Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2014 - Volume 40  - Number 1  (January/February)

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Editorial

1 - Lung ultrasound in the evaluation of pleural effusion

Ultrassom de pulmão na avaliação de derrame pleural

Elena Prina, Antoni Torres, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(1):1-5

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Original Article

2 - Can ultrasound guidance reduce the risk of pneumothorax following thoracentesis?

A ultrassonografia pode reduzir o risco de pneumotórax após toracocentese?

Alessandro Perazzo, Piergiorgio Gatto, Cornelius Barlascini, Maura Ferrari-Bravo, Antonello Nicolini

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(1):6-12

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Objective: Thoracentesis is one of the bedside procedures most commonly associated with iatrogenic complications, particularly pneumothorax. Various risk factors for complications associated with thoracentesis have recently been identified, including an inexperienced operator; an inadequate or inexperienced support team; the lack of a standardized protocol; and the lack of ultrasound guidance. We sought to determine whether ultrasound-guided thoracentesis can reduce the risk of pneumothorax and improve outcomes (fewer procedures without fluid removal and greater volumes of fluid removed during the procedures). In our comparison of thoracentesis with and without ultrasound guidance, all procedures were performed by a team of expert pulmonologists, using the same standardized protocol in both conditions. Methods: A total of 160 participants were randomly allocated to undergo thoracentesis with or without ultrasound guidance (n = 80 per group). The primary outcome was pneumothorax following thoracentesis. Secondary outcomes included the number of procedures without fluid removal and the volume of fluid drained during the procedure. Results: Pneumothorax occurred in 1 of the 80 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided thoracentesis and in 10 of the 80 patients who underwent thoracentesis without ultrasound guidance, the difference being statistically significant (p = 0.009). Fluid was removed in 79 of the 80 procedures performed with ultrasound guidance and in 72 of the 80 procedures performed without it. The mean volume of fluid drained was larger during the former than during the latter (960  500 mL vs. 770  480 mL), the difference being statistically significant (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Ultrasound guidance increases the yield of thoracentesis and reduces the risk of post-procedure pneumothorax. (Chinese Clinical Trial Registry identifier: ChiCTR-TRC-12002174 [http://www.chictr.org/en/])

 


Keywords: Pneumothorax; Ultrasonography; Thoracic surgical procedures.

 

3 - Factors related to the incorrect use of inhalers by asthma patients

Fatores relacionados ao uso incorreto dos dispositivos inalatórios em pacientes asmáticos

Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Denis Maltz Grutcki, Paola Paganella Laporte, Paula Borges de Lima, Samuel Millán Menegotto, Rosemary Petrik Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(1):13-20

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Objective: To evaluate inhaler technique in outpatients with asthma and to determine associations between the correctness of that technique and the level of asthma control. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving patients ≥ 14 years of age with physician-diagnosed asthma. The patients were recruited from the Asthma Outpatient Clinic of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The patients completed two questionnaires (a general questionnaire and an asthma control questionnaire based on the 2011 Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines), demonstrated their inhaler technique, and performed pulmonary function tests. Incorrect inhaler technique was defined as the incorrect execution of at least two of the predefined steps. Results: We included 268 patients. Of those, 81 (30.2%) showed incorrect inhaler technique, which was associated with poor asthma control (p = 0.002). Logistic regression analysis identified the following factors associated with incorrect inhaler technique: being widowed (OR = 5.01; 95% CI, 1.74-14.41; p = 0.003); using metered dose inhalers (OR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.35-1.85; p < 0.001); having a monthly family income < 3 times the minimum wage (OR = 2.67; 95% CI, 1.35-1.85; p = 0.008), and having ≥ 2 comorbidities (OR = 3.80; 95% CI, 1.03-14.02; p = 0.045). Conclusions: In the sample studied, incorrect inhaler technique was associated with poor asthma control. Widowhood, use of metered dose inhalers, low socioeconomic level, and the presence of ≥ 2 comorbidities were associated with incorrect inhaler technique.

 


Keywords: Inaladores dosimetrados; Inaladores de pó seco; Asma/terapia.

 

4 - Morbidity, mortality, and categorization of the risk of perioperative complications in lung cancer patients

Mortalidade, morbidade e categorização de risco para complicações perioperatórias em pacientes com câncer de pulmão

Fabiana Stanzani, Denise de Moraes Paisani, Anderson de Oliveira, Rodrigo Caetano de Souza, João Aléssio Juliano Perfeito, Sonia Maria Faresin

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(1):21-29

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Objective: To determine morbidity and mortality rates by risk category in accordance with the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines, to determine what role pulmonary function tests play in this categorization process, and to identify risk factors for perioperative complications (PCs). Methods: This was a historical cohort study based on preoperative and postoperative data collected for cases of lung cancer diagnosed or suspected between 2001 and 2010. Results: Of the 239 patients evaluated, only 13 (5.4%) were classified as being at high risk of PCs. Predicted postoperative FEV1 (FEV1ppo) was sufficient to define the risk level in 156 patients (65.3%); however, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was necessary for identifying those at high risk. Lung resection was performed in 145 patients. Overall morbidity and mortality rates were similar to those reported in other studies. However, morbidity and mortality rates for patients at an acceptable risk of PCs were 31.6% and 4.3%, respectively, whereas those for patients at high risk were 83.3% and 33.3%. Advanced age, COPD, lobe resection, and lower FEV1ppo were correlated with PCs. Conclusions: Although spirometry was sufficient for risk assessment in the majority of the population studied, CPET played a key role in the identification of high-risk patients, among whom the mortality rate was seven times higher than was that observed for those at an acceptable risk of PCs. The risk factors related to PCs coincided with those reported in previous studies.

 


Keywords: Algorithms; Lung neoplasms; Postoperative complications.

 

5 - PLATINO, a nine-year follow-up study of COPD in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: the problem of underdiagnosis

PLATINO, estudo de seguimento de nove anos sobre DPOC na cidade de São Paulo: o problema do subdiagnóstico

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(1):30-37

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Objective: To determine the underdiagnosis rate in new COPD cases at the end of a nine-year follow-up period-in the study designated "Projeto Latino-Americano de Investigação em Obstrução Pulmonar" (PLATINO, Latin-American Pulmonary Obstruction Investigation Project)-and compare that with the underdiagnosis rate during the initial phase of the study, as well as to identify the clinical features exhibited by the subjects who were not diagnosed until the end of the follow-up phase. Methods: The study population comprised the 1,000 residents of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, who took part in the PLATINO study. Of those, 613 participated in the follow-up phase, during which the subjects were assessed with the same instruments and equipment employed in the initial phase of the study. We used the chi-square test or the independent sample t-test to analyze the underdiagnosis rate and to identify the characteristics of the subjects who were not diagnosed until the end of the follow-up phase. Results: The underdiagnosis rate for new COPD cases at the end of the nine-year follow-up period was 70.0%. The underdiagnosis rate during the follow-up phase was 17.5% lower than that reported for the initial phase of the study. The subjects who were not diagnosed until the end of the follow-up phase presented with fewer respiratory symptoms, better pulmonary function, and less severe disease than did those previously diagnosed with COPD. Conclusions: The underdiagnosis rate for new COPD cases was lower in the follow-up phase of the study than in the initial phase. The subjects who were not diagnosed until the end of the follow-up phase of the PLATINO study presented with the same clinical profile as did those who were not diagnosed in the initial phase. These findings underscore the need for spirometry in order to confirm the diagnosis of COPD and provide early intervention.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/diagnosis; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/epidemiology; Spirometry.

 

6 - Incidence of pulmonary embolism during COPD exacerbation

Incidência de embolia pulmonar durante exacerbação da DPOC

Eylem Akpinar, Derya Hoşgün, Serdar Akpinar, Gökçe Kaan Ataç, Beyza, Doğanay, Meral Gülhan

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(1):38-45

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Objective: Because pulmonary embolism (PE) and COPD exacerbation have similar presentations and symptoms, PE can be overlooked in COPD patients. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of PE during COPD exacerbation and to describe the clinical aspects in COPD patients diagnosed with PE. Methods: This was a prospective study conducted at a university hospital in the city of Ankara, Turkey. We included all COPD patients who were hospitalized due to acute exacerbation of COPD between May of 2011 and May of 2013. All patients underwent clinical risk assessment, arterial blood gas analysis, chest CT angiography, and Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremities. In addition, we measured D-dimer levels and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) levels. Results: We included 172 patients with COPD. The prevalence of PE was 29.1%. The patients with pleuritic chest pain, lower limb asymmetry, and high NT-pro-BNP levels were more likely to develop PE, as were those who were obese or immobile. Obesity and lower limb asymmetry were independent predictors of PE during COPD exacerbation (OR = 4.97; 95% CI, 1.775-13.931 and OR = 2.329; 95% CI, 1.127-7.105, respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of PE in patients with COPD exacerbation was higher than expected. The association between PE and COPD exacerbation should be considered, especially in patients who are immobile or obese.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Pulmonary embolism; Risk factors.

 

7 - A new experimental model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in Wistar rats

Um novo modelo experimental de enfisema induzido por fumaça de cigarro em ratos Wistar

Rodrigo de las Heras Kozma, Edson Marcelino Alves, Valter Abraão Barbosa-de-Oliveira, Fernanda Degobbi Tenorio Quirino dos Santos Lopes, Renan Cenize Guardia, Henrique Vivi Buzo, Carolina Arruda de Faria, Camila Yamashita, Manzelio Cavazzana Júnior, Fernando Frei, Maria José de Oliveira Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu Ribeiro-Paes

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(1):46-54

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Objective: To describe a new murine model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the cigarette smoke group, comprising 12 rats exposed to smoke from 12 commercial filter cigarettes three times a day (a total of 36 cigarettes per day) every day for 30 weeks; and the control group, comprising 12 rats exposed to room air three times a day every day for 30 weeks. Lung function was assessed by mechanical ventilation, and emphysema was morphometrically assessed by measurement of the mean linear intercept (Lm). Results: The mean weight gain was significantly (approximately ten times) lower in the cigarette smoke group than in the control group. The Lm was 25.0% higher in the cigarette smoke group. There was a trend toward worsening of lung function parameters in the cigarette smoke group. Conclusions: The new murine model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and the methodology employed in the present study are effective and reproducible, representing a promising and economically viable option for use in studies investigating the pathophysiology of and therapeutic approaches to COPD.

 


Keywords: Tobacco smoke pollution; Emphysema; Disease models, animal; Equipment and supplies.

 

8 - Chest compression with a higher level of pressure support ventilation: effects on secretion removal, hemodynamics, and respiratory mechanics in patients on mechanical ventilation

Compressão torácica com incremento da pressão em ventilação com pressão de suporte: efeitos na remoção de secreções, hemodinâmica e mecânica pulmonar em pacientes em ventilação mecânica

Wagner da Silva Naue, Luiz Alberto Forgiarini Junior, Alexandre Simões Dias, Silvia Regina Rios Vieira

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(1):55-60

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Objective: To determine the efficacy of chest compression accompanied by a 10-cmH2O increase in baseline inspiratory pressure on pressure support ventilation, in comparison with that of aspiration alone, in removing secretions, normalizing hemodynamics, and improving respiratory mechanics in patients on mechanical ventilation. Methods: This was a randomized crossover clinical trial involving patients on mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h in the ICU of the Porto Alegre Hospital de Clínicas, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were randomized to receive aspiration alone (control group) or compression accompanied by a 10-cmH2O increase in baseline inspiratory pressure on pressure support ventilation (intervention group). We measured hemodynamic parameters, respiratory mechanics parameters, and the amount of secretions collected. Results: We included 34 patients. The mean age was 64.2  14.6 years. In comparison with the control group, the intervention group showed a higher median amount of secretions collected (1.9 g vs. 2.3 g; p = 0.004), a greater increase in mean expiratory tidal volume (16  69 mL vs. 56  69 mL; p = 0.018), and a greater increase in mean dynamic compliance (0.1  4.9 cmH2O vs. 2.8  4.5 cmH2O; p = 0.005). Conclusions: In this sample, chest compression accompanied by an increase in pressure support significantly increased the amount of secretions removed, the expiratory tidal volume, and dynamic compliance. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT01155648 [http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/])

 


Keywords: Physical therapy modalities; Respiration, Artificial; Intensive care units; Respiratory therapy.

 

9 - The burden of disease due to tuberculosis in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

A carga de doença por tuberculose no estado de Santa Catarina

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(1):61-68

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Objetivo: Estimar a carga de doença por tuberculose no estado de Santa Catarina em 2009. Métodos: Estudo epidemiológico de delineamento ecológico. Dados sobre a incidência e mortalidade de tuberculose foram coletados de bancos de dados específicos do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil. A carga de doença por tuberculose baseou-se no cálculo de disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, anos de vida perdidos ajustados por incapacidade). Os DALYs foram estimados pela soma de years of life lost (YLLs, anos de vida perdidos) e years lived with disability (YLDs, anos vividos com incapacidade). Os valores absolutos foram transformados em taxas por 100 mil habitantes. As taxas foram calculadas por sexo, faixa etária e macrorregião de saúde. Resultados: A carga de doença por tuberculose foi de 5.644,27 DALYs (92,25 DALYs/100 mil habitantes), dos quais 78,77% foram YLLs e 21,23% foram YLDs. As maiores taxas foram encontradas no sexo masculino nas faixas etárias de 30-44 e 45-59 anos, com distribuição desigual por macrorregião de saúde. A maior carga foi estimada na macrorregião do Planalto Norte (179,56 DALYs/100 mil habitantes), seguida pela do Nordeste (167,07 DALYs/100 mil habitantes). Conclusões: A carga de doença por tuberculose concentrou-se em homens adultos, com distribuição desigual nas macrorregiões de saúde de Santa Catarina.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; Life expectancy; Cost of illness.

 

Brief Communication

10 - Assessment of ICU readmission risk with the Stability and Workload Index for Transfer score

Avaliação de riscos de readmissão em UTI através do escore Stability and Workload Index for Transfer

Daiane Ferreira Oakes, Ingrid Nemitz Krás Borges, Luiz Alberto Forgiarini Junior, Marcelo de Mello Rieder

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(1):69-72

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We compared bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) and pneumococcal empyema (PE), in terms of clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings, in under-fives. A cross-sectional nested cohort study, involving under-fives (102 with PE and 128 with BPP), was conducted at 12 centers in Argentina, Brazil, and the Dominican Republic. Among those with PE, mean age was higher; disease duration was longer; and tachypnea, dyspnea, and high leukocyte counts were more common. Among those with BPP, fever and lethargy were more common. It seems that children with PE can be distinguished from those with BPP on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings. Because both conditions are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, prompt diagnosis is crucial.

