Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2013 - Volume 39  - Number 1  (January/February)

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Editorial

1 - Publications in the Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

Publicações do Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia

Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):1-4

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Original Article

2 - Doxycycline use in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis: biomarkers and pulmonary function response

Doxiciclina em pacientes com linfangioleiomiomatose: biomarcadores e resposta funcional pulmonar

Suzana Pinheiro Pimenta, Bruno Guedes Baldi, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):5-15

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Objective: To assess blockade of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, as well as the variation in FEV1, in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) treated with doxycycline (a known MMP inhibitor) for 12 months. Methods: An open-label, single-arm, interventional clinical trial in which LAM patients received doxycycline (100 mg/day) for 12 months. Patients underwent full pulmonary function testing, a six-minute walk test, and quality of life assessment, as well as blood and urine sampling for quantification of MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF-D levels-at baseline, as well as at 6 and 12 months after the initiation of doxycycline. Results: Thirty-one LAM patients received doxycycline for 12 months. Although there was effective blockade of urinary MMP-9 and serum MMP-2 after treatment, there were no significant differences between pre‑and post-doxycycline serum levels of MMP-9 and VEGF-D. On the basis of their response to doxycycline (as determined by the variation in FEV1), the patients were divided into two groups: the doxycycline-responder (doxy-R) group (n = 13); and the doxycycline-nonresponder (doxy-NR) group (n = 18). The patients with mild spirometric abnormalities responded better to doxycycline. The most common side effects were mild epigastric pain, nausea, and diarrhea. Conclusions: In patients with LAM, doxycycline treatment results in effective MMP blockade, as well as in improved lung function and quality of life in those with less severe disease. However, these benefits do not seem to be related to the MMP blockade, raising the hypothesis that there is a different mechanism of action. (Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials - ReBEC; identification number RBR-6g8yz9 [http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br])

 


Keywords: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis; Doxycycline; Matrix metalloproteinases; Respiratory function tests.

 

3 - Validação técnica da drenagem pulmonar como tratamento do enfisema pulmonaravançado: estudo anatômico em cadáveres

Júlio Mott Ancona Lopez, Roberto Saad Jr, Vicente Dorgan Neto, Marcio Botter, RobertoGonçalves, Jorge Henrique Rivaben

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):16-22

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Resumo

Objetivo: Descrever a técnica operatória da drenagem pulmonar através do estudo anatômico em cadáveres, determinar se o local definido para a drenagem pulmonar é adequado e seguro, e determinar a relação anatômica do tubo de drenagem com a parede torácica, pulmões, grandes vasos e mediastino. Métodos: Foram dissecados 30 cadáveres de ambos os sexos, fornecidos pelo Necrotério do Hospital Central da Santa Casa de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP) no período entre maio e novembro de 2011. Foi inserido um dreno de aço de 7,5 cm com 24 F de diâmetro no segundo espaço intercostal, na linha médio-clavicular, bilateralmente, e foi medida a distância do dreno com as seguintes estruturas: brônquios principais, brônquios dos lobos superiores, vasos subclávios, artérias pulmonares, artérias pulmonares do lobo superior, veia pulmonar superior, veia ázigos e aorta. Foram realizadas medições de peso, altura, diâmetro laterolateral do tórax, diâmetro posteroanterior do tórax e espessura da parede torácica de cada cadáver. Resultados: Dos 30 cadáveres dissecados, 20 e 10 eram do sexo masculino e feminino, respectivamente. A média da extremidade distal do dreno com os brônquios principais direito e esquerdo foi de 7,2 cm. Conclusões: A utilização de um dreno torácico de tamanho fixo na posição preconizada é factível e segura, independentemente das características antropométricas do paciente.

 


4 - Relationship between the magnitude of symptoms and the quality of life:a cluster analysis of lung cancer patients in Brazil

Relação entre a magnitude de sintomas e a qualidade de vida: análise de agrupamentos depacientes com câncer de pulmão no Brasil

Juliana Franceschini, José Roberto Jardim, Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes,Sérgio Jamnik, Ilka Lopes Santoro

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):23-31

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Objective: Lung cancer patients often experience profound physical and psychosocial changes as a result of disease progression or treatment side effects. Fatigue, pain, dyspnea, depression, and sleep disturbances appear to be the most common symptoms in such patients. The objective of the present study was to examine the prevalence of symptoms in lung cancer patients in order to identify subgroups (clusters) of patients, grouped according to the magnitude of the symptoms, as well as to compare the quality of life among the identified subgroups. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving agglomerative hierarchical clustering. A total of 50 lung cancer patients were evaluated in terms of their demographic characteristics and their scores on three quality of life questionnaires, namely the 30-item European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung, and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-form Survey. The cluster analysis took into account the magnitude of the most prevalent symptoms as assessed by the EORTC QLQ-C30 symptom scale scores; those symptoms were fatigue, pain, dyspnea, and insomnia. Results: Three clusters (subgroups)_of patients were identified on the basis of the magnitude of the four most prevalent symptoms. The three subgroups of patients were as follows: patients with mild symptoms (n = 30; 60%); patients with moderate symptoms (n = 14; 28%); and patients with severe symptoms (n = 6; 12%). The subgroup of patients with severe symptoms had the worst quality of life, as assessed by the total scores and by the integrated domains of all three instruments. Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of symptom cluster assessment as an important tool to assess the quality of life of patients with chronic diseases, such as lung cancer.

 


5 - Bilateral bullectomy through uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery combined with contralateral access to the anterior mediastinum

Bulectomia bilateral por cirurgia torácica vídeo-assistida uniportal combinada com acesso contralateral ao mediastino anterior

Nan Song, Gening Jiang, Dong Xie, Peng Zhang, Ming Liu, Wenxin He

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):32-38

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Objective: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been a surgical intervention of choice for the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) with lung bulla. Our objective was to introduce a uniportal VATS approach for simultaneous bilateral bullectomy and to evaluate its therapeutic efficacy. Methods: Between May of 2011 and January of 2012, five patients underwent bilateral bullectomy conducted using this approach. All of the patients presented with bilateral SP. Preoperative HRCT revealed that all of the patients had bilateral apical bullae. We reviewed the surgical indications, surgical procedures, and outcomes. Results: All of the patients were successfully submitted to this approach for bilateral bullectomy, and there were no intraoperative complications. The median time to chest tube removal was 4.2 days, and the median length of the postoperative hospital stay was 5.2 days. The median postoperative follow-up period was 11.2 months. One patient experienced recurrence of left SP three weeks after the surgery and underwent pleural abrasion. Conclusions: Bilateral bullectomy through uniportal VATS combined with contralateral access to the anterior mediastinum is technically reliable and provides favorable surgical outcomes for patients with bilateral SP who develop bilateral apical bullae. However, among other requirements, this surgical procedure demands that surgeons be experienced in VATS and that the appropriate thoracoscopic instruments are available.

 


Keywords: Pneumothorax; Thoracic surgery, video-assisted; Pleural cavity; Mediastinum.

 

6 - Acute lung injury induced by the intravenous administration of cigarette smoke extract

Lesão pulmonar aguda induzida pela administração endovenosa de extrato da fumaça do cigarro

Luciana Gomes Menezes, Juliana Alves Uzuelli, Cristiane Tefé-Silva, Simone Gusmão Ramos, José Eduardo Tanus dos Santos, José Antônio Baddini Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):39-47

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Resumo

Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos agudos da administração endovenosa de extrato da fumaça do cigarro (EFC) em parâmetros funcionais respiratórios, inflamatórios e histológicos em ratos e comparar esse potencial modelo de lesão pulmonar aguda (LPA) com aquele com o uso de ácido oleico (AO). Métodos: Foram estudados 72 ratos Wistar machos divididos em quatro grupos: tratados somente com soro fisiológico (SF; grupo controle); tratados com EFC e SF (grupo EFC); tratados com SF e AO (grupo AO); e tratados com EFC e AO (grupo EFC/AO). Resultados: As médias de complacência foram significantemente menores nos grupos AO e EFC/AO (2,12 ± 1,13 mL/cmH2O e 1,82 ± 0,77 mL/cmH2O, respectivamente) do que no controle (3,67 ± 1,38 mL/cmH2O). A proporção de neutrófilos e a atividade das metaloproteinases 2 e 9 em lavado broncoalveolar foram significantemente maiores nos grupos AO e EFC/AO que no controle. O acometimento pulmonar avaliado por morfometria foi significantemente maior nos grupos AO e EFC/AO (72,9 ± 13,8% e 77,6 ± 18,0%, respectivamente) do que nos grupos controle e EFC (8,7 ± 4,1% e 32,7 ± 13,1%, respectivamente), e esse acometimento foi significantemente maior no grupo EFC que no grupo controle. Conclusões: A administração endovenosa de EFC, nas doses e tempos deste estudo, associou-se à LPA mínima. O EFC não potencializou a LPA induzida por AO. Estudos adicionais são necessários para esclarecer o papel potencial desse modelo como método de estudo dos mecanismos de agressão pulmonar pelo tabaco.

 


Palavras-chave: Tabagismo; Lesão pulmonar aguda; Modelos animais.

 

7 - Pulmonary function parameters and use of bronchodilators in patients with cystic fibrosis

Características funcionais pulmonares e uso de broncodilatador em pacientes com fibrose cística

Lucia Harumi Muramatu, Roberto Stirbulov, Wilma Carvalho Neves Forte

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):48-55

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Resumo

Objetivo: Analisar as características funcionais pulmonares, a resposta farmacodinâmica a um broncodilatador e sua prescrição em pacientes com diagnóstico de fibrose cística (FC). Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo de pacientes (6-18 anos) com diagnóstico de FC acompanhados em um centro de referência, capazes de realizar testes de função pulmonar (TFP) entre 2008 e 2010. Foram analisados CVF, VEF1 e FEF25-75%, em percentual do previsto, antes e após prova broncodilatadora (pré-BD e pós-BD, respectivamente) de 312 TFP. Foram realizadas ANOVA para medidas repetidas e comparações múltiplas. Resultados: Foram incluídos no estudo 56 pacientes. Desses, 37 e 19, respectivamente, tinham resultados de TFP entre 2008 e 2010 e apenas em 2009-2010, formando dois grupos. No grupo com TFP nos três anos estudados, houve redução significativa em VEF1 pós-BD em 2008-2010 (p = 0,028) e 2009-2010 (p = 0,036) e em FEF25-75% pré-BD e pós-BD em todas as comparações múltiplas (2008 vs. 2009; 2008 vs. 2010; e 2009 vs. 2010). No grupo com TFP apenas em 2009-2010, não houve diferenças significativas em nenhuma das comparações das variáveis estudadas. Dos 312 TFP, somente 24 (7,7%) apresentaram resposta significativa ao broncodilatador e pertenciam a pacientes sem prescrição de broncodilatador durante o período estudado. Conclusões: Houve perda funcional, com indicação de doença pulmonar progressiva, nos pacientes com FC estudados. Houve maiores alterações no FEF25-75%, sugerindo o comprometimento inicial de vias aéreas menores.

 


Palavras-chave: Fibrose cística; Testes de função respiratória; Broncodilatadores.

 

8 - Spirometric changes in obstructive disease: after all, how much is significant?

Alterações espirométricas em doenças obstrutivas: afinal, o quanto é relevante?

André Luis Pinto Soares, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira, Silvia Carla Rodrigues

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):56-62

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Objective: To establish the upper limits for changes in FEV1, slow vital capacity (SVC), FVC, and inspiratory capacity (IC) after placebo administration in patients with airflow obstruction. Methods: One hundred and two adults with airflow obstruction (FEV1 = 62 ± 19% of predicted) were included in the study. All of the participants performed SVC and FVC maneuvers before and after the administration of placebo spray. The changes in FEV1, SVC, FVC, and IC were expressed as absolute values, percentage of change from baseline values, and percentage of predicted values, 95% CIs and 95th percentiles being calculated. Factor analysis was performed in order to determine how those changes clustered. Results: Considering the 95% CIs and 95th percentiles and after rounding the values, we found that the upper limits for a significant response were as follows: FEV1 = 0.20 L, FVC = 0.20 L, SVC = 0.25 L, and IC = 0.30 L (expressed as absolute values); FEV1 = 12%, FVC = 7%, SVC = 10%, and IC = 15% (expressed as percentage of change from baseline values); and FEV1 = 7%, FVC = 6%, SVC = 7%, and IC = 12% (expressed as percentage of predicted values). Conclusions: In patients with airflow obstruction, IC varies more widely than do FVC and SVC. For IC, values greater than 0.30 L and 15% of change from the baseline value can be considered significant. For FVC, values greater than 0.20 L and 7% of change from the baseline value are significant. Alternatively, changes exceeding 0.20 L and 7% of the predicted value can be considered significant for FEV1 and FVC. On factor analysis, spirometric parameters clustered into three dimensions, expressing changes in flows, volumes, and dynamic hyperinflation.

 


Keywords: Respiratory function tests; Spirometry; Bronchospirometry.

 

9 - Histoplasmosis mimicking primary lung cancer or pulmonary metastases

Histoplasmose simulando neoplasia primária de pulmão ou metástases pulmonares

Aline Gehlen Dall Bello, Cecilia Bittencourt Severo, Luciana Silva Guazzelli, Flavio Mattos Oliveira, Bruno Hochhegger, Luiz Carlos Severo

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):63-68

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Objective: To describe the main clinical and radiological characteristics of patients with histoplasmosis mimicking lung cancer. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study based on the analysis of the medical records of the 294 patients diagnosed with histoplasmosis between 1977 and 2011 at the Mycology Laboratory of the Santa Casa Sisters of Mercy Hospital of Porto Alegre in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The diagnosis of histoplasmosis was established by culture, histopathological examination, or immunodiffusion testing (identification of M or H precipitation bands). After identifying the patients with macroscopic lesions, as well as radiological and CT findings consistent with malignancy, we divided the patients into two groups: those with a history of cancer and presenting with lesions mimicking metastases (HC group); and those with no such history but also presenting with lesions mimicking metastases (NHC group). Results: Of the 294 patients diagnosed with histoplasmosis, 15 had presented with lesions mimicking primary neoplasia or metastases (9 and 6 in the HC and NHC groups, respectively). The age of the patients ranged from 13 to 67 years (median, 44 years). Of the 15 patients, 14 (93%) presented with pulmonary lesions at the time of hospitalization. Conclusions: The clinical and radiological syndrome of neoplastic disease is not confined to malignancy, and granulomatous infectious diseases must therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis.

 


Keywords: Histoplasmosis; Multiple pulmonary nodules; Solitary pulmonary nodule.

 

10 - Impact of the prolonged slow expiratory maneuver on respiratory mechanics in wheezing infants

Impacto da técnica de expiração lenta e prolongada na mecânica respiratória de lactentes sibilantes

Fernanda de Cordoba Lanza, Gustavo Falbo Wandalsen, Carolina Lopes da Cruz, Dirceu Solé

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):69-75

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Resumo

Objetivo: Avaliar as alterações da mecânica respiratória e do volume corrente (VC) em lactentes sibilantes em ventilação espontânea após a realização da técnica de expiração lenta e prolongada (ELPr). Métodos: Foram incluídos no estudo lactentes com história de sibilância recorrente e sem exacerbações nos 15 dias anteriores. Para a avaliação da função pulmonar, os lactentes foram sedados e posicionados em decúbito dorsal com máscara facial acoplada a um pneumotacógrafo. As variáveis da respiração corrente - VC e FR - e da mecânica respiratória - complacência do sistema respiratório (Csr), resistência (Rsr) e constante de tempo (psr) - foram mensuradas antes e após a realização de três sequências consecutivas de ELPr. Resultados: Foram avaliados 18 lactentes, com média de idade de 32 ± 11 semanas. Houve um aumento significante no VC após ELPr (79,3 ± 15,6 mL vs. 85,7 ± 17,2 mL; p = 0,009), assim como uma redução na FR (40,6 ± 6,9 ciclos/min vs. 38,8 ± 0,9 ciclos/min; p = 0,042). Entretanto, não houve alterações significantes nos valores da mecânica respiratória (Csr: 11,0 ± 3,1 mL/cmH2O vs. 11,3 ± 2,7 mL/cmH2O; Rsr: 29,9 ± 6,2 cmH2O  mL−1  s−1 vs. 30,8 ± 7,1 cmH2O  mL−1  s−1; e psr: 0,32 ± 0,11 s vs. 0,34 ± 0,12 s; p > 0,05 para todos). Conclusões: Essa técnica de fisioterapia respiratória é capaz de induzir alterações significativas no VC e na FR de lactentes com sibilância recorrente, mesmo na ausência de exacerbações. A manutenção das variáveis da mecânica respiratória indica que a técnica é segura para ser aplicada nesse grupo de pacientes. Estudos com lactentes sintomáticos são necessários para quantificar os efeitos funcionais da técnica.

 


Palavras-chave: Modalidades de Fisioterapia; Mecânica Respiratória; Lactente; Testes de Função Respiratória.

 

11 - Clinical treatment outcomes of tuberculosis treated with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health using fixed-dose combination tablets in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil

Desfechos clínicos do tratamento de tuberculose utilizando o esquema básico recomendado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil com comprimidos em dose fixa combinada na região metropolitana de Goiânia

Anna Carolina Galvão Ferreira, José Laerte Rodrigues da Silva Júnior, Marcus Barreto Conde, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):76-83

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Resumo

Objetivo: Descrever as taxas de cura, falência e abandono do tratamento da tuberculose com o esquema básico preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde (tratamento com rifampicina, isoniazida, pirazinamida e etambutol por dois meses seguido de isoniazida e rifampicina por quatro meses) utilizando comprimidos em dose fixa combinada em regime autoadministrado e descrever os eventos adversos e seus possíveis impactos nos desfechos do tratamento. Métodos: Estudo descritivo utilizando dados coletados prospectivamente dos prontuários médicos de pacientes com tuberculose (idade ≥ 18 anos) tratados com o esquema básico em duas unidades básicas de saúde da região metropolitana de Goiânia, GO. Resultados: A amostra foi composta por 40 pacientes com tuberculose. A taxa de cura foi de 67,5%, a taxa de abandono foi de 17,5%, e não ocorreram casos de falência. Nessa amostra, 19 pacientes (47%) relataram reações adversas aos medicamentos. Essas foram leves e moderadas, respectivamente, em 87% e 13% dos casos. Em nenhum caso houve necessidade de mudança do esquema ou suspensão do tratamento. Conclusões: A taxa de cura do esquema básico com o uso de comprimidos em dose fixa combinada sob regime autoadministrado foi semelhante às taxas históricas do esquema anterior. A taxa de abandono, na amostra estudada, foi muito acima da taxa preconizada como adequada (até 5%).

