measuring clinical and laboratory variables: Is it possible?

É possível diferenciar derrames pleurais linfocíticos secundários a tuberculose ou linfoma através de variáveis clínicas e laboratoriais?

Leila Antonangelo, Francisco Suso Vargas, Eduardo Henrique Genofre, Caroline Maris Neves de Oliveira, Lisete Ribeiro Teixeira, Roberta Karla Barbosa de Sales

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):181-187

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Objective: To describe clinical and laboratory characteristics in patients with tuberculosis-related or lymphoma-related lymphocytic pleural effusions, in order to identify the variables that might contribute to differentiating between these diseases. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 159 adult HIV-negative patients with tuberculosis-related or lymphoma-related lymphocytic effusions (130 and 29 patients, respectively), treated between October of 2008 and March of 2010 at the Pleural Diseases Outpatient Clinic of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas Heart Institute, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Results: Mean age and the mean duration of symptoms were lower in the tuberculosis group than in the lymphoma group. The levels of proteins, albumin, cholesterol, amylase, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) in pleural fluid, as well as the serum levels of proteins, albumin, and amylase, were higher in the tuberculosis group, whereas serum cholesterol and triglycerides were higher in the lymphoma group. Pleural fluid leukocyte and lymphocyte counts were higher in the tuberculosis group. Of the tuberculosis group patients, none showed malignant cells; however, 4 showed atypical lymphocytes. Among the lymphoma group patients, cytology for neoplastic cells was positive, suspicious, and negative in 51.8%, 24.1%, and 24.1%, respectively. Immunophenotyping of pleural fluid was conclusive in most of the lymphoma patients. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate clinical and laboratory similarities among the patients with tuberculosis or lymphoma. Although protein and ADA levels in pleural fluid tended to be higher in the tuberculosis group than in the lymphoma group, even these variables showed an overlap. However, none of the tuberculosis group patients had pleural fluid ADA levels below the 40-U/L cut-off point.

 


Keywords: Pleural effusion; Tuberculosis; Lymphoma; Adenosine deaminase; Diagnosis, differential.

 

7 - Using the interrupter technique to evaluate airway resistance in cystic fibrosis patients

Utilização da técnica do interruptor na avaliação da resistência das vias aéreas em pacientes com fibrose cística

Alessandra Rocha, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes Donadio, Dariana Vale de Ávila, Patricia Xavier Hommerding, Paulo José Cauduro Marostica

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):188-193

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Objetivo: Medir a resistência de vias aéreas utilizando a técnica de resistência do interruptor (Rint) em pacientes com fibrose cística (FC) e correlacioná-la com parâmetros espirométricos, assim como avaliar a acurácia de Rint para determinar a resposta das vias aéreas a um broncodilatador. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 38 crianças e adolescentes com FC acompanhados no Ambulatório de FC do Hospital São Lucas, em Porto Alegre (RS). Após a determinação de Rint, os pacientes foram submetidos à espirometria. Para a avaliação da resposta ao broncodilatador, as medições foram repetidas após o uso de salbutamol inalatório. Resultados: Houve uma forte correlação entre o inverso de Rint e VEF1 (r = 0,8; p < 0,001) e moderadas correlações entre o inverso de Rint e FEF25-75% (r = 0,74; p < 0,001) e entre o inverso de Rint e índice de massa corpórea (r = 0,62; p < 0,001). A curva ROC foi utilizada na comparação da resposta ao broncodilatador determinada por Rint com aquela determinada por valores espirométricos. Para um ponto de corte de −28% para Rint, a área sob a curva foi de 0,75, com uma sensibilidade de 66% e uma especificidade de 82%. Conclusões: Nossos achados indicam que Rint apresenta uma boa correlação com parâmetros espirométricos, embora a técnica Rint não tenha sido suficientemente acurada para substituir a espirometria na avaliação da resposta ao broncodilatador.

 


Keywords: Testes de função respiratória; Fibrose cística; Espirometria; Resistência das vias respiratórias.

 

8 - Using the interrupter technique to evaluate airway resistance in cystic fibrosis patients

Pletismografia respiratória por indutância: estudo comparativo entre calibração por manobra de isovolume e calibração qualitativa diagnóstica em voluntários saudáveis avaliados em diferentes posturas

Renata Cléia Claudino Barbosa, Celso Ricardo Fernandes de Carvalho, Henrique Takachi Moriya

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):194-201

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Objective: To compare two methods of respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) calibration in three different positions. Methods: We evaluated 28 healthy subjects (18 women and 10 men), with a mean age of 25.4 ± 3.9 years. For all of the subjects, isovolume maneuver calibration (ISOCAL) and qualitative diagnostic calibration (QDC) were used in the orthostatic, sitting, and supine positions. In order to evaluate the concordance between the two calibration methods, we used ANOVA and Bland-Altman plots. Results: The values of the constant of proportionality (K) were significantly different between ISOCAL and QDC in the three positions evaluated: 1.6 ± 0.5 vs. 2.0 ± 1.2, in the supine position, 2.5 ± 0.8 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 in the sitting position, and 2.0 ± 0.8 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 in the orthostatic position (p < 0.05 for all). Conclusions: Our results suggest that QDC is an inaccurate method for the calibration of RIP. The K values obtained with ISOCAL reveal that RIP should be calibrated for each position evaluated.

 


Keywords: Plethysmography; Respiratory mechanics; Posture; Calibration.

 

9 - Time from symptom onset to the initiation of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in a city with a high incidence of the disease

Tempo entre o início dos sintomas e o tratamento de tuberculose pulmonar em um município com elevada incidência da doença

Marina de Loureiro Maior, Renata Leborato Guerra, Michelle Cailleaux-Cezar, Jonathan Eric Golub, Marcus Barreto Conde

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):202-209

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Objective: To estimate the time elapsed between the onset of symptoms and the initiation of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis among treatment-naïve patients with positive results in sputum smear microscopy, and to evaluate the variables associated with delays in diagnosis and in treatment initiation. Methods: This was a descriptive exploratory study involving 199 treatment-naïve tuberculosis patients ≥ 12 years of age with AFB-positive sputum smear microscopy results between 2006 and 2008. At their first (treatment initiation) visit to a primary health care clinic in the city of Nova Iguaçu, Brazil, the patients were interviewed and their ancillary test results were reviewed. Results: The medians (and respective interquartile ranges) of the time from symptom onset to the initiation of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, from symptom onset to seeking medical attention, from entry into care to diagnosis, and from entry into care to treatment initiation, in weeks, were 11 (6-24), 8 (4-20), 2 (1-8), and 1 (1-1), respectively. The variables gender, age, level of education, previous use of antibiotics, HIV status, site of first medical visit, and radiological extent of tuberculosis showed no associations with the time from entry into care to diagnosis or to treatment initiation. The main reason for the delay in seeking medical attention reported by the patients was their inability to recognize their symptoms as indicators of a disease. Conclusions: Among the patients studied, there was an unacceptably long delay between the onset of symptoms and the initiation of tuberculosis treatment.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Tuberculosis/therapy; Delayed diagnosis.

 

Brief Communication

10 - Evaluation of the nitrate reductase assay for the rapid detection of resistance to first-line medications in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients in a general hospital

Avaliação do teste de nitrato redutase para a detecção rápida de resistência aos medicamentos de primeira linha em cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis isoladas de pacientes em um hospital geral

Maria de Fátima Filardi Oliveira Mansur, Wânia da Silva Carvalho, Raquel Bandeira da Silva, Rodrigo Gonçalves Cata Preta, Lucas Almeida Fernandes Junior, Silvana Spíndola de Miranda

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):210-213

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We compared the nitrate reductase assay with the proportion method, which is considered the gold standard, in 57 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients treated at the Federal University of Minas Gerais Hospital das Clínicas, located in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. For rifampin and isoniazid, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the nitrate reductase assay were all 100%, whereas they were 100%, 88.9%, and 66.7%, respectively, for streptomycin and 98.0%, 100%, and 98.2%, respectively, for ethambutol. The mean time to results was ten days. In the study sample, the nitrate reductase assay proved highly accurate and showed excellent concordance with the gold standard.

 


Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Microbial sensitivity tests; Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant; Nitrate reductase.

 

11 - A new model of a self-expanding tracheal stent made in Brazil: an experimental study in rabbits

Novo modelo de endoprótese traqueal autoexpansível de fabricação nacional: estudo experimental em coelhos

Celso Murilo Nálio Matias de Faria, Olavo Ribeiro Rodrigues, Helio Minamoto, Patricia Maluf Cury, José de Mendonça Costa Neto, Domingo Marcolino Braile

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):214-217

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We aimed to test a new model of self-expanding tracheal stent so that it might be made available for clinical use. Using direct laryngoscopy, we placed polyurethane-coated, nitinol stents into the middle third of the trachea in 25 New Zealand rabbits. After a mean observation period of 26 days, we evaluated stent migration, degree of expansion, attachment, adherence, formation of granulation tissue, presence of inflammatory infiltrate, parietal involvement, and epithelial lining. The results showed complete radial expansion, little adherence to the tracheal mucosa, and low tissue attachment, as well as high rates of granuloma formation and stent migration. This new model proved to be biocompatible and showed a behavior similar to that of other stents on the market.

 


Keywords: Prosthesis implantation; Tracheal stenosis; Rabbits; Stents.

 

Ensaio Pictórico

12 - Aspects of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and of adenocarcinoma with a bronchioloalveolar component: CT findings

Aspectos tomográficos do carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar e dos adenocarcinomas mistos com componente bronquíolo-alveolar

Pedro Paulo Teixeira e Silva Torres, Julia Capobianco, Marcelo Eustáquio Montandon Júnior, Gustavo Souza Portes Meirelles

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):218-225

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Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma has various presentations and a wide spectrum of imaging patterns, as does adenocarcinoma with a bronchioloalveolar component. The objective of this essay was to describe and illustrate the CT findings that are most characteristic of these tumors. Three presentations are described: solitary pulmonary nodule, consolidation, and diffuse pattern. The last two should be included in the differential diagnosis, together with infectious diseases. Knowledge of the various presentations and the use of proper diagnostic procedures are crucial to early diagnosis and to improving survival.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Adenocarcinoma, bronchiolo-alveolar; Tomography, X-ray computed.

 

Special Article

13 - Mycoplasma pneumoniae em crianças e adolescentes Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related community-acquired pneumonia and parapneumonic pleural effusion in children and adolescents

Pneumonia adquirida na comunidade e derrame pleural parapneumônico relacionados a Mycoplasma pneumoniae em crianças e adolescentes

Letícia Alves Vervloet, Vitor Earl Cardoso Vervloet, Mário Tironi Junior, José Dirceu Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):226-236

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Objective: To determine the prevalence and the characteristics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and parapneumonic pleural effusion (PPE) in children and adolescents. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study involving 121 patients with CAP/PPE hospitalized in a tertiary referral hospital between 2000 and 2008, divided into six groups according to the etiologic agent (G1 to G6, respectively): M. pneumoniae with or without co-infection, in 44 patients (group 1); etiologic agents other than M. pneumoniae, in 77 (group 2); M. pneumoniae without co-infection, in 34 (group 3); Streptococcus pneumoniae, in 36 (group 4); Staphylococcus aureus, in 31 (group 5); and M. pneumoniae/S. pneumoniae co-infection, in 9 (group 6). Results: In comparison with group 2, group 1 showed higher frequencies of females, dry cough, and previous use of beta-lactam antibiotics; longer duration of symptoms prior to admission; and lower frequencies of use of mechanical ventilation and chest tube drainage. In comparison with groups 4 and 5, group 3 showed higher frequencies of previous use of beta-lactam antibiotics and dry cough; longer duration of symptoms prior to admission; a lower frequency of use of chest tube drainage; a higher mean age and a lower frequency of nausea/vomiting (versus group 4 only); and a lower frequency of use of mechanical ventilation (versus group 5 only). M. pneumoniae/S. pneumoniae co-infection increased the duration of symptoms prior to admission. Conclusions: In this sample, the prevalence of M. pneumoniae-related CAP/PPE was 12.75%. Although the disease was milder than that caused by other microorganisms, its course was longer. Our data suggest that M. pneumoniae-related CAP/PPE in children and adolescents should be more thoroughly investigated in Brazil.

 


Keywords: Pleural effusion; Empyema, pleural; Pneumonia; Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

 

Review Article

14 - Evaluation of the clinical utility of new diagnostic tests for tuberculosis: the role of pragmatic clinical trials

Avaliação da utilidade clínica de novos testes diagnósticos em tuberculose: o papel dos ensaios clínicos pragmáticos

Gisele Huf, Afrânio Kritski

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):237-245

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Tuberculosis is one of the major infectious diseases in developing countries, and the length of time for which the chain of transmission is maintained has been implicated as a major factor in the perpetuation of the disease. In this context, regulatory agencies in such countries have approved new diagnostic tools, which have been almost immediately incorporated into the national tuberculosis control programs. Health interventions have been increasingly investigated in clinical trials, including explanatory trials (in order to evaluate the beneficial effects of such interventions) and pragmatic trials (in order to aid in the decision-making process). We argue that the evaluation of new diagnostic techniques for the detection of tuberculosis should not escape this same logic of evaluation.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Tuberculosis/prevention & control; Controlled clinical trial as topic.

 

15 - Lung ultrasound in critically ill patients: a new diagnostic tool

Ultrassom pulmonar em pacientes críticos: uma nova ferramenta diagnóstica

Felippe Leopoldo Dexheimer Neto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Cassiano Teixeira, Flávia Gabe Beltrami

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):246-256

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The evaluation of critically ill patients using lung ultrasound, even if performed by nonspecialists, has recently garnered greater interest. Because lung ultrasound is based on the fact that every acute illness reduces lung aeration, it can provide information that complements the physical examination and clinical impression, the main advantage being that it is a bedside tool. The objective of this review was to evaluate the clinical applications of lung ultrasound by searching the PubMed and the Brazilian Virtual Library of Health databases. We used the following search terms (in Portuguese and English): ultrasound; lung; and critical care. In addition to the most relevant articles, we also reviewed specialized textbooks. The data show that lung ultrasound is useful in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates, having good accuracy in identifying consolidations and interstitial syndrome. In addition, lung ultrasound has been widely used in the evaluation and treatment of pleural effusions, as well as in the identification of pneumothorax. This technique can also be useful in the immediate evaluation of patients with dyspnea or acute respiratory failure. Other described applications include monitoring treatment response and increasing the safety of invasive procedures. Although specific criteria regarding training and certification are still lacking, lung ultrasound is a fast, inexpensive, and widely available tool. This technique should progressively come to be more widely incorporated into the care of critically ill patients.