 


Keywords: Empyema, pleural; Pneumonia, pneumococcal; Pneumococcal infections.

 

11 - Empyema and bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia in children under five years of age

Empiema e pneumonia pneumocócica bacterêmica em menores de cinco anos de idade

Maria Regina Alves Cardoso, Cristiana Maria Costa Nascimento-Carvalho, Fernando Ferrero, Eitan Naaman Berezin, Raul Ruvinsky, Clemax Couto Sant'Anna, Maria Cristina de Cunto Brandileone, Maria de Fátima Bazhuni Pombo March, Ruben Maggi, Jesus Feris-Iglesias, Yehuda Benguigui, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos; the CARIBE group

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(1):73-76

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Patient discharge from the ICU is indicated on the basis of clinical evidence and the result of strategies aimed at improving health care. Nevertheless, some patients might be discharged too early. We attempted to identify risk factors for unplanned ICU readmission, using a score for risk assessment, designated the Stability and Workload Index for Transfer (SWIFT) score. We evaluated 100 patients discharged from an ICU and found that the SWIFT score can be used as a tool for improving the assessment of ICU patients and the appropriateness of ICU discharge, thus preventing readmission.

 


Keywords: Intensive care units; Risk factors; Patient readmission.

 

Case Report

12 - Adalimumab-induced acute interstitial lung disease in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis

Doença pulmonar intersticial aguda induzida por adalimumabe em paciente com artrite reumatoide

Olívia Meira Dias, Daniel Antunes Silva Pereira, Bruno Guedes Baldi, André Nathan Costa, Rodrigo Abensur Athanazio, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(1):77-81

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The use of immunobiological agents for the treatment of autoimmune diseases is increasing in medical practice. Anti-TNF therapies have been increasingly used in refractory autoimmune diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis, with promising results. However, the use of such therapies has been associated with an increased risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. In addition, the use of anti-TNF agents can cause pulmonary complications, such as reactivation of mycobacterial and fungal infections, as well as sarcoidosis and other interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). There is evidence of an association between ILD and the use of anti-TNF agents, etanercept and infliximab in particular. Adalimumab is the newest drug in this class, and some authors have suggested that its use might induce or exacerbate preexisting ILDs. In this study, we report the first case of acute ILD secondary to the use of adalimumab in Brazil, in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and without a history of ILD.

 


Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial; Arthritis, rheumatoid; Antirheumatic agents; Antibodies, monoclonal, humanized/adverse effects.

 

13 - Add-on treatment with nebulized hypertonic saline in a child with plastic bronchitis after the Glenn procedure

Tratamento adjuvante com nebulização de salina hipertônica em uma criança com bronquite plástica após a operação de Glenn

Grzegorz Lis, Ewa Cichocka-Jarosz, Urszula Jedynak-Wasowicz, Edyta Glowacka

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(1):82-85

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Plastic bronchitis (PB), although a rare cause of airway obstruction, has mortality rates up to 50% in children after Fontan-type cardiac surgery. We present the case of an 18-month-old female patient with PB following pneumonia. At 6 months of age, the patient underwent the Glenn procedure due to functionally univentricular heart. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed complete blockage of the left bronchus by mucoid casts. Pharmacotherapy consisted of glucocorticosteroids, azithromycin, and enalapril maleate. The child also received nebulized 3% NaCl solution, which proved to be beneficial. In children submitted to Fontan-type procedures, physicians must be alert for PB, which can be triggered by respiratory tract infection.

 


Keywords: Bronchitis; Heart defects, congenital; Saline solution, hypertonic.

 

Letters to the Editor

14 - Tiotropium use and pulmonary function in patients with constrictive bronchiolitis

Uso de tiotrópio e função pulmonar em portadores de bronquiolite constritiva

Alexandre Melo Kawassaki, Letícia Kawano-Dourado, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(1):86-88

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15 - Interstitial pneumonia following exposure to fluorocarbon polymers

Pneumonia intersticial após exposição a polímeros fluorocarbonados

Eduardo Algranti, Thais Mauad

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(1):89-91

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16 - Mixed pneumoconiosis due to silicates and hard metals associated with primary Sjögren's syndrome due to silica

Pneumoconiose mista por silicatos e metais duros associada à síndrome de Sjögren primária por silicatos

Pedro Gonçalo de Silva Ferreira, António Jorge Correia Gouveia Ferreira, Lina Maria Rodrigues de Carvalho, António Segorbe Luís

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(1):92-95

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17 - Incidence of pulmonary embolism during COPD exacerbation

Incidência de embolia pulmonar durante exacerbação da DPOC

Shailendra Kapoor, Mauricio González-García

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(1):96-97

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Erratum

18 - Author name correction

Correção de nome do autor

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(1):98

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Year 2014 - Volume 40  - Number 2  (March/April)

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Editorial

1 - Much more than cigarette smoking

Muito além do tabaco

Jaqueline Scholz Issa, Gabriel Magalhães Lopes

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

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Original Article

2 - Experimentation with and knowledge regarding water-pipe tobacco smoking among medical students at a major university in Brazil

Experimentação de e conhecimento sobre narguilé entre estudantes de medicina de uma importante universidade do Brasil

Stella Regina Martins, Renato Batista Paceli, Marco Antônio Bussacos, Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes, Gustavo Faibischew Prado, Elisa Maria Siqueira Lombardi, Mário Terra-Filho, Ubiratan Paula Santos

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. Methods: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. Results: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26%) and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65%) in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001). Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic.

 


Keywords: Tobacco products; Smoking/prevention & control; Education, medical, undergraduate; Health knowledge, attitudes, practice.

 

3 - Can bronchodilators improve exercise tolerance in COPD patients without dynamic hyperinflation?

Os broncodilatadores podem melhorar a tolerância ao exercício na ausência de hiperinsuflação dinâmica em pacientes com DPOC?

Maria Enedina Aquino Scuarcialupi, Danilo Cortozi Berton, Priscila Kessar Cordoni, Selma Denis Squassoni, Elie Fiss, José Alberto Neder

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

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Objective: To investigate the modulatory effects that dynamic hyperinflation (DH), defined as a reduction in inspiratory capacity (IC), has on exercise tolerance after bronchodilator in patients with COPD. Methods: An experimental, randomized study involving 30 COPD patients without severe hypoxemia. At baseline, the patients underwent clinical assessment, spirometry, and incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). On two subsequent visits, the patients were randomized to receive a combination of inhaled fenoterol/ipratropium or placebo. All patients then underwent spirometry and submaximal CPET at constant speed up to the limit of tolerance (Tlim). The patients who showed ΔIC(peak-rest) < 0 were considered to present with DH (DH+). Results: In this sample, 21 patients (70%) had DH. The DH+ patients had higher airflow obstruction and lower Tlim than did the patients without DH (DH−). Despite equivalent improvement in FEV1 after bronchodilator, the DH− group showed higher ΔIC(bronchodilator-placebo) at rest in relation to the DH+ group (p < 0.05). However, this was not found in relation to ΔIC at peak exercise between DH+ and DH− groups (0.19 ± 0.17 L vs. 0.17 ± 0.15 L, p > 0.05). In addition, both groups showed similar improvements in Tlim after bronchodilator (median [interquartile range]: 22% [3-60%] vs. 10% [3-53%]; p > 0.05). Conclusions: Improvement in TLim was associated with an increase in IC at rest after bronchodilator in HD− patients with COPD. However, even without that improvement, COPD patients can present with greater exercise tolerance after bronchodilator provided that they develop DH during exercise.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Bronchodilator agents; Exercise test; Exercise tolerance; Inspiratory capacity.

 

4 - Effect that an educational program for cystic fibrosis patients and caregivers has on the contamination of home nebulizers

Efeito de um programa de educação para cuidadores e pacientes com fibrose cística na contaminação de nebulizadores de uso domiciliar

Adriana Della Zuana, Doroti de Oliveira Garcia, Regina Célia Turola Passos Juliani, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira da Silva Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the pathogens found in home nebulizers and in respiratory samples of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and to evaluate the effect that a standardized instruction regarding cleaning and disinfection of nebulizers has on the frequency of nebulizer contamination. Methods: We included 40 CF patients (22 males), all of whom used the same model of nebulizer. The median patient age was 11.2  3.74 years. We collected samples from the nebulizer mouthpiece and cup, using a sterile swab moistened with sterile saline. Respiratory samples were collected by asking patients to expectorate into a sterile container or with oropharyngeal swabs after cough stimulation. Cultures were performed on selective media, and bacteria were identified by classical biochemical tests. Patients received oral and written instructions regarding the cleaning and disinfection of nebulizers. All determinations were repeated an average of two months later. Results: Contamination of the nebulizer (any part) was detected in 23 cases (57.5%). The nebulizer mouthpiece and cup were found to be contaminated in 16 (40.0%) and 19 (47.5%), respectively. After the standardized instruction had been given, there was a significant decrease in the proportion of contaminated nebulizers (43.5%). Conclusions: In our sample of CF patients, nebulizer contamination was common, indicating the need for improvement in patient practices regarding the cleaning and disinfection of their nebulizers. A one-time educational intervention could have a significant positive impact.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Nebulizers and vaporizers; Disinfection.

 

5 - Effects of yoga breathing exercises on pulmonary function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: an exploratory analysis

Efeitos de exercícios respiratórios de ioga na função pulmonar de pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne: uma análise exploratória

Marcos Rojo Rodrigues, Celso Ricardo Fernandes Carvalho, Danilo Forghieri Santaella, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho, Suely Kazue Nagahashi Marie

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in children, and children with DMD die prematurely because of respiratory failure. We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of yoga breathing exercises, as well as the effects of those exercises on respiratory function, in such children. Methods: This was a prospective open-label study of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of DMD, recruited from among those followed at the neurology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were taught how to perform hatha yoga breathing exercises and were instructed to perform the exercises three times a day for 10 months. Results: Of the 76 patients who entered the study, 35 dropped out and 15 were unable to perform the breathing exercises, 26 having therefore completed the study (mean age, 9.5  2.3 years; body mass index, 18.2  3.8 kg/m2). The yoga breathing exercises resulted in a significant increase in FVC (% of predicted: 82.3  18.6% at baseline vs. 90.3  22.5% at 10 months later; p = 0.02) and FEV1 (% of predicted: 83.8  16.6% at baseline vs. 90.1  17.4% at 10 months later; p = 0.04). Conclusions: Yoga breathing exercises can improve pulmonary function in patients with DMD.

 


Keywords: Respiratory therapy; Forced expiratory volume; Vital capacity; Muscular dystrophy, Duchenne; Complementary therapies.

 

6 - Lung function in the absence of respiratory symptoms in overweight children and adolescents

Função pulmonar de crianças e adolescentes sem sintomas respiratórios e com excesso de peso

Silvana Neves Ferraz de Assunção, Carla Hilário da Cunha Daltro, Ney Christian Boa Sorte, Hugo da Costa Ribeiro Júnior, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Cleriston Farias Queiroz, Antônio Carlos Moreira Lemos

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe lung function findings in overweight children and adolescents without respiratory disease. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving male and female overweight children and adolescents in the 8-18 year age bracket, without respiratory disease. All of the participants underwent anthropometric assessment, chest X-ray, pulse oximetry, spirometry, and lung volume measurements. Individuals with respiratory disease were excluded, as were those who were smokers, those with abnormal chest X-rays, and those with an SpO2 ≤ 92%. Waist circumference was measured in centimeters. The body mass index-for-age Z score for boys and girls was used in order to classify the individuals as overweight, obese, or severely obese. Lung function variables were expressed in percentage of the predicted value and were correlated with the anthropometric indices. Results: We included 59 individuals (30 males and 29 females). The mean age was 11.7 ± 2.7 years. Lung function was normal in 21 individuals (35.6%). Of the 38 remaining individuals, 19 (32.2%), 15 (25.4%), and 4 (6.7%) presented with obstructive, restrictive, and mixed ventilatory disorder, respectively. The bronchodilator response was positive in 15 individuals (25.4%), and TLC measurements revealed that all of the individuals with reduced VC had restrictive ventilatory disorder. There were significant negative correlations between the anthropometric indices and the Tiffeneau index in the individuals with mixed ventilatory disorder. Conclusions: Lung function was abnormal in approximately 65% of the individuals evaluated here, all of whom were overweight. Obstructive ventilatory disorder and positive bronchodilator response predominated.

 


Keywords: Obesity/complications; Respiratory function tests; Lung diseases/etiology.

 

7 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to antituberculosis drugs in Mozambique

Resistência de Mycobacterium tuberculosis aos tuberculostáticos em Moçambique

Germano Manuel Pires, Elena Folgosa, Ndlovu Nquobile, Sheba Gitta, Nureisha Cadir

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the drug resistance profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mozambique. Methods: We analyzed secondary data from the National Tuberculosis Referral Laboratory, in the city of Maputo, Mozambique, and from the Beira Regional Tuberculosis Referral Laboratory, in the city of Beira, Mozambique. The data were based on culture-positive samples submitted to first-line drug susceptibility testing (DST) between January and December of 2011. We attempted to determine whether the frequency of DST positivity was associated with patient type or provenance. Results: During the study period, 641 strains were isolated in culture and submitted to DST. We found that 374 (58.3%) were resistant to at least one antituberculosis drug and 280 (43.7%) were resistant to multiple antituberculosis drugs. Of the 280 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases, 184 (65.7%) were in previously treated patients, most of whom were from southern Mozambique. Two (0.71%) of the cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were confirmed to be cases of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was most common in males, particularly those in the 21-40 year age bracket. Conclusions: M. tuberculosis resistance to antituberculosis drugs is high in Mozambique, especially in previously treated patients. The frequency of M. tuberculosis strains that were resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin in combination was found to be high, particularly in samples from previously treated patients.

 


Keywords: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis; Tuberculosis; Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant.