 


Palavras-chave: Tuberculose; Resultado de tratamento; Combinação de medicamentos.

 

12 - Scoring system for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in indigenous children and adolescents under 15 years of age in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

Diagnóstico da tuberculose em indígenas menores de quinze anos por meio de um sistema de pontuação em Mato Grosso do Sul

Sandra Christo dos Santos, Ana Maria Campos Marques, Roselene Lopes de Oliveira, Rivaldo Venâncio da Cunha

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):84-91

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Resumo

Objetivo: Avaliar o processo diagnóstico da tuberculose pulmonar em indígenas menores de 15 anos, por meio do Sistema de Pontuação do Ministério da Saúde Modificado (SP-MSm), em crianças e adolescentes com resultados negativos na baciloscopia. Métodos: Estudo descritivo retrospectivo de 49 casos de tuberculose em indígenas menores de 15 anos no estado do Mato Grosso do Sul entre 2007 e 2010. Resultados: Dos 49 pacientes, 27 (56%) eram menores de 5 anos, 33 (67%) apresentavam sintomas sugestivos de tuberculose, 24 (49%) tinham baixo peso, e 36 (73,5%) haviam sido vacinados com BCG. O teste tuberculínico foi reator em 28 pacientes (57%). Dentre esses, 18 (64%) apresentaram enduração ≥ 10 mm. Foram realizadas radiografias de tórax em 37 pacientes (76%), sendo que 31 (84%) fizeram apenas um exame. Desses 37 pacientes, os achados radiológicos eram sugestivos de tuberculose em 16 (43%), de infiltrado/condensação em 10 (27%) e normais em 4 (11%). As Equipes de Saúde Indígena foram responsáveis pelo diagnóstico em 31 (63%) dos casos, mas o SP-MS original só foi utilizado em 14 (45%). Os escores do SP-MSm foram determinados em 30 pacientes (61%). Dos 30 casos pontuados, os resultados dos escores indicaram diagnóstico de tuberculose muito provável, possível e pouco provável em 16 (53%), 11 (37%) e 3 (10%), respectivamente. Conclusões: A proporção de diagnóstico muito provável e possível foi concordante com o diagnóstico padrão do serviço (90%), evidenciando a aplicabilidade epidemiológica do SP-MSm para o diagnóstico da tuberculose pulmonar em indígenas, de forma compatível com a realidade do serviço de saúde prestado.

 


Palavras-chave: Tuberculose pulmonar/diagnóstico; Serviços de saúde do indígena/normas; Serviços de saúde do indígena/organização & administração.

 

13 - Applicability of the London Chest Activity of Daily Living scale in patients on the waiting list for lung transplantation

Aplicabilidade da escala London Chest Activity of Daily Living em pacientes em lista de espera para transplante de pulmão

Jocimar Prates Muller, Patrícia Ayres Guterres Gonçalves, Fabrício Farias da Fontoura, Rita Mattiello, Juliessa Florian

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):92-97

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Resumo

Objetivo: Avaliar a aplicabilidade da escala London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL), em pacientes em lista de transplante pulmonar. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 26 pacientes em lista de espera para transplante de pulmão, de ambos os sexos, entre maio e setembro de 2010 tratados no Programa de Reabilitação Pulmonar, Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, em Porto Alegre, RS. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos ao teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6) e a teste de função pulmonar e foram obtidos os escores das escalas LCADL e de Borg modificada para dispneia e fadiga das pernas. O teste alfa de Cronbach foi utilizado para verificar a consistência interna da escala LCADL. A análise de regressão linear foi utilizada para identificar associações entre o escore total em porcentagem da escala LCADL e as variáveis estudadas. Resultados: Segundo os resultados da LCADL, 69% dos pacientes indicaram que suas atividades de vida diária são muito comprometidas pela dispnéia. A consistência interna da escala LCADL foi de 0,89. Houve associações negativas estatisticamente significativas entre o escore total da escala LCADL e distância percorrida no TC6 (β = −0,087; p < 0,001) e trabalho realizado no TC6 (β = −0,285; p < 0,001), quando os dados foram ajustados por idade e VEF1. Conclusões: Esses achados sugerem que a escala LCADL é um instrumento útil para avaliar o desempenho funcional dos pacientes em listas de transplante pulmonar.

 


Palavras-chave: Atividades cotidianas; Transplante de pulmão; Dispneia.

 

Ensaio Pictórico

14 - Radiological findings in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

Achados radiológicos em pacientes portadores de apneia obstrutiva do sono

Carlos Fernando de Mello Junior, Hélio Antonio Guimarães Filho, Camila Albuquerque de Brito Gomes, Camila Caroline de Amorim Paiva

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):98-101

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Resumo

A apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) é caracterizada por obstruções recorrentes das vias aéreas superiores durante o sono que ocorrem no nível da faringe. Apesar de a análise cefalométrica ser um importante método no diagnóstico das deformidades craniofaciais, a TC e a ressonância magnética vêm se destacando como os principais métodos de imagem para a investigação das eventuais causas da AOS que, na maioria das vezes, é multifatorial. Esses métodos permitem uma excelente avaliação nos diversos planos anatômicos do eventual sítio da obstrução, o que permite uma melhor avaliação clínica e abordagem cirúrgica. O presente ensaio pictórico tem como objetivo descrever os aspectos que devem ser avaliados no diagnóstico por imagem dos principais fatores predisponentes para a AOS.

 


Palavras-chave: Síndromes da apneia do sono; Imagem por ressonância magnética; Tomografia computadorizada por raios X.

 

Case Report

15 - Bird fancier's lung complicated by pulmonary nocardiosis

Pulmão dos criadores de aves complicado por nocardiose pulmonar

Kosaku Komiya, Hiroshi Ishii, Tetsuo Tsubone, Eiji Okabe, Bunroku Matsumoto, Jun-ichi Kadota

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):102-107

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We report the case of an 84-year-old male who was admitted to the hospital with persistent cough and dyspnea. An initial chest X-ray revealed pulmonary infiltrates. Nocardia asteroides was detected in sputum, and the patient was treated with antibiotics. However, his symptoms did not completely resolve. He was admitted multiple times, and his symptoms relapsed after every discharge. He was finally suspected of having hypersensitivity pneumonitis and was diagnosed with bird fancier's lung. Pulmonary nocardiosis is likely to develop in patients with chronic pulmonary disorders, such as COPD, as well as in immunosuppressed hosts. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of bird fancier's lung complicated by pulmonary nocardiosis.

 


Keywords: Respiratory hypersensitivity; Bird fancier's lung; Nocardia asteroides; Alveolitis, extrinsic allergic.

 

Letters to the Editor

16 - Incremental low doses of amrubicin for the treatment of bone marrow metastasis in small cell lung cancer

Baixas doses incrementais de amrubicina para o tratamento de metástase de medula óssea em câncer de pulmão de pequenas células

Nobuhiro Asai, Yoshihiro Ohkuni, Masanori Matsuda, Makoto Narita, Norihiro Kaneko

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):108-109

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17 - Usual interstitial pneumonia: a pattern or a disease? A reflection upon the topic

Pneumonia intersticial usual: um padrão ou uma doença? Reflexão sobre o assunto

Leticia Kawano-Dourado, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):111-112

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18 - Inflammatory pseudotumor of the posterior mediastinum

Pseudotumor inflamatório do mediastino posterior

Izabella Nobre Queiroz, Renata Mendonça Moreira Penna, Emanuelly Botelho Rocha Mota, Rafael Turano Mota, Vinícius Turano Mota

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):113-115

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19 - Radiation therapy in the treatment of unicentric Castleman's disease

Radioterapia no tratamento da doença de Castleman localizada

Fabiana Accioli Miranda, Victor Hugo Chiquetto Faria, Gustavo Viani Arruda, Lucas Godoi Bernardes da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):116-118

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Year 2013 - Volume 39  - Number 2  (March/April)

App

Editorial

1 - Endobronchial ultrasound: from lung cancer diagnosis and staging to translational research

Ultrassom endobrônquico: do diagnóstico e estadiamento do câncer de pulmão até a pesquisa translacional

Juliana Guarize

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):119-120

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Original Article

2 - Relationship between exercise capacity and quality of life in adolescents with asthma

Relação da capacidade de exercício com a qualidade de vida de adolescentes asmáticos

Renata Pedrolongo Basso, Mauricio Jamami, Ivana Gonçalves Labadessa, Eloisa Maria Gatti Regueiro, Bruna Varanda Pessoa, Antônio Delfino de Oliveira Jr, Valéria Amorim Pires Di Lorenzo,Dirceu Costa

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):121-127

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether the quality of life of adolescents with asthma correlates with parameters obtained prior to and after the six-minute step test (6MST); spirometric results after the 6MST; and level of physical activity. Methods: Nineteen adolescents with asthma, ranging from 11-15 years of age, were assessed with spirometry, 6MST, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ), and the 10-point Borg category-ratio scale. Results: Sensation of dyspnea correlated negatively with the total PAQLQ score (r = −0.54) and with the scores of its activity limitation (AL) and symptoms domains (r = −0.64 and r = −0.63, respectively), leg fatigue also correlating negatively with those same domains (r = −0.49 and r = −0.56, respectively). The total IPAQ score correlated with the total PAQLQ score (r = 0.47) and with the PAQLQ AL domain (r = 0.51); IPAQ time spent walking correlated with the PAQLQ symptoms domain (r = 0.45); and IPAQ time spent in vigorous activity correlated with the AL domain (r = 0.50). In the regression analysis, only sensation of dyspnea remained significantly correlated with the total PAQLQ score and the PAQLQ AL domain; leg fatigue remained significantly correlated with the symptoms domain. Conclusions: Higher levels of physical activity indicate better quality of life, as do lower perception of dyspnea and less leg fatigue. The 6MST proved to be a viable option for evaluating exercise capacity in adolescents with asthma, because it reflects the discomfort that asthma causes during activities of daily living.

 


Palavras-chave: Asma; Qualidade de vida; Dispneia.

 

3 - Prevalences of asthma and rhinitis among adolescents in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil: temporal changes

Comparação temporal das prevalências de asma e rinite em adolescentes em Fortaleza, Brasil

Maria de Fátima Gomes de Luna, Gilberto Bueno Fischer, João Rafael Gomes de Luna, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos da Silva, Paulo César de Almeida, Daniela Chiesa

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):128-137

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the prevalences of asthma and rhinitis in adolescents (13-14 years of age) in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil, in 2010, comparing the results with those obtained in a prevalence survey conducted in 2006-2007. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving probabilistic samples of 3,015 and 3,020 adolescents in surveys conducted in 2006-2007 and 2010, respectively. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol was used on both occasions. Results: Comparing the two periods, there were no significant differences regarding cumulative wheezing, active asthma, four or more wheezing attacks within the last year, sleep disturbed by wheezing more than one night per week, and speech-limiting wheezing. The prevalences of exercise-induced wheezing, dry cough at night, and physician-diagnosed asthma were significantly higher in 2010 than in the 2006-2007 period (p < 0.01 for all). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed rhinitis was significantly lower in 2010 (p = 0.01), whereas there were no significant differences between the two periods regarding cumulative rhinitis, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis. In both periods, dry cough at night, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis were significantly more prevalent in females than in males (p < 0.01 for all). Also in both periods, active asthma, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis were more prevalent in private school students than in public school students (p < 0.01 for all). Conclusions: Our data show that the prevalences of asthma and rhinitis symptoms remain high among 13- and 14-year-olds in Fortaleza, predominantly among females and private school students.

 


Keywords: Asthma/epidemiology; Rhinitis/epidemiology; Adolescent.

 

4 - A clinical decision support system for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis at a general hospital in a middle-income country

Sistema de suporte à decisão clínica para um programa para profilaxia de tromboembolia venosa em um hospital geral de um país de renda média

Fernanda Fuzinatto, Fernando Starosta de Waldemar, André Wajner, Cesar Al Alam Elias, Juliana Fernándes Fernandez, João Luiz de Souza Hopf, Sergio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):138-146

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the impact that implementing a combination of a computer-based clinical decision support system and a program of training seminars has on the use of appropriate prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in two phases (prior to and after the implementation of the new VTE prophylaxis protocol) in order to evaluate the impact that the combined strategy had on the use of appropriate VTE prophylaxis. The study was conducted at Nossa Senhora da ConceiþÒo Hospital, a general hospital in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. We included clinical and surgical patients over 18 years of age who were hospitalized for ≥ 48 h. The pre-implementation and post-implementation phase samples comprised 262 and 261 patients, respectively. Results: The baseline characteristics of the two samples were similar, including the distribution of patients by risk level. Comparing the pre-implementation and post-implementation periods, we found that the overall use of appropriate VTE prophylaxis increased from 46.2% to 57.9% (p = 0.01). Looking at specific patient populations, we observed that the use of appropriate VTE prophylaxis increased more dramatically among cancer patients (from 18.1% to 44.1%; p = 0.002) and among patients with three or more risk factors (from 25.0% to 42.9%; p = 0.008), two populations that benefit most from prophylaxis. Conclusions: It is possible to increase the use of appropriate VTE prophylaxis in economically constrained settings through the use of a computerized protocol adhered to by trained professionals. The underutilization of prophylaxis continues to be a major problem, indicative of the need for ongoing improvement in the quality of inpatient care.

 


Keywords: Venous thrombosis/prevention & control; Venous thromboembolism/prevention & control; Heparin/therapeutic use.

 

5 - Tomographic and functional findings in severe COPD: comparison between the wood smoke-relatedand smoking-related disease

Diferencias tomográficas y funcionales entre la EPOC severa relacionada con humo deleña y con cigarrillo

Mauricio González-García, Dario Maldonado Gomez, Carlos A. Torres-Duque, Margarita Barrero,Claudia Jaramillo Villegas, Juan Manuel Pérez, Humberto Varon

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):147-154

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Wood smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. For a given degree of airway obstruction, the reduction in DLCO is smaller in individuals with wood smoke-related COPD than in those with smoking-related COPD, suggesting that there is less emphysema in the former. The objective of this study was to compare HRCT findings between women with wood smoke-related COPD and women with smoking-related COPD. Methods:áTwenty-two women with severe COPD (FEV1/FVC ratio < 70% and FEV1 < 50%) were divided into two groups: those with wood smoke-related COPD (n = 12) and those with smoking-related COPD (n = 10). The two groups were compared regarding emphysema scores and airway involvement (as determined by HRCT); and functional abnormalities-spirometry results, DLCO, alveolar volume (VA), the DLCO/VA ratio, lung volumes, and specific airway resistance (sRaw). Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of FEV1, sRaw, or lung hyperinflation. Decreases in DLCO and in the DLCO/VA ratio were greater in the smoking-related COPD group subjects, who also had higher emphysema scores, in comparison with the wood smoke-related COPD group subjects. In the wood smoke-related COPD group, HRCT scans showed no significant emphysema, the main findings being peribronchial thickening, bronchial dilation, and subsegmental atelectasis. Conclusions: Female patients with severe wood smoke-related COPD do not appear to develop emphysema, although they do show severe airway involvement. The reduction in DLCO and VA, with a normal DLCO/VA ratio, is probably due to severe bronchial obstruction and incomplete mixing of inspired gas during the determination of single-breath DLCO.

 


Palavras-chave: Enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica; Tomografía; Contaminación del aire; Biomasa; Humo; Pruebas de función respiratoria.

 

6 - Pulmonary changes on HRCT scans in nonsmoking females with COPD due to wood smokeexposure

Alterações tomográficas pulmonares em mulheres não fumantes com DPOC porexposição à fumaça da combustão de lenha

Maria Auxiliadora Carmo Moreira, Maria Alves Barbosa, Maria Conceição de Castro AntonelliMonteiro de Queiroz, Kim Ir Sen Santos Teixeira, Pedro Paulo Teixeira e Silva Torres,Pedro José de Santana Júnior, Marcelo Eustáquio Montadon Júnior, José Roberto Jardim

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):155-163

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify and characterize alterations seen on HRCT scans in nonsmoking females with COPD due to wood smoke exposure. Methods: We evaluated 42 nonsmoking females diagnosed with wood smoke-related COPD and 31 nonsmoking controls with no history of wood smoke exposure or pulmonary disease. The participants completed a questionnaire regarding demographic data, symptoms, and environmental exposure. All of the participants underwent spirometry and HRCT of the chest. The COPD and control groups were adjusted for age (23 patients each). Results: Most of the patients in the study group were diagnosed with mild to moderate COPD (83.3%). The most common findings on HRCT scans in the COPD group were bronchial wall thickening, bronchiectasis, mosaic perfusion pattern, parenchymal bands, tree-in-bud pattern, and laminar atelectasis (p < 0.001 vs. the control group for all). The alterations were generally mild and not extensive. There was a positive association between bronchial wall thickening and hour-years of wood smoke exposure. Centrilobular emphysema was uncommon, and its occurrence did not differ between the groups (p = 0.232). Conclusions: Wood smoke exposure causes predominantly bronchial changes, which can be detected by HRCT, even in patients with mild COPD.

 


Palavras-chave: Biomassa; Fumaça; Tomografia computadorizada por raios X; Doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica.