 


Keywords: Ultrasonography; Lung; Critical care; Intensive care units.

 

Case Series

16 - Diurnal variations in the parameters of pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in patients with COPD

Variação diurna de parâmetros de função pulmonar e de força muscular respiratória em pacientes com DPOC

Guilherme Fregonezi, Vanessa Regiane Resqueti, Juliana Loprete Cury, Elaine Paulin, Antonio Fernando Brunetto (in memoriam)

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):257-263

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Objective: To evaluate the magnitude of diurnal changes in the parameters of pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength/endurance in a sample of patients with COPD. Methods: A group of 7 patients underwent spirometry, together with determination of MIP and MEP, at two distinct times (between 8:00 and 8:30 a.m. and between 4:30 and 5:00 p.m.) on a single day. Between assessments, the patients remained at rest in the laboratory. Results: In accordance with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease staging system, COPD was classified as moderate, severe, and very severe in 1, 3, and 3 of the patients, respectively. From the first to the second assessment, there were significant decreases in FVC, FEV1, and MEP (of 13%, 15%, and 10%, respectively), as well as (less than significant) decreases in PEF, MIP, and maximal voluntary ventilation (of 9%, 3%, and 11%, respectively). Conclusions: In this sample of COPD patients, there were diurnal variations in the parameters of pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength. The values of FEV1, FVC, and MEP were significantly lower in the afternoon than in the morning.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Respiratory function tests; Respiratory muscles.

 

Case Report

17 - Concomitant pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis and pulmonary histoplasmosis: a rare case

Un caso excepcional de paracoccidioidomicosis e histoplasmosis pulmonares de presentación concomitante

Veronica Torres Esteche, Zaida Arteta, Gabriela Torres, Andrea Vaucher, Elbio Gezuele, Raquel Balleste

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):264-268

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The incidence of pulmonary fungal infections is very low in Uruguay, and such infections typically affect immunocompromised patients. We report the case of an immunocompetent patient presenting with a two-month history of cough, dyspnea, and fever. The patient resided in a rural area. Imaging tests revealed extensive pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. On the basis of direct mycological examination, culture, and serological testing, we made a diagnosis of concomitant histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. The patient presented arterial hypotension that was diagnostic of adrenocortical insufficiency. Although the pulmonary fibrosis and pneumonia were irreversible, the clinical condition of the patient improved after antifungal treatment. This was an exceptional case of two pulmonary fungal infections occurring simultaneously in the same patient.

 


Keywords: Paracoccidioidomycosis; Histoplasmosis; Lung diseases, fungal.

 

Letters to the Editor

18 - Liver transplantation in a patient with Niemann-Pick disease and pulmonary involvement

Transplante hepático em paciente portadora de doença de Niemann-Pick com envolvimento pulmonar

Marina Silveira Mendes, Flaviana Xavier Portela, Ricardo Coelho Reis, José Daniel Vieira de Castro, José Huygens Parente Garcia, Marcelo Alcântara Holanda

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):269-271

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19 - Expansion of a lung bulla caused by cystic adenomatoid malformation during air travel

Distensão de bolha pulmonar por malformação adenomatoide cística durante viagem aérea

Fernando Luiz Westphal, Luís Carlos de Lima, José Corrêa Lima Netto, Márcia dos Santos da Silva, Ingrid Loureiro de Queiroz Lima, Danielle Cristine Westphal

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):272-274

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20 - Mobile right heart thrombus and pulmonary thromboembolism

Trombo intracardíaco móvel e tromboembolia pulmonar

Thauana Luiza de Oliveira, Carolina Martins Vieira, Juliana Bernardes Costa, Tarciane Aline Prata, André Soares de Moura Costa, Maria do Carmo Pereira Nunes, Fernando Antônio Bottoni, Ricardo de Amorim Corrêa

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):275-278

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Year 2012 - Volume 38  - Number 3  (May/June)

App

Editorial

1 - Guidelines: what for?

Diretrizes: para quê?

José Antônio Baddini Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):

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Special Article

2 - Highlights of the Brazilian Thoracic Association Guidelines for Interstitial Lung Diseases

Destaques das Diretrizes de Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia

Bruno Guedes Baldi, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira, Adalberto Sperb Rubin, Alfredo Nicodemos da Cruz Santana, André Nathan Costa, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho, Eduardo Algranti, Eduardo Mello de Capitani, Eduardo Pamplona Bethlem, Ester Nei Aparecida Martins Coletta, Jaquelina Sonoe Ota Arakaki, José Antônio Baddini Martinez, Jozélio Freire de Carvalho, Leila John Marques Steidle, Marcelo Jorge Jacó Rocha, Mariana Silva Lima, Maria Raquel Soares, Marlova Luzzi Caramori, Miguel Abidon Aidé, Rimarcs Gomes Ferreira, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla, Rudolf Krawczenko Feitoza de Oliveira, Sérgio Jezler, Sílvia Carla Sousa Rodrigues, Suzana Pinheiro Pimenta

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):282-291

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are heterogeneous disorders, involving a large number of conditions, the approach to which continues to pose an enormous challenge for pulmonologists. The 2012 Brazilian Thoracic Association ILD Guidelines were established in order to provide Brazilian pulmonologists with an instrument that can facilitate the management of patients with ILDs, standardizing the criteria used for the diagnosis of different conditions and offering guidance on the best treatment in various situations. The objective of this article was to briefly describe the highlights of those guidelines.

 


Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial; Guidelines as topic; Brazil.

 

Original Article

3 - Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite long-distance runners in Brazil

Broncoespasmo induzido por exercício em corredores brasileiros de longa distância de elite

Renata Nakata Teixeira, Luzimar Raimundo Teixeira, Luiz Augusto Riani Costa, Milton Arruda Martins, Timothy Derick Mickleborough, Celso Ricardo Fernandes Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):292-298

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction among elite long-distance runners in Brazil and whether there is a difference in the training loads among athletes with and without exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving elite long-distance runners with neither current asthma symptoms nor a diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. All of the participants underwent eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea challenge and maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests, as well as completing questionnaires regarding asthma symptoms and physical activity, in order to monitor their weekly training load. Results: Among the 86 male athletes recruited, participation in the study was agreed to by 20, of whom 5 (25%) were subsequently diagnosed with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. There were no differences between the athletes with and without exercise-induced bronchoconstriction regarding anthropometric characteristics, peak oxygen consumption, baseline pulmonary function values, or reported asthma symptoms. The weekly training load was significantly lower among those with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction than among those without. Conclusions: In this sample of long-distance runners in Brazil, the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction was high.

 


Keywords: Athletes; Asthma, exercise-induced; Exercise test.

 

4 - Comparison between two methods of asthma control evaluation based on individual perception

Comparação entre dois métodos de avaliação do controle da asma baseados na percepção individual

Paula Cristina Andrade Almeida, Adelmir Souza-Machado, Mylene dos Santos Leite, Lourdes Alzimar Mendes de Castro, Ana Carla Carvalho Coelho, Constança Sampaio Cruz, Álvaro Augusto Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):299-307

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare the subjective perception of asthma control reported by the patient with that measured by the score obtained on the Asthma Control Questionnaire 6-item version (ACQ-6) in patients with severe asthma and to determine whether asthma control is associated with the number of emergency room visits in the previous month. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 528 patients treated at the Bahia State Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Control Program Central Referral Clinic between August of 2008 and March of 2010, in the city of Salvador, Brazil. The patients completed the ACQ-6 and answered a specific additional question in order to evaluate their own perception of asthma control in the previous week. Results: We evaluated 423 patients who met the inclusion criteria. The sample was predominantly female (81.3%), and 64.3% had an income lower than two times the national minimum wage. The mean age was 49.85 ± 13.71 years, and the duration of asthma symptoms was 32.11 ± 16.35 years. The patients had been regularly treated via the program for 36.65 ± 18.10 months. Based on the subjective perception of asthma control, only 8% of the patients considered their asthma to be uncontrolled, whereas 38.8% had an ACQ-6 score  1.5, which indicates poor control. The kappa statistic revealed poor concordance between the two methods. There was a direct association between uncontrolled asthma and the number of emergency room visits in the previous month (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In this sample of patients, the subjective perception of asthma control differed from that measured by the ACQ-6 score, and the patients overestimated their own level of asthma control, which puts them at risk of being undertreated.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Health services; Questionnaires.

 

5 - Respiratory muscle strength in children and adolescents with asthma: similar to that of healthy subjects

Força dos músculos respiratórios em crianças e adolescentes com asma: similar à de indivíduos saudáveis?

Cilmery Marly Gabriel de Oliveira, Fernanda de Cordoba Lanza, Dirceu Solé

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):308-314

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare children/adolescents with mild or moderate asthma and healthy subjects in terms of respiratory muscle strength, correlating it with spirometric variables in the former group. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving individuals 6-16 years of age and clinically diagnosed with mild/moderate asthma, together with a group of healthy, age- and gender-matched subjects. We determined spirometric values, as well as MIP and MEP, and we selected three reproducible measurements (variation < 10%). Results: We evaluated 75 patients with asthma and 90 controls. The mean age was 10.0 ± 2.6 years. There were no statistically significant differences between the controls and the asthma group regarding MIP (−89.7 ± 26.7 cmH2O vs. −92.2 ± 26.3 cmH2O; p = 0.541) or MEP (79.2 ± 22.9 cmH2O vs. 86.4 ± 24.0 cmH2O; p = 0.256). The groups were subdivided by age (children and adolescents: 6-12 and 13-16 years of age, respectively). Within the asthma group, there was a significant difference between the child and adolescent subgroups in terms of MEP (74.1 ± 24.1 cmH2O vs. 92.1 ± 21.9 cmH2O; p < 0.001) but not MIP (p = 0.285). Within the control group, there were significant differences between the child and adolescent subgroups in terms of MIP (−79.1 ± 17.7 cmH2O vs. −100.9 ± 28.1 cmH2O; p < 0.001) and MEP (73.9 ± 18.7 cmH2O vs. 90.9 ± 28.1cmH2O; p < 0.001). In the asthma group, spirometric variables did not correlate with MIP or MEP. Conclusions: In our sample, asthma was found to have no significant effect on respiratory muscle strength.

 


Palavras-chave: Asma; Músculos respiratórios; Testes de função respiratória.

 

6 - Flexible bronchoscopy as the first-choice method of removing foreign bodies from the airways of adults

Broncoscopia flexível como primeira opção para a remoção de corpo estranho das vias aéreas em adultos

Ascedio José Rodrigues, Eduardo Quintino Oliveira, Paulo Rogério Scordamaglio, Marcelo Gervilla Gregório, Márcia Jacomelli, Viviane Rossi Figueiredo

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):315-320

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the success rate of flexible bronchoscopy as the first-choice method of removing foreign bodies from the airways of adults. Methods: This was a retrospective study of all adult patients (over 18 years of age) with foreign body aspiration submitted to bronchoscopy between January of 2009 and January of 2011 at the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas, located in São Paulo, Brazil. Results: The study sample comprised 40 adult patients, with a mean age of 52 years (range, 18-88 years). The median time of permanence of the foreign body in the airway was 15 days (range, 12 h to 10 years). All of the patients first underwent diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy. Foreign bodies were successfully removed with flexible bronchoscopy in 33 (82.5%) of the patients. In 1 patient, a metal object lodged in the distal bronchial tree required the use of fluoroscopy. Six patients (15%) required rigid bronchoscopy due to tracheal foreign body-induced dyspnea, in 2, and because the foreign body was too large for the flexible forceps, in 4. Bronchoscopy failed in 1 patient, who therefore required surgical bronchotomy. Conclusions: Although rigid bronchoscopy is considered the gold standard for the removal of foreign bodies from the airways, our experience showed that flexible bronchoscopy can be safely and effectively used in the diagnosis and treatment of stable adult patients.

 


Keywords: Bronchoscopy; Foreign bodies; Airway obstruction; Airway management.

 

7 - Immunophenotyping and extracellular matrix remodeling in pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis

Imunofenotipagem e remodelamento da matriz extracelular na sarcoidose pulmonar e extrapulmonar

Pedro Henrique Ramos Quintino da Silva, Edwin Roger Parra, William Sanches Zocolaro, Ivy Narde, Fabíola Rodrigues, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de Carvalho, Vera Luiza Capelozzi

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):321-330

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate the significance of cellular immune markers, as well as that of collagen and elastic components of the extracellular matrix, within granulomatous structures in biopsies of patients with pulmonary or extrapulmonary sarcoidosis. Methods: We carried out qualitative and quantitative evaluations of inflammatory cells, collagen fibers, and elastic fibers in granulomatous structures in surgical biopsies of 40 patients with pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis using histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, picrosirius red staining, and Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin staining. Results: The extrapulmonary tissue biopsies presented significantly higher densities of lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils than did the lung tissue biopsies. Pulmonary granulomas showed a significantly higher number of collagen fibers and a lower density of elastic fibers than did extrapulmonary granulomas. The amount of macrophages in the lung samples correlated with FVC (p < 0.05), whereas the amount of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ lymphocytes correlated with the FEV1/FVC ratio and VC. There were inverse correlations between TLC and the CD1a+ cell count (p < 0.05), as well as between DLCO and collagen/elastic fiber density (r = −0.90; p = 0.04). Conclusions: Immunophenotyping and remodeling both showed differences between pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis in terms of the characteristics of the biopsy samples. These differences correlated with the clinical and spirometric data obtained for the patients, suggesting that two different pathways are involved in the mechanism of antigen clearance, which was more effective in the lungs and lymph nodes.

 


Keywords: Sarcoidosis; Granulomatous disease, chronic; Extracellular matrix; Immunophenotyping; Respiratory function tests.

 

8 - Influence that sociodemographic variables, clinical characteristics, and level of dependence have on quality of life in COPD patients on long-term home oxygen therapy

Influência das características sociodemográficas e clínicas e do nível de dependência na qualidade de vida de pacientes com DPOC em oxigenoterapia domiciliar prolongada

Simone Cedano, Angélica Gonçalves Silva Belasco, Fabiana Traldi, Maria Christina Lombardi Oliveira Machado, Ana Rita de Cássia Bettencourt

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):331-338

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate and correlate the quality of life (QoL) of COPD patients on long-term home oxygen therapy (LTOT) with their sociodemographic/clinical characteristics and level of dependence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytical study involving COPD patients on LTOT followed at the Oxygen Therapy Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of São Paulo Hospital São Paulo, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Sociodemographic, clinical, and biochemical data were collected. We assessed QoL and level of dependence using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Katz index, respectively. Multiple linear regression models were constructed in order to determine the influence of these variables on QoL. Results: We included 80 patients in the study. The mean age was 69.6 ± 9.1 years, and 51.3% were female. The lowest SF-36 scores were for the physical functioning and role-physical domains. All sociodemographic characteristics (except gender) were found to correlate significantly with the SF-36 domains mental health, vitality, role-physical, and social functioning. We also found that body mass index, PaO2, post-bronchodilator FEV1, hemoglobin, and Katz index correlated significantly with the physical functioning, mental health, role-physical, and bodily pain domains. In addition, oxygen flows were found to correlate negatively with the physical functioning, mental health, vitality, and role-emotional domains. Conclusions: Low scores for SF-36 domains, as well as the variables that negatively influence them, should be considered and analyzed during the development and implementation of strategies for improving the QoL of COPD patients on LTOT.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Quality of life; Oxygen inhalation therapy.