 

8 - Use of amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test in respiratory samples from HIV-infected patients in Brazil

Utilização do amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test em amostras respiratórias de pacientes HIV positivos no Brasil

Leonardo Bruno Paz Ferreira Barreto, Maria Cristina da Silva Lourenço, Valéria Cavalcanti Rolla, Valdiléia Gonçalves Veloso, Gisele Huf

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare the accuracy of the amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct (AMTD) test with reference methods for the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients. Methods: This was a study of diagnostic accuracy comparing AMTD test results with those obtained by culture on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium and by the BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 (BACTEC MGIT 960) system in respiratory samples analyzed at the Bioassay and Bacteriology Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Results: We analyzed respiratory samples collected from 118 patients, of whom 88 (74.4%) were male. The mean age was 36.6 ± 10.6 years. Using the AMTD test, the BACTEC MGIT 960 system, and LJ culture, we identified M. tuberculosis complex in 31.0%, 29.7%, and 27.1% of the samples, respectively. In comparison with LJ culture, the AMTD test had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 87.5%, 89.4%, 75.7%, and 95.0%, respectively, for LJ culture, whereas, in comparison with the BACTEC MGIT 960 system, it showed values of 88.6%, 92.4%, 83.8%, and 94.8%, respectively. Conclusions: The AMTD test showed good sensitivity and specificity in the population studied, enabling the laboratory detection of M. tuberculosis complex in paucibacillary respiratory specimens.

 


Keywords: Molecular diagnostic techniques; Tuberculosis; HIV; Molecular probe techniques.

 

9 - Drug-resistant tuberculosis in subjects included in the Second National Survey on Antituberculosis Drug Resistance in Porto Alegre, Brazil

Tuberculose resistente em pacientes incluídos no II Inquérito Nacional de Resistência aos Fármacos Antituberculose realizado em Porto Alegre, Brasil

Vania Celina Dezoti Micheletti, José da Silva Moreira, Marta Osório Ribeiro, Afranio Lineu Kritski, José Ueleres Braga

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among tuberculosis patients in a major Brazilian city, evaluated via the Second National Survey on Antituberculosis Drug Resistance, as well as the social, demographic, and clinical characteristics of those patients. Methods: Clinical samples were collected from tuberculosis patients seen between 2006 to 2007 at three hospitals and five primary health care clinics participating in the survey in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The samples were subjected to drug susceptibility testing. The species of mycobacteria was confirmed using biochemical methods. Results: Of the 299 patients included, 221 (73.9%) were men and 77 (27.3%) had a history of tuberculosis. The mean age was 36 years. Of the 252 patients who underwent HIV testing, 66 (26.2%) tested positive. The prevalence of MDR-TB in the sample as a whole was 4.7% (95% CI: 2.3-7.1), whereas it was 2.2% (95% CI: 0.3-4.2) among the new cases of tuberculosis and 12.0% (95% CI: 4.5-19.5) among the patients with a history of tuberculosis treatment. The multivariate analysis showed that a history of tuberculosis and a longer time to diagnosis were both associated with MDR-TB. Conclusions: If our results are corroborated by other studies conducted in Brazil, a history of tuberculosis treatment and a longer time to diagnosis could be used as predictors of MDR-TB.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Drug resistance; HIV.

 

10 - The role of intercostal nerve preservation in acute pain control after thoracotomy

O papel da preservação do nervo intercostal no controle da dor aguda pós-toracotomia

Marco Aurélio Marchetti-Filho, Luiz Eduardo Villaça Leão, Altair da Silva Costa-Junior

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate whether the acute pain experienced during in-hospital recovery from thoracotomy can be effectively reduced by the use of intraoperative measures (dissection of the neurovascular bundle prior to the positioning of the Finochietto retractor and preservation of the intercostal nerve during closure). Methods: We selected 40 patients who were candidates for elective thoracotomy in the Thoracic Surgery Department of the Federal University of São Paulo/Paulista School of Medicine, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The patients were randomized into two groups: conventional thoracotomy (CT, n = 20) and neurovascular bundle preservation (NBP, n = 20). All of the patients underwent thoracic epidural anesthesia and muscle-sparing thoracotomy. Pain intensity was assessed with a visual analog scale on postoperative days 1, 3, and 5, as well as by monitoring patient requests for/consumption of analgesics. Results: On postoperative day 5, the self-reported pain intensity was significantly lower in the NBP group than in the CT group (visual analog scale score, 1.50 vs. 3.29; p = 0.04). No significant differences were found between the groups regarding the number of requests for/consumption of analgesics. Conclusions: In patients undergoing thoracotomy, protecting the neurovascular bundle prior to positioning the retractor and preserving the intercostal nerve during closure can minimize pain during in-hospital recovery.

 


Keywords: Pain, postoperative; Analgesia; Thoracotomy.

 

Brief Communication

11 - Utility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 in the assessment of asthma control

Utilidade do instrumento Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 na avaliação do controle da asma

Mariana Nadal Cardoso, Herberto José Chong Neto, Lêda Maria Rabelo, Carlos Antônio Riedi, Nelson Augusto Rosário

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Our objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 (ACQ-7) in asthma patients, comparing our results against those obtained with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria. We evaluated 52 patients. Patients completed the ACQ-7, underwent spirometry, and were clinically assessed to determine the level of asthma control according to the GINA criteria, in two visits, 15 days apart. The ACQ-7 cutoff for uncontrolled asthma was a score of 1.5. The ACQ-7 showed good reproducibility, with a correlation coefficient of 0.73. The ACQ-7 identified a greater number of patients with uncontrolled asthma than did the GINA criteria; according to the GINA criteria, 47 patients (90.4%) presented with partially controlled asthma.

 


Keywords: Asthma/prevention and control; Asthma/classification; Questionnaires.

 

Review Article

12 - Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis

Acometimento músculo-esquelético na sarcoidose

Akasbi Nessrine, Abourazzak Fatima Zahra, Harzy Taoufik

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown cause. It most commonly affects the pulmonary system but can also affect the musculoskeletal system, albeit less frequently. In patients with sarcoidosis, rheumatic involvement is polymorphic. It can be the presenting symptom of the disease or can appear during its progression. Articular involvement is dominated by nonspecific arthralgia, polyarthritis, and Löfgren's syndrome, which is defined as the presence of lung adenopathy, arthralgia (or arthritis), and erythema nodosum. Skeletal manifestations, especially dactylitis, appear mainly as complications of chronic, multiorgan sarcoidosis. Muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and usually asymptomatic. The diagnosis of rheumatic sarcoidosis is based on X-ray findings and magnetic resonance imaging findings, although the definitive diagnosis is made by anatomopathological study of biopsy samples. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis is generally relieved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids. In corticosteroid-resistant or -dependent forms of the disease, immunosuppressive therapy, such as treatment with methotrexate or anti-TNF-, is employed. The aim of this review was to present an overview of the various types of osteoarticular and muscle involvement in sarcoidosis, focusing on their diagnosis and management.

 


Keywords: Sarcoidosis; Joints; Muscles; Bone and Bones.

 

Case Report

13 - The value of family history in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in children

O valor da história familiar no diagnóstico de pneumonite de hipersensibilidade em crianças

Joana Cardoso, Isabel Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is an immunologically mediated disease resulting from the inhalation of organic substances that trigger an inflammatory response in the alveolar wall, bronchioles, and interstitium in susceptible individuals. Although HP is predominantly an occupational disease, seen in adulthood, cases in children have been described. The diagnosis of HP requires a high degree of suspicion. The treatment consists in avoiding contact with the antigen, and, in some cases, systemic corticosteroids might be necessary in order to prevent its progression to pulmonary fibrosis. We report the clinical cases of three children with a history of contact with birds and a family history of HP. All three patients presented with cough and dyspnea on exertion. The disease was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical history and ancillary diagnostic test results consistent with the diagnosis, including a predominance of lymphocytes (> 60%, CD8+ T lymphocytes in particular) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and a ground-glass pattern seen on HRCT of the chest. Early diagnosis is crucial in order to prevent HP from progressing to pulmonary fibrosis. Hereditary factors seem to influence the onset of the disease.

 


Keywords: Alveolitis, extrinsic allergic; Bronchoalveolar lavage; Glucocorticoids.

 

14 - Lymphadenitis caused by infection with an isoniazid- and rifampin-resistant strain of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in an infant with IFN-γ/IL-12 pathway defect

Linfadenite por Mycobacterium bovis BCG resistente a isoniazida e rifampicina em lactente com defeito no eixo IFN-γ/IL-12

Lilian Martins Oliveira Diniz, Tiago Guimarães, Maria das Graças Rodrigues de Oliveira, Jorge Andrade Pinto, Silvana Spindola de Miranda

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We report a rare case in a female infant (age, 3.5 months) with primary immunodeficiency (IFN-γ/IL-12 pathway defect) who presented with suppurative lymphadenitis after Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination. The strain of M. bovis BCG identified was found to be resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. The patient was treated with a special pharmacological regimen involving isoniazid (in a limited, strategic manner), ethambutol, streptomycin, and IFN-γ, after which there was complete resolution of the lesions.

 


Keywords: BCG vaccine; Interferon-gamma; Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant.

 

Letters to the Editor

15 - Solitary benign metastasizing leiomyoma: imaging features and pathological findings

Leiomioma metastático benigno solitário: aspectos de imagem e achados anatomopatológicos

Bernardo Corrêa de Almeida Teixeira, Kássia Mahfouz, Dante Luiz Escuissato, Ana Flávia Cardoso Buarque Costa, Lúcia de Noronha

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


16 - Low-dose CT screening for lung cancer in Brazil: a study protocol

Rastreamento de câncer de pulmão por meio de TC de baixa dosagem no Brasil: protocolo de pesquisa

Ricardo Sales dos Santos, Juliana Franceschini, Fernando Uliana Kay, Rodrigo Caruso Chate, Altair da Silva Costa Júnior, Fernando Nunes Galvão de Oliveira, André Luiz Cavalcante Trajano, José Rodrigues Pereira, Jose Ernesto Succi, Roberto Saad Junior

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


17 - Chest wall reconstruction with titanium plates after desmoid tumor resection

Reconstrução de parede torácica com placas de titânio após ressecção de tumor desmoide

Fernando Luiz Westphal, Luís Carlos de Lima, José Corrêa Lima Netto, Stephany da Cunha Seelig, Katienne Frota de Lima

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


18 - Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for postpneumonectomy ARDS

Oxigenação extracorpórea por membrana no tratamento da SARA pós-pneumonectomia

Maurício Guidi Saueressig, Patrícia Schwarz, Rosane Schlatter, Alexandre Heitor Moreschi, Orlando Carlos Belmonte Wender, Amarilio Vieira de Macedo-Neto

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Year 2014 - Volume 40  - Number 3  (May/June)

App

Editorial

1 - Fighting respiratory diseases: divided efforts lead to weakness

Combate a doenças respiratórias: esforços divididos levam ao enfraquecimento

Rogelio Pérez-Padilla, Rafael Stelmach, Manuel Soto-Quiroz, Álvaro Augusto Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):207-210

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


2 - Translating patient-reported outcome measures: a multi-step process is essential

Tradução de medidas de resultados relatados pelo paciente: um processo composto de várias etapas é essencial

Catherine Acquadro, Ana Bayles, Elizabeth Juniper

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):211-212

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Original Article

3 - Leicester Cough Questionnaire: translation to Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

Questionário de Leicester sobre tosse crônica: tradução e adaptação cultural para a língua portuguesa falada no Brasil

Manuela Brisot Felisbino, Leila John Marques Steidle, Michelle Gonçalves-Tavares, Marcia Margaret Menezes Pizzichini, Emilio Pizzichini

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):213-221

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: To translate the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) to Portuguese and adapt it for use in Brazil. Methods: Cross-cultural adaptation of a quality of life questionnaire requires a translated version that is conceptually equivalent to the original version and culturally acceptable in the target country. The protocol used consisted of the translation of the LCQ to Portuguese by three Brazilian translators who were fluent in English and its back-translation to English by another translator who was a native speaker of English and fluent in Portuguese. The back-translated version was evaluated by one of the authors of the original questionnaire in order to verify its equivalence. Later in the process, a provisional Portuguese-language version was thoroughly reviewed by an expert committee. In 10 patients with chronic cough, cognitive debriefing was carried out in order to test the understandability, clarity, and acceptability of the translated questionnaire in the target population. On that basis, the final Portuguese-language version of the LCQ was produced and approved by the committee. Results: Few items were questioned by the source author and revised by the committee of experts. During the cognitive debriefing phase, the Portuguese-language version of the LCQ proved to be well accepted and understood by all of the respondents, which demonstrates the robustness of the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation. Conclusions: The final version of the LCQ adapted for use in Brazil was found to be easy to understand and easily applied.

 


Keywords: Quality of life; Translations; Questionnaires; Cough.

 

4 - Oxygen desaturation during the six-minute walk test in COPD patients

Análise da dessaturação de oxigênio durante o teste de caminhada de seis minutos em pacientes com DPOC

Maria Ângela Fontoura Moreira, Gabriel Arriola de Medeiros, Francesco Pinto Boeno, Paulo Roberto Stefani Sanches, Danton Pereira da Silva Júnior, André Frotta Müller

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):222-228

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the behavior of oxygen saturation curves throughout the six-minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with COPD. Methods: We included 85 patients, all of whom underwent spirometry and were classified as having moderate COPD (modCOPD, n = 30) or severe COPD (sevCOPD, n = 55). All of the patients performed a 6MWT, in a 27-m corridor with continuous SpO2 and HR monitoring by telemetry. We studied the SpO2 curves in order to determine the time to a 4% decrease in SpO2, the time to the minimum SpO2 (Tmin), and the post-6MWT time to return to the initial SpO2, the last designated recovery time (RT). For each of those curves, we calculated the slope. Results: The mean age in the modCOPD and sevCOPD groups was 66  10 years and 62  11 years, respectively. At baseline, SpO2 was > 94% in all of the patients; none received supplemental oxygen during the 6MWT; and none of the tests were interrupted. The six-minute walk distance did not differ significantly between the groups. The SpO2 values were lowest in the sevCOPD group. There was no difference between the groups regarding RT. In 71% and 63% of the sevCOPD and modCOPD group patients, respectively, a ≥ 4% decrease in SpO2 occurred within the first minute. We found that FEV1% correlated significantly with the SpO2 (r = −0.398; p < 0.001), Tmin (r = −0.449; p < 0.001), and minimum SpO2 (r = 0.356; p < 0.005). Conclusions: In the sevCOPD group, in comparison with the modCOPD group, SpO2 was lower and the Tmin was greater, suggesting a worse prognosis in the former.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Exercise test; Blood gas monitoring, transcutaneous.