 

7 - Epidemiological aspects of respiratory symptoms treated in the emergency room of a tertiary care hospital

Perfil epidemiológico dos atendimentos de emergência por sintomas respiratórios emum hospital terciário

Denise Rossato Silva, Vinícius Pellegrini Viana, Alice Mânica Müller, Ana Cláudia Coelho,Gracieli Nadalon Deponti, Fernando Pohlmann Livi, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):164-172

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms as the motive for emergency room visits by adult and pediatric patients, describing the major clinical syndromes diagnosed and the outcomes of the patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in the emergency room of a tertiary care university hospital. Between November of 2008 and November of 2009, we reviewed the total number of emergency room visits per day. Children and adults who presented with at least one respiratory symptom were included in the study. The electronic medical records were reviewed, and the major characteristics of the patients were recorded. Results: During the study period, there were 37,059 emergency room visits, of which 11,953 (32.3%) were motivated by respiratory symptoms. The prevalence of emergency room visits due to respiratory symptoms was 28.7% and 38.9% among adults and children, respectively. In adults, the rates of hospitalization and mortality were 21.2% and 2.7%, respectively, compared with 11.9% and 0.3%, respectively, in children. Among the adults, the time from symptom onset to emergency room visit correlated positively with the need for hospitalization (p < 0.0001), the length of the hospital stay (p < 0.0001), and the mortality rate (p = 0.028). Conclusions: We found a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms as the motive for emergency room visits by adult and pediatric patients. Our results could inform decisions regarding the planning of prevention measures. Further epidemiological studies are needed in order to clarify the risk factors for severe respiratory symptoms.

 


Palavras-chave: Serviço hospitalar de emergência; Doenças respiratórias; Infecções respiratórias; Sinais e sintomas respiratórios.

 

8 - Effects of methylprednisolone on inflammatory activity and oxidative stress in the lungs of brain-dead rats

Efeitos da metilprednisolona na atividade inflamatória e estresse oxidativo nos pulmões de ratoscom morte cerebral

Eduardo Sperb Pilla, Raôni Bins Pereira, Luiz Alberto Forgiarini Junior, Luiz Felipe Forgiarini,Artur de Oliveira Paludo, Jane Maria Ulbrich Kulczynski, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso,Cristiano Feijó Andrade

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):173-180

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the effects that early and late systemic administration of methylprednisolone have on lungs in a rat model of brain death. Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were anesthetized and randomly divided into four groups (n = 6 per group): sham-operated (sham); brain death only (BD); brain death plus methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg i.v.) after 5 min (MP5); and brain death plus methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg i.v.) after 60 min (MP60). In the BD, MP5, and MP60 group rats, we induced brain death by inflating a balloon catheter in the extradural space. All of the animals were observed and ventilated for 120 min. We determined hemodynamic and arterial blood gas variables; wet/dry weight ratio; histological score; levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS); superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity; and catalase activity. In BAL fluid, we determined differential white cell counts, total protein, and lactate dehydrogenase levels. Myeloperoxidase activity, lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α levels were assessed in lung tissue. Results: No significant differences were found among the groups in terms of hemodynamics, arterial blood gases, wet/dry weight ratio, BAL fluid analysis, or histological score-nor in terms of SOD, myeloperoxidase, and catalase activity. The levels of TBARS were significantly higher in the MP5 and MP60 groups than in the sham and BD groups (p < 0.001). The levels of TNF-α were significantly lower in the MP5 and MP60 groups than in the BD group (p < 0.001). Conclusions:áIn this model of brain death, the early and late administration of methylprednisolone had similar effects on inflammatory activity and lipid peroxidation in lung tissue.

 


Palavras-chave: Ratos; Morte encefálica; Estresse oxidativo; Pulmão; Hidroxicorticosteroides.

 

9 - Diagnostic contribution of molecular analysis of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductanceregulator gene in patients suspected of having mild or atypical cystic fibrosis

Contribuição da análise molecular do gene regulador da condutância transmembrana nafibrose cística na investigação diagnóstica de pacientes com suspeita de fibrose cística leveou doença atípica

Vinícius Buaes Dal'Maso, Lucas Mallmann, Marina Siebert, Laura Simon,Maria Luiza Saraiva-Pereira, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):181-189

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic contribution of molecular analysis of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene in patients suspected of having mild or atypical cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving adolescents and adults aged ≥ 14 years. Volunteers underwent clinical, laboratory, and radiological evaluation, as well as spirometry, sputum microbiology, liver ultrasound, sweat tests, and molecular analysis of the CFTR gene. We then divided the patients into three groups by the number of mutations identified (none, one, and two or more) and compared those groups in terms of their characteristics. Results: We evaluated 37 patients with phenotypic findings of CF, with or without sweat test confirmation. The mean age of the patients was 32.5 ± 13.6 years, and females predominated (75.7%). The molecular analysis contributed to the definitive diagnosis of CF in 3 patients (8.1%), all of whom had at least two mutations. There were 7 patients (18.9%) with only one mutation and 26 patients (70.3%) with no mutations. None of the clinical characteristics evaluated was found to be associated with the genetic diagnosis. The most common mutation was p.F508del, which was found in 5 patients. The combination of p.V232D and p.F508del was found in 2 patients. Other mutations identified were p.A559T, p.D1152H, p.T1057A, p.I148T, p.V754M, p.P1290P, p.R1066H, and p.T351S. Conclusions: The molecular analysis of the CFTR gene coding region showed a limited contribution to the diagnostic investigation of patients suspected of having mild or atypical CF. In addition, there were no associations between the clinical characteristics and the genetic diagnosis.

 


Palavras-chave: Fibrose cística/diagnóstico; Fibrose cística/genética; Regulador de condutância transmembrana em fibrose cística.

 

10 - Reference values for the incremental shuttle walk test in healthy subjects: from the walk distance to physiological responses

Valores de referência para o teste de caminhada com carga progressiva em indivíduos saudáveis: da distância percorrida às respostas fisiológicas

Victor Zuniga Dourado, Ricardo Luís Fernandes Guerra, Suzana Erico Tanni, Letícia Cláudia de Oliveira Antunes, Irma Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):190-197

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine reference values for incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD) and peak physiological responses during the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT), as well as to develop a series of predictive equations for those variables in healthy adults. Methods: We evaluated 103 healthy participants ≥ 40 years of age (54 women and 49 men). We fitted each participant with a gas analysis system for use during the ISWT. Oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, heart rate (HR), ISWD, and maximal walking velocity (MWV) were obtained as primary outcomes. We also assessed hand grip strength (HGS) and lean body mass (LBM). Results: The regression analysis models, including physiological variables, ISWD, and MWV (adjusted for age, body mass, height, and sex), produced R2 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.65 (for HR and peak VO2, respectively). Using the models including LBM or HGS, we obtained no significant increase in the R2 values for predicting peak VO2, although the use of those models did result in slight increases in the R2 values for ISWD and MWV (of 8% and 12%, respectively). The variables ISWD, MWV, and ISWD Î body mass, respectively, explained 76.7%, 73.3%, and 81.2% of peak VO2 variability. Conclusions:áOur results provide reference values for ISWD and physiological responses to the ISWT, which can be properly estimated by determining simple demographic and anthropometric characteristics in healthy adults ≥ 40 years of age. The ISWT could be used in assessing physical fitness in the general adult population and in designing individualized walking programs.

 


Keywords: Reference values; Pulmonary gas exchange; Walking; Exercise test.

 

11 - Mortality due to respiratory diseases in the elderly after influenza vaccination campaigns in theFederal District, Brazil, 1996-2009

Mortalidade por doenças respiratórias em idosos após campanhas vacinais contrainfluenza no Distrito Federal, Brasil, 1996-2009

Francisca Magalhães Scoralick, Luciana Paganini Piazzolla, Liana Laura Pires, Cleudsom Neri,Wladimir Kummer de Paula

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):198-204

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare mortality rates due to respiratory diseases among elderly individuals residing in the Federal District of BrasÝlia, Brazil, prior to and after the implementation of a national influenza vaccination campaign. Methods: This was an ecological time series analysis. Data regarding the population of individuals who were over 60 years of age between 1996 and 2009 were obtained from official databases. The variables of interest were the crude mortality rate (CMR), the mortality rate due to the respiratory disease (MRRD), and the proportional mortality ratio (PMR) for respiratory diseases. We performed a qualitative analysis of the data for the period prior to and after the implementation of the vaccination campaign (1996-1999 and 2000-2009, respectively). Results: The CMR increased with advancing age. Over the course of the study period, we observed reductions in the CMR in all of the age brackets studied, particularly among those aged 80 years or older. Reductions in the MRRD were also found in all of the age groups, especially in those aged 80 years or older. In addition, there was a decrease in the PMR for respiratory diseases in all age groups throughout the study period. The most pronounced decrease in the PMR for respiratory diseases in the ≥ 70 year age bracket occurred in 2000 (immediately following the implementation of the national vaccination campaign); in 2001, that rate increased in all age groups, despite the greater adherence to the vaccination campaign in comparison with that recorded for 2000. Conclusions: Influenza vaccination appears to have a positive impact on the prevention of mortality due to respiratory diseases, particularly in the population aged 70 or over.

 


Palavras-chave: Influenza humana/mortalidade; Influenza humana/epidemiologia; Vacinas contra influenza.

 

12 - Experimental study on the efficiency and safety of the manual hyperinflation maneuver as a secretion clearance technique

Estudo experimental sobre a eficiência e segurança da manobra de hiperinsuflação manual como técnica de remoção de secreção

Tatiana de Arruda Ortiz, Germano Forti, Márcia Souza Volpe, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho, Marcelo Brito Passos Amato, Mauro Roberto Tucci

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):205-213

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate, in a lung model simulating a mechanically ventilated patient, the efficiency and safety of the manual hyperinflation (MH) maneuver as a means of removing pulmonary secretions. Methods: Eight respiratory therapists (RTs) were asked to use a self-inflating manual resuscitator on a lung model to perform MH as if to remove secretions, under two conditions: as routinely applied during their clinical practice; and after receiving verbal instructions based on expert recommendations. In both conditions, three clinical scenarios were simulated: normal lung function, restrictive lung disease, and obstructive lung disease. Results: Before instruction, it was common for an RT to compress the resuscitator bag two times, in rapid succession. Proximal pressure (Pprox) was higher before instruction than after. However, alveolar pressure (Palv) never exceeded 42.5 cmH2O (median, 16.1; interquartile range [IQR], 11.7-24.5), despite Pprox values as high as 96.6 cmH2O (median, 36.7; IQR, 22.9-49.4). The tidal volume (VT) generated was relatively low (median, 640 mL; IQR, 505-735), and peak inspiratory flow (PIF) often exceeded peak expiratory flow (PEF), the median values being 1.37 L/s (IQR, 0.99-1.90) and 1.01 L/s (IQR, 0.55-1.28), respectively. A PIF/PEF ratio < 0.9 (which theoretically favors mucus migration toward the central airways) was achieved in only 16.7% of the maneuvers. Conclusions: Under the conditions tested, MH produced safe Palv levels despite high Pprox. However, the MH maneuver was often performed in a way that did not favor secretion removal (PIF exceeding PEF), even after instruction. The unfavorable PIF/PEF ratio was attributable to overly rapid inflations and low VT.

 


Keywords: Physical therapy modalities; Respiratory therapy; Respiratory mechanics; Positive-pressure respiration.

 

13 - Prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection and risk of infection in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis in a referral center in Brazil

Prevalência de infecção latente por Mycobacterium tuberculosis e risco de infecção em pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica em hemodiálise em um centro de referência no Brasil

Jane Corrêa Fonseca, Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa, Mery Natali Silva Abreu, Katia de Paula Farah, Wânia da Silva Carvalho, Silvana Spindola de Miranda

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):214-220

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and the risk of infection in patients with chronic kidney disease treated at a hemodialysis center. Methods: We included 307 patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis at the Mineiro Institute of Nephrology, located in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. All of the patients were submitted to tuberculin skin tests (TSTs). We investigated the booster effect and TST conversion. If the initial TST (TST1) was negative, a second TST (TST2) was performed 1-3 weeks later in order to investigate the booster effect. If TST2 was also negative, a third TST (TST3) was performed one year after TST2 in order to determine whether there was TST conversion. Results: When we adopted a cut-off induration of 5 mm, the prevalence of LTBI was 22.2% on TST1, increasing by 11.2% on TST2. When we adopted a cut-off induration of 10 mm, the prevalence of LTBI was 28.5% on TST1, increasing by 9.4% on TST2. The prevalence of LTBI increased significantly from TST1 to TST2 (booster effect), as well as from TST2 to TST3 (p < 0.01 for both). In our sample, the mean annual risk of infection was 1.19%. Conclusions: In the population studied, the prevalence of LTBI was high, and the mean annual risk of infection was similar to that reported for the general population of Brazil, which suggests recent infection.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Renal insufficiency, chronic; Tuberculin test.

 

Brief Communication

14 - Completeness of tuberculosis reporting forms in five Brazilian capitals with a high incidence of the disease

Completude das fichas de notificações de tuberculose em cinco capitais do Brasil com elevada incidência da doença

Normeide Pedreira dos Santos, Monique Lírio, Louran Andrade Reis Passos, Juarez Pereira Dias, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Bernardo Galvão-Castro, Maria Fernanda Rios Grassi

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):221-225

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The aim of this study was to evaluate the completeness of tuberculosis reporting forms in the greater metropolitan areas of five Brazilian capitals where the incidence of tuberculosis was high in 2010-Salvador, Rio de Janeiro, Cuiabß, Porto Alegre, and BelÚm-using tabulations obtained from the Sistema Nacional de InformaþÒo de Agravos de NotificaþÒo (National Case Registry Database). The degree of completeness was highest in Porto Alegre and Cuiabß, whereas it was lowest in Rio de Janeiro, where there are more reported cases of tuberculosis than in any other Brazilian capital. A low degree of completeness of these forms can affect the quality of the Brazilian National Tuberculosis Control Program, which will have negative consequences for health care and decision-making processes.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Public health surveillance; Disease notification.

 

Review Article

15 - Current status and clinical applicability of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration

Estado atual e aplicabilidade clínica da punção aspirativa por agulha guiada por ultrassomendobrônquico

Viviane Rossi Figueiredo, Márcia Jacomelli, Ascédio José Rodrigues, Mauro Canzian,Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):226-237

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has played a key role in the diagnosis of mediastinal, paratracheal, and peribronchial lesions, as well as in lymph node staging for lung cancer. Despite its minimally invasive character, EBUS-TBNA has demonstrated a diagnostic yield comparable with that of established surgical methods. It has therefore gained credibility and has become a routine procedure at various referral centers. A successful EBUS-TBNA procedure requires careful planning, which includes a thorough review of the radiological imaging and special care during specimen collection and preparation, as well as technical expertise, experience with the procedure itself, and knowledge of the potential complications inherent to the procedure. The most common indications for EBUS-TBNA include lymph node staging for lung cancer and the diagnostic investigation of mediastinal/hilar masses and lymph node enlargement. Recently, tumor biomarkers in malignant samples collected during the EBUS-TBNA procedure have begun to be identified, and this molecular analysis has proven to be absolutely feasible. The EBUS-TBNA procedure has yet to be included on the Brazilian Medical Association list of medical procedures approved for reimbursement. The EBUS-TBNA procedure has shown to be a safe and accurate tool for lung cancer staging/restaging, as well as for the diagnosis of mediastinal, paratracheal, and peribronchial lesions/lymph node enlargement.

 


Palavras-chave: Biópsia por agulha fina; Neoplasias pulmonares; Estadiamento de neoplasias.

 

Case Report

16 - Pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary artery dissection

Dissecção da artéria pulmonar e hipertensão pulmonar

Ricardo de Amorim Corrêa, Luciana Cristina dos Santos Silva, Cláudia Juliana Rezende, Rodrigo Castro Bernardes, Tarciane Aline Prata, Henrique Lima Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):238-241

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pulmonary artery dissection is a fatal complication of long-standing pulmonary hypertension, manifesting as acute, stabbing chest pain, progressive dyspnea, cardiogenic shock, or sudden death. Its incidence has been underestimated, and therapeutic options are still scarce. In patients with pulmonary hypertension, new chest pain, acute chest pain, or cardiogenic shock should raise the suspicion of pulmonary artery dissection, which can result in sudden death.

 


Keywords: Hypertension, pulmonary; Chest pain; Pulmonary artery.

 

Letters to the Editor

17 - Efficacy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in evaluating lung cancer recurrence

Eficácia da tomografia por emissão de pósitrons com 18F fluordesoxiglicose com tomografia computadorizada na avaliação de recidiva de câncer de pulmão

Nobuhiro Asai, Yoshihiro Ohkuni, Kazufusa Shoji, Norihiro Kaneko

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):242-244

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18 - Impending paradoxical embolism across the interatrial septum

Embolia paradoxal iminente através do septo interatrial

Nilson Lopez Ruiz

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):245-247

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19 - Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation of thoracic involvement in disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis

Ressonância magnética de corpo inteiro na avaliação do comprometimento torácico na paracoccidioidomicose disseminada

Edson Marchiori, Elisa Carvalho Ferreira, Gláucia Zanetti, Bruno Hochhegger

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):248-250

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20 - Successful thoracoscopic thymectomy in an infant

Timectomia toracoscópica bem sucedida em um lactente

Damian Palafox, Brenda Tello-López, Miguel Angel Vichido-Luna,Walid Leonardo Dajer-Fadel, José Palafox

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):251-253

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21 - Underdiagnosis of respiratory diseases during an economic downturn and the need forspirometry as a screening test

Subdiagnóstico de doenças respiratórias durante uma desaceleração econômica e necessidade do uso da espirometria como teste de triagem

Filio Kotrogianni, Foteini Malli, Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):254-255

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Author's reply

22 - Authors' reply

Resposta dos autores

Maria Conceição de Castro Antonelli Monteiro de Queiroz, Maria Auxiliadora Carmo Moreira,Marcelo Fouad Rabahi

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):256

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Year 2013 - Volume 39  - Number 3  (May/June)

App

Editorial

1 - Is gastro-oesophageal reflux associated with COPD exacerbations?