 

9 - Cultural adaptation and reproducibility of the Breathing Problems Questionnaire for use in patients with COPD in Brazil

Adaptação cultural e reprodutibilidade do Questionário para Problemas Respiratórios em pacientes portadores de DPOC no Brasil

Patrícia Nobre Calheiros da Silva, José Roberto Jardim, George Márcio da Costa e Souza, Michael E Hyland, Oliver Augusto Nascimento

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):339-345

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To translate the Breathing Problems Questionnaire (BPQ) into Portuguese and adapt it to the Brazilian culture, as well as to evaluate its reproducibility in patients with COPD. Methods: After the BPQ had been translated and adapted to the Brazilian culture, it was administered to a subgroup of 8 patients in order to identify their uncertainties and difficulties. The questionnaire was reviewed by an expert committee, and its final version was arrived at. A second translator back-translated the final version into English, which was sent to the original author in order to verify that the original meaning of the questionnaire had been maintained. After the approval of the original author, the final Portuguese-language version of the questionnaire was administered to 50 patients with COPD, in order to evaluate its reproducibility. Results: The mean response time was 9.5 min. Of the 50 patients, 21 were female and 29 were male. The mean age was 65.8 ± 7.5 years. Most of the patients were classified as having moderate COPD (29.16%) or severe COPD (52%). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the total score was 0.94. The ICCs for the eleven BPQ domains and its two subscales were also above 0.70. Moderate correlations were found between the BPQ domains and subscales. Conclusions: The translation and cultural adaptation of the BPQ for use in Brazil was deemed appropriate, because the patients could easily understand and answer the questions. In addition, the Brazilian version of the BPQ questionnaire was found to be reliable, showing good reproducibility.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease; chronic obstructive; Quality of life; Reproducibility of results.

 

10 - Six-minute walk distance is not related to quality of life in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

Distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de seis minutos não se relaciona com qualidade de vida em pacientes com bronquiectasias não fibrocísticas

Patrícia Santos Jacques, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Dora Veronisi Palombini, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):346-355

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate physical performance on the six-minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and to investigate its relationship with quality of life (QoL). To identify predictors of exercise performance, we also investigated whether six-minute walk distance (6MWD) is associated with clinical and spirometric findings. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (age,  18 years), with at least one respiratory symptom for  2 years and an FEV1  70% of predicted. Patients underwent clinical evaluation, pulmonary function tests, the 6MWT, and QoL assessment with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results: We included 70 patients (48 females). Mean age was 54.5 ± 17.7 years, and mean FEV1 was 44.9 ± 14.5% of predicted. The patients were divided into two groups: 6MWD-low (6MWD below the predicted lower limit; n = 23); and 6MWD-norm (normal 6MWD; n = 47). The following variables were significantly lower in the 6MWD-low group than in the 6MWD-norm group: age; age at diagnosis of bronchiectasis; proportion of former smokers; body mass index (BMI); FEV1% of predicted; and MEP% of predicted. There were no significant differences in the SF-36 scores between the groups. In the logistic regression model, lower age and lower BMI were significantly associated with lower 6MWD. Conclusions: In this sample, there was a high proportion of patients who had a lower than expected 6MWD. Although 6MWD was not related to QoL, it was associated with age and BMI.

 


Keywords: Bronchiectasis; Quality of life; Respiratory function tests; Exercise tolerance.

 

11 - Smoking and abdominal fat in blood donors

Tabagismo e obesidade abdominal em doadores de sangue

Cássia da Silva Faria, Clovis Botelho, Regina Maria Veras Gonçalves da Silva, Márcia Gonçalves Ferreira

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):356-363

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess the association between smoking and abdominal fat among male blood donors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 1,235 adult male blood donors (age, 20-59 years) in the city of Cuiabá, Brazil. Socioeconomic, demographic, and anthropometric data, as well as information on the lifestyle of the participants, were collected. In this study, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were used as markers of abdominal fat. The association between these two markers and smoking was analyzed by multiple linear regression in separate models, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Of the 1,235 respondents, 273 (22.1%) reported being smokers, and, of those, 99 (36.3%) reported smoking more than 15 cigarettes per day. The average body mass index was lower among smokers than among nonsmokers (p < 0.001). In the multiple linear regression analyses, smoking was associated with waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio for smokers of 6-10 cigarettes/day and of ≥ 11 cigarettes/day. Conclusions: In our sample, smoking was positively associated with indicators of abdominal fat, regardless of potential confounding factors, including the consumption of alcoholic beverages.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Obesity; Abdominal fat.

 

12 - Impact of a mechanical ventilation weaning protocol on the extubation failure rate in difficult-to-wean patients

Impacto de um protocolo de desmame de ventilação mecânica na taxa de falha de extubação em pacientes de difícil desmame

Cassiano Teixeira, Juçara Gasparetto Maccari, Silvia Regina Rios Vieira, Roselaine Pinheiro Oliveira, Augusto Savi, André Sant'Ana Machado, Túlio Frederico Tonietto, Ricardo Viegas Cremonese, Ricardo Wickert, Kamile Borba Pinto, Fernanda Callefe, Fernanda Gehm, Luis Guilherme Borges, Eubrando Silvestre Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):364-371

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether the predictive accuracy of clinical judgment alone can be improved by supplementing it with an objective weaning protocol as a decision support tool. Methods: This was a multicenter prospective cohort study carried out at three medical/surgical ICUs. The study involved all consecutive difficult-to-wean ICU patients (failure in the first spontaneous breathing trial [SBT]), on mechanical ventilation (MV) for more than 48 h, admitted between January of 2002 and December of 2005. The patients in the protocol group (PG) were extubated after a T-piece weaning trial and were compared with patients who were otherwise extubated (non-protocol group, NPG). The primary outcome measure was reintubation within 48 h after extubation. Results: We included 731 patients-533 (72.9%) and 198 (27.1%) in the PG and NPG, respectively. The overall reintubation rate was 17.9%. The extubation success rates in the PG and NPG were 86.7% and 69.6%, respectively (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of age, gender, severity score, or pre-inclusion time on MV. However, COPD was more common in the NPG than in the PG (44.4% vs. 17.6%; p < 0.001), whereas sepsis and being a post-operative patient were more common in the PG (23.8% vs. 11.6% and 42.4% vs. 26.4%, respectively; p < 0.001 for both). The time on MV after the failure in the first SBT was higher in the PG than in the NPG (9 ± 5 days vs. 7 ± 2 days; p < 0.001). Conclusions: In this sample of difficult-to-wean patients, the use of a weaning protocol improved the decision-making process, decreasing the possibility of extubation failure.

 


Keywords: Ventilator weaning; Ventilation; Ventilators, mechanical.

 

Meta-analysis

13 - Thirty years of prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

Trinta anos de irradiação craniana profilática em pacientes com câncer de pulmão de pequenas células: uma meta-análise de ensaios clínicos randomizados

Gustavo Arruda Viani, André Campiolo Boin, Veridiana Yuri Ikeda, Bruno Silveira Vianna, Rondinelli Salvador Silva, Fernando Santanella

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):372-381

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the role of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Methods: We searched various databases, selecting randomized clinical trials published in journals or conference proceedings within the last 30 years and investigating the role of PCI in the mortality of patients with SCLC, submitted to PCI or not. Results: Sixteen randomized clinical trials, collectively involving 1,983 patients, were considered eligible for inclusion. Of those 1,983 patients, 1,021 were submitted to PCI and 962 were not. Overall mortality was 4.4% lower in the patients submitted to PCI than in those who were not (OR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57-0.97; p = 0.01), especially among the patients showing a complete response after induction chemotherapy (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.50-0.93; p = 0.02) and in those submitted to PCI after that treatment (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49-0.94; p = 0.03). That decrease did not correlate with the stage of the disease: limited disease (OR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55-0.97; p = 0.03); and extensive disease (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.26-0.87; p = 0.02). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that PCI decreases mortality in patients with SCLC, especially in those showing a complete response after induction chemotherapy and in those submitted to PCI after that treatment, regardless of the stage of the disease.

 


Keywords: Small cell lung carcinoma; Radiotherapy; Survival analysis.

 

Brief Communication

14 - Prevalence of HIV infection in tuberculosis patients treated at primary health care clinics in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil

Prevalência da infecção pelo HIV em pacientes com tuberculose na atenção básica em Fortaleza, Ceará

Helder Oliveira e Silva, Marcelo Luiz Carvalho Gonçalves

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):382-385

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection among individuals ≥ 15 years of age with a confirmed diagnosis of tuberculosis and treated at family health care clinics in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. We evaluated a random sample of 110 patients with tuberculosis, treated at a total of 26 family health care clinics between January and May of 2009. All of the participants completed a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic and clinical data, and all underwent HIV testing. In this sample, the prevalence of tuberculosis/HIV co-infection was 3.6% (95% CI: 0.2-7.0).

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; HIV seroprevalence; Primary health care.

 

Review Article

15 - Severe tuberculosis requiring ICU admission

Tuberculose grave com necessidade de internação em UTI

Denise Rossato Silva, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):386-394

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Tuberculosis is a curable disease that can evolve to severe forms, requiring the treatment of the patients in an ICU, especially if there is a delay in the diagnosis or if it affects elderly patients, those on dialysis, or those with HIV infection or other states of immunosuppression, as well as in cases of multidrug resistant disease. Knowledge of the radiological presentation of the cases can help diagnose these severe forms, as can the introduction of new tests, such as the early detection of the etiological agent by PCR and chest CT, which favors the early initiation of treatment. In addition, the use of regimens without isoniazid and rifampin, as well as uncertain enteral absorption and low serum concentrations of antituberculosis drugs, can reduce the efficacy of treatment. For such patients, the prognosis is generally poor and mortality rates are high.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Respiratory insufficiency; Respiration, artificial; Hospitalization.

 

Case Series

16 - Bronchiolitis associated with exposure to artificial butter flavoring in workers at a cookie factory in Brazil

Bronquiolite associada à exposição a aroma artificial de manteiga em trabalhadores de uma fábrica de biscoitos no Brasil

Zaida do Rego Cavalcanti, Alfredo Pereira Leite de Albuquerque Filho, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira, Ester Nei Aparecida Martins Coletta

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):395-399

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To report the cases of four patients with bronchiolitis caused by exposure to artificial butter flavoring at a cookie factory in Brazil. Methods: We described the clinical, tomographic, and spirometric findings in the four patients, as well as the lung biopsy findings in one of the patients. Results: All four patients were young male nonsmokers and developed persistent airflow obstruction (reduced FEV1/FVC ratio and FEV1 at 25-44% of predicted) after 1-3 years of exposure to diacetyl, without the use of personal protective equipment, at a cookie factory. The HRCT findings were indicative of bronchiolitis. In one patient, the surgical lung biopsy revealed bronchiolitis obliterans accompanied by giant cells. Conclusions: Bronchiolitis resulting from exposure to artificial flavoring agents should be included in the differential diagnosis of airflow obstruction in workers in Brazil.

 


Keywords: Diacetyl; Flavoring agents; Bronchiolitis.

 

Case Report

17 - Pleural effusion following ovarian hyperstimulation

Derrame pleural secundário à hiperestimulação ovariana

Jader Joel Machado Junqueira, Ricardo Helbert Bammann, Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Ana Cristina Pugliesi de Castro, Augusto Ishy, Angelo Fernandez

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):400-403

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is an iatrogenic complication that occurs in the luteal phase of an induced hormonal cycle. In most cases, the symptoms are self-limited and spontaneous regression occurs. However, severe cases are typically accompanied by acute respiratory distress. The objective of the present study was to describe the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome of pleural effusion associated with OHSS in three patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. The patients ranged in age from 27 to 33 years. The onset of symptomatic pleural effusion (bilateral in all cases) occurred, on average, 43 days (range, 27-60 days) after initiation of hormone therapy for ovulation induction. All three patients required hospitalization for massive fluid resuscitation, and two required noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Although all three patients initially underwent thoracentesis, early recurrence of symptoms and pleural effusion prompted the use of drainage with a pigtail catheter. Despite the high output from the pleural drain (mean, 1,000 mL/day in the first week) and prolonged drainage (for 9-22 days), the outcomes were excellent: all three patients were discharged from hospital. Although pleural effusion secondary to OHSS is probably underdiagnosed, the associated morbidity should not be underestimated, especially because it affects potentially pregnant patients. In this study, early diagnosis and appropriate supportive measures yielded favorable results, limiting the surgical approach to adequate pleural drainage.

 


Keywords: Fertilization in vitro; Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome; Pleural effusion.