 

5 - Hospitalized patients with COPD: analysis of prior treatment

Pacientes portadores de DPOC hospitalizados: análise do tratamento prévio

Irai Luis Giacomelli, Leila John Marques Steidle, Frederico Fernandes Moreira, Igor Varela Meyer, Ricardo Goetten Souza, Mariângela Pimentel Pincelli

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):229-237

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Although COPD is a prevalent disease, it is undertreated, and there are no available data regarding previous treatment of COPD in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the appropriateness of maintenance treatment in COPD patients prior to their hospitalization and to identify variables associated with inappropriate treatment. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional, analytical study involving 50 inpatients with COPD at two hospitals in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil. The patients completed a questionnaire on parameters related to the maintenance treatment of COPD. Non-pharmacological management and pharmacological treatment were assessed based on the recommendations made by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) in 2011 and by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health in the chronic respiratory diseases section of its Caderno de Atenção Básica (CAB, Primary Care Guidebook). Results: In most of the patients, the COPD was classified as being severe or very severe. Regarding non-pharmacological management, 33% of the patients were smokers, only 32% had been advised to receive the flu vaccine, 28% had received pneumococcal vaccine, and only 6.5% of the patients in the B, C, and D categories received pulmonary rehabilitation. Regarding GOLD and CAB recommendations, pharmacological treatment was inappropriate in 50% and 74% of the patients, respectively. Based on GOLD recommendations, 38% were undertreated. A low level of education, low income, not receiving oxygen therapy, and not receiving the flu vaccine were associated with inappropriate treatment. Conclusions: The application of various non-pharmacological management recommendations was unsatisfactory. Regarding the GOLD recommendations, the high rate of inappropriate maintenance treatment was mainly due to undertreatment. In Brazil, even in severe COPD cases, optimizing treatment to achieve greater benefits continues to be a challenge.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/therapy; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/prevention and control; Clinical protocols.

 

6 - Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs

Efeitos da administração aguda e crônica de metilprednisolona no estresse oxidativo em pulmões de ratos

Ronaldo Lopes Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva Torres, Gabriela Laste, Maria Beatriz Cardoso Ferreira, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Adriane Belló-Klein

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):238-243

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.); acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days); and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels.

 


Keywords: Lung; Methylprednisolone; Glucocorticoids; Lipid peroxidation; Antioxidant response elements.

 

7 - Pulmonary function in advanced uncomplicated singleton and twin pregnancy

Função pulmonar em mulheres com gestação única ou gemelar avançada e sem complicações

Anwar Hasan Siddiqui, Nazia Tauheed, Aquil Ahmad, Zehra Mohsin

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):244-249

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Pregnancy brings about significant changes in respiratory function, as evidenced by alterations in lung volumes and capacities, which are attributable to the mechanical impediment caused by the growing foetus. This study was undertaken in order to identify changes in respiratory function during normal pregnancy and to determine whether such changes are more pronounced in twin pregnancy than in singleton pregnancy. Methods: Respiratory function was assessed in 50 women with twin pregnancies and in 50 women with singleton pregnancies (during the third trimester in both groups), as well as in 50 non-pregnant women. We measured the following pulmonary function test parameters: FVC; FEV1; PEF rate; FEV1/FVC ratio; FEF25-75%; and maximal voluntary ventilation. Results: All respiratory parameters except the FEV1/FVC ratio were found to be lower in the pregnant women than in the non-pregnant women. We found no significant differences between women with twin pregnancies and those with singleton pregnancies, in terms of respiratory function. Conclusions: Despite its higher physiological demands, twin pregnancy does not appear to impair respiratory function to any greater degree than does singleton pregnancy.

 


Keywords: Respiratory function tests; Respiratory mechanics; Pregnancy, twin; Pregnancy.

 

8 - Reliability of a rapid hematology stain for sputum cytology

Confiabilidade da coloração hematológica rápida para citologia de escarro

Jéssica Gonçalves, Emilio Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes Pizzichini, Leila John Marques Steidle, Cristiane Cinara Rocha, Samira Cardoso Ferreira, Célia Tânia Zimmermann

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):250-258

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the reliability of a rapid hematology stain for the cytological analysis of induced sputum samples. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comparing the standard technique (May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain) with a rapid hematology stain (Diff-Quik). Of the 50 subjects included in the study, 21 had asthma, 19 had COPD, and 10 were healthy (controls). From the induced sputum samples collected, we prepared four slides: two were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, and two were stained with Diff-Quik. The slides were read independently by two trained researchers blinded to the identification of the slides. The reliability for cell counting using the two techniques was evaluated by determining the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for intraobserver and interobserver agreement. Agreement in the identification of neutrophilic and eosinophilic sputum between the observers and between the stains was evaluated with kappa statistics. Results: In our comparison of the two staining techniques, the ICCs indicated almost perfect interobserver agreement for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.98-1.00), as well as substantial agreement for lymphocyte counts (ICC: 0.76-0.83). Intraobserver agreement was almost perfect for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.96-0.99), whereas it was moderate to substantial for lymphocyte counts (ICC = 0.65 and 0.75 for the two observers, respectively). Interobserver agreement for the identification of eosinophilic and neutrophilic sputum using the two techniques ranged from substantial to almost perfect (kappa range: 0.91-1.00). Conclusions: The use of Diff-Quik can be considered a reliable alternative for the processing of sputum samples.

 


Keywords: Sputum\analysis; Sputum\cytology; Azure stains.

 

9 - Indoor air quality and health in schools

Qualidade do ar interno e saúde em escolas

Ana Maria da Conceição Ferreira, Massano Cardoso

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):259-268

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether indoor air quality in schools is associated with the prevalence of allergic and respiratory diseases in children. Methods: We evaluated 1,019 students at 51 elementary schools in the city of Coimbra, Portugal. We applied a questionnaire that included questions regarding the demographic, social, and behavioral characteristics of students, as well as the presence of smoking in the family. We also evaluated the indoor air quality in the schools. Results: In the indoor air of the schools evaluated, we identified mean concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) above the maximum reference value, especially during the fall and winter. The CO2 concentration was sometimes as high as 1,942 ppm, implying a considerable health risk for the children. The most prevalent symptoms and respiratory diseases identified in the children were sneezing, rales, wheezing, rhinitis, and asthma. Other signs and symptoms, such as poor concentration, cough, headache, and irritation of mucous membranes, were identified. Lack of concentration was associated with CO2 concentrations above the maximum recommended level in indoor air (p = 0.002). There were no other significant associations. Conclusions: Most of the schools evaluated presented with reasonable air quality and thermal comfort. However, the concentrations of various pollutants, especially CO2, suggest the need for corrective interventions, such as reducing air pollutant sources and improving ventilation. There was a statistically significant association between lack of concentration in the children and exposure to high levels of CO2. The overall low level of pollution in the city of Coimbra might explain the lack of other significant associations.

 


Keywords: Air pollution, indoor; Child welfare; Signs and symptoms, respiratory.

 

10 - Association between serum selenium level and conversion of bacteriological tests during antitu-berculosis treatment

Associações entre níveis de selênio sérico e conversão de testes bacteriológicos durante o tratamento antituberculose

Milena Lima de Moraes, Daniela Maria de Paula Ramalho, Karina Neves Delogo, Pryscila Fernandes Campino Miranda, Eliene Denites Duarte Mesquita, Hedi Marinho de Melo Guedes de Oliveira, Antônio Ruffino-Netto, Paulo César de Almeida, Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis, Reinaldo Calixto Campos, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Martha Maria de Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):269-278

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether serum selenium levels are associated with the conversion of bacteriological tests in patients diagnosed with active pulmonary tuberculosis after eight weeks of standard treatment. Methods: We evaluated 35 healthy male controls and 35 male patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, the latter being evaluated at baseline, as well as at 30 and 60 days of antituberculosis treatment. For all participants, we measured anthropometric indices, as well as determining serum levels of albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and selenium. Because there are no reference values for the Brazilian population, we used the median of the serum selenium level of the controls as the cut-off point. At 30 and 60 days of antituberculosis treatment, we repeated the biochemical tests, as well as collecting sputum for smear microscopy and culture from the patients. Results: The mean age of the patients was 38.4  11.4 years. Of the 35 patients, 25 (71%) described themselves as alcoholic; 20 (57.0%) were smokers; and 21 (60.0%) and 32 (91.4%) presented with muscle mass depletion as determined by measuring the triceps skinfold thickness and arm muscle area, respectively. Of 24 patients, 12 (39.2%) were classified as moderately or severely emaciated, and 15 (62.5%) had lost > 10% of their body weight by six months before diagnosis. At baseline, the tuberculosis group had lower serum selenium levels than did the control group. The conversion of bacteriological tests was associated with the CRP/albumin ratio and serum selenium levels 60 days after treatment initiation. Conclusions: Higher serum selenium levels after 60 days of treatment were associated with the conversion of bacteriological tests in pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

 


Keywords: Selenium; Nutritional status; Tuberculosis; Immunity.

 

11 - Tuberculosis in hospitalized patients: clinical characteristics of patients receiving treatment within the first 24 h after admission

Tuberculose em pacientes hospitalizados: características clínicas dos pacientes que iniciaram tratamento nas primeiras 24 h de permanência hospitalar

Denise Rossato Silva, Larissa Pozzebon da Silva, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):279-285

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients hospitalized for tuberculosis, comparing those in whom tuberculosis treatment was started within the first 24 h after admission with those who did not. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving new tuberculosis cases in patients aged ≥ 18 years who were hospitalized after seeking treatment in the emergency room. Results: We included 305 hospitalized patients, of whom 67 (22.0%) received tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission (≤24h group) and 238 (88.0%) did not (>24h group). Initiation of tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission was associated with being female (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.06-3.74; p = 0.032) and with an AFB-positive spontaneous sputum smear (OR = 4.19; 95% CI: 1.94-9.00; p < 0.001). In the ≤24h and >24h groups, respectively, the ICU admission rate was 22.4% and 15.5% (p = 0.258); mechanical ventilation was used in 22.4% and 13.9% (p = 0.133); in-hospital mortality was 22.4% and 14.7% (p = 0.189); and a cure was achieved in 44.8% and 52.5% (p = 0.326). Conclusions: Although tuberculosis treatment was initiated promptly in a considerable proportion of the inpatients evaluated, the rates of in-hospital mortality, ICU admission, and mechanical ventilation use remained high. Strategies for the control of tuberculosis in primary care should consider that patients who seek medical attention at hospitals arrive too late and with advanced disease. It is therefore necessary to implement active surveillance measures in the community for earlier diagnosis and treatment.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Hospitalization; Time-to-treatment; Emergency medicine; Delayed diagnosis.

 

12 - Nicotine dependence and smoking habits in patients with head and neck cancer

Dependência nicotínica e perfil tabágico em pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço

Adriana Ávila de Almeida, Celso Muller Bandeira, Antonio José Gonçalves, Alberto José Araújo

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):286-293

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess smoking habits and nicotine dependence (ND) in patients with head and neck cancer Methods: This study involved 71 smokers or former smokers with squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity, pharynx, or larynx who were treated at a university hospital in the city of São Paulo between January and May of 2010. We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate smoking habits and ND in the sample. Data regarding cancer treatment were collected from medical records. Depending on the variables studied, we used the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, or Spearman's correlation test. Results: Of the 71 patients, 47 (66.2%) presented with high or very high ND, 40 (56.3%) smoked more than 20 cigarettes/day, and 32 (45.1%) smoked their first cigarette within 5 min of awakening. Advanced disease stage correlated significantly with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = 0.011) and with smoking history (p = 0.047). We found that ND did not correlate significantly with gender, disease stage, smoking cessation, or number of smoking cessation attempts, nor did the number of cigarettes smoked per day correlate with smoking cessation or gender. Treatment for smoking cessation was not routinely offered. Conclusions: In most of the patients studied, the level of ND was high or very high. The prevalence of heavy smoking for long periods was high in our sample. A diagnosis of cancer is a motivating factor for smoking cessation. However, intensive smoking cessation treatment is not routinely offered to smoking patients diagnosed with cancer.

 


Keywords: Head and neck neoplasms; Tobacco use disorder; Smoking cessation.

 

13 - Performance of ICU ventilators during noninvasive ventilation with large leaks in a total face mask: a bench study

Desempenho de ventiladores de UTI durante ventilação não invasiva com grandes vazamentos em máscara facial total: estudo em simulador mecânico

Maria Aparecida Miyuki Nakamura, Eduardo Leite Vieira Costa, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho, Mauro Roberto Tucci

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):294-303

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: Discomfort and noncompliance with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) interfaces are obstacles to NIV success. Total face masks (TFMs) are considered to be a very comfortable NIV interface. However, due to their large internal volume and consequent increased CO2 rebreathing, their orifices allow proximal leaks to enhance CO2 elimination. The ventilators used in the ICU might not adequately compensate for such leakage. In this study, we attempted to determine whether ICU ventilators in NIV mode are suitable for use with a leaky TFM. Methods: This was a bench study carried out in a university research laboratory. Eight ICU ventilators equipped with NIV mode and one NIV ventilator were connected to a TFM with major leaks. All were tested at two positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels and three pressure support levels. The variables analyzed were ventilation trigger, cycling off, total leak, and pressurization. Results: Of the eight ICU ventilators tested, four did not work (autotriggering or inappropriate turning off due to misdetection of disconnection); three worked with some problems (low PEEP or high cycling delay); and one worked properly. Conclusions: The majority of the ICU ventilators tested were not suitable for NIV with a leaky TFM.

 


Keywords: Ventilators, mechanical; Positive-pressure Respiration; Noninvasive ventilation; Equipment safety; Equipment failure; Masks.