O refluxo gastroesofágico está associado a exacerbações da DPOC?

Jadwiga A. Wedzicha

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):257-258

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Meta-analysis

2 - Exacerbations of COPD and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Exacerbações de DPOC e sintomas de refluxo gastroesofágico: revisão sistemática e meta-análise

Thiago Mamôru Sakae, Márcia Margaret Menezes Pizzichini, Paulo José Zimermann Teixeira, Rosemeri Maurici da Silva, Daisson José Trevisol, Emilio Pizzichini

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):259-271

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To examine the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and COPD exacerbations. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of various electronic databases for articles published up through December of 2012. Studies considered eligible for inclusion were those dealing with COPD, COPD exacerbations, and GER; comparing at least two groups (COPD vs. controls or GER vs. controls); and describing relative risks (RRs) and prevalence ratios-or ORs and their respective 95% CIs (or presenting enough data to allow further calculations) for the association between GER and COPD-as well as exacerbation rates. Using a standardized form, we extracted data related to the study design; criteria for GER diagnosis; age, gender, and number of participants; randomization method; severity scores; methods of evaluating GER symptoms; criteria for defining exacerbations; exacerbation rates (hospitalizations, ER visits, unscheduled clinic visits, prednisone use, and antibiotic use); GER symptoms in COPD group vs. controls; mean number of COPD exacerbations (with symptoms vs. without symptoms); annual frequency of exacerbations; GER treatment; and severity of airflow obstruction. Results: Overall, GER was clearly identified as a risk factor for COPD exacerbations (RR = 7.57; 95% CI: 3.84-14.94), with an increased mean number of exacerbations per year (mean difference: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.22-1.36). The prevalence of GER was significantly higher in patients with COPD than in those without (RR = 13.06; 95% CI: 3.64-46.87; p < 0.001). Conclusions: GER is a risk factor for COPD exacerbations. The role of GER in COPD management should be studied in greater detail.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Gastroesophageal reflux; Meta-analysis; Risk factors; Evidence-based medicine.

 

Original Article

3 - Effects of an outpatient education program in patients with uncontrolled asthma

Efeitos de um programa educativo ambulatorial em pacientes com asma não controlada

Carmen Denise Borba Rodrigues, Rosemary Petrik Pereira, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):272-279

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Objective: To evaluate the effects of an outpatient education program in patients with uncontrolled asthma. Methods: This was an uncontrolled study evaluating an educational intervention and involving patients with uncontrolled asthma ≥ 14 years of age. The participants completed a questionnaire designed to assess the level of asthma control, the inhalation technique, and quality of life. All of the patients underwent pulmonary function testing, after which they participated in an education program consisting of one 45-min face-to-face session, followed by phone interviews at two, four, and eight weeks. The participants were reevaluated after three months. Results: Sixty-three patients completed the study. There was a significant improvement in the level of asthma control (p < 0.001). Of the 63 patients, 28 (44.4%) and 6 (9.5%) were classified as having partially controlled asthma and controlled asthma, respectively. The mean FEV1 was 63.0 ± 20.0% and 68.5 ± 21.2% of the predicted value prior to and after the educational intervention, respectively (p = 0.002), and all of the quality of life scores improved (p < 0.05 for all). The same was true for the proportion of patients prior to and after the educational intervention using the proper inhalation technique when using metered dose inhalers (15.4% vs. 46.2%; p = 0.02) and dry powder inhalers (21.3% vs. 76.6%; p < 0.001). The logistic regression analysis revealed that an incorrect inhalation technique identified during the first evaluation was independently associated with a favorable response to the educational intervention. Conclusions: This study suggests that an outpatient education program for asthma patients improves the level of asthma control, lung function parameters, and quality of life. An incorrect inhalation technique identified during the first evaluation was predictive of a favorable response to the educational intervention.

 


Keywords: Asthma/prevention and control; Quality of life; Respiratory function tests; Ambulatory care; Health education.

 

4 - Does thromboprophylaxis prevent venous thromboembolism after major orthopedic surgery?

A tromboprofilaxia evita o tromboembolismo venoso após cirurgia ortopédica de grande porte?

Evrim Eylem Akpinar, Derya Hosgün, Burak Akan, Can Ates, Meral Gülhan

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):280-286

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Objective: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is an important complication of major orthopedic surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and factors influencing the development of VTE in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery in a university hospital. Methods: Patients who underwent major orthopedic surgery (hip arthroplasty, knee arthroplasty, or femur fracture repair) between February of 2006 and June of 2012 were retrospectively included in the study. The incidences of PE and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were evaluated, as were the factors influencing their development, such as type of operation, age, and comorbidities. Results: We reviewed the medical records of 1,306 patients. The proportions of knee arthroplasty, hip arthroplasty, and femur fracture repair were 63.4%, 29.9%, and 6.7%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of PE and DVT in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery was 1.99% and 2.22%, respectively. Most of the patients presented with PE and DVT (61.5% and 72.4%, respectively) within the first 72 h after surgery. Patients undergoing femur fracture repair, those aged ≥ 65 years, and bedridden patients were at a higher risk for developing VTE. Conclusions: Our results show that VTE was a significant complication of major orthopedic surgery, despite the use of thromboprophylaxis. Clinicians should be aware of VTE, especially during the perioperative period and in bedridden, elderly patients (≥ 65 years of age).

 


Keywords: Orthopedics; Pulmonary embolism; Venous thrombosis.

 

5 - Inhaler use in adolescents and adults with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma, bronchitis, or emphysema in the city of Pelotas, Brazil

Uso de inaladores na população de adolescentes e adultos com diagnóstico médico autorreferido de asma, bronquite ou enfisema em Pelotas, RS

Paula Duarte de Oliveira, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi, Fernando César Wehrmeister

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):287-295

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To evaluate the characteristics of users of inhalers and the frequency of inhaler use among adolescents and adults with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma, bronchitis, or emphysema. Methods: A population-based study conducted in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, involving 3,670 subjects ≥ 10 years of age, evaluated with a questionnaire. Results: Approximately 10% of the sample reported at least one of the respiratory diseases studied. Among those individuals, 59% reported respiratory symptoms in the last year, and, of those, only half reported using inhalers. The use of inhalers differed significantly by socioeconomic status (39% and 61% for the lowest and the highest, respectively, p = 0.01). The frequency of inhaler use did not differ by gender or age. Among the individuals reporting emphysema and inhaler use, the use of the bronchodilator-corticosteroid combination was more common than was that of a bronchodilator alone. Only among the individuals reporting physician-diagnosed asthma and current symptoms was the proportion of inhaler users higher than 50%. Conclusions: In our sample, inhalers were underutilized, and the type of medication used by the individuals who reported emphysema does not seem to be in accordance with the consensus recommendations.

 


Keywords: Metered dose inhalers; Asthma; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Bronchitis; Emphysema; Dry powder inhalers.

 

6 - Evaluation of atopy in patients with COPD

Avaliação de atopia em portadores de DPOC

Margarida Célia Lima Costa Neves, Yuri Costa Sarno Neves, Carlos Mauricio Cardeal Mendes, Monalisa Nobre Bastos, Aquiles Assunção Camelier, Cleriston Farias Queiroz, Bernardo Fonseca Mendoza, Antônio Carlos Moreira Lemos, Argemiro D'Oliveira Junior

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):296-305

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Objective: To determine the prevalence of atopy and to evaluate clinical, laboratory, and radiological profiles in patients with COPD. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients with stable COPD (defined by the clinical history and a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 70% of the predicted value). The patients completed a questionnaire regarding clinical characteristics and atopy, after which they underwent nasal lavage cytology, skin prick testing, chest X-rays, arterial blood gas analyses, and determination of total serum IgE. Results: Of the 149 subjects studied, 53 (35.6%), 49 (32.8%), and 88 (59.1%) presented with nasal eosinophilia, a positive skin prick test result, and symptoms of allergic rhinitis, respectively. Correspondence analysis confirmed these findings, showing two distinct patterns of disease expression: atopy in patients with COPD that was less severe; and no evidence of atopy in those with COPD that was more severe (reduced FEV1 and hyperinflation). There was a statistically significant association between nasal eosinophilia and a positive bronchodilator response. Conclusions: Using simple and reproducible methods, we were able to show that there is a high frequency of atopy in patients with COPD. Monitoring inflammation in the upper airways can be a useful tool for evaluating respiratory diseases in the elderly and in those with concomitant asthma and COPD, a clinical entity not yet fully understood.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Allergy and immunology; Nasal lavage fluid; Asthma; Rhinitis, allergic, perennial.

 

7 - Screening for F508del as a first step in the molecular diagnosis of cystic fibrosis

Pesquisa da mutação F508del como primeiro passo no diagnóstico molecular de fibrose cística

Fernando Augusto de Lima Marson, Carmen Silvia Bertuzzo, Maria Ângela Gonçalves de Oliveira Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando Ribeiro, José Dirceu Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):306-316

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Objective: To determine the relevance of screening for the F508del mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene as a first step in the genetic diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) by associating the genotype with various clinical variables. Methods: We evaluated 180 CF patients regarding the F508del mutation. The clinical data were obtained from the medical records of the patients and from interviews with their parents or legal guardians. Results: Of the 180 patients studied, 65 (36.1%) did not carry the F508del mutation (group 0 [G0]), 67 (37.2%) were F508del heterozygous (G1), and 48 (26.7%) were F508del homozygous (G2). All three groups showed associations with the clinical variables. Homozygosis was associated with younger patients, younger age at CF diagnosis, and younger age at the first isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), as well as with higher prevalence of pancreatic insufficiency (PI) and non-mucoid PA (NMPA) colonization. In comparison with G1+G2 patients, G0 patients were older; first experienced clinical symptoms, digestive disease, and pulmonary disease at an older age; were older at CF diagnosis and at first PA isolation; and had a lower prevalence of PI and meconium ileus, as well as of colonization by NMPA, mucoid PA, and Burkholderia cepacia. In G1 patients, values were intermediate for age at CF diagnosis; age at first PA isolation, first pulmonary symptoms, and first clinical manifestations; MPA colonization; and OR for PI. Conclusions: The identification of F508del in 63.9% of the patients studied showed that this can be a useful tool as a first step in the genetic diagnosis of CF. The F508del genotype was associated with clinical severity of the disease, especially with the variables related to CF onset.

 


Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis; Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator; Genotype; Mutation.

 

8 - Importance of slow vital capacity in the detection of airway obstruction

Importância da capacidade vital lenta na detecção de obstrução das vias aéreas

Ana Raquel Gonçalves de Barros, Margarida Batista Pires, Nuno Miguel Ferreira Raposo

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):317-322

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate the presence of airway obstruction by determining the FEV1/FVC and FEV1/slow vital capacity (SVC) ratios. Methods: This was a quantitative, retrospective cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 1,084 individuals who underwent spirometry and plethysmography in a central hospital in Lisbon, Portugal. The study sample was stratified into six groups, by pulmonary function. Results: The analysis of the FEV1/FVC ratio revealed the presence of airway obstruction in 476 individuals (43.9%), compared with 566 individuals (52.2%) for the analysis of the FEV1/SVC ratio. In the airway obstruction, airway obstruction plus lung hyperinflation, and mixed pattern groups, the difference between SVC and FVC (SVC − FVC) was statistically superior to that in the normal pulmonary function, reduced FEF, and restrictive lung disease groups. The SVC − FVC parameter showed a significant negative correlation with FEV1 (in % of the predicted value) only in the airway obstruction plus lung hyperinflation group. Conclusions: The FEV1/SVC ratio detected the presence of airway obstruction in more individuals than did the FEV1/FVC ratio; that is, the FEV1/SVC ratio is more reliable than is the FEV1/FVC ratio in the detection of obstructive pulmonary disease.

 


Keywords: Airway Obstruction; Spirometry; Plethysmography.

 

9 - Influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia: HRCT findings

Pneumonia por vírus influenza A (H1N1): aspectos na TCAR

Viviane Brandão Amorim, Rosana Souza Rodrigues, Miriam Menna Barreto, Gláucia Zanetti, Bruno Hochhegger, Edson Marchiori

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):323-329

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe aspects found on HRCT scans of the chest in patients infected with the influenza A (H1N1) virus. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the HRCT scans of 71 patients (38 females and 33 males) with H1N1 infection, confirmed through laboratory tests, between July and September of 2009. The HRCT scans were interpreted by two thoracic radiologists independently, and in case of disagreement, the decisions were made by consensus. Results: The most common HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities (85%), consolidation (64%), or a combination of ground-glass opacities and consolidation (58%). Other findings were airspace nodules (25%), bronchial wall thickening (25%), interlobular septal thickening (21%), crazy-paving pattern (15%), perilobular pattern (3%), and air trapping (3%). The findings were frequently bilateral (89%), with a random distribution (68%). Pleural effusion, when observed, was typically minimal. No lymphadenopathy was identified. Conclusions: The most common findings were ground-glass opacities and consolidations, or a combination of both. Involvement was commonly bilateral with no axial or craniocaudal predominance in the distribution. Although the major tomographic findings in H1N1 infection are nonspecific, it is important to recognize such findings in order to include infection with the H1N1 virus in the differential diagnosis of respiratory symptoms.

 


Keywords: Pneumonia, viral; Tomography, X-ray computed; Influenza A virus, H1N1 subtype.

 

10 - Extubation failure influences clinical and functional outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury

A falência da extubação influencia desfechos clínicos e funcionais em pacientes com traumatismo cranioencefálico

Helena França Correia dos Reis, Mônica Lajana Oliveira Almeida, Mário Ferreira da Silva, Mário de Seixas Rocha

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):330-338

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Objective: To evaluate the association between extubation failure and outcomes (clinical and functional) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: A prospective cohort study involving 311 consecutive patients with TBI. The patients were divided into two groups according to extubation outcome: extubation success; and extubation failure (defined as reintubation within 48 h after extubation). A multivariate model was developed in order to determine whether extubation failure was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. Results: The mean age was 35.7 ± 13.8 years. Males accounted for 92.3%. The incidence of extubation failure was 13.8%. In-hospital mortality was 4.5% and 20.9% in successfully extubated patients and in those with extubation failure, respectively (p = 0.001). Tracheostomy was more common in the extubation failure group (55.8% vs. 1.9%; p < 0.001). The median length of hospital stay was significantly greater in the extubation failure group than in the extubation success group (44 days vs. 27 days; p = 0.002). Functional status at discharge was worse among the patients in the extubation failure group. The multivariate analysis showed that extubation failure was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (OR = 4.96; 95% CI, 1.86-13.22). Conclusions: In patients with TBI, extubation failure appears to lengthen hospital stays; to increase the frequency of tracheostomy and of pulmonary complications; to worsen functional outcomes; and to increase mortality.

 


Keywords: Brain injuries; Ventilator weaning; Intensive care units; Glasgow outcome scale.

 

11 - Risk factors for infection with multidrug-resistant bacteria in non-ventilated patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia

Fatores de risco para multirresistência bacteriana em pneumonias adquiridas no hospital não associadas à ventilação mecânica

Renato Seligman, Luis Francisco Ramos-Lima, Vivian do Amaral Oliveira, Carina Sanvicente, Juliana Sartori, Elyara Fiorin Pacheco

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):339-348

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify risk factors for the development of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in non-ventilated patients. Methods: This was a retrospective observational cohort study conducted over a three-year period at a tertiary-care teaching hospital. We included only non-ventilated patients diagnosed with HAP and presenting with positive bacterial cultures. Categorical variables were compared with chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for HAP caused by MDR bacteria. Results: Of the 140 patients diagnosed with HAP, 59 (42.1%) were infected with MDR strains. Among the patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and those infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, mortality was 45.9% and 50.0%, respectively (p = 0.763). Among the patients infected with MDR and those infected with non-MDR gram-negative bacilli, mortality was 45.8% and 38.3%, respectively (p = 0.527). Univariate analysis identified the following risk factors for infection with MDR bacteria: COPD; congestive heart failure; chronic renal failure; dialysis; urinary catheterization; extrapulmonary infection; and use of antimicrobial therapy within the last 10 days before the diagnosis of HAP. Multivariate analysis showed that the use of antibiotics within the last 10 days before the diagnosis of HAP was the only independent predictor of infection with MDR bacteria (OR = 3.45; 95% CI: 1.56-7.61; p = 0.002). Conclusions: In this single-center study, the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics within the last 10 days before the diagnosis of HAP was the only independent predictor of infection with MDR bacteria in non-ventilated patients with HAP.

 


Keywords: Pneumonia, bacterial; Drug resistance, bacterial; Cross infection.

 

12 - Impact of pulmonary rehabilitation on quality of life and functional capacity in patients on waiting lists for lung transplantation

Impacto da reabilitação pulmonar na qualidade de vida e na capacidade funcional de pacientes em lista de espera para transplante pulmonar

Juliessa Florian, Adalberto Rubin, Rita Mattiello, Fabrício Farias da Fontoura, José de Jesus Peixoto Camargo, Paulo Jose Zimermann Teixeira

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):349-356

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate the impact of a pulmonary rehabilitation program on the functional capacity and on the quality of life of patients on waiting lists for lung transplantation. Methods: Patients on lung transplant waiting lists were referred to a pulmonary rehabilitation program consisting of 36 sessions. Before and after the program, participating patients were evaluated with the six-minute walk test and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The pulmonary rehabilitation program involved muscle strengthening exercises, aerobic training, clinical evaluation, psychiatric evaluation, nutritional counseling, social assistance, and educational lectures. Results: Of the 112 patients initially referred to the program, 58 completed it. The mean age of the participants was 46  14 years, and females accounted for 52%. Of those 58 patients, 37 (47%) had pulmonary fibrosis, 13 (22%) had pulmonary emphysema, and 18 (31%) had other types of advanced lung disease. The six-minute walk distance was significantly greater after the program than before (439 ± 114 m vs. 367 ± 136 m, p = 0.001), the mean increase being 72 m. There were significant point increases in the scores on the following SF-36 domains: physical functioning, up 22 (p = 0.001), role-physical, up 10 (p = 0.045); vitality, up 10 (p < 0.001); social functioning, up 15 (p = 0.001); and mental health, up 8 (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Pulmonary rehabilitation had a positive impact on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients on lung transplant waiting lists.