 

Letters to the Editor

18 - Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (Hamman's syndrome)

Pneumomediastino espontâneo (síndrome de Hamman)

Giordano Rafael Tronco Alves, Régis Vinícius de Andrade Silva, José Roberto Missel Corrêa, Cassiano Minussi Colpo, Helen Minussi Cezimbra, Carlos Jesus Pereira Haygert

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):404-407

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19 - Report of two cases of ARDS patients treated with pumpless extracorporeal interventional lung assist

Relato de dois casos de pacientes com SARA tratados com membrana extracorpórea de troca gasosa sem bomba

Alexandre Peixoto Coscia, Haroldo Falcão Ramos da Cunha, Alessandra Gouvea Longo, Enio Gustavo Schoeder Martins, Felipe Saddy, Andre Miguel Japiassu412

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):408-411

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20 - Pulmonary hemosiderosis associated with celiac disease: improvement after a gluten-free diet

Hemossiderose pulmonar associada à doença celíaca: melhora após dieta livre de glúten

José Wellington Alves dos Santos, Abdias Baptista de Mello Neto, Roseane Cardoso Marchiori, Gustavo Trindade Michel, Ariovaldo Leal Fagundes, Leonardo Gonçalves Marques Tagliari, Tiago Cancian

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):412-414

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21 - Pregnancy as a risk factor for hospitalization due to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009

Gestação como fator de risco para internação hospitalar na influenza pandêmica A (H1N1) 2009

Lessandra Michelim Rodriguez Nunes Vieira, Juliano Fracasso, Viviane Raquel Buffon, Mariana Menegotto, Thaiana Pezzi

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):415-416

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Year 2012 - Volume 38  - Number 4  (July/August)

App

Editorial

1 - Publication of the impact factor of the Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology: a milestone on a long and arduous journey

Divulgação do fator de impacto do Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: consolidação de um longo e árduo trabalho

Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho, Bruno Guedes Baldi, Carlos Viana Poyares Jardim, Pedro Caruso

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):417-418

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2 - Understanding mortality in bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia

Entendimento da mortalidade em pneumonia pneumocócica bacterêmica

Catia Cillóniz, Antoni Torres

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):419-421

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Original Article

3 - Impact of bacteremia in a cohort of patients with pneumococcal pneumonia

Impacto de la bacteriemia en una cohorte de pacientes con neumonía neumocócica

Ileana Palma, Ricardo Mosquera, Carmen Demier, Carlos Vay, Angela Famiglietti, Carlos Luna

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):422-430

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Bacteremia is the most common presentation of invasive disease in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. We investigated whether bacteremia in pneumococcal CAP worsens outcomes and whether it is related to pneumococcal vaccination (PV). Methods: Secondary analysis of a cohort of patients with pneumococcal CAP confirmed by blood culture, sputum culture, or urinary antigen testing. Demographic, clinical, radiographic, and biochemical data were collected, as were Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and pneumonia severity index (PSI) scores, comorbidities, and PV history. We drew comparisons between patients with bacteremic pneumococcal CAP (BPP) and those with non-bacteremic pneumococcal CAP (NBPP). Results: Forty-seven patients had BPP, and 71 had NBPP (confirmed by sputum culture in 45 and by urinary antigen testing in 26); 107 had some indication for PV. None of the BPP patients had received PV, compared with 9 of the NBPP patients (p = 0.043). Among the BPP patients, the mean age was higher (76.4 ± 11.5 vs. 67.5 ± 20.9 years), as were APACHE II and PSI scores (16.4 ± 4.6 vs. 14.1 ± 6.5 and 129.5 ± 36 vs. 105.2 ± 45, respectively), as well as the rate of ICU admission for cardiopathy or chronic renal failure (42.5% vs. 22.5%), whereas hematocrit and plasma sodium levels were lower (35.7 ± 5.8 vs. 38.6 ± 6.7% and 133.9 ± 6.0 vs. 137.1 ± 5.5 mEq/L, respectively), although mortality was similar (29.8% vs 28.2%). Conclusions: In this population at high risk for CAP due to S. pneumoniae, the PV rate was extremely low (8.4%). Although BPP patients were more severely ill, mortality was similar between the two groups. Because PV reduces the incidence of BPP, the vaccination rate in at-risk populations should be increased.

 


Keywords: Pneumococcal vaccines; Pneumonia, bacterial; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Pneumococcal infections; Mortality; Epidemiology.

 

4 - Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose, single-capsule budesonide-formoterol combination in uncontrolled asthma: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, controlled clinical trial

Avaliação da eficácia e segurança da associação de budesonida e formoterol em dose fixa e cápsula única no tratamento de asma não controlada: ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, multicêntrico e controlado

Roberto Stirbulov, Carlos Cezar Fritscher, Emilio Pizzichini, Márcia Margaret Menezes Pizzichini

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):431-437

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose, single-capsule budesonide-formoterol combination, in comparison with budesonide alone, in patients with uncontrolled asthma. Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, phase III, parallel clinical trial, comparing the short-term efficacy and safety of the combination of budesonide (400 μg) and formoterol (12 μg), with those of budesonide alone (400 μg), both delivered via a dry powder inhaler, in 181 patients with uncontrolled asthma. The age of the patients ranged from 18 to 77 years. After a run-in period of 4 weeks, during which all of the patients received budesonide twice a day, they were randomized into one of the treatment groups. The treatment consisted of the administration of the medications twice a day for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures were FEV1, FVC, and morning PEF. We performed an intention-to-treat analysis of the data. Results: In comparison with the budesonide-only group patients, those treated with the budesonide-formoterol combination showed a significant improvement in FEV1 (0.12 L vs. 0.02 L; p  =   0.0129) and morning PEF (30.2 L/min vs. 6.3 L/min; p  = 0.0004). These effects were accompanied by good tolerability and safety, as demonstrated by the low frequency of adverse events, only minor adverse events having occurred. Conclusions: The single-capsule combination of budesonide-formoterol appears to be efficacious and safe. Our results indicate that this formulation is a valid therapeutic option for obtaining and maintaining asthma control. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01676987 [http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/])

 


Keywords: Asthma; Budesonide; Adrenergic beta-2 receptor agonists.

 

5 - Children and adolescents with mild intermittent or mild persistent asthma: aerobic capacity between attacks

Capacidade aeróbica em crianças e adolescentes com asma intermitente e persistente leve no período intercrises

Eliane Zenir Corrêa de Moraes, Maria Elaine Trevisan, Sérgio de Vasconcellos Baldisserotto, Luiz Osório Cruz Portela

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):438-444

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess children and adolescents diagnosed with mild intermittent or mild persistent asthma, in terms of their aerobic capacity between attacks. Methods: We included 33 children and adolescents recently diagnosed with asthma (mild intermittent or mild persistent) and 36 healthy children and adolescents. Those with asthma were evaluated between attacks. All participants underwent clinical evaluation; assessment of baseline physical activity level; pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry; and a maximal exercise test, including determination of maximal voluntary ventilation, maximal oxygen uptake, respiratory quotient, maximal minute ventilation, ventilatory equivalent, ventilatory reserve, maximal HR, SpO2, and serum lactate. Results: No significant differences were found among the groups (intermittent asthma, persistent asthma, and control) regarding anthropometric or spirometric variables. There were no significant differences among the groups regarding the variables studied during the maximal exercise test. Conclusions: A diagnosis of mild intermittent/persistent asthma has no effect on the aerobic capacity of children and adolescents between asthma attacks.

 


Keywords: : Asthma; Exercise; Respiratory function tests.

 

6 - Fiberoptic bronchoscopy findings in patients diagnosed with lung cancer

Achados de fibrobroncoscopia em pacientes com diagnóstico de neoplasia pulmonar

Marcelo Fouad Rabahi, Andréia Alves Ferreira, Bruno Pereira Reciputti, Thalita de Oliveira Matos, Sebastião Alves Pinto

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):445-451

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compile fiberoptic bronchoscopy findings in patients diagnosed with lung cancer and to correlate those with histopathological findings. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 212 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of lung cancer by cytological evaluation of BAL specimens or by histopathological evaluation of endobronchial or transbronchial biopsy specimens. The data were collected at the Respiratory Endoscopy Section of Hospital São Salvador, located in the city of Goiânia, Brazil, between 2005 and 2010. The endoscopic findings were classified as endoscopically visible tumor, endoscopically invisible tumor, and mucosal injury, as well as being classified by the presence/type of secretion. The visible tumors were also classified according to their location in the tracheobronchial tree. Results: Endobronchial mass (64%) and mucosal infiltration (35%) were the main endoscopic findings. The histological type was determined in 199 cases, the most prevalent types being squamous carcinoma, in 78 (39%), adenocarcinoma, in 42 (21%), small cell carcinoma, in 24 (12%), and large cell carcinoma, in 2 (1%). More than 45% of the visible tumors were at the upper bronchi. Squamous carcinoma (n = 78) was most commonly visualized as an endobronchial mass (in 74%), mucosal infiltration (in 36%), luminal narrowing (in 10%), or external compression (in 6%). Conclusions: Our results show that an endobronchial mass is the most common bronchoscopic finding that is suggestive of malignancy. Proportionally, mucosal infiltration is the most common finding in small cell carcinoma. In adenocarcinoma, luminal narrowing, external compression, mucosal injury, and endobronchial secretion prevail.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms/diagnosis; Lung neoplasms/classification; Bronchoscopy.

 

7 - Comparison of two experimental models of pulmonary hypertension

Comparação de dois modelos experimentais de hipertensão pulmonar

Igor Bastos Polônio, Milena Marques Pagliarelli Acencio, Rogério Pazetti, Francine Maria de Almeida, Mauro Canzian, Bárbara Soares da Silva, Karina Aparecida Bonifácio Pereira, Rogério de Souza

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):452-460

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare two models of pulmonary hypertension (monocrotaline and monocrotaline+pneumonectomy) regarding hemodynamic severity, structure of pulmonary arteries, inflammatory markers (IL-1 and PDGF), and 45-day survival. Methods: We used 80 Sprague-Dawley rats in two study protocols: structural analysis; and survival analysis. The rats were divided into four groups: control; monocrotaline (M), pneumonectomy (P), and monocrotaline+pneumonectomy (M+P). In the structural analysis protocol, 40 rats (10/group) were catheterized for the determination of hemodynamic variables, followed by euthanasia for the removal of heart and lung tissue. The right ventricle (RV) was dissected from the interventricular septum (IS), and the ratio between RV weight and the weight of the left ventricle (LV) plus IS (RV/LV+IS) was taken as the index of RV hypertrophy. In lung tissues, we performed histological analyses, as well as using ELISA to determine IL-1 and PDGF levels. In the survival protocol, 40 animals (10/group) were followed for 45 days. Results: The M and M+P rats developed pulmonary hypertension, whereas the control and P rats did not. The RV/LV+IS ratio was significantly higher in M+P rats than in M rats, as well as being significantly higher in M and M+P rats than in control and P rats. There were no significant differences between the M and M+P rats regarding the area of the medial layer of the pulmonary arteries; IL-1 and PDGF levels; or survival. Conclusions: On the basis of our results, we cannot conclude that the monocrotaline+pneumonectomy model is superior to the monocrotaline model.

 


Keywords: Monocrotaline; Hypertension, pulmonary; Pneumonectomy; Interleukin-1; Receptor, platelet-derived growth factor beta.

 

8 - An experimental rat model of ex vivo lung perfusion for the assessment of lungs regarding histopathological findings and apoptosis: low-potassium dextran vs. histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate

Modelo experimental de perfusão pulmonar ex vivo em ratos: avaliação histopatológica e de apoptose celular em pulmões preservados com solução de baixo potássio dextrana vs. solução histidina-triptofano-cetoglutarato

Edson Azevedo Simões, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Mauro Canzian, Rogério Pazetti, Karina Andriguetti de Oliveira Braga, Natalia Aparecida Nepomuceno, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):461-469

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare histopathological findings and the degree of apoptosis among rat lungs preserved with low-potassium dextran (LPD) solution, histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution, or normal saline (NS) at two ischemia periods (6 h and 12 h) using an experimental rat model of ex vivo lung perfusion. Methods: Sixty Wistar rats were anesthetized, randomized, and submitted to antegrade perfusion via pulmonary artery with one of the preservation solutions. Following en bloc extraction, the heart-lung blocks were preserved for 6 h or 12 h at 4°C and then reperfused with homologous blood for 60 min in an ex vivo lung perfusion system. At the end of the reperfusion, fragments of the middle lobe were extracted and processed for histopathological examination. The parameters evaluated were congestion, alveolar edema, alveolar hemorrhage, inflammatory infiltrate, and interstitial infiltrate. The degree of apoptosis was assessed using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. Results: The histopathological examination showed that all of the lungs preserved with NS presented alveolar edema after 12 h of ischemia. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups in terms of the degree of apoptosis. Conclusions: In this study, the histopathological and apoptosis findings were similar with the use of either LPD or HTK solutions, whereas the occurrence of edema was significantly more common with the use of NS.

 


Keywords: : Organ preservation; Organ preservation solutions; Lung transplantation; Reperfusion injury; Apoptosis.

 

9 - Anthropometric and dietary intake indicators as predictors of pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis patients

Indicadores antropométricos e de ingestão alimentar como preditores da função pulmonar em pacientes com fibrose cística

Gabriele Carra Forte, Juliane Silva Pereira, Michele Drehmer, Miriam Isabel Souza dos Santos Simon

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):470-476

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate whether anthropometric and dietary intake indicators are predictors of pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 69 patients (age range, 5.4-16.5 years) diagnosed with CF under follow-up at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, located in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Anthropometric assessment was based on body mass index (BMI), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), and triceps skinfold thickness (TST). Dietary intake was assessed by using recall data, which were compared with the recommended dietary allowances. Pulmonary function was assessed by ventilatory capacity, expressed as FEV1. Prevalence ratios for the outcome studied (FEV1 < 80% of predicted) were calculated by indicator. Results: In patients with MAMC and TST below the 25th percentile, the prevalence of FEV1 < 80% of predicted was significantly higher than in those with higher MAMC and TST (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). In comparison with other patients, those with a BMI below the 50th percentile showed a 4.43 times higher prevalence of FEV1 < 80% of predicted (95% CI: 1.58-12.41), and that prevalence was 2.54 times higher in those colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) than in those not so colonized (95% CI: 1.43-4.53). The association between dietary intake and the prevalence of FEV1 < 80% of predicted was of only borderline significance (95% CI: 0.95-3.45). Conclusions: Not being colonized with MRSA and having a BMI above the 50th percentile appear to preserve pulmonary function in CF patients.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Respiratory function tests; Nutrition assessment; Energy intake.

 

10 - Manual hyperinflation combined with expiratory rib cage compression for reduction of length of ICU stay in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation

Hiperinsuflação manual combinada com compressão torácica expiratória para redução do período de internação em UTI em pacientes críticos sob ventilação mecânica

Juliana Savini Wey Berti, Elisiane Tonon, Carlos Fernando Ronchi, Heloisa Wey Berti, Laércio Martins de Stefano, Ana Lúcia Gut, Carlos Roberto Padovani, Ana Lucia Anjos Ferreira

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):477-486

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Although manual hyperinflation (MH) is widely used for pulmonary secretion clearance, there is no evidence to support its routine use in clinical practice. Our objective was to evaluate the effect that MH combined with expiratory rib cage compression (ERCC) has on the length of ICU stay and duration of mechanical ventilation (MV). Methods: This was a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial involving ICU patients on MV at a tertiary care teaching hospital between January of 2004 and January of 2005. Among the 49 patients who met the study criteria, 24 and 25 were randomly assigned to the respiratory physiotherapy (RP) and control groups, respectively. Of those same patients, 6 and 8, respectively, were later withdrawn from the study. During the 5-day observation period, the RP patients received MH combined with ERCC, whereas the control patients received standard nursing care. Results: The two groups were similar in terms of the baseline characteristics. The intervention had a positive effect on the duration of MV, as well as on the ICU discharge rate and Murray score. There were significant differences between the control and RP groups regarding the weaning success rate on days 2 (0.0% vs. 37.5%), 3 (0.0% vs. 37.5%), 4 (5.3% vs. 37.5%), and 5 (15.9% vs. 37.5%), as well as regarding the ICU discharge rate on days 3 (0% vs. 25%), 4 (0% vs. 31%), and 5 (0% vs. 31%). In the RP group, there was a significant improvement in the Murray score on day 5. Conclusions: Our results show that the use of MH combined with ERCC for 5 days accelerated the weaning process and ICU discharge.