 

Review Article

14 - Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: an increasingly recognized condition

Combinação de fibrose pulmonar e enfisema: uma doença cada vez mais reconhecida

Olívia Meira Dias, Bruno Guedes Baldi, André Nathan Costa, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):304-312

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) has been increasingly recognized in the literature. Patients with CPFE are usually heavy smokers or former smokers with concomitant lower lobe fibrosis and upper lobe emphysema on chest HRCT scans. They commonly present with severe breathlessness and low DLCO, despite spirometry showing relatively preserved lung volumes. Moderate to severe pulmonary arterial hypertension is common in such patients, who are also at an increased risk of developing lung cancer. Unfortunately, there is currently no effective treatment for CPFE. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and prognostic factors of CPFE. Given that most of the published data on CPFE are based on retrospective analysis, more studies are needed in order to address the role of emphysema and its subtypes; the progression of fibrosis/emphysema and its correlation with inflammation; treatment options; and prognosis.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary fibrosis; Emphysema; Hypertension, pulmonary; Lung diseases, interstitial.

 

Case Report

15 - Simultaneous interstitial pneumonitis and cardiomyopathy induced by venlafaxine

Pneumonite intersticial e miocardiopatia simultâneas induzidas por venlafaxina

Pedro Gonçalo Ferreira, Susana Costa, Nuno Dias, António Jorge Ferreira, Fátima Franco

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):313-318

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Venlafaxine is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor used as an antidepressant. Interindividual variability and herb-drug interactions can lead to drug-induced toxicity. We report the case of a 35-year-old female patient diagnosed with synchronous pneumonitis and acute cardiomyopathy attributed to venlafaxine. The patient sought medical attention due to dyspnea and dry cough that started three months after initiating treatment with venlafaxine for depression. The patient was concomitantly taking Centella asiatica and Fucus vesiculosus as phytotherapeutic agents. Chest CT angiography and chest X-ray revealed parenchymal lung disease (diffuse micronodules and focal ground-glass opacities) and simultaneous dilated cardiomyopathy. Ecocardiography revealed a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 21%. A thorough investigation was carried out, including BAL, imaging studies, autoimmune testing, right heart catheterization, and myocardial biopsy. After excluding other etiologies and applying the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale, a diagnosis of synchronous pneumonitis/cardiomyopathy associated with venlafaxine was assumed. The herbal supplements taken by the patient have a known potential to inhibit cytochrome P450 enzyme complex, which is responsible for the metabolization of venlafaxine. After venlafaxine discontinuation, there was rapid improvement, with regression of the radiological abnormalities and normalization of the LVEF. This was an important case of drug-induced cardiopulmonary toxicity. The circumstantial intake of inhibitors of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme and the presence of a CYP2D6 slow metabolism phenotype might have resulted in the toxic accumulation of venlafaxine and the subsequent clinical manifestations. Here, we also discuss why macrophage-dominant phospholipidosis was the most likely mechanism of toxicity in this case.

 


Keywords: Cardiomyopathy, dilated; Lung diseases, interstitial; Antidepressive agents, second-generation/toxicity; Herb-drug interactions.

 

Letters to the Editor

16 - Lung cancer and schwannoma - the pitfalls of positron emission tomography

Câncer de pulmão e schwannoma - as armadilhas da tomografia por emissão de prótons

Fernando Luiz Westphal, Luiz Carlos de Lima, José Correa Lima-Netto, Michel de Araújo Tavares, Felipe de Siqueira Moreira Gil

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):319-321

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


17 - Unilateral pulmonary agenesis

Agenesia pulmonar unilateral

Nulma Souto Jentzsch

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):322-324

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Year 2014 - Volume 40  - Number 4  (July/August)

App

Editorial

1 - New steps for the international consolidation of the Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

Novos passos para a consolidação internacional do Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia

Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho, Bruno Guedes Baldi, Carlos Viana Poyares Jardim, Pedro Caruso, Rogério Souza

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):325-326

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Special Article

2 - Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part I

Recomendações brasileiras de ventilação mecânica 2013. Parte I

AMIB/SBPT

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):327-363

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document.

 


Keywords: Recommendations; Mechanical Ventilation; Respiratory Insufficiency.

 

Original Article

3 - Risk factors for death in patients with severe asthma

Fatores de risco de morte em pacientes portadores de asma grave

Andréia Guedes Oliva Fernandes, Carolina Souza-Machado, Renata Conceição Pereira Coelho, Priscila Abreu Franco, Renata Miranda Esquivel, Adelmir Souza-Machado, Álvaro Augusto Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):364-372

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify risk factors for death among patients with severe asthma. Methods: This was a nested case-control study. Among the patients with severe asthma treated between December of 2002 and December of 2010 at the Central Referral Outpatient Clinic of the Bahia State Asthma Control Program, in the city of Salvador, Brazil, we selected all those who died, as well as selecting other patients with severe asthma to be used as controls (at a ratio of 1:4). Data were collected from the medical charts of the patients, home visit reports, and death certificates. Results: We selected 58 cases of deaths and 232 control cases. Most of the deaths were attributed to respiratory causes and occurred within a health care facility. Advanced age, unemployment, rhinitis, symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, long-standing asthma, and persistent airflow obstruction were common features in both groups. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender, FEV1 pre-bronchodilator < 60% of predicted, and the lack of control of asthma symptoms were significantly and independently associated with mortality in this sample of patients with severe asthma. Conclusions: In this cohort of outpatients with severe asthma, the deaths occurred predominantly due to respiratory causes and within a health care facility. Lack of asthma control and male gender were risk factors for mortality.

 


Keywords: Asthma/mortality; Asthma/therapy; Risk factors.

 

4 - Evaluation of von Willebrand factor in COPD patients

Avaliação do fator de von Willebrand em pacientes com DPOC

Thiago Prudente Bártholo, Cláudia Henrique da Costa, Rogério Rufino

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):373-379

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare the absolute serum von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels and relative serum vWF activity in patients with clinically stable COPD, smokers without airway obstruction, and healthy never-smokers. Methods: The study included 57 subjects, in three groups: COPD (n = 36); smoker (n = 12); and control (n = 9). During the selection phase, all participants underwent chest X-rays, spirometry, and blood testing. Absolute serum vWF levels and relative serum vWF activity were obtained by turbidimetry and ELISA, respectively. The modified Medical Research Council scale (cut-off score = 2) was used in order to classify COPD patients as symptomatic or mildly symptomatic/asymptomatic. Results: Absolute vWF levels were significantly lower in the control group than in the smoker and COPD groups: 989 ± 436 pg/mL vs. 2,220 ± 746 pg/mL (p < 0.001) and 1,865 ± 592 pg/mL (p < 0.01). Relative serum vWF activity was significantly higher in the COPD group than in the smoker group (136.7 ± 46.0% vs. 92.8 ± 34.0%; p < 0.05), as well as being significantly higher in the symptomatic COPD subgroup than in the mildly symptomatic/asymptomatic COPD subgroup (154 ± 48% vs. 119 ± 8%; p < 0.05). In all three groups, there was a negative correlation between FEV1 (% of predicted) and relative serum vWF activity (r2 = −0.13; p = 0.009). Conclusions: Our results suggest that increases in vWF levels and activity contribute to the persistence of systemic inflammation, as well as increasing cardiovascular risk, in COPD patients.

 


Keywords: von Willebrand factor; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Endothelial cells.

 

5 - Clinical application of CT and CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy in patients with indeterminate pulmonary nodules

Aplicação clínica da TC e biópsia transtorácica percutânea guiada por TC em pacientes com nódulos pulmonares indeterminados

Luciana Vargas Cardoso, Arthur Soares Souza Júnior

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):380-388

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate the clinical application of CT and CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (CT-PTNB) in patients with indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPNs). Methods: We retrospectively studied 113 patients with PNs undergoing CT and CT-PTNB. Variables such as gender, age at diagnosis, smoking status, CT findings, and CT-PTNB techniques were analyzed. Data analysis was performed with the Student's t-test for independent samples the chi-square test, and normal approximation test for comparison of two proportions. Results: Of the 113 patients studied, 68 (60.2%) were male and 78 (69%) were smokers. The diameter of malignant lesions ranged from 2.6 cm to 10.0 cm. Most of the IPNs (85%) were located in the peripheral region. The biopsied IPNs were found to be malignant in 88 patients (77.8%) and benign in 25 (22.2%). Adenocarcinoma was the most common malignant tumor, affecting older patients. The IPN diameter was significantly greater in patients with malignant PNs than in those with benign IPNs (p < 0.001). Having regular contour correlated significantly with an IPN being benign (p = 0.022), whereas spiculated IPNs and bosselated IPNs were more often malignant (in 50.7% and 28.7%, respectively). Homogeneous attenuation and necrosis were more common in patients with malignant lesions (51.9% and 26.9%, respectively) Conclusions: In our sample, CT and CT-PTNB were useful in distinguishing between malignant and benign IPNs. Advanced age and smoking were significantly associated with malignancy. Certain CT findings related to IPNs (larger diameter, spiculated borders, homogeneous attenuation, and necrosis) were associated with malignancy.

 


Keywords: Solitary pulmonary nodule; Tomography; Image-guided biopsy.

 

6 - Comparison between two thoracotomy closure techniques: postoperative pain and pulmonary function

Comparação entre duas técnicas de fechamento de toracotomia: dor pós-operatória e função pulmonar

Juliana Duarte Leandro, Olavo Ribeiro Rodrigues, Annie France Frere Slaets, Aurelino F. Schmidt Jr, Milton L. Yaekashi

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):389-396

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare two thoracotomy closure techniques (pericostal and transcostal suture) in terms of postoperative pain and pulmonary function. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study carried out in the Department of Thoracic Surgery of the Luzia de Pinho Melo Hospital das Clínicas and at the University of Mogi das Cruzes, both located in the city of Mogi das Cruzes, Brazil. We included 30 patients (18-75 years of age) undergoing posterolateral or anterolateral thoracotomy. The patients were randomized into two groups by the type of thoracotomy closure: pericostal suture (PS; n = 16) and transcostal suture (TS; n = 14). Pain intensity during the immediate and late postoperative periods was assessed by a visual analogic scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Spirometry variables (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and PEF) were determined in the preoperative period and on postoperative days 21 and 60. Results: Pain intensity was significantly greater in the PS group than in the TS group. Between the preoperative and postoperative periods, there were decreases in the spirometry variables studied. Those decreases were significant in the PS group but not in the TS group. Conclusions: The patients in the TS group experienced less immediate and late post-thoracotomy pain than did those in the PS group, as well as showing smaller reductions in the spirometry parameters. Therefore, transcostal suture is recommended over pericostal suture as the thoracotomy closure technique of choice.

 


Keywords: Thoracic surgery; Suture techniques; Acute pain.

 

7 - Comparison between reference values for FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio in White adults in Brazil and those suggested by the Global Lung Function Initiative 2012

Comparação entre os valores de referência para CVF, VEF1 e relação VEF1/CVF em brasileiros caucasianos adultos e aqueles sugeridos pela Global Lung Function Initiative 2012

Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira, Andrezza Araujo Oliveira Duarte, Andrea Gimenez, Maria Raquel Soares

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):397-402

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the spirometry values predicted by the 2012 Global Lung Function Initia-tive (GLI) equations, which are recommended for international use, in comparison with those obtained for a sample of White adults used for the establishment of reference equations for spirometry in Brazil. Methods: The sample comprised 270 and 373 healthy males and females, respectively. The mean differences between the values found in this sample and the predicted values calculated from the GLI equations for FVC, FEV1, and VEF1/FVC, as well as their lower lim-its, were compared by paired t-test. The predicted values by each pair of equations were com-pared in various combinations of age and height. Results: For the males in our study sample, the values obtained for all of the variables studied were significantly higher than those predicted by the GLI equations (p < 0.01 for all). These differences become more evident in subjects who were shorter in stature and older. For the females in our study sample, only the lower limit of the FEV1/FVC ratio was significantly higher than that predicted by the GLI equation. Conclusions: The predicted values suggested by the GLI equations for White adults were significantly lower than those used as reference values for males in Brazil. For both genders, the lower limit of the FEV1/FVC ratio is significantly lower than that predicted by the GLI equations.

 


Keywords: Respiratory function tests/statistics and numerical data; Respiratory function tests/diagnosis; Reference values.

 

8 - Anemia in hospitalized patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

Anemia em pacientes internados com tuberculose pulmonar

Marina Gribel Oliveira, Karina Neves Delogo, Hedi Marinho de Melo Gomes de Oliveira, Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Afranio Lineu Kritski, Martha Maria Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):403-410

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the prevalence of anemia and of its types in hospitalized patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: This was a descriptive, longitudinal study involving pulmonary tuberculosis inpatients at one of two tuberculosis referral hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We evaluated body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), arm muscle area (AMA), ESR, mean corpuscular volume, and red blood cell distribution width (RDW), as well as the levels of C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, transferrin, and ferritin. Results: We included 166 patients, 126 (75.9%) of whom were male. The mean age was 39.0  10.7 years. Not all data were available for all patients: 18.7% were HIV positive; 64.7% were alcoholic; the prevalences of anemia of chronic disease and iron deficiency anemia were, respectively, 75.9% and 2.4%; and 68.7% had low body weight (mean BMI = 18.21 kg/m2). On the basis of TST and AMA, 126 (78.7%) of 160 patients and 138 (87.9%) of 157 patients, respectively, were considered malnourished. Anemia was found to be associated with the following: male gender (p = 0.03); low weight (p = 0.0004); low mean corpuscular volume (p = 0.03);high RDW (p = 0; 0003); high ferritin (p = 0.0005); and high ESR (p = 0.004). We also found significant differences between anemic and non-anemic patients in terms of BMI (p = 0.04), DCT (p = 0.003), and ESR (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In this sample, high proportions of pulmonary tuberculosis patients were classified as underweight and malnourished, and there was a high prevalence of anemia of chronic disease. In addition, anemia was associated with high ESR and malnutrition.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Anemia; Malnutrition; Iron.