 


Keywords: Rehabilitation; Lung transplantation; Quality of life; Exercise; Exercise tolerance.

 

13 - Characteristics of tuberculosis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: 2002-2009

Características da tuberculose no estado de Minas Gerais entre 2002 e 2009

Cláudio José Augusto, Wânia da Silva Carvalho, Alan Douglas Gonçalves, Maria das Graças Braga Ceccato, Silvana Spindola de Miranda

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):357-364

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the profile of tuberculosis cases reported between 2002 and 2009 in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, according to sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics, as well as to comorbidities and mortality. Methods: This was a descriptive, epidemiological study based on data obtained from the Brazilian Case Registry Database and the Brazilian Mortality Database for the 2002-2009 period. Results: There were 47,285 reported cases of tuberculosis, corresponding to a mean incidence of 22.3/100,000 population. The individuals diagnosed with tuberculosis were predominantly in the 20- to 49-year age bracket and male (62.4% and 67.0%, respectively). Individuals with a low level of education accounted for 18.5% of the cases. New cases, cases of recurrence, and cases of retreatment accounted for 83.7%, 5.7%, 5.7%, respectively. The rates of cure and treatment noncompliance were 66.2% and 11.2%, respectively; multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was identified in 0.2% of the cases; and the mortality rate was 12.9%. The directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) strategy was applied in 21.8% of the cases. Sputum smear microscopy and culture were performed in only 73.9% and 12.9% of the cases, respectively. Chest X-rays were performed in 90.5% of the cases. Pulmonary tuberculosis was the predominant form (in 83.9%). Comorbidity with alcoholism, HIV infection, and diabetes mellitus were identified in 17.2%, 8.3%, and 3.8%, respectively. Conclusions: During the study period, the numbers of new cases, cases of treatment noncompliance, and deaths were high, comorbidities were common, and there was a failure to perform adequately basic tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Multidisciplinary approaches, expanded use of the DOTS strategy, better knowledge of the distribution of tuberculosis, and improvements in the databases are needed in order to achieve better control of the disease in the state of Minas Gerais.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; Tuberculosis/mortality; Information systems.

 

Brief Communication

14 - Performance comparison between the mycobacteria growth indicator tube system and Löwenstein-Jensen medium in the routine detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at public health care facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: preliminary results of a pragmatic clinical trial

Comparação do desempenho do sistema mycobacteria growth indicator tube e meio Löwenstein-Jensen na detecção de rotina de Mycobacterium tuberculosis em unidades do sistema único de saúde no Rio de Janeiro: resultados preliminares de um ensaio clínico pragmático

Adriana da Silva Rezende Moreira, Gisele Huf, Maria Armanda Vieira, Leila Fonseca, Monica Ricks, Afrânio Lineu Kritski

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):365-367

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In view of the fact that the World Health Organization has recommended the use of the mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 system for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and that there is as yet no evidence regarding the clinical impact of its use in health care systems, we conducted a pragmatic clinical trial to evaluate the clinical performance and cost-effectiveness of the use of MGIT 960 at two health care facilities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where the incidence of tuberculosis is high. Here, we summarize the methodology and preliminary results of the trial. (ISRCTN.org Identifier: ISRCTN79888843 [http://isrctn.org/])

 


Keywords: Controlled clinical trial; Tuberculosis; Diagnostic tests, routine.

 

15 - Lung cysts in chronic paracoccidioidomycosis

Cistos pulmonares na paracoccidioidomicose crônica

André Nathan Costa, Edson Marchiori, Gil Benard, Mariana Sponholz Araújo, Bruno Guedes Baldi, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):368-372

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

On HRCT scans, lung cysts are characterized by rounded areas of low attenuation in the lung parenchyma and a well-defined interface with the normal adjacent lung. The most common cystic lung diseases are lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. In a retrospective analysis of the HRCT findings in 50 patients diagnosed with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis, we found lung cysts in 5 cases (10%), indicating that patients with paracoccidioidomycosis can present with lung cysts on HRCT scans. Therefore, paracoccidioidomycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic lung diseases.

 


Keywords: Paracoccidioidomycosis; Cysts; Multidetector computed tomography.

 

Review Article

16 - Smoke inhalation injury during enclosed-space fires: an update

Lesão por inalação de fumaça em ambientes fechados: uma atualização

Ana Carolina Peçanha Antonio, Priscylla Souza Castro, Luiz Octavio Freire

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):373-381

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In view of the tragic fire at a nightclub in the city of Santa Maria, Brazil, which culminated in the sudden death of 232 young people, we decided to review the literature regarding smoke inhalation injury caused by enclosed-space fires, which can be divided into direct thermal damage, carbon monoxide poisoning, and cyanide poisoning. Such injuries often call for immediate orotracheal intubation, either due to acute airway obstruction or due to a reduced level of consciousness. The diagnosis and the severity of the thermal injury can be determined by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. The levels of gases and gas by-products in the bloodstream should be assessed as rapidly as possible, even while still at the scene of the incident. First responders can also treat carbon monoxide poisoning, with immediate administration of oxygen at 100%, as well as cyanide poisoning, with oxygen therapy and hydroxocobalamin injection.

 


Keywords: Smoke inhalation injury; Carbon monoxide; Cyanides.

 

Case Report

17 - Pneumothorax as a complication of lung volume recruitment

Pneumotórax como complicação associada ao recrutamento do volume pulmonar

Erik J.A. Westermann, Maurice Jans, Michael A. Gaytant, John R. Bach, Mike J. Kampelmacher

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):382-386

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Lung volume recruitment involves deep inflation techniques to achieve maximum insufflation capacity in patients with respiratory muscle weakness, in order to increase peak cough flow, thus helping to maintain airway patency and improve ventilation. One of these techniques is air stacking, in which a manual resuscitator is used in order to inflate the lungs. Although intrathoracic pressures can rise considerably, there have been no reports of respiratory complications due to air stacking. However, reaching maximum insufflation capacity is not recommended in patients with known structural abnormalities of the lungs or chronic obstructive airway disease. We report the case of a 72-year-old woman who had poliomyelitis as a child, developed torsion scoliosis and post-polio syndrome, and had periodic but infrequent asthma attacks. After performing air stacking for 3 years, the patient suddenly developed a pneumothorax, indicating that this technique should be used with caution or not at all in patients with a known pulmonary pathology.

 


Keywords: Barotrauma; Pneumothorax; Insufflation.

 

Letters to the Editor

18 - Alveolar hemorrhage after parenteral injection of industrial silicone

Hemorragia alveolar após injeção parenteral de silicone industrial

Ronaldo Ferreira Macedo, Ricardo Ananias Lobão, Eduardo Mello De Capitani, Maira Eliza Petrucci Zanovello, Paula Catarina Caruso, Maurício Souza de Toledo Leme, Elza Maria Figueiras Pedreira de Cerqueira, Lair Zambon

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):387-389

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19 - Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis: an uncommon cause of pulmonary hypertension

Hemangiomatose capilar pulmonar: uma causa incomum de hipertensão pulmonar

Igor Murad Faria, Leonardo Hoehl Carneiro, Teófilo Augusto Araújo Tiradentes, Gláucia Zanetti, Edson Marchiori

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):390-392

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20 - Aspergillus fumigatus fungus ball in the native lung after single lung transplantation

Bola fúngica por Aspergillus fumigatus no pulmão nativo após transplante unilateral de pulmão

Fernando Ferreira Gazzoni, Bruno Hochhegger, Luiz Carlos Severo, José Jesus Camargo

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):

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21 - Pleuropulmonary complications related to pulmonary instillation of activated charcoal

Complicações pleuropulmonares relacionadas à instilação pulmonar de carvão ativado

Luiz Felipe Nobre, Edson Marchiori, Daniel Yared Forte, Gláucia Zanetti

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):

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Erratum

22 - ERRATUM

Errata

Francisca Magalhães Scoralick, Luciana Paganini Piazzolla, Liana Lauria Pires, Cleudson Nery de Castro e Wladimir Kummer de Paula

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):

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Year 2013 - Volume 39  - Number 4  (July/August)

App

Editorial

1 - COPD Assessment Test: rapid and easily applied test that promotes patient self-management

COPD Assessment Test: teste rápido e de fácil uso que promove o automanejo

José Roberto Jardim, Laura Zillmer

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

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Original Article

2 - Portuguese-language version of the COPD Assessment Test: validation for use in Brazil

Validação do Teste de Avaliação da DPOC em português para uso no Brasil

Guilherme Pinheiro Ferreira da Silva, Maria Tereza Aguiar Pessoa Morano, Cyntia Maria Sampaio Viana, Clarissa Bentes de Araujo Magalhães, Eanes Delgado Barros Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To validate a Portuguese-language version of the COPD assessment test (CAT) for use in Brazil and to assess the reproducibility of this version. Methods: This was multicenter study involving patients with stable COPD at two teaching hospitals in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. Two independent observers (twice in one day) administered the Portuguese-language version of the CAT to 50 patients with COPD. One of those observers again administered the scale to the same patients one week later. At baseline, the patients were submitted to pulmonary function testing and the six-minute walk test (6MWT), as well as completing the previously validated Portuguese-language versions of the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea scale, and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Results: Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.97; p < 0.001; and ICC = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-0.98; p < 0.001, respectively). Bland & Altman plots showed good test-retest reliability. The CAT total score correlated significantly with spirometry results, 6MWT distance, SGRQ scores, MMRC dyspnea scale scores, and HADS-depression scores. Conclusions: The Portuguese-language version of the CAT is a valid, reproducible, and reliable instrument for evaluating patients with COPD in Brazil.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Questionnaires; Validation studies; Quality of life; Reproducibility of results.

 

3 - Local adverse effects associated with the use of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with moderate or severe asthma

Eventos adversos locais associados ao uso de corticosteroides inalatórios em pacientes com asma moderada ou grave

Charleston Ribeiro Pinto, Natalie Rios Almeida, Thamy Santana Marques, Laira Lorena Lima Yamamura, Lindemberg Assunção Costa, Adelmir Souza-Machado

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

To describe and characterize local adverse effects (in the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx) associated with the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) in patients with moderate or severe asthma. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 200 asthma patients followed in the Department of Pharmaceutical Care of the Bahia State Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Control Program Referral Center, located in the city of Salvador, Brazil. The patients were ≥ 18 years of age and had been using ICSs regularly for at least 6 months. Local adverse effects (irritation, pain, dry throat, throat clearing, hoarseness, reduced vocal intensity, loss of voice, sensation of thirst, cough during ICS use, altered sense of taste, and presence of oral candidiasis) were assessed using a 30-day recall questionnaire. Results: Of the 200 patients studied, 159 (79.5%) were women. The mean age was 50.7 ± 14.4 years. In this sample, 55 patients (27.5%) were using high doses of ICS, with a median treatment duration of 38 months. Regarding the symptoms, 163 patients (81.5%) reported at least one adverse effect, and 131 (65.5%) had a daily perception of at least one symptom. Vocal and pharyngeal symptoms were identified in 57 (28.5%) and 154 (77.0%) of the patients, respectively. The most commonly reported adverse effects were dry throat, throat clearing, sensation of thirst, and hoarseness. Conclusions: Self-reported adverse effects related to ICS use were common among the asthma patients evaluated here.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Glucocorticoids; Administration, inhalation; Pharmaceutical services.

 

4 - Congenital lobar emphysema: 30-year case series in two university hospitals

Enfisema lobar congênito: série de casos de 30 anos em dois hospitais universitários

Daniele Cristina Cataneo, Olavo Ribeiro Rodrigues, Erica Nishida Hasimoto, Aurelino Fernandes Schmidt Jr, Antonio José Maria Cataneo

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

To review the cases of patients with congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) submitted to surgical treatment at two university hospitals over a 30-year period. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of children with CLE undergoing surgical treatment between 1979 and 2009 at the Botucatu School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas or the Mogi das Cruzes University Hospital. We analyzed data regarding symptoms, physical examination, radiographic findings, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and postoperative follow-up. Results: During the period studied, 20 children with CLE underwent surgery. The mean age at the time of surgery was 6.9 months (range, 9 days to 4 years). All of the cases presented with symptoms at birth or during the first months of life. In all cases, chest X-rays were useful in defining the diagnosis. In cases of moderate respiratory distress, chest CT facilitated the diagnosis. One patient with severe respiratory distress was misdiagnosed with hypertensive pneumothorax and underwent chest tube drainage. Only patients with moderate respiratory distress were submitted to bronchoscopy, which revealed no tracheobronchial abnormalities. The surgical approach was lateral muscle-sparing thoracotomy. The left upper and middle lobes were the most often affected, followed by the right upper lobe. Lobectomy was performed in 18 cases, whereas bilobectomy was performed in 2 (together with bronchogenic cyst resection in 1 of those). No postoperative complications were observed. Postoperative follow-up time was at least 24 months (mean, 60 months), and no late complications were observed. Conclusions: Although CLE is an uncommon, still neglected disease of uncertain etiology, the radiological diagnosis is easily made and surgical treatment is effective.

 


Keywords: Respiratory system abnormalities; Congenital abnormalities; Pulmonary surgical procedures; Pulmonary emphysema.

 

5 - Reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the fatigue severity scale and its correlation with pulmonary function, dyspnea, and functional capacity in patients with COPD

Reprodutibilidade da versão brasileira da escala de gravidade da fadiga e sua correlação com função pulmonar, dispneia e capacidade funcional em pacientes com DPOC

Silvia Valderramas, Aquiles Assunção Camelier, Sinara Alves da Silva, Renata Mallmann, Hanna Karine de Paulo, Fernanda Warken Rosa

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

To describe the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the fatigue severity scale (FSS) in patients with COPD and to identify the presence of its association with parameters of pulmonary function, dyspnea, and functional capacity. Methods: This was an observational cross-sectional study involving 50 patients with COPD, who completed the FSS in interviews with two researchers in two visits. The FSS scores were correlated with those of the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale, as well as with FEV1, FVC, and six-minute walk distance (6MWD). Results: The mean age of the patients was 69.4 ± 8.23 years, whereas the mean FEV1 was 46.5 ± 20.4% of the predicted value. The scale was reliable, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.90 (95% CI, 0.81-0.94; p < 0.01). The FSS scores showed significant correlations with those of MRC scale (r = 0.70; p < 0.01), as well as with 6MWD (r = −0.77; p < 0.01), FEV1 (r = −0.38; p < 0.01), FVC (r = −0.35; p < 0.01), and stage of the disease in accordance with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria (r = 0.37; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the FSS proved reliable for use in COPD patients in Brazil and showed significant correlations with sensation of dyspnea, functional capacity, pulmonary function, and stage of the disease.

 


Keywords: Fatigue; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Reproducibility of results; Validation studies.

 

6 - Effect of tramadol on lung injury induced by skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion: an experimental study

Efeito do tramadol na lesão pulmonar induzida por isquemia-reperfusão de músculo esquelético: um estudo experimental

Mohammad Ashrafzadeh Takhtfooladi, Amirali Jahanshahi, Amir Sotoudeh, Gholamreza Jahanshahi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh Takhtfooladi, Kimia Aslani

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether tramadol has a protective effect against lung injury induced by skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion. Methods: Twenty Wistar male rats were allocated to one of two groups: ischemia-reperfusion (IR) and ischemia-reperfusion + tramadol (IR+T). The animals were anesthetized with intramuscular injections of ketamine and xylazine (50 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively). All of the animals underwent 2-h ischemia by occlusion of the femoral artery and 24-h reperfusion. Prior to the occlusion of the femoral artery, 250 IU heparin were administered via the jugular vein in order to prevent clotting. The rats in the IR+T group were treated with tramadol (20 mg/kg i.v.) immediately before reperfusion. After the reperfusion period, the animals were euthanized with pentobarbital (300 mg/kg i.p.), the lungs were carefully removed, and specimens were properly prepared for histopathological and biochemical studies. Results: Myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide levels were significantly higher in the IR group than in the IR+T group (p = 0.001 for both). Histological abnormalities, such as intra-alveolar edema, intra-alveolar hemorrhage, and neutrophil infiltration, were significantly more common in the IR group than in the IR+T group. Conclusions: On the basis of our histological and biochemical findings, we conclude that tramadol prevents lung tissue injury after skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion.

 


Keywords: Tramadol; Muscle, skeletal; Ischemic attack, transient; Lung Injury.