 


Keywords: Physical therapy modalities; Ventilator weaning; Length of stay.

 

11 - Clinical and pathological factors influencing the survival of breast cancer patients with malignant pleural effusion

Fatores clínicos e anatomopatológicos que influenciam a sobrevida de pacientes com câncer de mama e derrame pleural neoplásico

Giovana Tavares dos Santos, João Carlos Prolla, Natália Dressler Camillo, Lisiane Silveira Zavalhia, Alana Durayski Ranzi, Claudia Giuliano Bica

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):487-493

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the clinical and pathological factors that can influence the prognosis of breast cancer patients with clinical symptoms of malignant pleural effusion. Methods: This was a clinical cohort study, in which we analyzed the medical charts of patients diagnosed with malignant pleural effusion between 2006 and 2010. By examining the charts, we identified the female patients with a history of breast cancer. For those patients, we collected pathology data related to the primary tumor and cytopathology data related to the pleural metastasis. Results: We evaluated 145 patients, 87 (60%) of whom had tested positive for malignant cells in the pleural fluid. Ductal histology was observed in 119 (82%). The triple-negative breast cancer phenotype was seen in 25 cases (17%). Those patients had the worst prognosis (with a sharp decline in the survival curve), and 20 of the 25 (80%) died during the follow-up period (through June of 2011). The mean survival after the identification of malignant pleural effusion was 6 months. Conclusions: In patients with triple-negative breast cancer who test positive for malignant cells in the pleural fluid, the prognosis is poor and survival is reduced.

 


Keywords: Pleural effusion, malignant/mortality; Breast neoplasms/mortality; Breast neoplasms/genetics.

 

12 - Emphysema index in a cohort of patients with no recognizable lung disease: influence of age

Índice de enfisema pulmonar em coorte de pacientes sem doença pulmonar conhecida: influência da idade

Bruno Hochhegger, Giordano Rafael Tronco Alves, Klaus Loureiro Irion, José da Silva Moreira, Edson dos Santos Marchiori

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):494-502

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate the effects of age on pulmonary emphysema, based on the values of the emphysema index (EI) in a cohort of patients who had never smoked and who had no recognizable lung disease. Methods: We reviewed the CT scans, reported as normal, of 315 patients. Exclusion criteria were a history of smoking, cardiorespiratory disease, and exposure to drugs that could cause lung disease. From this cohort, we selected 32 patients (16 men and 16 women), matched for gender and body mass index, who were divided equally into two groups by age (< 50 years and  50 years). We quantified emphysema using a computer program specific to that task. The EI was calculated with a threshold of −950 HU. We also evaluated total lung volume (TLV) and mean lung density (MLD). Results: The overall means for TLV, MLD, and EI were 5,027 mL, −827 HU, and 2.54%, respectively. Mean values in the older and younger groups, respectively, were as follows: for TLV, 5,229 mL vs. 4,824 mL (p > 0.05); for MLD, −846 HU vs. −813 HU (p < 0.04); and for EI, 3.30% vs. 1.28% (p < 0.001). Significant correlations were found between EI and age (r = 0.66; p = 0.001), EI and TLV (r = 0.58; p = 0.001), and EI and MLD (r = −0.67; p < 0.001). The predicted EI per age was defined by the regression equation (r2 = 0.43): p50(EI) = 0.049 × age − 0.5353. Conclusions: It is important to consider the influence of age when quantifying emphysema in patients over 50 years of age. Based on the regression analysis, EI values of 2.6%, 3.5%, and 4.5% can be considered normal for patients 30, 50, and 70 years of age, respectively.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary emphysema; Tomography, spiral computed; Aging; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.

 

13 - Effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment

Efetividade do tratamento da tuberculose

Letícia Nazareth Fernandes da Paz, Maria Daise de Oliveira Ohnshi, Camila Melo Barbagelata, Fabiana de Arruda Bastos, João Augusto Figueiredo de Oliveira III, Igor Costa Parente

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):503-510

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the treatment strategies that influence the effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment at primary care clinics (PCCs) in Brazil. Methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective epidemiological survey based on the medical records of 588 tuberculosis patients enrolled in the tuberculosis control programs at two PCCs located in the city of Belém, Brazil: Centro de Saúde Escola do Marco (CSEM) and Unidade Básica de Saúde da Pedreira (UBSP). The survey was limited to patients enrolled between January of 2004 and December of 2008. We included only patients between 18 and 59 years of age, and we excluded those who were transferred or were found to have been misdiagnosed. We collected data regarding age, gender, type of treatment (self-administered or supervised), co-infection with HIV, and treatment outcome. The health professionals involved in the tuberculosis control program at the two PCCs were interviewed regarding the strategies used for tuberculosis control and regarding routine clinical care for tuberculosis patients. Results: There were no significant differences between the CSEM and UBSP patients regarding age, gender, or co-infection with HIV. Supervised treatment was used significantly more frequently and the rate of cure was higher at the CSEM than at the UBSP, whereas the rate of treatment noncompliance was higher at the UBSP than at the CSEM. Conclusions: For patients enrolled in tuberculosis control programs at PCCs in Brazil, supervised treatment appears to be an extremely important strategy for reducing the rate of treatment noncompliance.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Patient dropouts; Patient care planning; Treatment outcome.

 

14 - Tuberculosis, HIV, and poverty: temporal trends in Brazil, the Americas, and worldwide

Tuberculose, HIV e pobreza: tendência temporal no Brasil, Américas e mundo

Raphael Mendonça Guimarães, Andréa de Paula Lobo, Eduardo Aguiar Siqueira, Tuane Franco Farinazzo Borges, Suzane Cristina Costa Melo

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):518-525

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the temporal trends of the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis, with and without HIV co-infection, as well as of the associated mortality, in Brazil, the Americas, and worldwide. Methods: We collected data related to tuberculosis, with and without HIV co-infection, between 1990 and 2010, in Brazil, the Americas, and worldwide. Temporal trends were estimated by linear regression. Results: We identified a trend toward a decrease in tuberculosis prevalence and mortality, and that trend was more pronounced in Brazil and the Americas than worldwide. There was also a trend toward an increase in the incidence of tuberculosis/HIV co-infection, as well as in the rates of detection of new cases of active and latent tuberculosis. The incidence of tuberculosis was found to trend downward in Brazil, whereas it trended upward worldwide. Tuberculosis incidence rates correlated positively with poverty rates and with HIV incidence rates. Conclusions: Social inequality and the advent of AIDS are the major factors that aggravate the current situation of tuberculosis. In this context, methodical approaches to the assessment of surveillance activities are welcome, because they will identify situations in which the reported tuberculosis data do not reflect the true incidence of this disease.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; HIV; Socioeconomic factors.

 

15 - Evolution of public policies and programs for asthma control in Brazil from the perspective of consensus guidelines

Evolução das políticas públicas e programas de controle da asma no Brasil sob a perspectiva dos consensos

Ligia Menezes do Amaral, Pamella Valente Palma, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves Leite

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):518-525

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

There is much discussion about effective public policies that allow the proper treatment of asthma, providing care that is comprehensive and centered on asthma patients within their social context. Educating health professionals and asthma patients provides better recognition of symptoms and the triggers of asthma exacerbations, as well as disseminating strategies for avoiding such triggers, thereby ensuring better treatment and quality of life for asthma patients. Asthma imposes an ever-increasing burden on society, in terms of impaired quality of life, morbidity, and health care costs, making this a very important discussion in the field of public policy.

 


Keywords: Health policy; Asthma; Consensus.

 

Case Report

16 - Unilateral pulmonary agenesis

Agenesia pulmonar unilateral

Maura Cavada Malcon, Claudio Mattar Malcon, Marina Neves Cavada, Paulo Eduardo Macedo Caruso, Lara Flório Real

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):526-529

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pulmonary agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy with left lung agenesis, without any other congenital malformations. When the patient presented symptoms, including cough, wheezing, and dyspnea, with no clinical improvement after a period of 30 days, imaging studies were conducted and the diagnosis was made.

 


Keywords: Congenital abnormalities; Respiratory tract diseases; Bronchoscopy.

 

Letters to the Editor

17 - Pulmonary cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients, an underdiagnosed disease

Criptosporidiose pulmonar em pacientes com AIDS, uma doença subdiagnosticada

Yvana Maria Maia de Albuquerque, Márcia Cristina Fraga Silva, Ana Luiza Magalhães de Andrade Lima, Vera Magalhães

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):530-532

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18 - Activated charcoal bronchial aspiration

Broncoaspiração de carvão ativado

Bruna Quaranta Lobão Bairral, Makoto Saito, Nelson Morrone

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):533-534

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19 - Lipoid pneumonia in a 40-day-old infant

Pneumonia lipoide em lactente de 40 dias de vida

Maria Cristina Ribeiro dos Santos Simões, Ivan Felizardo Contrera Toro, José Dirceu Ribeiro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera Toro

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):535-537

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Year 2012 - Volume 38  - Number 5  (September/October)

App

Editorial

1 - Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in COPD patients: beyond maximal oxygen uptake

Teste cardiopulmonar de exercício na DPOC: indo além do consumo máximo de oxigênio

Eloara Vieira Machado Ferreira

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):539-540

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Original Article

2 - Muscle strength as a determinant of oxygen uptakeefficiency and maximal metabolic response inpatients with mild-to-moderate COPD

Força muscular como determinante da eficiênciado consumo de oxigênio e da máxima resposta metabólicaao exercício em pacientes com DPOC leve/moderada

Paulo de Tarso Guerrero Müller, Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas,Luiz Armando Pereira Patusco

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):541-549

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare the behavior of the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) with that of oxygen uptake at peak exertion (VO2peak). Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study involving 21 patients (15 men) with mild-to-moderate COPD undergoing spirometry, handgrip strength (HGS) testing, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and determination of lactate at peak exertion (LACpeak). Results: Mean weight was 66.7 ± 13.6 kg, and mean age was 60.7 ± 7.8 years. With the exception of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio (75.8 ± 18.6% of predicted and 56.6 ± 8.8%, respectively), all spirometric variables were normal, as was HGS. The patients exhibited significant metabolic and hemodynamic stress, as evidenced by the means (% of predicted) for VO2peak (93.1 ± 15.4), maximum HR (92.5 ± 10.4), and OUES (99.4 ± 24.4), as well as for the gas exchange rate (1.2 ± 0.1). The correlation between VO2peak and OUES was significant (r = 0.747; p < 0.0001). The correlation between HGS and VO2peak (r = 0.734; pX< 0.0001) was more significant than was that between HGS and OUES (r = 0.453; p < 0.05). Similar results were found regarding the correlations of VO2peak and OUES with MIP. Although LACpeak correlated significantly with VO2peak (r = −0.731; p < 0.0001), only LACpeak/maximum power correlated significantly with OUES (r = −0.605; p = 0.004). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that, in mild-to-moderate COPD, VO2 determinants other than overall muscle strength have a greater impact on OUES than on VO2peak.

 


Keywords: Respiratory function tests; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Muscle strength; Oxygen consumption.

 

3 - Prevalence and duration of social security benefits allowed to workers with asthma in Brazil in 2008

Prevalência e duração dos benefícios auxílio-doença decorrentes de asma no Brasil em 2008

Anadergh Barbosa de Abreu Branco, Simone de Andrade Goulart Ildefonso

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):550-558

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence and duration of social security benefit (SSB) claims granted to registered workers with asthma in Brazil by the Brazilian National Institute of Social Security in 2008. Methods: This was a retrospective, descriptive study, based on information obtained from the Brazilian Unified Benefit System database, on the number of SSB claims granted to registered workers with asthma in 2008. The reference population was the monthly mean number of workers registered in the Brazilian Social Registry Database in 2008. The variables studied were type of economic activity, gender, age, and type/duration of the SSB allowance. The relationship between work and asthma was evaluated by the prevalence ratio (PR) between work-related and non-work-related SSB claims for asthma. Results: In 2008, 2,483 SSB claims were granted for asthma, with a prevalence of 7.5 claims per 100,000 registered workers. The prevalence was higher among females than among males (PR = 2.1 between the sexes). Workers  40 years of age were 2.5 times more likely to be granted an SSB allowance for asthma than were younger workers. The prevalence was highest among workers engaged in the following types of economic activity: sewage, wood and wood product manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing (78.8, 22.4, and 22.2 claims/100,000 registered workers, respectively). The median (interquartile range) duration of SSB claims for asthma was 49 (28-87) days. Conclusions: Asthma is a major cause of sick leave, and its etiology has a strong occupational component. This has a major impact on employers, employees, and the social security system. Being female, being  40 years of age, and working in the areas of sewage, wood and wood product manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing increase the chance of sick leave due to asthma.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Social security; Prevalence; Occupational exposure; Occupational health.

 

4 - Analysis and validation of probabilistic models for predicting malignancy in solitary pulmonary nodules in a population in Brazil

Análise e validação de modelos probabilísticos de malignidade de nódulo pulmonar solitário em uma população no Brasil

Cromwell Barbosa de Carvalho Melo, João Aléssio Juliano Perfeito, Danilo Félix Daud, Altair da Silva Costa Júnior, Ilka Lopes Santoro, Luiz Eduardo Villaça Leão

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):559-565

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze clinical and radiological findings that influence the pathological diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) and to compare/validate two probabilistic models for predicting SPN malignancy in patients with SPN in Brazil. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 110 patients diagnosed with SPN and submitted to resection of SPN at a tertiary hospital between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics studied were gender, age, presence of systemic comorbidities, history of malignancy prior to the diagnosis of SPN, histopathological diagnosis of SPN, smoking status, smoking history, and time since smoking cessation. The radiological characteristics studied, in relation to the SPN, were presence of spiculated margins, maximum transverse diameter, and anatomical location. Two mathematical models, created in 1997 and 2007, respectively, were used in order to determine the probability of SPN malignancy. Results: We found that SPN malignancy was significantly associated with age (p = 0.006; OR = 5.70 for age > 70 years), spiculated margins (p = 0.001), and maximum diameter of SPN (p = 0.001; OR = 2.62 for diameters > 20 mm). The probabilistic model created in 1997 proved to be superior to that created in 2007-area under the ROC curve, 0.79 ± 0.44 (95% CI: 0.70 0.88) vs. 0.69 ± 0.50 (95% CI: 0.59-0.79). Conclusions: Advanced age, greater maximum SPN diameter, and spiculated margins were significantly associated with the diagnosis of SPN malignancy. Our analysis shows that, although both mathematical models were effective in determining SPN malignancy in our population, the 1997 model was superior.