 

9 - Oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke exposure in mice: impact on lung tissue and dia-phragm muscle

Dano oxidativo induzido por exposição a fumaça de cigarro em camundongos: impacto sobre o pulmão e o músculo diafragma

Samanta Portão de Carlos, Alexandre Simões Dias, Luiz Alberto Forgiarini Júnior, Patrícia Damiani Patricio, Thaise Graciano, Renata Tiscoski Nesi, Samuel Valença, Adriana Meira Guntzel Chiappa, Gerson Cipriano Jr, Claudio Teodoro de Souza, Gaspar Rogério da Silva Chiappa

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):411-420

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objetivo: Avaliar o dano oxidativo (oxidação lipídica, oxidação proteica, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS, substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico], e carbonilação) e inflamação (expressão de phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase e de phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-AMPK e p-mTOR, respectivamente) em tecido pulmonar e músculos do diafragma em camundongos C57BL/6 machos expostos à fumaça de cigarro (FC) por 7, 15, 30, 45 ou 60 dias. Métodos: Trinta e seis camundongos machos da espécie C57BL/6 foram divididos em seis grupos (n = 6/grupo): grupo controle e 5 grupos expostos a FC por 7, 15, 30, 45 e 60 dias, respectivamente. Resultados: Comparados aos camundongos controle, os camundongos expostos à FC apresentaram menor peso corporal em 30 dias. Nos camundongos expostos à FC (comparados aos controle) as maiores diferenças (aumentos) nos níveis de TBARS foram observados no dia 7 no músculo diafragma, comparado ao dia 45 em tecido pulmonar; as maiores diferenças (aumentos) nos níveis de carbonilas foram observados no dia 7 em ambos os tipos de tecido; e os níveis de sulfidrilas foram menores, nos dois tipos de tecidos, em todos os tempos. No tecido pulmonar e no músculo diafragma, a expressão de p-AMPK exibiu um comportamento semelhante ao dos níveis de TBARS. A expressão de p-mTOR foi maior que o valor controle nos dias 7 e 15 no tecido pulmonar, assim como no dia 45 no músculo diafragma. Conclusões: Nossos dados demonstram que a exposição à FC produz dano oxidativo tanto no tecido pulmonar quanto (primariamente) no tecido muscular, tendo um efeito adicional no músculo respiratório, como é frequentemente observado em fumantes com DPOC.

 


Keywords: Oxidative stress; Mice; Respiratory system; Smoking; Inflammation.

 

Brief Communication

10 - Lodenafil treatment in the monocrotaline model of pulmonary hypertension in rats

Tratamento com lodenafila no modelo de hipertensão pulmonar induzida por monocrotalina em ratos

Igor Bastos Polonio, Milena Marques Pagliareli Acencio, Rogério Pazetti, Francine Maria de Almeida, Bárbara Soares da Silva, Karina Aparecida Bonifácio Pereira, Rogério Souza

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):421-424

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We assessed the effects of lodenafil on hemodynamics and inflammation in the rat model of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control; monocrotaline (experimental model); and lodenafil (experimental model followed by lodenafil treatment, p.o., 5 mg/kg daily for 28 days) Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was obtained by right heart catheterization. We investigated right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and IL-1 levels in lung fragments. The number of cases of RVH was significantly higher in the monocrotaline group than in the lodenafil and control groups, as were mPAP and IL-1 levels. We conclude that lodenafil can prevent monocrotaline-induced PH, RVH, and inflammation.

 


Keywords: Hypertension, pulmonary; Monocrotaline; Interleukin-1.

 

11 - Cytokine levels in pleural fluid as markers of acute rejection after lung transplantation

Citocinas no líquido pleural após transplante pulmonar como marcadores de rejeição aguda

Priscila Cilene León Bueno de Camargo, José Eduardo Afonso Jr, Marcos Naoyuki Samano, Milena Marques Pagliarelli Acencio, Leila Antonangelo, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga Teixeira

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):425-428

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Our objective was to determine the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF, as well as the total and differential cell counts, in the pleural fluid of lung transplant recipients, correlating those levels with the occurrence and severity of rejection. We analyzed pleural fluid samples collected from 18 patients at various time points (up to postoperative day 4). The levels of IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF tended to elevate in parallel with increases in the severity of rejection. Our results suggest that these levels are markers of acute graft rejection in lung transplant recipients.

 


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Pleural effusion; Cytokines; Graft rejection.

 

Review Article

12 - Overview of the biochemical and genetic processes in malignant mesothelioma

Panorama dos processos bioquímicos e genéticos presentes no mesotelioma maligno

Leonardo Vinícius Monteiro de Assis, Mauro César Isoldi

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):429-442

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly aggressive form of cancer, has a long latency period, and is resistant to chemotherapy. It is extremely fatal, with a mean survival of less than one year. The development of MM is strongly correlated with exposure to asbestos and erionite, as well as to simian virus 40. Although various countries have banned the use of asbestos, MM has proven to be difficult to control and there appears to be a trend toward an increase in its incidence in the years to come. In Brazil, MM has not been widely studied from a genetic or biochemical standpoint. In addition, there have been few epidemiological studies of the disease, and the profile of its incidence has yet to be well established in the Brazilian population. The objective of this study was to review the literature regarding the processes of malignant transformation, as well as the respective mechanisms of tumorigenesis, in MM.

 


Keywords: Occupational diseases; Mesothelioma; Genes, tumor suppressor; Oncogenes; Signal transduction.

 

Case Report

13 - Use of volume-targeted non-invasive bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Utilização de ventilação não invasiva com dois níveis de pressão positiva nas vias aéreas e volume alvo em paciente com esclerose lateral amiotrófica

Montserrat Diaz-Abad, John Edward Brown

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):443-447

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease in which most patients die of respiratory failure. Although volume-targeted non-invasive bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) ventilation has been studied in patients with chronic respiratory failure of various etiologies, its use in ALS has not been reported. We present the case of a 66-year-old woman with ALS and respiratory failure treated with volume-targeted BPAP ventilation for 15 weeks. Weekly data downloads showed that disease progression was associated with increased respiratory muscle weakness, decreased spontaneous breathing, and increased use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation, whereas tidal volume and minute ventilation remained relatively constant.

 


Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Respiratory insufficiency; Hypoventilation; Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation; Sleep.

 

Letters to the Editor

14 - Accessory cardiac bronchus causing recurrent pulmonary infection

Brônquio cardíaco acessório causando infecções respiratórias de repetição

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):448-449

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15 - Ground-glass nodules and CT-guided placement of platinum coils

Nódulos em vidro fosco e marcadores espirais de platina guiados por TC

Bruno Hochhegger, Fabíola Adélia Perin, Spencer Marcantonio Camargo, Edson Marchiori, Klaus Irion, Marcos Duarte Guimarães, Jose Carlos Felicetti, Jose Camargo

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):450-452

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Year 2014 - Volume 40  - Number 5  (September/October)

App

Editorial

1 - In memoriam-Affonso Berardinelli Tarantino

In memoriam - Affonso Berardinelli Tarantino

Jorge Ibrain de Figueira Salluh

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):453-454

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2 - Adding value to mechanical ventilation

Agregando valor à ventilação mecânica

Guilherme Schettino

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):455-457

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Special Article

3 - Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part 2

Recomendações brasileiras de ventilação mecânica 2013. Parte 2

Essas recomendações são uma iniciativa conjunta do Comitê de Ventilação Mecânica da Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira (AMIB) e da Comissão de Terapia Intensiva da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia (SBPT).

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):458-486

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document.

 


Keywords: Recommendations; Mechanical Ventilation; Respiratory Insufficiency.

 

Original Article

4 - Level of asthma control and its relationship with medication use in asthma patients in Brazil

Nível de controle da asma e sua relação com o uso de medicação em asmáticos no Brasil

Josiane Marchioro, Mariana Rodrigues Gazzotti, Oliver Augusto Nascimento, Federico Montealegre, James Fish, José Roberto Jardim

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):487-494

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess asthma patients in Brazil in terms of the level of asthma control, compliance with maintenance treatment, and the use of rescue medication. Methods: We used data from a Latin American survey of a total of 400 asthma patients in four Brazilian state capitals, all of whom completed a questionnaire regarding asthma control and treatment. Results: In that sample, the prevalence of asthma was 8.8%. Among the 400 patients studied, asthma was classified, in accordance with the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria, as controlled, partially controlled, and uncontrolled in 37 (9.3%), 226 (56.5%), and 137 (34.3%), respectively. In those three groups, the proportion of patients on maintenance therapy in the past four weeks was 5.4%, 19.9%, and 41.6%, respectively. The use of rescue medication was significantly more common in the uncontrolled asthma group (86.9%; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that, in accordance with the established international criteria, asthma is uncontrolled in the vast majority of asthma patients in Brazil. Maintenance medications are still underutilized in Brazil, and patients with partially controlled or uncontrolled asthma are more likely to use rescue medications and oral corticosteroids.

 


Keywords: Asthma/therapy; Asthma/prevention and control; Medication adherence.

 

5 - Utility of the combination of serum highly-sensitive C-reactive protein level at discharge and a risk index in predicting readmission for acute exacerbation of COPD

Utilidade de se combinar o nível sérico de proteína C reativa de alta sensibilidade no momento da alta com um índice de risco para prever a reinternação por exacerbação aguda da DPOC

Chun Chang, Hong Zhu, Ning Shen, Xiang Han, Yahong Chen, Bei He

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):495-503

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Frequent readmissions for acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) are an independent risk factor for increased mortality and use of health-care resources. Disease severity and C-reactive protein (CRP) level are validated predictors of long-term prognosis in such patients. This study investigated the utility of combining serum CRP level with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) exacerbation risk classification for predicting readmission for AECOPD. Methods: This was a prospective observational study of consecutive patients hospitalized for AECOPD at Peking University Third Hospital, in Beijing, China. We assessed patient age; gender; smoking status and history (pack-years); lung function; AECOPD frequency during the last year; quality of life; GOLD risk category (A-D; D indicating the greatest risk); and serum level of high-sensitivity CRP at discharge (hsCRP-D). Results: The final sample comprised 135 patients. Of those, 71 (52.6%) were readmitted at least once during the 12-month follow-up period. The median (interquartile) time to readmission was 78 days (42-178 days). Multivariate analysis revealed that serum hsCRP-D ≥ 3 mg/L and GOLD category D were independent predictors of readmission (hazard ratio = 3.486; 95% CI: 1.968-6.175; p < 0.001 and hazard ratio = 2.201; 95% CI: 1.342-3.610; p = 0.002, respectively). The ordering of the factor combinations by cumulative readmission risk, from highest to lowest, was as follows: hsCRP-D ≥ 3 mg/L and GOLD category D; hsCRP-D ≥ 3 mg/L and GOLD categories A-C; hsCRP-D < 3 mg/L and GOLD category D; hsCRP-D < 3 mg/L and GOLD categories A-C. Conclusions: Serum hsCRP-D and GOLD classification are independent predictors of readmission for AECOPD, and their predictive value increases when they are used in combination.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/epidemiology; Acute disease; Acute-phase proteins; Hospitalization; Patient readmission; Inflammation.

 

6 - Barriers associated with reduced physical activity in COPD patients

Barreiras associadas à menor atividade física em portadores de DPOC

Priscila Batista Amorim, Rafael Stelmach, Celso Ricardo Fernandes Carvalho, Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes, Regina Maria Carvalho-Pinto, Alberto Cukier

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):504-512

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the ability of COPD patients to perform activities of daily living (ADL); to identify barriers that prevent these individuals from performing ADL; and to correlate those barriers with dyspnea severity, six-minute walk test (6MWT), and an ADL limitation score. Methods: In COPD patients and healthy, age-matched controls, the number of steps, the distance walked, and walking time were recorded with a triaxial accelerometer, for seven consecutive days. A questionnaire regarding perceived barriers and the London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL) scale were used in order to identify the factors that prevent the performance of ADL. The severity of dyspnea was assessed with two scales, whereas submaximal exercise capacity was determined on the basis of the 6MWT. Results: We evaluated 40 COPD patients and 40 controls. In comparison with the control values, the mean walk time was significantly shorter for COPD patients (68.5  25.8 min/day vs. 105.2  49.4 min/day; p < 0.001), as was the distance walked (3.9  1.9 km/day vs. 6.4  3.2 km/day; p < 0.001). The COPD patients also walked fewer steps/day. The most common self-reported barriers to performing ADL were lack of infrastructure, social influences, and lack of willpower. The 6MWT distance correlated with the results obtained with the accelerometer but not with the LCADL scale results. Conclusions: Patients with COPD are less active than are healthy adults of a comparable age. Physical inactivity and the barriers to performing ADL have immediate implications for clinical practice, calling for early intervention measures.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Activities of daily living; Exercise tolerance.

 

7 - Assessment of inhaler techniques employed by patients with respiratory diseases in southern Brazil: a population-based study

Avaliação da técnica de utilização de dispositivos inalatórios no tratamento de doenças respiratórias no sul do Brasil: estudo de base populacional

Paula Duarte de Oliveira, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi, Fernando César Wehrmeister, Silvia Elaine Cardozo Macedo

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):513-520

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify incorrect inhaler techniques employed by patients with respiratory diseases in southern Brazil and to profile the individuals who make such errors. Methods: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study involving subjects ≥ 10 years of age using metered dose inhalers (MDIs) or dry powder inhalers (DPIs) in 1,722 households in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Results: We included 110 subjects, who collectively used 94 MDIs and 49 DPIs. The most common errors in the use of MDIs and DPIs were not exhaling prior to inhalation (66% and 47%, respectively), not performing a breath-hold after inhalation (29% and 25%), and not shaking the MDI prior to use (21%). Individuals ≥ 60 years of age more often made such errors. Among the demonstrations of the use of MDIs and DPIs, at least one error was made in 72% and 51%, respectively. Overall, there were errors made in all steps in 11% of the demonstrations, whereas there were no errors made in 13%.Among the individuals who made at least one error, the proportion of those with a low level of education was significantly greater than was that of those with a higher level of education, for MDIs (85% vs. 60%; p = 0.018) and for DPIs (81% vs. 35%; p = 0.010).Conclusions: In this sample, the most common errors in the use of inhalers were not exhaling prior to inhalation, not performing a breath-hold after inhalation, and not shaking the MDI prior to use. Special attention should be given to education regarding inhaler techniques for patients of lower socioeconomic status and with less formal education, as well as for those of advanced age, because those populations are at a greater risk of committing errors in their use of inhalers.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Dry powder inhalers; Metered dose inhalers.