 

7 - Oxygen desaturation in healthy subjects undergoing the incremental shuttle walk test

Dessaturação em indivíduos saudáveis submetidos ao incremental shuttle walk test

Daniel Machado Seixas, Daniela Miti Tsukumo Seixas, Monica Corso Pereira, Marcos Mello Moreira, Ilma Aparecida Paschoal

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the probability of oxygen desaturation in healthy individuals undergoing the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT). Methods: We enrolled 83 healthy subjects: 55 males (including 1 smoker) and 28 females. We determined pre-ISWT FEV1, FEV6, HR and SpO2, as well as post-ISWT HR and SpO2. Results: Mean values overall were as follows: age, 35.05 ± 12.53 years; body mass index, 24.30 ± 3.47 kg/m2; resting HR, 75.12 ± 12.48 bpm; resting SpO2, 97.96 ± 1.02%; FEV1, 3.75 ± 0.81 L; FEV6, 4.45 ± 0.87 L; FEV1/FEV6 ratio, 0.83 ± 0.08 (no restriction or obstruction); incremental shuttle walk distance, 958.30 ± 146.32 m; post-ISWT HR, 162.41 ± 18.24 bpm; and post-ISWT SpO2, 96.27 ± 2.21%. In 11 subjects, post-ISWT SpO2 was higher than was pre-ISWT SpO2. In 17 subjects, there was a 4% decrease in SpO2 after the ISWT. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with and without post-ISWT oxygen desaturation in terms of age, gender, FEV1, FEV6, FEV1/FEV6, pre-ISWT SpO2, incremental shuttle walk distance, HR, or percentage of maximal HR. In the individuals with post-ISWT oxygen desaturation, the body mass index was higher (p = 0.01) and post-ISWT SpO2 was lower (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: Healthy individuals can present oxygen desaturation after the ISWT. Using the ISWT to predict subtle respiratory abnormalities can be misleading. In healthy subjects, oxygen desaturation is common after the ISWT, as it is during any intense physical activity.

 


Keywords: Heart function tests; Respiratory function tests; Body mass index; Oximetry

 

8 - Contribution of flow-volume curves to the detection of central airway obstruction

Contribuição da curva de fluxo-volume na detecção de obstrução da via aérea central

Liliana Bárbara Perestrelo de Andrade e Raposo, António Bugalho, Maria João Marques Gomes

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of flow-volume curves in detecting central airway obstruction (CAO), and to determine whether their quantitative and qualitative criteria are associated with the location, type and degree of obstruction. Methods: Over a four-month period, we consecutively evaluated patients with bronchoscopy indicated. Over a one-week period, all patients underwent clinical evaluation, flow-volume curve, bronchoscopy, and completed a dyspnea scale. Four reviewers, blinded to quantitative and clinical data, and bronchoscopy results, classified the morphology of the curves. A fifth reviewer determined the morphological criteria, as well as the quantitative criteria. Results: We studied 82 patients, 36 (44%) of whom had CAO. The sensitivity and specificity of the flow-volume curves in detecting CAO were, respectively, 88.9% and 91.3% (quantitative criteria) and 30.6% and 93.5% (qualitative criteria). The most prevalent quantitative criteria in our sample were FEF50%/FIF50% ≥ 1, in 83% of patients, and FEV1/PEF ≥ 8 mL . L−1 . min−1, in 36%, both being associated with the type, location, and degree of obstruction (p < 0.05). There was concordance among the reviewers as to the presence of CAO. There is a relationship between the degree of obstruction and dyspnea. Conclusions: The quantitative criteria should always be calculated for flow-volume curves in order to detect CAO, because of the low sensitivity of the qualitative criteria. Both FEF50%/FIF50% ≥ 1 and FEV1/PEF ≥ 8 mL . L−1 . min−1 were associated with the location, type and degree of obstruction.

 


Keywords: Bronchoscopy; Maximal expiratory flow-volume curves; Sensitivity and specificity; Lung neoplasms.

 

9 - Lung function in post-poliomyelitis syndrome: a cross-sectional study

Função pulmonar em pessoas com síndrome pós-poliomielite: um estudo transversal

Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira, Fábio Carderelli Minozzo, Bolivar Saldanha Sousa, Rodrigo Luiz Vancini, Marília dos Santos Andrade, Abrahão Augusto Juviniano Quadros, Acary Souza Bulle Oliveira, Antonio Carlos da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare lung function between patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome and those with sequelae of paralytic poliomyelitis (without any signs or symptoms of post-poliomyelitis syndrome), as well as between patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome and healthy controls. Methods: Twenty-nine male participants were assigned to one of three groups: control; poliomyelitis (comprising patients who had had paralytic poliomyelitis but had not developed post-poliomyelitis syndrome); and post-poliomyelitis syndrome. Volunteers underwent lung function measurements (spirometry and respiratory muscle strength assessment). Results: The results of the spirometric assessment revealed no significant differences among the groups except for an approximately 27% lower mean maximal voluntary ventilation in the post-poliomyelitis syndrome group when compared with the control group (p = 0.0127). Nevertheless, the maximal voluntary ventilation values for the post-poliomyelitis group were compared with those for the Brazilian population and were found to be normal. No significant differences were observed in respiratory muscle strength among the groups. Conclusions: With the exception of lower maximal voluntary ventilation, there was no significant lung function impairment in outpatients diagnosed with post-poliomyelitis syndrome when compared with healthy subjects and with patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis without post-poliomyelitis syndrome. This is an important clinical finding because it shows that patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome can have preserved lung function.

 


Keywords: Respiratory function tests; Postpoliomyelitis syndrome; Muscle strength.

 

10 - Psychological morbidity as a moderator of intention to quit smoking: a study of smokers and former smokers

Morbidade psicológica como moderador da intenção para deixar de fumar: um estudo com fumantes e ex-fumantes

Maria Fernanda Besteiro Afonso, Maria Graça Pereira Alves

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze psychological morbidity as a moderator of the relationship between smoking representations and quality of life in smokers and former smokers, as well as to determine which psychological variables discriminate between smokers with and without the intention to quit smoking. Methods: This was a quantitative, correlational cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 224 smokers and 169 former smokers. Results: In smokers and former smokers, psychological morbidity had a moderating effect on the relationship between mental/physical quality of life and smoking representations (cognitive representations, emotional representations, and comprehensibility). Smokers with the intention to quit smoking more often presented with low comprehensibility, threatening emotional representations, behavioral beliefs, and perceived behavioral control, as well as with normative/control beliefs, than did those without the intention to quit. Conclusions: The results of this study underscore the importance of the moderating effect exerted by psychological morbidity, as well as that of sociocognitive variables, among smokers who have the intention to quit smoking.

 


Keywords: Smoking/psychology; Smoking cessation; Smoking/prevention & control.

 

11 - Adaptation to different noninvasive ventilation masks in critically ill patients

Adaptação a diferentes interfaces de ventilação mecânica não invasiva em pacientes críticos

Renata Matos da Silva, Karina Tavares Timenetski, Renata Cristina Miranda Neves, Liane Hirano Shigemichi, Sandra Sayuri Kanda, Carla Maekawa, Eliezer Silva, Raquel Afonso Caserta Eid

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify which noninvasive ventilation (NIV) masks are most commonly used and the problems related to the adaptation to such masks in critically ill patients admitted to a hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: An observational study involving patients ≥ 18 years of age admitted to intensive care units and submitted to NIV. The reason for NIV use, type of mask, NIV regimen, adaptation to the mask, and reasons for non-adaptation to the mask were investigated. Results: We evaluated 245 patients, with a median age of 82 years. Acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use (in 71.3%). Total face masks were the most commonly used (in 74.7%), followed by full face masks and near-total face masks (in 24.5% and 0.8%, respectively). Intermittent NIV was used in 82.4% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to the mask was found in 76% of the patients. Masks had to be replaced by another type of mask in 24% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to total face masks and full face masks was found in 75.5% and 80.0% of the patients, respectively. Non-adaptation occurred in the 2 patients using near-total facial masks. The most common reason for non-adaptation was the shape of the face, in 30.5% of the patients. Conclusions: In our sample, acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use, and total face masks were the most commonly used. The most common reason for non-adaptation to the mask was the shape of the face, which was resolved by changing the type of mask employed.

 


Keywords: Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation; Masks; Respiratory insufficiency.

 

12 - Prevalence of nutritional deficiency in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

Prevalência de deficiência nutricional em pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar

Silvana Gomes Nunes Piva, Maria da Conceição Nascimento Costa, Florisneide Rodrigues Barreto, Susan Martins Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of nutritional deficiency among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using data obtained from the Brazilian Case Registry Database and from the medical records of patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (15-59 years of age) residing in one of the municipalities that make up the 16th Regional Health District of the state of Bahia. We calculated the incidence, lethality, and mortality rates, as well as the prevalence of nutritional deficiency, as evaluated by body mass index. Demographic, social, clinical, and epidemiological data were collected. Results: Of the 72 confirmed cases of tuberculosis, 59 (81.9%) were in males, and 21 (29.2%) of the patients were in the 40-49 year age bracket. The majority (85.3%) described themselves as Mulatto or Black; 55.2% reported using alcohol; and approximately 90% were treated as outpatients. In the district and age bracket studied, the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 30.6/100,000 population. Among the 72 patients, data regarding nutritional status was available for 34. Of those, 50% and 25%, respectively, presented nutritional deficiency at the beginning and at the end of treatment. No statistically significant differences were found between normal-weight and malnourished patients regarding the characteristics studied. Conclusions: The prevalence of nutritional deficiency was high among our sample of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. This underscores the importance of nutritional follow-up for the assessment of tuberculosis treatment in the decision-making process regarding therapeutic interventions.

 


Keywords: Malnutrition; Tuberculosis; Body mass index; Malnutrition/epidemiology.

 

13 - Pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer: simultaneous and sequential occurrence

Tuberculose pulmonar e câncer de pulmão: ocorrência simultânea ou sequencial

Denise Rossato Silva, Dirceu Felipe Valentini Junior, Alice Mânica Müller, Carlos Podalirio Borges de Almeida, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death and represents a major public health problem worldwide. Another major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries, is tuberculosis. The simultaneous or sequential occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis and LC in the same patient has been reported in various case series and case-control studies. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients developing tuberculosis and LC, either simultaneously or sequentially. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on the review of medical charts. Results: The study involved 24 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and LC between 2009 and 2012. The diagnoses of tuberculosis and LC occurred simultaneously in 10 patients, whereas tuberculosis was diagnosed prior to LC in 14. The median time between the two diagnoses was 5 years (interquartile range: 1-30 years). Fourteen patients (58.3%) were male, 20 (83.3%) were White, and 22 (91.7%) were smokers or former smokers. The most common histological type was adenocarcinoma, identified in 14 cases (58.3%), followed by epidermoid carcinoma, identified in 6 (25.0%). Seven patients (29.2%) presented with distant metastases at diagnosis; of those 7 patients, 5 (71%) were diagnosed with LC and tuberculosis simultaneously. Conclusions: In the present study, most of the patients with tuberculosis and LC were smokers or former smokers, and tuberculosis was diagnosed either before or simultaneously with LC. Non-small cell lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma, was the most common histological type.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Lung neoplasms/diagnosis; Comorbidity.

 

Brief Communication

14 - Effectiveness of diaphragmatic stimulation with single-channel electrodes in rabbits

Efetividade da estimulação diafragmática com eletrodos monocanais em coelhos

Rodrigo Guellner Ghedini, Julio de Oliveira Espinel, Elaine Aparecida Felix, Artur de Oliveira Paludo, Rodrigo Mariano, Arthur Rodrigo Ronconi Holand, Cristiano Feijó Andrade

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Every year, a large number of individuals become dependent on mechanical ventilation because of a loss of diaphragm function. The most common causes are cervical spinal trauma and neuromuscular diseases. We have developed an experimental model to evaluate the performance of electrical stimulation of the diaphragm in rabbits using single-channel electrodes implanted directly into the muscle. Various current intensities (10, 16, 20, and 26 mA) produced tidal volumes above the baseline value, showing that this model is effective for the study of diaphragm performance at different levels of electrical stimulation.

 


Keywords: Rabbits; Diaphragm; Electric stimulation; Models, animal.

 

Review Article

15 - Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis: scientific evidence regarding clinical impact, diagnosis, and treatment

Infecção por Pseudomonas aeruginosa em pacientes com fibrose cística: evidências científicas sobre o impacto clínico, diagnóstico e tratamento

Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira da Silva Filho, Flavia de Aguiar Ferreira, Francisco José Caldeira Reis, Murilo Carlos Amorim de Britto, Carlos Emilio Levy, Otavio Clark, José Dirceu Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Evidence-based techniques have been increasingly used in the creation of clinical guidelines and the development of recommendations for medical practice. The use of levels of evidence allows the reader to identify the quality of scientific information that supports the recommendations made by experts. The objective of this review was to address current concepts related to the clinical impact, diagnosis, and treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. For the preparation of this review, the authors defined a group of questions that would be answered in accordance with the principles of PICO-an acronym based on questions regarding the Patients of interest, Intervention being studied, Comparison of the intervention, and Outcome of interest. For each question, a structured review of the literature was performed using the Medline database in order to identify the studies with the methodological design most appropriate to answering the question. The questions were designed so that each of the authors could write a response. A first draft was prepared and discussed by the group. Recommendations were then made on the basis of the level of scientific evidence, in accordance with the classification system devised by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, as well as the level of agreement among the members of the group.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis/diagnosis; Cystic fibrosis/drug therapy; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Evidence-based medicine.

 

Case Report

16 - Transdiaphragmatic intercostal hernia: imaging aspects in three cases

Hérnia intercostal transdiafragmática: aspectos de imagem em três casos

Ana Carolina Sandoval Macedo, Fernando Uliana Kay, Ricardo Mingarini Terra, José Ribas Milanez de Campos, André Galante Alencar Aranha, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmão Funari

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Transdiaphragmatic intercostal hernia is uncommon and mostly related to blunt or penetrating trauma. We report three similar cases of cough-induced transdiaphragmatic intercostal hernia, highlighting the anatomic findings obtained with different imaging modalities (radiography, ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonance) in each of the cases.

 


Keywords: Hernia, diaphragmatic; Radiography; Ultrasonography; Tomography; Magnetic resonance imaging.

 

Letters to the Editor

17 - Not all that wheezes is asthma!

Nem tudo que sibila é asma!

José Antônio Baddini Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Portuguese Text


18 - Visual scale for the quantification of hyperhidrosis

Escala visual para a quantificação da hiper-hidrose

Roberto de Menezes Lyra

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

PDF EN Portuguese Text


19 - Pulmonary histoplasmosis presenting with a halo sign on CT in an immunocompetent patient

Histoplasmose pulmonar presente com sinal do halo em TC em um paciente imunocompetente

Graziella Hanna Pereira, Liliane Yuri Almeida, Rosa Shizuda Okubo, Edson Marchiori

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


20 - Stress cardiomyopathy following acute ischemic stroke during flexible bronchoscopy: a rare sequence of complications

Cardiomiopatia induzida por stress após acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo durante broncoscopia flexível: uma rara sequência de complicações

Sonja Badovinac, Marta Korsic, Branka Cucevic, Valentina Slivnjak, Andrea Vukic Dugac, Marko Jakopovic

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Year 2013 - Volume 39  - Number 5  (September/October)

App

Editorial

1 - The Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology and international databases

O Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia e as bases de dados internacionais

Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):529-531

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Original Article

2 - Level of asthma control and its impact on activities of daily living in asthma patients in Brazil

Nível de controle da asma e seu impacto nas atividades de vida diária em asmáticos no Brasil

Mariana Rodrigues Gazzotti, Oliver Augusto Nascimento, Federico Montealegre, James Fish, José Roberto Jardim

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):532-538

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the impact of asthma on activities of daily living and on health status in patients with controlled, partially controlled, or uncontrolled asthma in Brazil. Methods: We used data related to 400 patients in four Brazilian cities (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, and Curitiba), obtained in a survey conducted throughout Latin America in 2011. All study subjects were > 12 years of age and completed a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. The questions addressed asthma control, hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. The level of asthma control was determined in accordance with the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria. Results: Among the 400 respondents, asthma was controlled in 37 (9.3%), partially controlled in 226 (56.5%), and uncontrolled in 137 (34.2%). The numbers of patients with uncontrolled or partially controlled asthma who visited the emergency room, who were hospitalized, and who missed school/work were higher than were those of patients with controlled asthma (p = 0.001, p = 0.05, and p = 0.01, respectively). Among those with uncontrolled asthma, the impact of the disease on activities of daily living, sleep, social activities, and normal physical exertion was greater than it was among those with controlled or partially controlled asthma (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In Brazil, asthma treatment should be monitored more closely in order to increase treatment adherence and, consequently, the level of asthma control, which can improve patient quality of life and minimize the negative impact of the disease.

 


3 - Delayed diagnosis of sarcoidosis is common in Brazil

Diagnóstico tardio da sarcoidose é comum no Brasil

Mauri Monteiro Rodrigues, Ester Nei Aparecida Martins Coletta, Rimarcs Gomes Ferreira, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):539-546

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Objective: To determine the frequency of and the factors related to delayed diagnosis of sarcoidosis in Brazil. Methods: We evaluated patients with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of sarcoidosis, using a questionnaire that addressed the following: time since symptom onset and since the first medical visit; and the number and specialty of the physicians visited. We divided the patients by the timeliness of the diagnosis-timely (< 6 months) and delayed ( 6 months)-comparing the two groups in terms of systemic and pulmonary symptoms; extrathoracic involvement; spirometric data; radiological staging; level of education; income; and tuberculosis (diagnosis and treatment). Results: We evaluated 100 patients. The median number of physicians consulted was 3 (range, 1-14). In 11 cases, sarcoidosis was diagnosed at the first visit. In 54, the first physician seen was a general practitioner. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis was timely in 41 patients and delayed in 59. The groups did not differ in terms of gender; race; type of health insurance; level of education; income; respiratory/systemic symptoms; extrathoracic involvement; and radiological staging. In the delayed diagnosis group, FVC was lower (80.3 ± 20.4% vs. 90.5 ± 17.1%; p = 0.010), as was FEV1 (77.3 ± 19.9% vs. 86.4 ± 19.5%; p = 0.024), misdiagnosis with and treatment for tuberculosis ( 3 months) also being more common (24% vs. 7%, p = 0.032, and 20% vs. 0%; p = 0.002, respectively). Conclusions: The diagnosis of sarcoidosis is often delayed, even when the imaging is suggestive of sarcoidosis. Delayed diagnosis is associated with impaired lung function at the time of diagnosis. Many sarcoidosis patients are misdiagnosed with and treated for tuberculosis.