 


Keywords: Solitary Pulmonary Nodule; Risk Factors; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung.

 

5 - Electric Ventilation: indications for and technical aspects of diaphragm pacing stimulation surgical implantation

Ventilação elétrica: indicações e aspectos técnicos do implante cirúrgico do marca-passo de estimulação diafragmática

Miguel Lia Tedde, Raymond P Onders, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Silvia Gelas Lage, Gerson Ballester, Mario Wilson Iersolino Brotto, Erica Mie Okumura, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):566-572

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Patients with high cervical spinal cord injury are usually dependent on mechanical ventilation support, which, albeit life saving, is associated with complications and decreased life expectancy because of respiratory infections. Diaphragm pacing stimulation (DPS), sometimes referred to as electric ventilation, induces inhalation by stimulating the inspiratory muscles. Our objective was to highlight the indications for and some aspects of the surgical technique employed in the laparoscopic insertion of the DPS electrodes, as well as to describe five cases of tetraplegic patients submitted to the technique. Methods: Patient selection involved transcutaneous phrenic nerve studies in order to determine whether the phrenic nerves were preserved. The surgical approach was traditional laparoscopy, with four ports. The initial step was electrical mapping in order to locate the "motor points" (the points at which stimulation would cause maximal contraction of the diaphragm). If the diaphragm mapping was successful, four electrodes were implanted into the abdominal surface of the diaphragm, two on each side, to stimulate the branches of the phrenic nerve. Results: Of the five patients, three could breathe using DPS alone for more than 24 h, one could do so for more than 6 h, and one could not do so at all. Conclusions: Although a longer follow-up period is needed in order to reach definitive conclusions, the initial results have been promising. At this writing, most of our patients have been able to remain ventilator-free for long periods of time.

 


Keywords: Spinal cord injuries; Quadriplegia; Respiration, artificial; Pacemaker, artificial; Diaphragm.

 

6 - Quantitative assessment of the intensity of palmar and plantar sweating in patients with primary palmoplantar hyperhidrosis

Avaliação quantitativa da intensidade da transpiração palmar e plantar em pacientes portadores de hiperidrose palmoplantar primária

Bruno Yoshihiro Parlato Sakiyama, Thaís Vera Monteiro, Augusto Ishy, José Ribas Milanez de Campos, Paulo Kauffman, Nelson Wolosker

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):573-578

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare individuals with and without hyperhidrosis in terms of the intensity of palmar and plantar sweating. Methods: We selected 50 patients clinically diagnosed with palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and 25 normal individuals as controls. We quantified sweating using a portable noninvasive electronic device that has relative humidity and temperature sensors to measure transepidermal water loss. All of the individuals had a body mass index of 20-25 kg/cm2. Subjects remained at rest for 20-30 min before the measurements in order to reduce external interference. The measurements were carried out in a climate-controlled environment (21-24°C). Measurements were carried out on the hypothenar region on both hands and on the medial plantar region on both feet. Results: In the palmoplantar hyperhidrosis group, the mean transepidermal water loss on the hands and feet was 133.6 ± 51.0 g/m2/h and 71.8 ± 40.3 g/m2/h, respectively, compared with 37.9 ± 18.4 g/m2/h and 27.6 ± 14.3 g/m2/h, respectively, in the control group. The differences between the groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001 for hands and feet). Conclusions: This method proved to be an accurate and reliable tool to quantify palmar and plantar sweating when performed by a trained and qualified professional.

 


Keywords: Hyperhidrosis; Sweat; Dermatology/instrumentation.

 

7 - Responsiveness of the six-minute step test to a physical training program in patients with COPD

Responsividade do teste do degrau de seis minutos a um programa de treinamento físico em pacientes com DPOC

Kamilla Tays Marrara, Diego Marmorato Marino, Maurício Jamami, Antônio Delfino de Oliveira Junior, Valéria Amorim Pires Di Lorenzo

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):579-587

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the responsiveness of the six-minute step test (6MST) to an aerobic physical training program (PTP) and to determine the efficacy of the PTP regarding spirometric variables during the 6MST, as well as physical performance, sensation of dyspnea, and SpO2 during the 6MST and the six-minute walk test (6MWT), in patients with COPD. Methods: This was a controlled, prospective randomized study involving patients clinically diagnosed with COPD, with an FEV1/FVC ratio < 70%, and having been clinically stable in the last two months. The patients were randomized to undergo a PTP on a treadmill, three times a week, for six weeks (PTP group) or not (control group). Histories were taken from all of the patients, who received regular respiratory therapy during the study period, undergoing physical examination and spirometry before and after bronchodilator use; incremental symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing; the 6MST; and the 6MWT. Results: Of the 36 patients that completed the study, 21 and 15 were in the PTP and control groups, respectively. In the PTP group, there was a significant increase in the number of steps climbed during the 6MST and in the six-minute walk distance (in m and % of predicted), as well as a significant decrease in the sensation of dyspnea during the 6MWT. Conclusions: The 6MST showed responsiveness to the PTP. However, the 6MWT appears to be more responsive to the PTP proposed.

 


Keywords: Exercise test; Exercise; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.

 

8 - Maternal malnutrition during lactation in Wistar rats: effects on elastic fibers of the extracellular matrix in the trachea of offspring

Desnutrição materna durante a lactação em ratos Wistar: efeitos sobre as fibras elásticas da matriz extracelular na traqueia dos filhotes

Filipe Moreira de Andrade, Luiz Felippe Judice, Gilberto Perez Cardoso, Rafael Cisne, Cristiane da Fonte Ramos, Marcio Antonio Babinski

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):588-594

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate the effects of maternal protein malnutrition during lactation on the elastic fibers in the tracheas of Wistar rat pups. Methods: At delivery, 12 male pups of two Wistar rat dams were equally divided into two groups: control, in which the dam received water and standard rat chow ad libitum during lactation; and protein-restricted (PR), in which the dam received water ad libitum and an isoenergetic PR diet (8% protein). At 21 days of age, the pups were killed and their tracheas were excised. The elastic fibers were stained with Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin (after oxidation) and evaluated under light microscopy. Morphometric determinations were performed by stereology, with the point-counting method, and expressed as volumetric densities. Results: Elastic fibers, most having a longitudinal distribution, were identified beneath the tracheal mucosa. In addition, well-defined circular layers of elastic fibers were found around the inner and outer surfaces of the cartilaginous ring. There were no differences between the groups regarding the organization and distribution of the elastic fibers. The volumetric density of the elastic fibers of the pups in the control and PR groups was 2.46 ± 0.99% and 3.25 ± 1.13%, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The volumetric density of elastic fibers appears to be greater in rat pups breastfed by dams receiving a PR diet than in those breastfed by dams receiving a normal diet.

 


Keywords: Trachea/growth and development; Trachea/anatomy and histology; Extracellular matrix; Airway remodeling; Malnutrition.

 

9 - Proposed short-term model of acute allergic response, without adjuvant use, in the lungs of mice

Proposta de um modelo murino de curta duração de resposta pulmonar alérgica aguda sem utilização de adjuvante

Andrea Mendonça Rodrigues, Camila Zanelatto Parreira Schmidt, Lucien Peroni Gualdi, Raquel Giacomelli Cao, Rodrigo Godinho de Souza, Ana Cláudia Pereira, Nailê Karine Nuñez, Alisson Passos Schleich, Paulo Márcio Condessa Pitrez

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):595-604

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether a short-term protocol using subcutaneous sensitization with ovalbumin, without the use of adjuvants, would induce an eosinophilic response in the lungs of mice similar to that observed in previous, well-established protocols. Methods: Adult female BALB/c mice were randomized and divided into groups according to the number of sensitizations with ovalbumin and the number/dosage of intranasal ovalbumin challenges. The short-term protocol (10 days) consisted of one sensitization with ovalbumin and three ovalbumin challenges (100 µg). Total and differential cell counts in BAL fluid, levels of eosinophil peroxidase in lung tissue, and histopathological examination of the lungs were performed 24 h after the last ovalbumin challenge. Results: No significant differences were found among the groups regarding the variables studied. The short-term protocol, as well as the other protocols studied, induced an eosinophilic response similar to that obtained in the positive control. Conclusions: Subcutaneous sensitization with ovalbumin and without the use of adjuvants resulted in a significant allergic response in the lungs of mice, even in the short-term protocol group. Our findings suggest that this short-term protocol can be used as a first-line pre-clinical test for the study of new medications, reducing the costs and observation periods.

 


Keywords: Ovalbumin; Mice; Asthma.

 

10 - Comparisons among parameters of maximal respiratory pressures in healthy subjects

Comparação entre parâmetros de pressões respiratórias máximas em indivíduos saudáveis

Cristina Martins Coelho, Rosa Maria de Carvalho, David Sérgio Adães Gouvêa, José Marques Novo Júnior

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):605-613

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate four parameters defining maximal respiratory pressures and to evaluate their correlations and agreements among those parameters for the determination of MIP and MEP. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 49 healthy, well-nourished males and females. The mean age was 23.08 ± 2.5 years. Measurements were carried out using a pressure transducer, and the estimated values for the parameters peak pressure (Ppeak), plateau pressure (Pplateau), mean maximal pressure (Pmean), and pressure according to the area (Parea) were determined with an algorithm developed for the study. To characterize the study sample, we used descriptive statistics, followed by repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test or by the Friedman test and the Wilcoxon post hoc test, as well as by Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficients, depending on the normality of the data. The agreement between the variables was assessed with Bland  Altman plots. Results: There were significant differences among all of the parameters studied for MIP (Ppeak = 95.69 ± 27.89 cmH2O; Parea = 88.53 ± 26.45 cmH2O; Pplateau = 82.48 ± 25.11 cmH2O; Pmean = 89.01 ± 26.41 cmH2O; p < 0.05 for all) and for MEP (Ppeak = 109.98 ± 40.67 cmH2O; Parea = 103.85 ± 36.63 cmH2O; Pplateau = 98.93 ± 32.10 cmH2O; Pmean = 104.43 ± 36.74 cmH2O; p < 0.0083 for all). Poor agreement was found among almost all of the parameters. Higher pressure values resulted in larger differences between the variables. Conclusions: The maximal respiratory pressure parameters evaluated do not seem to be interchangeable, and higher pressure values result in larger differences among the parameters.

 


Keywords: Respiratory system; Muscle strength; Respiratory function tests.

 

11 - Factors associated with complications of community-acquired pneumonia in preschool children

Fatores associados às complicações em crianças pré-escolares com pneumonia adquirida na comunidade

Pollyana Garcia Amorim, André Moreno Morcillo, Antônia Teresinha Tresoldi, Andréa de Melo Alexandre Fraga, Ricardo Mendes Pereira, Emílio Carlos Elias Baracat

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):614-621

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify socioeconomic factors and clinical factors associated with the development of complications in preschool children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: This was a prospective longitudinal study involving children (12-59 months of age) diagnosed with CAP and admitted to the pediatric wards of two hospitals in the metropolitan area of Campinas, Brazil. Children with cystic fibrosis, heart disease, pulmonary malformations, neurological disorders, or genetic diseases were excluded. The diagnosis of CAP was based on clinical and radiological findings. Data were collected from the medical records and with a semi-structured questionnaire. The subjects were divided into two groups (complicated and uncomplicated CAP). Socioeconomic and clinical variables were compared, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: Of the 63 children included, 29 and 34, respectively, presented with uncomplicated and complicated CAP. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding age at admission, gestational age, birth weight, gender, or socioeconomic variables. Significant differences were found between the groups regarding history of pneumonia (p = 0.03), previous antibiotic therapy (p = 0.004), time elapsed since the onset of CAP (p = 0.01), duration of fever prior to admission (p < 0.001), duration of antibiotic therapy (p < 0.001), and length of hospital stay (p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, only duration of fever prior to admission remained in the model (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.36-2.84; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Biological variables, especially duration of fever prior to admission, appear to be associated with the development of complications in children with CAP.

 


Keywords: Community-acquired infections; Pneumonia; Pleural Effusion.

 

12 - Factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis among patients seeking medical attention at referral clinics for tuberculosis

Fatores associados à tuberculose pulmonar em pacientes que procuraram serviços de saúde de referência para tuberculose

Cid Carlos Soares de Alcântara, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Valéria Goes Ferreira, Mônica Cardoso Façanha, Ricardo Soares Pontes, Rosa Salani Mota, Terezinha do Menino Jesus Silva Leitão

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):622-629

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The identification of behavioral and clinical factors that are associated with pulmonary tuberculosis might improve the detection and treatment of the disease, thereby reducing its duration and transmission. Our objective was to identify sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral factors that are associated with the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between April of 2008 and March of 2009 at three health care clinics in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. We selected 233 patients older than 14 years of age who spontaneously sought medical attention and presented with cough for ≥ 2 weeks. Sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral data were collected. Sputum smear microscopy for AFB and mycobacterial culture were also carried out, as were tuberculin skin tests and chest X-rays. The patients were divided into two groups (with and without pulmonary tuberculosis). The categorical variables were compared by the chi-square test, followed by logistic regression analysis when the variables were considered significant. Results: The prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 41.2%. The unadjusted OR showed that the following variables were statistically significant risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis: fever (OR = 2.39; 95% CI, 1.34-4.30), anorexia (OR = 3.69; 95% CI, 2.03-6.75), and weight loss (OR = 3.37; 95% CI, 1.76-6.62). In the multivariate analysis, only weight loss (OR = 3.31; 95% CI, 1.78-6.14) was significantly associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Conclusions: In areas with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, weight loss could be used as an indicator of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with chronic cough for ≥ 2 weeks.

 


Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Tuberculosis, pulmonary/epidemiology; Risk factors.