 

8 - Effects of Pilates mat exercises on muscle strength and on pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis

Efeitos do método Pilates na força muscular e na função pulmonar de pacientes com fibrose cística

Caroline Buarque Franco, Antonio Fernando Ribeiro, André Moreno Morcillo, Mariana Porto Zambon, Marina Buarque Almeida, Tatiana Rozov

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):521-527

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the effects of Pilates mat exercises in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: This was a clinical trial involving 19 CF patients recruited from either the CF Outpatient Clinic of the State University at Campinas Hospital de Clínicas or the Children's Institute of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas. All of the patients performed Pilates mat exercises for four months (one 60-min session per week). The variables studied (before and after the intervention) were respiratory muscle strength, MIP, MEP, FVC, and FEV1. Results: After the intervention, MIP was significantly higher in the male patients (p = 0.017), as were MIP and MEP in the female patients (p = 0.005 and p = 0.007, respectively). There were no significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention values of FVC or FEV1, neither in the sample as a whole nor among the patients of either gender. Conclusions: Our results show that Pilates mat exercises have beneficial effects on respiratory muscle strength in CF patients. (Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials - ReBEC; identification number RBR-86vp8x [http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br])

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Muscle strength; Exercise movement techniques; Respiratory function tests.

 

9 - Air stacking: effects on pulmonary function in patients with spinal muscular atrophy and in patients with congenital muscular dystrophy

Efeitos do treinamento de empilhamento de ar na função pulmonar de pacientes com amiotrofia espinhal e distrofia muscular congênita

Tanyse Bahia Carvalho Marques, Juliana de Carvalho Neves, Leslie Andrews Portes, João Marcos Salge, Edmar Zanoteli, Umbertina Conti Reed

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):528-534

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Respiratory complications are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with neuromuscular disease (NMD). The objectives of this study were to determine the effects that routine daily home air-stacking maneuvers have on pulmonary function in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and in patients with congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD), as well as to identify associations between spinal deformities and the effects of the maneuvers. Methods: Eighteen NMD patients (ten with CMD and eight with SMA) were submitted to routine daily air-stacking maneuvers at home with manual resuscitators for four to six months, undergoing pulmonary function tests before and after that period. The pulmonary function tests included measurements of FVC; PEF; maximum insufflation capacity (MIC); and assisted and unassisted peak cough flow (APCF and UPCF, respectively) with insufflations. Results: After the use of home air-stacking maneuvers, there were improvements in the APCF and UPCF. In the patients without scoliosis, there was also a significant increase in FVC. When comparing patients with and without scoliosis, the increases in APCF and UPCF were more pronounced in those without scoliosis. Conclusions: Routine daily air-stacking maneuvers with a manual resuscitator appear to increase UPCF and APCF in patients with NMD, especially in those without scoliosis.

 


Keywords: Neuromuscular diseases; Cough; Respiratory function tests; Respiratory therapy.

 

10 - Thoracic textilomas: CT findings

Textilomas intratorácicos: achados tomográficos

Dianne Melo Machado, Gláucia Zanetti, Cesar Augusto Araujo Neto, Luiz Felipe Nobre, Gustavo de Souza Portes Meirelles, Jorge Luiz Pereira e Silva, Marcos Duarte Guimarães, Dante Luiz Escuissato, Arthur Soares Souza Jr, Bruno Hochhegger, Edson Marchiori

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):535-542

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic textiloma. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. Results: The majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ≤ 10 cm in 10 cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas, radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used. Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%). Conclusions: It is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication.

 


Keywords: Foreign-body reaction; Tomography, spiral computed; Thoracic surgery.

 

11 - Spatial analysis of deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis in the city of São Luís, Brazil

Análise espacial dos óbitos por tuberculose pulmonar em São Luís, Maranhão

Marcelino Santos-Neto, Mellina Yamamura, Maria Concebida da Cunha Garcia, Marcela Paschoal Popolin, Tatiane Ramos dos Santos Silveira, Ricardo Alexandre Arcêncio

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):543-551

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To characterize deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis, according to sociodemographic and operational variables, in the city of São Luís, Brazil, and to describe their spatial distribution. Methods: This was an exploratory ecological study based on secondary data from death certificates, obtained from the Brazilian Mortality Database, related to deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis. We included all deaths attributed to pulmonary tuberculosis that occurred in the urban area of São Luís between 2008 and 2012. We performed univariate and bivariate analyses of the sociodemographic and operational variables of the deaths investigated, as well as evaluating the spatial distribution of the events by kernel density estimation. Results: During the study period, there were 193 deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis in São Luís. The median age of the affected individuals was 52 years. Of the 193 individuals who died, 142 (73.60%) were male, 133 (68.91%) were Mulatto, 102 (53.13%) were single, and 64 (33.16%) had completed middle school. There was a significant positive association between not having received medical care prior to death and an autopsy having been performed (p = 0.001). A thematic map by density of points showed that the spatial distribution of those deaths was heterogeneous and that the density was as high as 8.12 deaths/km2. Conclusions: The sociodemographic and operational characteristics of the deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis evaluated in this study, as well as the identification of priority areas for control and surveillance of the disease, could promote public health policies aimed at reducing health inequities, allowing the optimization of resources, as well as informing decisions regarding the selection of strategies and specific interventions targeting the most vulnerable populations.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary/mortality; Communicable disease control; Spatial analysis.

 

Meta-analysis

12 - Effects of prednisone on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Efeitos da prednisona na bronquite eosinofílica na asma: uma revisão sistemática e meta-análise

Thiago Mamôru Sakae, Rosemeri Maurici, Daisson José Trevisol, Marcia Margaret Menezes Pizzichini, Emílio Pizzichini

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):552-563

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the effect size of oral corticosteroid treatment on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma, through systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We systematically reviewed articles in the Medline, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, and LILACS databases. We selected studies meeting the following criteria: comparing at least two groups or time points (prednisone vs. control, prednisone vs. another drug, or pre- vs. post-treatment with prednisone); and evaluating parameters before and after prednisone use, including values for sputum eosinophils, sputum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and sputum IL-5-with or without values for post-bronchodilator FEV1-with corresponding 95% CIs or with sufficient data for calculation. The independent variables were the use, dose, and duration of prednisone treatment. The outcomes evaluated were sputum eosinophils, IL-5, and ECP, as well as post-bronchodilator FEV1. Results: The pooled analysis of the pre- vs. post-treatment data revealed a significant mean reduction in sputum eosinophils (8.18%; 95% CI: 7.69-8.67; p < 0.001), sputum IL-5 (83.64 pg/mL; 95% CI: 52.45-114.83; p < 0.001), and sputum ECP (267.60 µg/L; 95% CI: 244.57-290.63; p < 0.0001), as well as a significant mean increase in post-bronchodilator FEV1 (8.09%; 95% CI: 5.35-10.83; p < 0.001). Conclusions:In patients with moderate-to-severe eosinophilic bronchitis, treatment with prednisone caused a significant reduction in sputum eosinophil counts, as well as in the sputum levels of IL-5 and ECP. This reduction in the inflammatory response was accompanied by a significant increase in post-bronchodilator FEV1.

 


Keywords: Meta-analysis; Bronchitis; Asthma; Pulmonary eosinophilia; Evidence-based medicine; Prednisone.

 

Review Article

13 - The electronic cigarette: the new cigarette of the 21st century?

Cigarro eletrônico: o novo cigarro do século 21?

Marli Maria Knorst, Igor Gorski Benedetto, Mariana Costa Hoffmeister, Marcelo Basso Gazzana

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):564-573

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The electronic nicotine delivery system, also known as the electronic cigarette, is generating considerable controversy, not only in the general population but also among health professionals. Smokers the world over have been increasingly using electronic cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation and as a substitute for conventional cigarettes. There are few available data regarding the safety of electronic cigarettes. There is as yet no evidence that electronic cigarettes are effective in treating nicotine addiction. Some smokers have reported using electronic cigarettes for over a year, often combined with conventional cigarettes, thus prolonging nicotine addiction. In addition, the increasing use of electronic cigarettes by adolescents is a cause for concern. The objective of this study was to describe electronic cigarettes and their components, as well as to review the literature regarding their safety; their impact on smoking initiation and smoking cessation; and regulatory issues related to their use.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Tobacco Products; Nicotine.

 

Case Report

14 - Chiari malformation and central sleep apnea syndrome: efficacy of treatment with adaptive servo-ventilation

Malformação de Chiari e síndrome de apneia central do sono: eficácia do tratamento com servoventilação adaptativa

Jorge Marques do Vale, Eloísa Silva, Isabel Gil Pereira, Catarina Marques, Amparo Sanchez-Serrano, António Simões Torres

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):574-578

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) has been associated with sleep-disordered breathing, especially central sleep apnea syndrome. We report the case of a 44-year-old female with CM-I who was referred to our sleep laboratory for suspected sleep apnea. The patient had undergone decompressive surgery 3 years prior. An arterial blood gas analysis showed hypercapnia. Polysomnography showed a respiratory disturbance index of 108 events/h, and all were central apnea events. Treatment with adaptive servo-ventilation was initiated, and central apnea was resolved. This report demonstrates the efficacy of servo-ventilation in the treatment of central sleep apnea syndrome associated with alveolar hypoventilation in a CM-I patient with a history of decompressive surgery.

 


Keywords: Sleep apnea, central; Arnold-Chiari malformation; Noninvasive ventilation.

 

Letters to the Editor

15 - Digital drainage system: how far can we go?

Sistema de drenagem digital: até onde podemos chegar?

Altair da Silva Costa Jr, Luiz Eduardo Villaça Leão, Jose Ernesto Succi, Erika Rymkiewicz, Juliana Folador, Thamara Kazantzis

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):579-581

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16 - Battery ingestion: an unusual cause of mediastinitis

Ingestão de bateria: uma causa incomum de mediastinite

Rosana Souza Rodrigues, Fátima Aparecida Ferreira Figueiredo, César Augusto Amorim, Gláucia Zanetti, Edson Marchiori

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):582-583

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17 - Comments on the introduction of the paper "Overview of the biochemical and genetic processes in malignant mesothelioma"

Comentários sobre a introdução do artigo "Panorama dos processos bioquímicos e genéticos presentes no mesotelioma maligno"

Eduardo Algranti

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):584-585

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Author's reply

18 - Authors' reply

Resposta dos autores

Leonardo de Assis, Mauro César Isoldi

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):586-587

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Erratum

19 - Errata

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):588

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Year 2014 - Volume 40  - Number 6  (November/December)

App

Editorial

1 - Portuguese Journal of Pulmonology and Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology-

Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia e Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia - 'Aquele Abraço'

António Morais, Carlos Robalo Cordeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):589-590

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Original Article

2 - Gender differences in the perception of asthma and respiratory symptoms in a population sample of asthma patients in four Brazilian cities

Diferenças entre os sexos na percepção de asma e sintomas respiratórios em uma amostra populacional em quatro cidades brasileiras

Laura Russo Zillmer, Mariana Rodrigues Gazzotti, Oliver Augusto Nascimento, Federico Montealegre, James Fish, José Roberto Jardim

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):591-598

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the impact of asthma, by gender, in a population sample of asthma patients in Brazil. Methods: We conducted face-to-face interviews with 400 subjects (> 12 years of age) included in a national probability telephone sample of asthma patients in the Brazilian state capitals of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador. Each of those 400 subjects completed a 53-item questionnaire that addressed five asthma domains: symptoms; impact of asthma on quality of life; perception of asthma control; exacerbations; and treatment/medication. Results: Of the 400 patients interviewed, 272 (68%) were female. In relation to respiratory symptoms, the proportion of women reporting extremely bothersome symptoms (cough with sputum, tightness in the chest, cough/shortness of breath/tightness in the chest during exercise, nocturnal shortness of breath, and nocturnal cough) was greater than was that of men. Daytime symptoms, such as cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, and tightness in the chest, were more common among women than among men. Women also more often reported that their asthma interfered with normal physical exertion, social activities, sleep, and life in general. Regarding the impact of asthma on quality of life, the proportion of subjects who reported that asthma caused them to feel that they had no control over their lives and affected the way that they felt about themselves was also greater among women than among men. Conclusions: Among women, asthma tends to be more symptomatic, as well as having a more pronounced effect on activities of daily living and on quality of life.

 


Keywords: Asthma/diagnosis; Asthma/prevention & control; Quality of life.

 

3 - Efficacy and safety of the single-capsule combination of fluticasone/formoterol in patients with persistent asthma: a non-inferiority trial

Eficácia e segurança da associação fluticasona/formoterol em cápsula única em pacientes com asma persistente: estudo de não inferioridade

Marti Antilla, Fábio Castro, Álvaro Cruz, Adalberto Rubin, Nelson Rosário, Rafael Stelmach

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):599-608

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Fluticasone and formoterol are effective in the treatment of asthma. When a corticosteroid alone fails to control asthma, combination therapy is the treatment of choice. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of formulations containing budesonide/formoterol (BUD/FOR), fluticasone alone (FLU), and the single-capsule combination of fluticasone/formoterol (FLU/FOR) on lung function in patients with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma. Methods: This was a randomized, multicenter, open phase III trial conducted in Brazil. The primary efficacy analysis was the assessment of non-inferiority between FLU/FOR and BUD/FOR combinations regarding FEV1 (in L) at the final visit. The secondary analyses were PEF, level of asthma control, serum cortisol levels, frequency of adverse events, adherence to treatment, and appropriate inhaler use. Results: We randomized 243 patients to three groups: FLU/FOR (n = 79), BUD/FOR (n = 83), and FLU (n = 81). In terms of the mean FEV1 after 12 weeks of treatment, the difference between the FLU/FOR and BUD/FOR groups was 0.22 L (95% CI: −0.06 to 0.49), whereas the difference between the FLU/FOR and FLU groups was 0.26 L (95% CI: −0.002 to 0.52). Non-inferiority was demonstrated by the difference between the lower limits of the two 95% CIs (−0.06 vs. −0.002). The level of asthma control and PEF were significantly greater in the FLU/FOR and BUD/FOR groups than in the FLU group. There were no significant differences among the groups regarding patient adherence, patient inhaler use, or safety profile of the formulations. Conclusions: The single-capsule combination of FLU/FOR showed non-inferiority to the BUD/FOR and FLU formulations regarding efficacy and safety, making it a new treatment option for persistent asthma. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT01202084 [http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/])

 


Keywords: Asthma; Steroids; Bronchodilator agents; Administration, inhalation.