 


Keywords: Sarcoidosis; Sarcoidosis, pulmonary/diagnosis; Tuberculosis.

 

4 - Validation and development of an immunonephelometric assay for the determination of alpha-1 antitrypsin levels in dried blood spots from patients with COPD

Desenvolvimento e validação de um método de imunonefelometria em amostras de sangue em papel-filtro para a dosagem da alfa-1 antitripsina em pacientes com DPOC

Laura Russo Zillmer, Rodrigo Russo, Beatriz Martins Manzano, Ivan Ivanaga, Oliver Augusto Nascimento, Altay Alves Lino de Souza, Gildo Santos Júnior, Francisco Rodriguez, Marc Miravitlles, José Roberto Jardim

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):547-554

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Objective: To validate and develop an immunonephelometric assay for the determination of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) levels in dried blood spots from COPD patients in Brazil. Methods: We determined AAT levels in serum samples and dried blood spots from 192 COPD patients. For the preparation of dried blood spots, a disk (diameter, 6 mm) was placed into a tube, eluted with 200 µL of PBS, and stored overnight at 4°C. All of the samples were analyzed by immunonephelometry in duplicate. We used the bootstrap resampling method in order to determine a cut-off point for AAT levels in dried blood spots. Results: The correlation coefficient between the AAT levels in serum samples and those in dried blood spots was r = 0.45. For dried blood spots, the cut-off value was 2.02 mg/dL (97% CI: 1.45-2.64 mg/dL), with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%, 95.7%, 27.2%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: This method for the determination of AAT levels in dried blood spots appears to be a reliable screening tool for patients with AAT deficiency.

 


5 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations at a referral center for cystic fibrosis

Mutações no gene cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator em um centro de referência para a fibrose cística

Cyntia Arivabeni de Araújo Correia Coutinho, Fernando Augusto de Lima Marson, Antônio Fernando Ribeiro, José Dirceu Ribeiro, Carmen Silvia Bertuzzo

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):555-561

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Objective: To determine the frequency of six mutations (F508del, G542X, G551D, R553X, R1162X, and N1303K) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosed, at a referral center, on the basis of abnormal results in two determinations of sweat sodium and chloride concentrations. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 70 patients with CF. The mean age of the patients was 12.38 ± 9.00 years, 51.43% were female, and 94.29% were White. Mutation screening was performed with polymerase chain reaction (for F508del), followed by enzymatic digestion (for other mutations). Clinical analysis was performed on the basis of gender, age, ethnicity, pulmonary/gastrointestinal symptoms, and Shwachman-Kulczycki (SK) score. Results: All of the patients showed pulmonary symptoms, and 8 had no gastrointestinal symptoms. On the basis of the SK scores, CF was determined to be mild, moderate, and severe in 22 (42.3%), 17 (32.7%), and 13 (25.0%) of the patients, respectively. There was no association between F508del mutation and disease severity by SK score. Of the 140 alleles analyzed, F508del mutation was identified in 70 (50%). Other mutations (G542X, G551D, R553X, R1162X, and N1303K) were identified in 12 (7.93%) of the alleles studied. In F508del homozygous patients with severe disease, the OR was 0.124 (95% CI: 0.005-0.826). Conclusions: In 50% of the alleles studied, the molecular diagnosis of CF was confirmed by identifying a single mutation (F508del). If we consider the analysis of the six most common mutations in the Brazilian population (including F508del), the molecular diagnosis was confirmed in 58.57% of the alleles studied.

 


6 - The influence of leptin on Th1/Th2 balance in obese children with asthma

Influência da leptina no equilíbrio Th1/Th2 em crianças asmáticas obesas

Doaa Mohammed Youssef, Rabab Mohamed Elbehidy, Dina Mahamoud Shokry, Eman Mohamed Elbehidy

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):562-568

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Objective: In individuals with asthma, obesity induces the production of leptin and is associated with disease severity. Our objective was to evaluate the levels of serum leptin and their effect on Th1/Th2 balance in obese and non-obese children with asthma, as well as to investigate the association between serum leptin levels and clinical outcomes. Methods: We evaluated 50 atopic children with physician-diagnosed moderate-to-severe persistent asthma and 20 controls. The children with asthma were divided into two groups, by body mass index percentile: obese (n = 25) and non-obese (n = 25). From all subjects, we collected peripheral blood samples in order to determine the levels of leptin, IFN-, and IL-4. Asthma severity was assessed by an asthma symptom score, and the results were correlated with the parameters studied. Results: Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in the obese asthma group than in the non-obese asthma group, as well as being significantly higher in the children with asthma than in the controls, whereas IFN- levels were significantly higher and IL-4 levels were significantly lower in the obese asthma group than in the non-obese asthma group. In addition, the obese asthma group showed higher asthma symptom scores and significantly lower FEV1 (% of predicted) than did the non-obese asthma group. There was a significant positive correlation between leptin and IFN- levels only in the obese asthma group. Conclusions: Although leptin is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma in obese and non-obese children, its effect is more pronounced in the former. In the presence of high leptin levels, only obese children with asthma exhibited Th1 polarization, with higher IFN- levels and greater asthma severity.

 


7 - Diagnostic criteria and follow-up in neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy: a case series

Critérios diagnósticos e seguimento em hiperplasia de células neuroendócrinas do lactente: uma série de casos

Vivianne Calheiros Chaves Gomes, Mara Cristina Coelho Silva, José Holanda Maia Filho, Pedro Daltro, Simone Gusmão Ramos, Alan S. Brody, Edson Marchiori

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):569-578

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Objective: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) is a form of childhood interstitial lung disease characterized by tachypnea, retractions, crackles, and hypoxia. The aim of this study was to report and discuss the clinical, imaging, and histopathological findings in a series of NEHI cases at a tertiary pediatric hospital, with an emphasis on diagnostic criteria and clinical outcomes. Methods: Between 2003 and 2011, 12 full-term infants were diagnosed with NEHI, based on clinical and tomographic findings. Those infants were followed for 1-91 months. Four infants were biopsied, and the histopathological specimens were stained with bombesin antibody. Results: In this case series, symptoms appeared at birth in 6 infants and by 3 months of age in the remaining 6. In all of the cases, NEHI was associated with acute respiratory infection. The most common initial chest HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities that were in the middle lobe/lingula in 12 patients and in other medullary areas in 10. Air trapping was the second most common finding, being observed in 7 patients. Follow-up HRCT scans (performed in 10 patients) revealed normal results in 1 patient and improvement in 9. The biopsy findings were nonspecific, and the staining was positive for bombesin in all samples. Confirmation of NEHI was primarily based on clinical and tomographic findings. Symptoms improved during the follow-up period (mean, 41 months). A clinical cure was achieved in 4 patients. Conclusions: In this sample of patients, the diagnosis of NEHI was made on the basis of the clinical and tomographic findings, independent of the lung biopsy results. Most of the patients showed clinical improvement and persistent tomographic changes during the follow-up period, regardless of the initial severity of the disease or type of treatment.

 


Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial/diagnosis; Lung diseases, interstitial/treatment; Tomography, X-ray computed.

 

8 - Prevalence of and factors influencing smoking among medical and non-medical students in Tbilisi, Georgia

Prevalência de tabagismo e fatores que o influenciam em estudantes de medicina e outros universitários em Tbilisi, Geórgia

Ivane Chkhaidze, Nino Maglakelidze, Tamaz Maglakelidze, Nikolai Khaltaev

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):579-584

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Objective: Smoking is a serious problem that has a devastating impact on health. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of and factors influencing smoking among medical and non-medical students in Tbilisi, Georgia, as well as to determine whether medical education has an impact on smoking. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at Tbilisi State Medical University and Tbilisi State University, both of which are located in Tbilisi, Georgia. A total of 400 4th-year students (200 students at each university) were asked to complete standardized questionnaires. Results: Of the sample as a whole, 48.75% were identified as smokers and 51.25% were identified as nonsmokers. The mean age was 20.24 years among smokers and 20.26 years among nonsmokers. Of the medical students, 49.5% were smokers, as were 48.0% of the non-medical students. The male-to-female ratio in the study population was 0.9:1.1. Smoking was found to have a strong relationship with gender, males accounting for 65% of all smokers. Of the smokers, 56.9% stated that they would like to quit smoking (for health or financial reasons). Of the medical students, 59.5% expressed a willingness to quit smoking, as did 54.2% of the non-medical students. Conclusions: There is a need to improve smoking education for undergraduate students. Special attention should be given to the inclusion of anti-smoking education in undergraduate curricula, as well as to the implementation of smoking prevention campaigns at institutions of higher education. However, such measures will be effective only if tobacco control policies are strictly enforced on the national level as well.

 


9 - The outcome of tuberculosis treatment in subjects with chronic kidney disease in Brazil: a multinomial analysis

Desfecho do tratamento da tuberculose em indivíduos com doença renal crônica no Brasil: uma análise multinomial

Barbara Reis-Santos, Teresa Gomes, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):585-594

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Objective: To analyze the association between clinical/epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of tuberculosis treatment in patients with concomitant tuberculosis and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Brazil. Methods: We used the Brazilian Ministry of Health National Case Registry Database to identify patients with tuberculosis and CKD, treated between 2007 and 2011. The tuberculosis treatment outcomes were compared with epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the subjects using a hierarchical multinomial logistic regression model, in which cure was the reference outcome. Results: The prevalence of CKD among patients with tuberculosis was 0.4% (95% CI: 0.37-0.42%). The sample comprised 1,077 subjects. The outcomes were cure, in 58%; treatment abandonment, in 7%; death from tuberculosis, in 13%; and death from other causes, in 22%. The characteristics that differentiated the ORs for treatment abandonment or death were age; alcoholism; AIDS; previous noncompliance with treatment; transfer to another facility; suspected tuberculosis on chest X-ray; positive results in the first smear microscopy; and indications for/use of directly observed treatment, short-course strategy. Conclusions: Our data indicate the importance of sociodemographic characteristics for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with CKD and underscore the need for tuberculosis control strategies targeting patients with chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as CKD.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; Renal insufficiency, chronic/epidemiology; Risk factors; Logistic models.

 

10 - Evaluation of manual resuscitators used in ICUs in Brazil

Avaliação de reanimadores manuais utilizados em UTIs brasileiras

Tatiana de Arruda Ortiz, Germano Forti Junior, Márcia Souza Volpe, Marcelo do Amaral Beraldo, Marcelo Britto Passos Amato, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho, Mauro Roberto Tucci

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):595-603

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: To analyze psychological morbidity as a moderator of the relationship between smoking representations and quality of life in smokers and former smokers, as well as to determine which psychological variables discriminate between smokers with and without the intention to quit smoking. Methods: This was a quantitative, correlational cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 224 smokers and 169 former smokers. Results: In smokers and former smokers, psychological morbidity had a moderating effect on the relationship between mental/physical quality of life and smoking representations (cognitive representations, emotional representations, and comprehensibility). Smokers with the intention to quit smoking more often presented with low comprehensibility, threatening emotional representations, behavioral beliefs, and perceived behavioral control, as well as with normative/control beliefs, than did those without the intention to quit. Conclusions: The results of this study underscore the importance of the moderating effect exerted by psychological morbidity, as well as that of sociocognitive variables, among smokers who have the intention to quit smoking.

 


Review Article

11 - Obstructive sleep apnea and asthma

Apneia obstrutiva do sono e asma

Cristina Salles, Regina Terse-Ramos, Adelmir Sousa-Machado, Álvaro A Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):604-612

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Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in asthma patients and have been associated with asthma severity. It is known that asthma symptoms tend to be more severe at night and that asthma-related deaths are most likely to occur during the night or early morning. Nocturnal symptoms occur in 60-74% of asthma patients and are markers of inadequate control of the disease. Various pathophysiological mechanisms are related to the worsening of asthma symptoms, OSAS being one of the most important factors. In patients with asthma, OSAS should be investigated whenever there is inadequate control of symptoms of nocturnal asthma despite the treatment recommended by guidelines having been administered. There is evidence in the literature that the use of continuous positive airway pressure contributes to asthma control in asthma patients with obstructive sleep apnea and uncontrolled asthma.

 


Case Report

12 - Pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema, and pneumothorax after a pulmonary function testing in a patient with bleomycin-induced interstitial pneumonitis

Pneumomediastino, enfisema subcutâneo e pneumotórax após prova de função pulmonar em paciente com pneumopatia intersticial por bleomicina

Mariana Sponholz Araujo, Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes, Fernando Uliana Kay, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):613-619

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Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is an uncommon event, the clinical picture of which includes retrosternal chest pain, subcutaneous emphysema, dyspnea, and dysphonia. The pathophysiological mechanism involved is the emergence of a pressure gradient between the alveoli and surrounding structures, causing alveolar rupture with subsequent dissection of the peribronchovascular sheath and infiltration of the mediastinum and subcutaneous tissue with air. Known triggers include acute exacerbations of asthma and situations that require the Valsalva maneuver. We described and documented with HRCT scans the occurrence of pneumomediastinum after a patient with bleomycin-induced interstitial lung disease underwent pulmonary function testing. Although uncommon, the association between pulmonary function testing and air leak syndromes has been increasingly reported in the literature, and lung diseases, such as interstitial lung diseases, include structural changes that facilitate the occurrence of this complication.

 


Keywords: Mediastinal emphysema; Subcutaneous emphysema; Spirometry; Bleomycin.

 

13 - Cryptococcosis, silicosis, and tuberculous pseudotumor in the same pulmonary lobe

Tuberculose pseudotumoral, criptococose e silicose no mesmo lobo pulmonar

Geruza Alves da Silva, Daniel Ferracioli Brandão, Elcio Oliveira Vianna, João Batista Carlos de Sá Filho, José Baddini-Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):620-626

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Tuberculosis and cryptococcosis are infectious diseases that can result in the formation of single or multiple nodules in immunocompetent patients. Exposure to silica is known to raise the risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We report the case of an elderly man with no history of opportunistic infections and no clinical evidence of immunodeficiency but with a six-month history of dry cough and nocturnal wheezing. A chest X-ray revealed a mass measuring 5.0 × 3.5 cm in the right upper lobe. The diagnostic approach of the mass revealed tuberculosis. The histopathological analysis of the surrounding parenchyma reveled silicosis and cryptococcosis. Cryptococcosis was also found in masses identified in the mediastinal lymph nodes. The surgical approach was indicated because of the degree of pleuropulmonary involvement, the inconclusive results obtained with the invasive and noninvasive methods applied, and the possibility of malignancy. This case illustrates the difficulty inherent to the assessment of infectious or inflammatory pulmonary pseudotumors, the differential diagnosis of which occasionally requires a radical surgical approach. Despite the presence of respiratory symptoms for six months, the first chest X-ray was performed only at the end of that period. We discuss the possible pathogenic mechanisms that might have led to the combination of three types of granulomatous lesions in the same lobe, and we emphasize the need for greater awareness of atypical presentations of pulmonary tuberculosis.

 


Letters to the Editor

14 - Epipericardial fat necrosis: an unusual cause of chest pain

Necrose da gordura epipericárdica: uma causa incomum de dor torácica

Karina de Souza Giassi, André Nathan Costa, André Apanavicius, Guilherme Hipólito Bachion, Rafael Silva Musolino, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):627-629

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15 - Thoracic lipomas simulating metastasis

Lipomas torácicos simulando metástases

Pedro Cabral, Manuela Baptista

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):630-632

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16 - Mortality distribution due to tracheal, lung, and bronchial cancer by gender, Brazil, 1980-2010

Distribuição da mortalidade por câncer de traqueia, pulmão e brônquios no Brasil segundo sexo, 1980-2010

Raphael Mendonça Guimarães, Talami Sayole Costa Santos

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):633-635

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17 - Mediastinal cyst as a cause of severe airway compression and dysphonia

Cisto mediastinal como causa de grave compressão da via aérea central e disfonia

Vanessa Costa Menezes, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Hélio Minamoto, Márcia Jacomelli, Paulo Sampaio Gutierrez, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):636-640

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Year 2013 - Volume 39  - Number 6  (November/December)

App

Editorial

1 - Interstitial lung disease in suggestive forms of connective tissue disease

Doença intersticial pulmonar em formas sugestivas de doença do tecido conectivo

Aryeh Fischer

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):641-643

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Original Article

2 - Metformin synergistically enhances antiproliferative effects of cisplatin and etoposide in NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells

Metformina sinergicamente potencializa os efeitos antiproliferativos de cisplatina e etoposídeo em linhagem de células de câncer humano de pulmão NCI-H460

Sarah Fernandes Teixeira, Isabella dos Santos Guimarães, Klesia Pirola Madeira, Renata Dalmaschio Daltoé, Ian Victor Silva, Leticia Batista Azevedo Rangel

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):644-649

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Objective: To test the effectiveness of combining conventional antineoplastic drugs (cisplatin and etoposide) with metformin in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer in the NCI-H460 cell line, in order to develop new therapeutic options with high efficacy and low toxicity. Methods: We used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and calculated the combination index for the drugs studied. Results: We found that the use of metformin as monotherapy reduced the metabolic viability of the cell line studied. Combining metformin with cisplatin or etoposide produced a synergistic effect and was more effective than was the use of cisplatin or etoposide as monotherapy. Conclusions: Metformin, due to its independent effects on liver kinase B1, had antiproliferative effects on the NCI-H460 cell line. When metformin was combined with cisplatin or etoposide, the cell death rate was even higher.

 


Keywords: Carcinoma, non-small-cell lung; Drug therapy, combination; Metformin.