 

Brief Communication

13 - Correlation between resistance to pyrazinamide and resistance to other antituberculosis drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated at a referral hospital

Correlação entre a resistência a pirazinamida e a resistência a outros fármacos antituberculose em cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis isoladas em um hospital de referência

Leila de Souza Fonseca, Anna Grazia Marsico, Gisele Betzler de Oliveira Vieira, Rafael da Silva Duarte, Maria Helena Féres Saad, Fernanda de Carvalho Queiroz Mello

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):630-633

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The correlation between resistance to pyrazinamide (PZA) and resistance to other first-line antituberculosis drugs was investigated in 395 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from clinical specimens, representing 14% of the overall number of M. tuberculosis isolates obtained between 2003 and 2008 at the laboratory of a referral university hospital for tuberculosis. A high correlation was found between resistance to PZA and multidrug resistance, as well as between PZA resistance and resistance to rifampin, isoniazid, and ethambutol (p < 0.01 for all). These results highlight the importance of performing PZA susceptibility testing prior to the prescription of this drug in order to treat drug-resistant and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/drug therapy; Tuberculosis/microbiology; Antibiotics, antitubercular.

 

Special Article

14 - Pulmonary research recently published in Brazilian journals

Pesquisas em pneumologia recentemente publicadas em revistas brasileiras

Ariane Maris Gomes, Daniela Aquemi Higa

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):634-642

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We reviewed original articles in the field of pulmonary medicine that had been recently published in 12 Brazilian journals-general or specialty journals-excluding the Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology. All were journals indexed for the Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge. The selection of articles was based on the "continuously variable rating" concept. We have organized the articles by category.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary medicine; Medical oncology; Research; Infectious disease medicine.

 

Review Article

15 - Air pollution and the respiratory system

A poluição do ar e o sistema respiratório

Marcos Abdo Arbex, Ubiratan de Paula Santos, Lourdes Conceição Martins, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Luiz Alberto Amador Pereira, Alfésio Luis Ferreira Braga

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):643-655

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations.

 


Keywords: Respiratory System; Air pollution; Pregnancy; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Asthma; Respiratory tract Infections.

 

16 - The chest and aging: radiological findings

O tórax e o envelhecimento: manifestações radiológicas

Bruno Hochhegger, Gustavo Pontes de Meireles, Klaus Irion, Gláucia Zanetti, Eduardo Garcia, José Moreira, Edson Marchiori

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):656-665

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In the elderly (conventionally defined as individuals  60 years of age), it is often difficult to establish what normality is, because of the numerous anatomical and physiological modifications that occur during the aging process. As a result, the greatest challenge is to differentiate between the normal aging process and the onset of disease. Healthy elderly people commonly present borderline findings on chest imaging. We systematically reviewed the medical literature on the subject, covering the period between 1950 and 2011, including articles in Portuguese, English, French, Italian, and Spanish. We searched the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases, using the search terms "age", "aging", "lung", "thorax", "chest", "X-ray", "radiography", "pulmonary", and "computed tomography"-as well as their corresponding translations-in various combinations. We included only original or review articles on aging-related chest imaging findings. In broad terms, aging results in physiological modifications that must be recognized so as not to be erroneously interpreted as pathological.

 


Keywords: Aging; Thorax; Lung; Diagnostic imaging.

 

Case Report

17 - Hemophagocytic syndrome due to pulmonary sarcoidosis

Síndrome hemofagocítica devido a sarcoidose pulmonar

Thiago Prudente Bártholo, José Gustavo Pugliese, Thiago Thomaz Mafort, Vinicius Lemos da Silva, Cláudia Henrique da Costa, Rogério Rufino

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):667-671

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Although hemophagocytic syndrome is a rare clinical condition, it is associated with high mortality and the number of cases described in the literature has progressively increased. The diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome is made on the basis of a finding of hemophagocytosis. Sarcoidosis is a highly prevalent disease whose course and prognosis might correlate with the initial clinical presentation and the extent of the disease. We report the case of a patient with long-standing sarcoidosis who presented with intermittent fever and fatigue. The diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome was made by bone marrow aspiration, and specific treatment was ineffective. This is the third case of sarcoidosis-related hemophagocytic syndrome reported in the literature and the first reported in Latin America. All three cases had unfavorable outcomes.

 


Keywords: Lymphohistiocytosis, hemophagocytic; Ferritins; Sarcoidosis, pulmonary; Macrophage activation syndrome.

 

Letters to the Editor

18 - Tailored intracuff pressures

Valores individualizados de pressão intracuff

Armando Carlos Franco de Godoy, Mariana Del Grossi Moura, Monique Louise Adame, Gustavo Pereira Fraga

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):666-671

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19 - Osteitis in a female infant after vaccination with BCG Moreau in the neonatal period

Osteíte por BCG Moreau em uma menina vacinada ao nascer

Nelson Morrone, Cláudio do Amaral Antonio, Claudio Santilli, Beatriz Tavares Costa-Carvalho, Denise Rodrigues

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):674-676

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Original Article

20 - Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in a patient with acute pancreatitis and respiratory failure

Ventilação mecânica não invasiva em uma paciente com pancreatite aguda e insuficiência respiratória

Thiago Rodrigues Araújo Calderan, Gustavo Pereira Fraga

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):677-678

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Letters to the Editor

21 - Urine in the pleural cavity: an unexpected finding

Urina em cavidade pleural: um achado inesperado

Melike Demir, Gülistan Karadeniz, Ebru Uz

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):679-680

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Year 2012 - Volume 38  - Number 6  (November/December)

App

Editorial

1 - A new era in lung transplantation: an individualized approach to donor lungs

Uma nova era no transplante pulmonar: medicina personalizada a pulmões doados

Marcelo Cypel

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):681-683

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Original Article

2 - Cross-cultural adaptation and assessment of reproducibility of the Duke Activity Status Index for COPD patients in Brazil

Adaptação cultural e avaliação da reprodutibilidade do Duke Activity Status Index para pacientes com DPOC no Brasil

Livia dos Anjos Tavares, José Barreto Neto, José Roberto Jardim, George Márcio da Costa e Souza, Mark A. Hlatky, Oliver Augusto Nascimento

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):684-691

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: To cross-culturally adapt the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) for use in Brazil and evaluate the reproducibility of the new (Brazilian Portuguese-language) version. Methods: We selected stable patients with clinical and spirometric diagnosis of COPD. Initially, the DASI was translated into Brazilian Portuguese, and the cross-cultural adaptation was performed by an expert committee. Subsequently, 12 patients completed the questionnaire, so that their questions and difficulties could be identified and adjustments could be made. An independent translator back-translated the final version into English, which was then submitted to and approved by the original author. The final Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the DASI was applied to 50 patients at three distinct times. For the assessment of interobserver reproducibility, it was applied twice within a 30-min interval by two different interviewers. For the assessment of intraobserver reproducibility, it was applied again 15 days later by one of the interviewers. Results: The mean age of the patients was 62.3 ± 10.0 years, the mean FEV1 was 45.2 ± 14.7% of the predicted value, and the mean body mass index was 26.8 ± 5.8 kg/m2. The intraclass correlation coefficients for intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility were 0.95 and 0.90, respectively. The correlations between the DASI and the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) domains were all negative and statistically significant. The DASI correlated best with the SGRQ activity domain (r = −0.70), the total SGRQ score (r = −0.66), and the six-minute walk distance (r = 0.55). Conclusions: The Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the DASI is reproducible, fast, and simple, correlating well with the SGRQ.

 


Keywords: Activities of daily living; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Reproducibility of results.

 

3 - Underdiagnosis of COPD at primary health care clinics in the city of Aparecida de Goiânia, Brazil

Subdiagnóstico de DPOC na atenção primária em Aparecida de Goiânia, Goiás

Maria Conceição de Castro Antonelli Monteiro de Queiroz, Maria Auxiliadora Carmo Moreira, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):692-699

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed COPD among individuals with risk factors for the disease treated at primary health care clinics (PHCCs) in the city of Aparecida de Goiânia, Brazil. Methods: Inclusion criteria were being ≥ 40 years of age, having a > 20 pack-year history of smoking or a > 80 hour-year history of exposure to biomass smoke, and seeking medical attention at one of the selected PHCCs. All subjects included in the study underwent spirometry for the diagnosis of COPD. Results: We successfully evaluated 200 individuals, mostly males. The mean age was 65.9 ± 10.5 years. The diagnosis of COPD was confirmed in 63 individuals, only 18 of whom had been previously diagnosed with COPD (underdiagnosis rate, 71.4%). There were no significant differences between the subgroups with and without a previous diagnosis of COPD in relation to demographics and risk factors. However, there were significant differences between these subgroups for the presence of expectoration, wheezing, and dyspnea (p = 0.047; p = 0.005; and p = 0.047, respectively). The FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio, expressed as percentages of the predicted values, were significantly lower in the subjects with a previous diagnosis of COPD, which was predominantly mild or moderate in both subgroups. Conclusions: The rate of underdiagnosis of COPD was high at the PHCCs studied. One third of the patients with risk factors for COPD met the clinical and functional criteria for the disease. It seems that spirometry is underutilized at such facilities.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/diagnosis; Primary health care; Spirometry.

 

4 - Reference values for sniff nasal inspiratory pressure in healthy subjects in Brazil: a multicenter study

Valores de referência da pressão inspiratória nasal em indivíduos saudáveis no Brasil: estudo multicêntrico

Palomma Russelly Saldanha de Araújo, Vanessa Regiane Resqueti, Jasiel Nascimento Jr, Larissa de Andrade Carvalho, Ana Gabriela Leal Cavalcanti, Viviane Cerezer Silva, Ester Silva, Marlene Aparecida Moreno, Arméle de Fátima Dornelas de Andrade, Guilherme Augusto de Freitas Fregonezi

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):700-707

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The objectives of this study were to determine reference values for sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP) and to propose reference equations for the population of Brazil. Methods: We evaluated 243 healthy individuals (111 males and 132 females), between 20 and 80 years of age, with an FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio > 80% and > 85% of the predicted value, respectively. All of the subjects underwent respiratory muscle strength tests to determine MIP, MEP, and SNIP. Results: We found that SNIP values were higher in males than in females (p < 0.05) and that SNIP correlated negatively with age, for males (r = −0.29; p < 0.001) and for females (r = −0.33; p < 0.0001). Linear regression also revealed that age influenced the predicted SNIP, for males (R2 = 0.09) and females (R2 = 0.10). We obtained predicted SNIP values that were higher than those obtained for other populations. Conclusions: We have devised predictive equations for SNIP to be used in adults (20-80 years of age) in Brazil. These equations could help minimize diagnostic discrepancies among individuals.

 


Keywords: Respiratory Muscles; Respiratory Function Tests; Reference Values; Linear Models.

 

5 - Potential impacts of climate variability on respiratory morbidity in children, infants, and adults

Potenciais impactos da variabilidade climática sobre a morbidade respiratória em crianças, lactentes e adultos

Amaury de Souza, Widinei Alves Fernandes, Hamilton Germano Pavão, Giancarlo Lastoria, Edilce do Amaral Albrez

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):708-715

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether climate variability influences the number of hospitalizations for respiratory diseases in infants, children, and adults in the city of Campo Grande, Brazil. Methods: We used daily data on admissions for respiratory diseases, precipitation, air temperature, humidity, and wind speed for the 2004-2008 period. We calculated the thermal comfort index, effective temperature, and effective temperature with wind speed (wind-chill or heat index) using the meteorological data obtained. Generalized linear models, with Poisson multiple regression, were used in order to predict hospitalizations for respiratory disease. Results: The variables studied were (collectively) found to show relatively high correlation coefficients in relation to hospital admission for pneumonia in children (R2 = 68.4%), infants (R2 = 71.8%), and adults (R2 = 81.8%). Conclusions: Our results indicate a quantitative risk for an increase in the number of hospitalizations of children, infants, and adults, according to the increase or decrease in temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind speed, and thermal comfort index in the city under study.

 


Keywords: Meteorology; Pneumonia/epidemiology; Risk factors.

 

6 - Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and reproducibility of the Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale

Tradução, adaptação cultural e reprodutibilidade da Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale para o português do Brasil

Boanerges Lopes de Oliveira Junior, José Roberto Jardim, Oliver Augusto Nascimento, George Márcio da Costa e Souza, Timothy B. Baker, Ilka Lopes Santoro

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):716-723

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To cross-culturally adapt the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) for use in Brazil and evaluate the reproducibility of the new (Brazilian Portuguese-language) version. Methods: The original English version of the WSWS was translated into Brazilian Portuguese. For cross-cultural adaptation, the Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the WSWS was administered to eight volunteers, all of whom were smokers. After adjustments had been made, the WSWS version was back-translated into English. The Brazilian Portuguese-language version was thereby found to be accurate. The final Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the WSWS was applied to 75 smokers at three distinct times. For the assessment of interobserver reproducibility, it was applied twice within a 30-min interval by two different interviewers. For the assessment of intraobserver reproducibility, it was applied again 15 days later by one of the interviewers. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used in order to test the concordance of the answers. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: Of the 75 volunteers, 43 (57.3%) were female. The overall mean age was 46.3 years. Interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility was determined for each of the WSWS seven domains, the ICCs for which ranged from 0.87 to 0.94 and from 0.76 to 0.92, respectively. The mean time to completion of the WSWS was 6 min and 44 s, and the response time per question ranged from 4.2 to 12.6 s. Conclusions: The Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the WSWS is reproducible, fast, and simple. It can therefore be used as a tool for assessing the severity of the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal syndrome.

 


Keywords: Nicotine; Tobacco use disorder; Substance withdrawal syndrome; Reproducibility of results.

 

7 - Clinical and epidemiological profile and prevalence of tuberculosis/HIV co-infection in a regional health district in the state of Maranhão, Brazil

Perfil clínico e epidemiológico e prevalência da coinfecção tuberculose/HIV em uma regional de saúde no Maranhão

Marcelino Santos Neto, Fabiane Leita da Silva, Keyla Rodrigues de Sousa, Mellina Yamamura, Marcela Paschoal Popolin, Ricardo Alexandre Arcêncio

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):724-732

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile, as well as the prevalence, of tuberculosis/HIV co-infection in the Regional Health District of Tocantins, which serves 14 cities in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. Methods: This was a descriptive epidemiological study based on secondary data obtained from individual tuberculosis reporting forms in the Brazilian Case Registry Database. We included all reported cases of tuberculosis/HIV co-infection, by city, between January of 2001 and December of 2010. Results: In the district, 1,746 cases of tuberculosis were reported. Of those tested for HIV, 100 had positive results, which corresponded to a tuberculosis/HIV co-infection prevalence of 39%. Of the co-infected patients, 79% were male, 42% were Mulatto, and 64% were in the 20- to 40-year age bracket, 31% had had ≤ 4 years of schooling, and 88% resided in the city of Imperatriz. Cases of pulmonary tuberculosis and new cases of tuberculosis predominated (in 87% and 73%, respectively). Of the co-infected patients, 27% had positive sputum smear microscopy results, and 89% had chest X-ray findings suggestive of tuberculosis. Sputum culture was performed in only 7% of the cases. Conclusions: Our results show that, because of its clinical and epidemiological profile, tuberculosis/HIV co-infection is still a major public health problem in the southwestern region of Maranhão. This situation calls for better coordination between tuberculosis and sexually transmitted disease/AIDS control programs, as well as a political commitment and greater involvement on the part of administrators and health care professionals in the planning of interventions and the functioning of health care facilities.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; HIV infections/epidemiology; Comorbidity.