 

4 - Left ventricular dysfunction in patients with suspected pulmonary arterial hypertension

Disfunção ventricular esquerda em pacientes com suspeita de hipertensão arterial pulmonar

Francisca Gavilanes, José Leonidas Alves Jr, Caio Fernandes, Luis Felipe Lopes Prada, Carlos Viana Poyares Jardim, Luciana Tamie Kato Morinaga, Bruno Arantes Dias, Susana Hoette, Rogerio Souza

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):609-616

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the role of right heart catheterization in the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Methods: We evaluated clinical, functional, and hemodynamic data from all patients who underwent right heart catheterization because of diagnostic suspicion of PAH-in the absence of severe left ventricular dysfunction (LVD), significant changes in pulmonary function tests, and ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy findings consistent with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism-between 2008 and 2013 at our facility. Results: During the study period, 384 patients underwent diagnostic cardiac catheterization at our facility. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) was confirmed in 302 patients (78.6%). The mean age of those patients was 48.7 years. The patients without PH showed better hemodynamic profiles and lower levels of B-type natriuretic peptide. Nevertheless, 13.8% of the patients without PH were categorized as New York Heart Association functional class III or IV. Of the 218 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 40 (18.3%) and 178 (81.7%) were diagnosed with PH associated with LVD (PH-LVD) and with PAH, respectively. The patients in the HP-LVD group were significantly older than were those in the PAH group (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The proportional difference between the PAH and PH-LVD groups was quite significant, considering the absence of echocardiographic signs suggestive of severe LVD during the pre-catheterization investigation. Our results highlight the fundamental role of cardiac catheterization in the diagnosis of PAH, especially in older patients, in whom the prevalence of LVD that has gone undiagnosed by non-invasive tests is particularly relevant.

 


Keywords: Hypertension, pulmonary; Cardiac catheterization, Ventricular dysfunction, left.

 

5 - Epidemiological aspects of and risk factors for wheezing in the first year of life

Aspectos epidemiológicos e fatores de risco para sibilância no primeiro ano de vida

Hamilton Rosendo Fogaça, Fernando Augusto de Lima Marson, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera Toro, Dirceu Solé, José Dirceu Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):617-625

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine, in a sample of infants, the prevalence of and risk factors for occasional wheezing (OW) and recurrent wheezing-wheezy baby syndrome (WBS). Methods: Parents of infants (12-15 months of age) completed the International Study of Wheezing in Infants questionnaire. Results: We included 1,269 infants residing in the city of Blumenau, Brazil. Of those, 715 (56.34%) had a history of wheezing, which was more common among boys. The prevalences of OW and WBS were 27.03% (n = 343) and 29.31% (n = 372), respectively. On average, the first wheezing episode occurred at 5.55 ± 2.87 months of age. Among the 715 infants with a history of wheezing, the first episode occurred within the first six months of life in 479 (66.99%), and 372 (52.03%) had had three or more episodes. Factors associated with wheezing in general were pneumonia; oral corticosteroid use; a cold; attending daycare; having a parent with asthma or allergies; mother working outside the home; male gender; no breastfeeding; and mold. Factors associated with WBS were a cold; physician-diagnosed asthma; ER visits; corticosteroid use; pneumonia; bronchitis; dyspnea; attending daycare; bronchodilator use; having a parent with asthma; no breastfeeding; mother working outside the home; and a dog in the household. Conclusions: The prevalence of wheezing in the studied population was high (56.34%). The etiology was multifactorial, and the risk factors were intrinsic and extrinsic (respiratory tract infections, allergies, attending daycare, and early wheezing). The high prevalence and the intrinsic risk factors indicate the need and the opportunity for epidemiological and genetic studies in this population. In addition, mothers should be encouraged to prolong breastfeeding and to keep infants under six months of age out of daycare.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Prevalence; Risk factors.

 

6 - Effects of home-based respiratory muscle training in children and adolescents with chronic lung disease

Efeitos do treinamento muscular respiratório domiciliar em crianças e adolescentes com doença pulmonar crônica

Iván Rodríguez, Daniel Zenteno, Carlos Manterola

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):626-633

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Respiratory muscle weakness is a functional repercussion of chronic lung disease (CLD). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of home-based respiratory muscle training (RMT) in children and adolescents with CLD or neuromuscular disease (NMD). Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study involving children and adolescents with CLD or NMD. Before and after 6 months of home-based RMT, we measured respiratory muscle strength (MIP and MEP), PEF, and peak cough flow (PCF). We made statistical comparisons between the pre-RMT and post-RMT values, as well as evaluating the correlation between the duration and effect of RMT. Results: The study included 29 patients, with a mean age of 12 years (range, 5-17 years), of whom 18 (62.1%) were male. The CLD group comprised 11 patients (37.9%), and the NMD group comprised 18 (62.1%). The mean duration of the RMT was 60 weeks (range, 46-90 weeks) in the CLD group and 39 weeks (range, 24-89 weeks) in the NMD group. In comparison with the pre-RMT values, the post-RMT values for MIP and MEP were significantly higher in both groups, whereas those for PEF and PCF were significantly higher only in the NMD group. We found no correlation between the duration and the effect of RMT. Conclusions: Home-based RMT appears to be an effective strategy for increasing respiratory muscle strength in children and adolescents with CLD or NMD, although it increased the ability to cough effectively only in those with NMD.

 


Keywords: Breathing exercises; Cystic fibrosis; Bronchiolitis obliterans; Neuromuscular diseases; Cough.

 

7 - Correlates of experimentation with smoking and current cigarette consumption among adolescents

Correlatos de experimentação e consumo atual de cigarros entre adolescentes

Amanda Gimenes Bonilha, Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Mayara Piani Sicchieri, Jorge Alberto Achcar, Antonio Luiz Rodrigues-Júnior, José Baddini-Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):634-642

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze social characteristics and stress as correlates of cigarette smoking in adolescence. The main intent was to identify elements that distinguish adolescents who had experimented with smoking and did not progress to regular smoking from those who became current smokers. Methods: Students at 10 high schools in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, completed a questionnaire based on an instrument employed in a similar large-scale study. The students were classified as never-smokers or experimenters. The experimenters were subcategorized as having become current smokers or nonprogressors. Analyses were performed using adjusted logistic models. Results: A total of 2,014 students (mean age, 16.2  1.1 years; females, 53%) completed the questionnaire. We categorized 1,283 students (63.7%) as never-smokers, 244 (12.1%) as current smokers, and 487 (24.2%) as nonprogressors. We found that experimentation with smoking was associated with being held back a grade in school (OR = 1.80), alcohol intake (low/occasional, OR = 8.92; high/regular, OR = 2.64), illicit drug use (OR = 9.32), having a sibling or cousin who smokes (OR = 1.39), having a friend who smokes (OR = 2.08), and high levels of stress (in females only, OR = 1.32). Factors associated with an increased risk of transitioning from experimenter to current smoker were alcohol intake (low/occasional, OR = 3.28; high/regular, OR = 2.16), illicit drug use (OR = 3.61), and having a friend who smokes (OR = 7.20). Conclusions: Current smoking was associated with a profile of socioeconomic correlates different from that associated with experimentation only. Our data (showing that current smoking was associated with having a friend who smokes, alcohol intake, and illicit drug use) suggest the need for comprehensive approaches to discourage substance use during adolescence.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Tobacco use; Adolescent behavior; Stress, psychological.

 

8 - Quantitative culture of endotracheal aspirate and BAL fluid samples in the management of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia: a randomized clinical trial

Cultura quantitativa de amostras de aspirado endotraqueal e lavado broncoalveolar no manejo de pacientes com pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica: um ensaio clínico randomizado

Ricardo de Amorim Corrêa, Carlos Michel Luna, José Carlos Fernandez Versiani dos Anjos, Eurípedes Alvarenga Barbosa, Cláudia Juliana de Rezende, Adriano Pereira Rezende, Fernando Henrique Pereira, Manoel Otávio da Costa Rocha

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):643-651

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare 28-day mortality rates and clinical outcomes in ICU patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia according to the diagnostic strategy used. Methods: This was a prospective randomized clinical trial. Of the 73 patients included in the study, 36 and 37 were randomized to undergo BAL or endotracheal aspiration (EA), respectively. Antibiotic therapy was based on guidelines and was adjusted according to the results of quantitative cultures. Results: The 28-day mortality rate was similar in the BAL and EA groups (25.0% and 37.8%, respectively; p = 0.353). There were no differences between the groups regarding the duration of mechanical ventilation, antibiotic therapy, secondary complications, VAP recurrence, or length of ICU and hospital stay. Initial antibiotic therapy was deemed appropriate in 28 (77.8%) and 30 (83.3%) of the patients in the BAL and EA groups, respectively (p = 0.551). The 28-day mortality rate was not associated with the appropriateness of initial therapy in the BAL and EA groups (appropriate therapy: 35.7% vs. 43.3%; p = 0.553; and inappropriate therapy: 62.5% vs. 50.0%; p = 1.000). Previous use of antibiotics did not affect the culture yield in the EA or BAL group (p = 0.130 and p = 0.484, respectively). Conclusions: In the context of this study, the management of VAP patients, based on the results of quantitative endotracheal aspirate cultures, led to similar clinical outcomes to those obtained with the results of quantitative BAL fluid cultures. (Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials - ReBEC; identification number RBR-86DCDX [http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br])

 


Keywords: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid/diagnosis; Respiratory aspiration; Pneumonia, ventilator-associated.

 

9 - Facial pressure zones of an oronasal interface for noninvasive ventilation: a computer model analysis

Pontos de tensão de uma interface oronasal para ventilação não invasiva: uma análise através de um modelo computacional

Luana Souto Barros, Pedro Talaia, Marta Drummond, Renato Natal-Jorge

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):652-657

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To study the effects of an oronasal interface (OI) for noninvasive ventilation, using a three-dimensional (3D) computational model with the ability to simulate and evaluate the main pressure zones (PZs) of the OI on the human face. Methods: We used a 3D digital model of the human face, based on a pre-established geometric model. The model simulated soft tissues, skull, and nasal cartilage. The geometric model was obtained by 3D laser scanning and post-processed for use in the model created, with the objective of separating the cushion from the frame. A computer simulation was performed to determine the pressure required in order to create the facial PZs. We obtained descriptive graphical images of the PZs and their intensity. Results: For the graphical analyses of each face-OI model pair and their respective evaluations, we ran 21 simulations. The computer model identified several high-impact PZs in the nasal bridge and paranasal regions. The variation in soft tissue depth had a direct impact on the amount of pressure applied (438-724 cmH2O). Conclusions: The computer simulation results indicate that, in patients submitted to noninvasive ventilation with an OI, the probability of skin lesion is higher in the nasal bridge and paranasal regions. This methodology could increase the applicability of biomechanical research on noninvasive ventilation interfaces, providing the information needed in order to choose the interface that best minimizes the risk of skin lesion.

 


Keywords: Noninvasive ventilation; Computer simulation; Respiration, artificial.

 

Review Article

10 - Impact of the type of mask on the effectiveness of and adherence to continuous positive airway pressure treatment for obstructive sleep apnea

O impacto do tipo de máscara na eficácia e na adesão ao tratamento com pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas da apneia obstrutiva do sono

Rafaela Garcia Santos de Andrade, Vivien Schmeling Piccin, Juliana Araújo Nascimento, Fernanda Madeiro Leite Viana, Pedro Rodrigues Genta, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):658-668

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the gold standard for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Although CPAP was originally applied with a nasal mask, various interfaces are currently available. This study reviews theoretical concepts and questions the premise that all types of interfaces produce similar results. We revised the evidence in the literature about the impact that the type of CPAP interface has on the effectiveness of and adherence to OSA treatment. We searched the PubMed database using the search terms "CPAP", "mask", and "obstructive sleep apnea". Although we identified 91 studies, only 12 described the impact of the type of CPAP interface on treatment effectiveness (n = 6) or adherence (n = 6). Despite conflicting results, we found no consistent evidence that nasal pillows and oral masks alter OSA treatment effectiveness or adherence. In contrast, most studies showed that oronasal masks are less effective and are more often associated with lower adherence and higher CPAP abandonment than are nasal masks. We concluded that oronasal masks can compromise CPAP OSA treatment adherence and effectiveness. Further studies are needed in order to understand the exact mechanisms involved in this effect.

 


Keywords: Sleep apnea, obstructive; Continuous positive airway pressure; Masks.

 

Case Report

11 - Infected tracheal diverticulum: a rare association with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

Divertículo da traqueia infectado: um caso de associação rara com deficiência de alfa-1-antitripsina

Beatriz Amaral, Sónia Silva, Salvato Feijó

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):669-672

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Tracheal diverticulum, defined as a benign outpouching of the tracheal wall, is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice. It can be congenital or acquired in origin, and most cases are asymptomatic, typically being diagnosed postmortem. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman who was hospitalized after presenting with fever, fatigue, pleuritic chest pain, and a right neck mass complicated by dysphagia. Her medical history was significant: pulmonary emphysema (alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency); bronchiectasis; and thyroidectomy. On physical examination, she presented diminished breath sounds and muffled heart sounds, with a systolic murmur. Laboratory tests revealed elevated inflammatory markers, a CT scan showed an air-filled, multilocular mass in the right tracheal wall, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the CT findings. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy failed to reveal any abnormalities. Nevertheless, the patient was diagnosed with tracheal diverticulum. The treatment approach was conservative, consisting mainly of antibiotics. After showing clinical improvement, the patient was discharged.

 


Keywords: Tracheal diseases; Pulmonary emphysema; Diverticulum; alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency.

 

Letters to the Editor

12 - A six-minute step test protocol for the investigation of dyspnea

Um protocolo de teste do degrau de seis minutos para a investigação de dispneia

Aline Aparecida Simsic, Ada Clarice Gastaldi, José Baddini-Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):673-674

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


13 - Preserving the intercostal nerves as a goal in thoracotomy

O objetivo da preservação dos nervos intercostais na toracotomia

Roberto de Menezes Lyra

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):675-676

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Index of Issues

14 - SUBJECT INDEX FOR V.40 (1-6)

Índice remissivo de assuntos do volume 40 (1-6), 2014

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J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):677-679

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Index of Authors

15 - AUTHOR INDEX FOR V.40 (1-6)

Índice remissivo de autores do volume 30 (1-6), 2014

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J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):680-685

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Relationship of Reviewers

16 - REVIEWERS FOR V.40 (1-6)

Relação de revisores 2014

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):686-688

PDF PT


 


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