 

3 - Descriptive analysis of and overall survival after surgical treatment of lung metastases

Análise descritiva e sobrevida global do tratamento cirúrgico das metástases pulmonares

Giana Balestro Poletti, Ivan Felizardo Contrera Toro, Thais Ferreira Alves, Eliana Cristina Martins Miranda, José Cláudio Teixeira Seabra, Ricardo Kalaf Mussi

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):650-658

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Objective: To describe demographic characteristics, surgical results, postoperative complications, and overall survival rates in surgically treated patients with lung metastases. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 119 patients who underwent a total of 154 lung metastasis resections between 1997 and 2011. Results: Among the 119 patients, 68 (57.1%) were male and 108 (90.8%) were White. The median age was 52 years (range, 15-75 years). In this sample, 63 patients (52.9%) presented with comorbidities, the most common being systemic arterial hypertension (69.8%) and diabetes (19.0%). Primary colorectal tumors (47.9%) and musculoskeletal tumors (21.8%) were the main sites of origin of the metastases. Approximately 24% of the patients underwent more than one resection of the lesions, and 71% had adjuvant treatment prior to metastasectomy. The rate of lung metastasis recurrence was 19.3%, and the median disease-free interval was 23 months. The main surgical access used was thoracotomy (78%), and the most common approach was wedge resection with segmentectomy (51%). The rate of postoperative complications was 22%, and perioperative mortality was 1.9%. The overall survival rates at 12, 36, 60, and 120 months were 96%, 77%, 56%, and 39%, respectively. A Cox analysis confirmed that complications within the first 30 postoperative days were associated with poor prognosis (hazard ratio = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.09-3.06; p = 0.02). Conclusions: Surgical treatment of lung metastases is safe and effective, with good overall survival, especially in patients with fewer metastases.

 


Keywords: Neoplasm metastasis; Survival analysis; Thoracic surgery; Metastasectomy.

 

4 - Levels of physical activity and predictors of mortality in COPD

Níveis de atividade física e preditores de mortalidade na DPOC

Samantha Maria Nyssen, Júlia Gianjoppe dos Santos, Marina Sallum Barusso, Antônio Delfino de Oliveira Junior, Valéria Amorim Pires Di Lorenzo, Mauricio Jamami

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):659-666

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Objective: To compare the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index scores and its individual components between COPD patients with and without severe physical inactivity, as well as to correlate the number of steps/day with scores of physical activity questionnaires, age, and the BODE index (including its components). Methods: We included 30 patients, who were evaluated for body composition, pulmonary function (FEV1), perception of dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council scale), and exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance [6MWD]). The patients also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), short version, and the modified Baecke questionnaire (mBQ). The level of physical activity was assessed by the number of steps/day (as determined by pedometer), using the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day to form two groups: no severe physical inactivity (SPI−) and severe physical inactivity (SPI+). We used the Mann-Whitney test or t-test, as well as Pearson's or Spearman's correlation tests, in the statistical analysis. Results: In comparison with the SPI− group, the SPI+ group showed more advanced age, higher mBQ scores (leisure domain), lower 6MWD (in m and % of predicted), and lower IPAQ scores (metabolic equivalent-walk/week domain and total). The IPAQ scores showed weak correlations with steps/day (r = 0.399), age (r = −0.459), and 6MWD-in m (r = 0.446) and in % of predicted (r = 0.422). Conclusions: In our sample, the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day was not sensitive enough to identify differences between the groups when compared with the predictors of mortality. The IPAQ, short version score correlated with steps/day.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/mortality; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/ prevention and control; Motor activity.

 

5 - Nocturnal hypoxemia in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis

Hipoxemia noturna em crianças e adolescentes com fibrose cística

Regina Terse Trindade Ramos, Maria Angélica Pinheiro Santana, Priscila de Carvalho Almeida, Almério de Souza Machado Júnior, José Bouzas Araújo-Filho, Cristina Salles

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):667-674

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Objective: To determine the prevalence of nocturnal hypoxemia and its association with pulmonary function, nutritional status, sleep macrostructure, and obstructive respiratory events during sleep in a population of clinically stable children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 67 children and adolescents with CF between 2 and 14 years of age. All of the participants underwent polysomnography, and SpO2 was measured by pulse oximetry. We also evaluated the Shwachman-Kulczycki (S-K) scores, spirometry findings, and nutritional status of the patients. Results: The study involved 67 patients. The mean age of the patients was 8 years. The S-K scores differed significantly between the patients with and without nocturnal hypoxemia, which was defined as an SpO2 < 90% for more than 5% of the total sleep time (73.75  6.29 vs. 86.38  8.70; p < 0.01). Nocturnal hypoxemia correlated with the severity of lung disease, FEV1 (rs = −0.42; p = 0.01), FVC (rs = −0.46; p = 0.01), microarousal index (rs = 0.32; p = 0.01), and apnea-hypopnea index (rs = 0.56; p = 0.01). Conclusions: In this sample of patients with CF and mild-to-moderate lung disease, nocturnal oxygenation correlated with the S-K score, spirometry variables, sleep macrostructure variables, and the apnea-hypopnea index.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Sleep; Oximetry.

 

6 - Can the single-breath helium dilution method predict lung volumes as measured by whole-body plethysmography?

Pode o método de diluição do hélio em respiração única estimar os volumes pulmonares medidos pela pletismografia de corpo inteiro?

Patrícia Chaves Coertjens, Marli Maria Knorst, Anelise Dumke, Adriane Schmidt Pasqualoto, João Riboldi, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):675-685

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Objective: To compare TLC and RV values obtained by the single-breath helium dilution (SBHD) method with those obtained by whole-body plethysmography (WBP) in patients with normal lung function, patients with obstructive lung disease (OLD), and patients with restrictive lung disease (RLD), varying in severity, and to devise equations to estimate the SBHD results. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study involving 169 individuals, of whom 93 and 49 presented with OLD and RLD, respectively, the remaining 27 having normal lung function. All patients underwent spirometry and lung volume measurement by both methods. Results: TLC and RV were higher by WBP than by SBHD. The discrepancy between the methods was more pronounced in the OLD group, correlating with the severity of airflow obstruction. In the OLD group, the correlation coefficient of the comparison between the two methods was 0.57 and 0.56 for TLC and RV, respectively (p < 0.001 for both). We used regression equations, adjusted for the groups studied, in order to predict the WBP values of TLC and RV, using the corresponding SBHD values. It was possible to create regression equations to predict differences in TLC and RV between the two methods only for the OLD group. The TLC and RV equations were, respectively, ∆TLCWBP-SBHD in L = 5.264 − 0.060 × FEV1/FVC (r2 = 0.33; adjusted r2 = 0.32) and ∆RVWBP-SBHD in L = 4.862 − 0.055 × FEV1/FVC (r2 = 0.31; adjusted r2 = 0.30). Conclusions: The correction of TLC and RV results obtained by SBHD can improve the accuracy of this method for assessing lung volumes in patients with OLD. However, additional studies are needed in order to validate these equations.

 


Keywords: Plethysmography, whole body; Total lung capacity; Residual volume.

 

7 - Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough

Estudo radiográfico com ingestão de bário na rotina clínica: um estudo prospectivo em pacientes com tosse crônica

Carlos Shuler Nin, Edson Marchiori, Klaus Loureiro Irion, Artur de Oliveira Paludo, Giordano Rafael Tronco Alves, Daniela Reis Hochhegger, Bruno Hochhegger

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):686-691

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough. Methods: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons. Results: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6%) of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6%) of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%). We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration. Conclusions: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies.

 


Keywords: Barium sulfate; Cough; Contrast media; Radiography, thoracic.

 

8 - Immunohistochemical and morphometric evaluation of COX‑1 and COX-2 in the remodeled lung in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and systemic sclerosis

Avaliação imuno-histoquímica e morfométrica de COX-1 e COX-2 no remodelamento pulmonar na fibrose pulmonar idiopática e na esclerose sistêmica

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):692-700

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Objective: To study the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in the remodeled lung in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients, correlating that expression with patient survival. Methods: We examined open lung biopsy specimens from 24 SSc patients and 30 IPF patients, using normal lung tissue as a control. The histological patterns included fibrotic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) in SSc patients and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in IPF patients. We used immunohistochemistry and histomorphometry to evaluate the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in alveolar septa, vessels, and bronchioles. We then correlated that expression with pulmonary function test results and evaluated its impact on patient survival. Results: The expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in alveolar septa was significantly higher in IPF-UIP and SSc-NSIP lung tissue than in the control tissue. No difference was found between IPF-UIP and SSc-NSIP tissue regarding COX-1 and COX-2 expression. Multivariate analysis based on the Cox regression model showed that the factors associated with a low risk of death were younger age, high DLCO/alveolar volume, IPF, and high COX-1 expression in alveolar septa, whereas those associated with a high risk of death were advanced age, low DLCO/alveolar volume, SSc (with NSIP), and low COX-1 expression in alveolar septa. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that strategies aimed at preventing low COX-1 synthesis will have a greater impact on SSc, whereas those aimed at preventing high COX-2 synthesis will have a greater impact on IPF. However, prospective randomized clinical trials are needed in order to confirm that.

 


Keywords: Scleroderma, systemic; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; Inflammation; Survival rate.

 

9 - CT densitovolumetry in children with obliterative bronchiolitis: correlation with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results

Densitovolumetria pulmonar por TC em crianças com bronquiolite obliterante: correlação com escores clínicos e testes de função pulmonar

Helena Mocelin, Gilberto Bueno, Klaus Irion, Edson Marchiori, Edgar Sarria, Guilherme Watte, Bruno Hochhegger

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):701-710

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Objective: To determine whether air trapping (expressed as the percentage of air trapping relative to total lung volume [AT%]) correlates with clinical and functional parameters in children with obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). Methods: CT scans of 19 children with OB were post-processed for AT% quantification with the use of a fixed threshold of −950 HU (AT%950) and of thresholds selected with the aid of density masks (AT%DM). Patients were divided into three groups by AT% severity. We examined AT% correlations with oxygen saturation (SO2) at rest, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), minimum SO2 during the six-minute walk test (6MWT_SO2), FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and clinical parameters. Results: The 6MWD was longer in the patients with larger normal lung volumes (r = 0.53). We found that AT%950 showed significant correlations (before and after the exclusion of outliers, respectively) with the clinical score (r = 0.72; 0.80), FVC (r = 0.24; 0.59), FEV1 (r = −0.58; −0.67), and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.53; r = −0.62), as did AT%DM with the clinical score (r = 0.58; r = 0.63), SO2 at rest (r = −0.40; r = −0.61), 6MWT_SO2 (r = −0.24; r = −0.55), FVC (r = −0.44; r = −0.80), FEV1 (r = −0.65; r = −0.71), and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.41; r = −0.52). Conclusions: Our results show that AT% correlates significantly with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results in children with OB.

 


Keywords: Multidetector computed tomography; Respiratory function tests; Bronchiolitis obliterans.

 

10 - Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by nested polymerase chain reaction in pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens

Detecção do complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis por nested polymerase chain reaction em espécimes pulmonares e extrapulmonares

Adriana Antônia da Cruz Furini, Heloisa da Silveira Paro Pedro, Jean Francisco Rodrigues, Lilian Maria Lapa Montenegro, Ricardo Luiz Dantas Machado, Célia Franco, Haiana Charifker Schindler, Ida Maria Foschiani Dias Batista, Andrea Regina Baptista Rossit

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):711-718

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Objective: To compare the performance of nested polymerase chain reaction (NPCR) with that of cultures in the detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens. Methods: We analyzed 20 and 78 pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens, respectively, of 67 hospitalized patients suspected of having tuberculosis. An automated microbial system was used for the identification of Mycobacterium spp. cultures, and M. tuberculosis IS6110 was used as the target sequence in the NPCR. The kappa statistic was used in order to assess the level of agreement among the results. Results: Among the 67 patients, 6 and 5, respectively, were diagnosed with pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and the NPCR was positive in all of the cases. Among the 98 clinical specimens, smear microscopy, culture, and NPCR were positive in 6.00%, 8.16%, and 13.26%, respectively. Comparing the results of NPCR with those of cultures (the gold standard), we found that NPCR had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 83%, respectively, in pulmonary specimens, compared with 83% and 96%, respectively, in extrapulmonary specimens, with good concordance between the tests (kappa, 0.50 and 0.6867, respectively). Conclusions: Although NPCR proved to be a very useful tool for the detection of M. tuberculosis complex, clinical, epidemiological, and other laboratory data should also be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Tuberculosis/microbiology; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Polymerase chain reaction.

 

11 - Inflammatory and immunogenetic markers in correlation with pulmonary tuberculosis

Marcadores inflamatórios e imunogenéticos e sua relação com tuberculose pulmonar

Beatriz Lima Alezio Muller, Daniela Maria de Paula Ramalho, Paula Fernanda Gonçalves dos Santos, Eliene Denites Duarte Mesquita, Afranio Lineu Kritski, Martha Maria Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):719-727

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Objective: To describe serum levels of the cytokines IL-10, TNF-, and IFN-, as well as polymorphisms in the genes involved in their transcription, and their association with markers of the acute inflammatory response in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: This was a descriptive, longitudinal study involving 81 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis treated at two referral hospitals. We collected data on sociodemographic variables and evaluated bacteriological conversion at the eighth week of antituberculosis treatment, gene polymorphisms related to the cytokines studied, and serum levels of those cytokines, as well as those of C-reactive protein (CRP). We also determined the ESR and CD4+ counts. Results: The median age of the patients was 43 years; 67 patients (82.7%) were male; and 8 patients (9.9%) were infected with HIV. The ESR was highest in the patients with high IFN- levels and low IL-10 levels. IFN- and TNF- gene polymorphisms at positions +874 and −238, respectively, showed no correlations with the corresponding cytokine serum levels. Low IL-10 levels were associated with IL-10 gene polymorphisms at positions −592 and −819 (but not −1082). There was a negative association between bacteriological conversion at the eighth week of treatment and CRP levels. Conclusions: Our results suggest that genetic markers and markers of acute inflammatory response are useful in predicting the response to antituberculosis treatment

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Cytokines; Immune system; Polymorphism, single nucleotide.

 

Review Article

12 - Interpretation of autoantibody positivity in interstitial lung disease and lung-dominant connective tissue disease

Interpretação da positividade de autoanticorpos na doença pulmonar intersticial e colagenose pulmão dominante

Daniel Antunes Silva Pereira, Alexandre de Melo Kawassaki, Bruno Guedes Baldi

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):728-741

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The initial evaluation of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) primarily involves a comprehensive, active search for the cause. Autoantibody assays, which can suggest the presence of a rheumatic disease, are routinely performed at various referral centers. When interstitial lung involvement is the condition that allows the definitive diagnosis of connective tissue disease and the classical criteria are met, there is little debate. However, there is still debate regarding the significance, relevance, specificity, and pathophysiological role of autoimmunity in patients with predominant pulmonary involvement and only mild or benign symptoms of connective tissue disease. The purpose of this article was to review the current knowledge of autoantibody positivity and to discuss its possible interpretations in patients with ILD and without clear etiologic associations, as well as to enhance the understanding of the natural history of an allegedly new disease and to describe the possible prognostic implications. We also discuss the proposition of a new term to be used in the classification of ILDs: lung-dominant connective tissue disease.

 


Keywords: Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias; Autoantibodies; Connective tissue diseases; Autoimmune diseases; Diagnosis, differential.

 

Case Report

13 - Assessment of regional lung ventilation by electrical impedance tomography in a patient with unilateral bronchial stenosis and a history of tuberculosis

Avaliação da ventilação pulmonar regional por tomografia de impedância elétrica em paciente com estenose brônquica unilateral pós-tuberculose

Liégina Silveira Marinho, Nathalia Parente de Sousa, Carlos Augusto Barbosa da Silveira Barros, Marcelo Silveira Matias, Luana Torres Monteiro, Marcelo do Amaral Beraldo, Eduardo Leite Vieira Costa, Marcelo Britto Passos Amato, Marcelo Alcantara Holanda

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):742-746

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Bronchial stenosis can impair regional lung ventilation by causing abnormal, asymmetric airflow limitation. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an imaging technique that allows the assessment of regional lung ventilation and therefore complements the functional assessment of the lungs. We report the case of a patient with left unilateral bronchial stenosis and a history of tuberculosis, in whom regional lung ventilation was assessed by EIT. The EIT results were compared with those obtained by ventilation/perfusion radionuclide imaging. The patient was using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Therefore, we studied the effects of postural changes and of the use of nasal CPAP. The EIT revealed heterogeneous distribution of regional lung ventilation, the ventilation being higher in the right lung, and this distribution was influenced by postural changes and CPAP use. The EIT assessment of regional lung ventilation produced results similar to those obtained with the radionuclide imaging technique and had the advantage of providing a dynamic evaluation without radiation exposure.

 


Keywords: Tomography; Electric impedance; Positive-pressure respiration; Pulmonary ventilation; Airway obstruction; Tuberculosis, pulmonary.

 

Letters to the Editor

14 - Synchronous diagnosis of primitive papillary adenocarcinomas: beyond the realm of probability

Diagnóstico simultâneo de adenocarcinomas papilares primitivos: além da probabilidade

Pedro Gonçalo de Silva Ferreira, Paulo Matos, António Jorge Gouveia Ferreira

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):747-749

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15 - Plasmodium falciparum malaria: another infection of interest to pulmonologists

Malária por Plasmodium falciparum: outra infecção de interesse para o pneumologista

Edson Marchiori, Gláucia Zanetti, Bruno Hochhegger, Clarissa Canella, Klaus Loureiro Irion

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):750-752

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16 - Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung with brain metastases

Carcinoma sarcomatoide de pulmão com metástases cerebrais

Matheus Fernandes de Oliveira, Sílvia Conde Watanabe, Mara Patrícia Guilhermina de Andrade, José Marcus Rotta, Fernando Campos Gomes Pinto

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):753-756

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17 - Intrapulmonary lymph node: a common and underrecognized tomography finding

Linfonodo intrapulmonar: um achado tomográfico comum e pouco reconhecido

Bruno Hochhegger, Daniela Quinto dos Reis Hochhegger, Klaus Irion, Ana Paula Sartori, Fernando Ferreira Gazzoni, Edson Marchiori

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):757-758

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