 

8 - Prevalence of primary drug resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis patients with no known risk factors for such

Prevalência de resistência primária em pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar sem fatores de risco conhecidos para resistência primária

Giselle Mota Bastos, Michelle Cailleaux Cezar, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz Mello, Marcus Barreto Conde

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):733-739

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of primary resistance to the drugs in the basic treatment regimen for tuberculosis in treatment-naïve patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and no known risk factors for such resistance, as well as to identify factors potentially associated with drug resistance. Methods: This was an exploratory cross-sectional study. We analyzed the medical records of the subjects enrolled in two clinical trials of treatments for drug-susceptible tuberculosis between November 1, 2004 and March 31, 2011 at the Prof. Newton Bethlem Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Thoracic Diseases Institute, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The inclusion criteria were being ≥ 18 years of age, testing positive for AFB in the first sputum sample, having a positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, having undergone drug susceptibility testing, and being treatment-naïve. Patients with a history of imprisonment or hospitalization were excluded, as were those who had been in contact with drug-resistant tuberculosis patients. Results: We included 209 patients. The overall prevalence of primary drug resistance was 16.3%. The overall prevalence of resistance to isoniazid and streptomycin was, respectively, 9.6% and 9.1%, compared with 5.8% and 6.8% for single-drug resistance to isoniazid and streptomycin, respectively. The prevalence of resistance to two or more drugs was 3.8%, and the prevalence of multidrug resistance was 0.5%. No statistically significant associations were found between the variables studied and drug susceptibility testing results. Conclusions: In this sample, the prevalence of primary drug resistance was high despite the absence of known risk factors.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant; Risk factors.

 

9 - Primary and acquired pyrazinamide resistance in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis treated at a referral hospital in the city of Recife, Brazil

Resistência primária e adquirida à pirazinamida em pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar atendidos em um hospital de referência no Recife

Liany Barros Ribeiro, Vera Magalhães, Marcelo Magalhães

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):740-747

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine primary and acquired resistance to pyrazinamide in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in sputum samples from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: This was a prospective, descriptive study conducted between April and November of 2011 at a referral hospital for tuberculosis in the city of Recife, Brazil. Cultures, drug sensitivity tests, and tests of pyrazinamidase activity were conducted in a private laboratory in Recife. Results: Of the 71 patients included in the study, 37 were treatment-naïve and 34 represented cases of retreatment. Pyrazinamide-resistant strains were isolated in 14 (41.2%) of the 34 patients who had previously been treated for tuberculosis and in none of the 37 treatment-naïve patients. Of the 14 isolates, 10 (90.9%) tested negative for pyrazinamidase activity. A total of 60 isolates tested positive for pyrazinamidase activity. Of those, 56 (93.3%) were found to be sensitive to pyrazinamide. Conclusions: The high frequency of pyrazinamide-resistant strains (41.2%) in patients previously treated for tuberculosis highlights the need for drug susceptibility testing prior to the adoption of a new treatment regimen.

 


Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Pyrazinamide; Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant

 

Special Article

10 - Pharmaceutical equivalence of the combination formulation of budesonide and formoterol in a single capsule with a dry powder inhaler

Equivalência farmacêutica da formulação combinada de budesonida e formoterol em cápsula única com dispositivo inalador de pó

Marina Andrade-Lima, Luiz Fernando Ferreira Pereira, Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):748-756

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: To evaluate the pharmaceutical equivalence of a test formulation (fixed-dose combination of budesonide and formoterol fumarate in a single capsule dispensed in an Aerocaps® inhaler) in relation to a reference formulation (budesonide and formoterol fumarate in two separate capsules dispensed in an Aerolizer® inhaler). Methods: This was an in vitro study in which we performed the identification/quantification of the active ingredients by HPLC and determined dose uniformity and aerodynamic particle size distribution in the test and reference formulations. Results: In the test formulation, the content of budesonide and formoterol was 111.0% and 103.8%, respectively, compared with 110.5% and 104.5%, respectively, in the reference formulation. In the test formulation, dose uniformity regarding budesonide and formoterol was 293.2 µg and 10.2 µg, respectively, whereas it was 353.0 µg and 11.1 µg in the reference formulation. These values are within the recommended range for this type of formulation (75-125% of the labeled dose). The fine particle fraction (< 5 µm) for budesonide and formoterol was 45% and 56%, respectively, in the test formulation and 54% and 52%, respectively, in the reference formulation. Conclusions: For both of the formulations tested, the levels of active ingredients, dose uniformity, and aerodynamic diameters were suitable for use with the respective dry powder inhalers.

 


Keywords: : Asthma; Budesonide; Bronchodilator agents; Drug therapy, combination.

 

Brief Communication

11 - Evaluation of the diagnostic utility of fiberoptic bronchoscopy for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in routine clinical practice

Avaliação da utilidade diagnóstica da fibrobroncoscopia óptica na tuberculose pulmonar BAAR negativa na prática clínica de rotina

Alonso Soto, Daniela Salazar, Vilma Acurio, Patricia Segura, Patrick Van der Stuyft

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):761-765

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We evaluated the diagnostic yield of fiberoptic bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in patients treated at a referral hospital in Lima, Peru. Of the 611 patients who underwent the procedure, 140 (23%) were diagnosed with tuberculosis based on the analysis of BAL samples. Being young and being male were significantly associated with positive cultures. In addition, 287 patients underwent post-bronchoscopic sputum smear testing for AFB, the results of which increased the diagnostic yield by 22% over that obtained through the analysis of BAL samples alone. We conclude that the analysis of BAL samples and post-bronchoscopic sputum samples provides a high diagnostic yield in smear-negative patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary/diagnosis; Bronchoscopy; Sputum.

 

12 - A new nicotine dependence score and a new scale assessing patient comfort during smoking cessation treatment

Um novo escore para dependência a nicotina e uma nova escala de conforto do paciente durante o tratamento do tabagismo

Jaqueline Scholz Issa

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):761-765

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Smoking is considered the leading preventable  cause of morbidity and mortality. The pharmacological management of nicotine withdrawal syndrome enables better cessation rates. In our smoking cessation program, we have developed a data collection system, which includes two new instruments: a score that assesses nicotine dependence in smokers of ≤ 10 cigarettes/day; and a patient comfort scale to be used during smoking cessation treatment. Here, we describe the two instruments, both of which are still undergoing validation.

 


Keywords: Smoking cessation; Nicotine; Treatment outcome; Substance withdrawal syndrome; Tobacco use disorder.

 

13 - Bottlenecks and recommendations for the incorporation of new technologies in the tuberculosis laboratory network in Brazil

Gargalos e recomendações para a incorporação de novas tecnologias na rede pública laboratorial de tuberculose no Brasil

Maria Alice da Silva Telles, Alexandre Menezes, Anete Trajman

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):766-770

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently recommended new technologies for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The WHO recommendations include the development of a strategic plan for bringing the network up to grade; investment in supervision and quality control; and implementation of a system of laboratory environmental management. Without those measures having been taken, no new technology can be effectively incorporated. We surveyed the tuberculosis laboratory network in Brazil in order to identify possible bottlenecks for the incorporation of new technologies. We identified a lack of resources allocated to supervision and quality control; a low number of requests for cultures; a lack of effective laboratory information systems; and a lack of awareness regarding the future infrastructure needs of the laboratory network at the municipal level.

 


Keywords: Quality control; Tuberculosis; Laboratories; Clinical laboratory information systems; Technology

 

14 - Temporal trends in tuberculosis-related morbidity and mortality in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between 2002 and 2009

Tendência temporal da morbidade e mortalidade por tuberculose no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, no período entre 2002 e 2009

Jefferson Traebert, Glênio César Nunes Ferrer, Nazaré Otília Nazário, Ione Jayce Ceola Schneider, Rosemeri Maurici da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):757-760

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of this study was to describe temporal trends in tuberculosis morbidity and mortality in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between 2002 and 2009. Data regarding mortality and incidence were obtained from the Brazilian Mortality Database and National Case Registry Database, respectively. Crude rates were calculated and standardized by age using the direct method. We estimated annual variation by joinpoint regression, identifying the points at which there were changes in the trends. There was a significant (3.7%) annual decrease in the mortality rate. In the study period, two distinct temporal trends were identified: one between 2002 and 2007, showing a significant (5.9%) annual decrease in the mortality rate; and one between 2007 and 2009, showing an insignificant (2.0%) annual increase. There was also a significant (0.9%) annual reduction in tuberculosis incidence.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; Tuberculosis/mortality; Brazil.

 

Review Article

15 - Ex vivo lung reconditioning: a new era for lung transplantation

Recondicionamento pulmonar ex vivo: uma nova era para o transplante pulmonar

Alessandro Wasum Mariani, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Luis Gustavo Abdalla, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):776-785

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Lung transplantation has come to be viewed as the best treatment option for various end-stage lung diseases. The low number of viable donors continues to be a major obstacle to increasing the number of lung transplants, resulting in high mortality among patients on the waiting list. Unlike transplantation of other solid organs, lung transplantation is primarily limited not by the absolute number of donors but by the viability of the donor lungs, which can be damaged by brain death and by treatments given in the ICU. There are various proposals of ways to increase the number of lung donors: intensification of donation campaigns, use of non-heart-beating donors, living lobar lung transplantation, and adoption of more flexible criteria for donors. However, the proposal that has attracted the most attention from lung transplant groups is ex vivo lung perfusion, especially due to the prospect of reconditioning previously discarded lungs. This system consists of perfusion and ventilation of the isolated heart-lung block using a modified cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. Various authors have been studying this technique due to the satisfactory results obtained and the prospect of an increase in the number of organs suitable for transplantation. Researchers in Sweden, Canada, Austria, England, Spain, and Brazil have extensive experience with the method and have introduced modifications to it. The objective of this article was to review the development of, state of the art in, and future prospects for the ex vivo model of lung perfusion and reconditioning.

 


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Transplantation conditioning; Perfusion; Organ preservation.

 

16 - Anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides in childhood lung diseases

Efeito anti-inflamatório dos macrolídeos em doenças pulmonares da infância

Fernanda Luisi, Thays Dornelles Gandolfi, Arthur Dondonis Daudt, João Pedro Zelmanowicz Sanvitto, Paulo Márcio Pitrez, Leonardo Araujo Pinto

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):786-796

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Macrolides are drugs that have antimicrobial effects, especially against intracellular pathogens. Various studies have shown that macrolides might also have anti-inflammatory effects. Macrolides inhibit the production of interleukins and can reduce pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation. Clinical trials have demonstrated beneficial effects of macrolides in various chronic lung diseases. The objective of this study was to review recent data in the medical literature on the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides in childhood lung diseases by searching the Medline (PubMed) database. We used the following search terms: "macrolide and cystic fibrosis"; "macrolide and asthma"; "macrolide and bronchiolitis obliterans"; and "macrolide and acute bronchiolitis". We selected articles published in international scientific journals between 2001 and 2012. Clinical studies and in vitro evidence have confirmed the anti-inflammatory effect of macrolides in respiratory diseases. Some clinical trials have shown the benefits of the administration of macrolides in patients with cystic fibrosis, although the risk of bacterial resistance should be considered in the analysis of those benefits. Such benefits are controversial in other respiratory diseases, and the routine use of macrolides is not recommended. Further controlled clinical trials are required in order to assess the efficacy of macrolides as anti-inflammatory drugs, so that the benefits in the treatment of each specific clinical condition can be better established.

 


Keywords: Macrolides; Asthma; Cystic Fibrosis; Bronchiolitis.

 

Case Report

17 - Pleural endometriosis: findings on magnetic resonance imaging

Endometriose pleural: achados na ressonância magnética

Edson Marchiori, Gláucia Zanetti, Rosana Souza Rodrigues, Luciana Soares Souza, Arthur Soares Souza Jr, Flávia Angélica Ferreira Francisco, Bruno Hochhegger

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):797-802

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Endometriosis is a benign gynecological disorder associated with pelvic pain and infertility, primarily affecting women of reproductive age. Thoracic endometriosis affects the pulmonary parenchyma or pleura. We report the cases of two patients with pleural endometriosis who presented with recurrent pneumothorax. In both cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest showed right hydropneumothorax and well-defined, rounded nodules on the pleural surface in the right hemithorax. We conclude that MRI is a good option for the characterization of pleural endometriotic nodules and hemorrhagic pleural effusion.

 


Keywords: Endometriosis; Magnetic resonance imaging; Pneumothorax.

 

Letters to the Editor

18 - The role of academic associations in professional training

O papel das ligas acadêmicas na formação profissional

Mayara Lisboa Soares de Bastos, Anete Trajman, Eleny Guimarães Teixeira, Lia Selig, Márcia Teresa Carreira Teixeira Belo

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):803-805

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Letter to the Reader

19 - Lung transplantation without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass in a patient with Kartagener syndrome

Transplante pulmonar sem circulação extracorpórea em uma paciente com síndrome de Kartagener

Luziélio Alves Sidney Filho, Tiago Noguchi Machuca, José de Jesus Camargo, José Carlos Felicetti, Spencer Marcantonio Camargo, Fabíola Adélia Perin, Letícia Beatriz Sanchez, Sadi Marcelo Schio

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):806-809

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Letters to the Editor

20 - A successfully treated case of parainfluenza virus 3 pneumonia mimicking influenza pneumonia

Um caso de pneumonia por vírus parainfluenza 3 simulando pneumonia por influenza tratada com sucesso

Nobuhiro Asai, Yoshihiro Ohkuni, Norihiro Kaneko, Yasutaka Kawamura, Masahiro Aoshima

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):810-812

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


21 - Overlap between asthma and COPD

Sobreposição de asma brônquica e DPOC

Tiago Manuel Alfaro, Sara da Silva Freitas, Carlos Robalo Cordeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):813-816

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Index of Issues

22 - SUBJECT INDEX FOR V.38 (1-6)

Índice remissivo de assuntos do volume 38 (1-6), 2012

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):

PDF PT Portuguese Text


Index of Authors

23 - AUTHOR INDEX FOR V.38 (1-6)

Índice remissivo de autores do volume 38 (1-6), 2012

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):

PDF PT Portuguese Text


Relationship of Reviewers

24 - REVIEWERS FOR V. 38 (1-6)

Relação de revisores - 2012

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):

PDF PT Portuguese Text


 


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