Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2015 - Volume 41  - Number 1  (January/February)

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Editorial

1 - 2015-another step along the road in a 40-year journey...

2015 - mais um passo em um caminho de 40 anos...

Rogério Souza

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(1):1-2

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Special Article

2 - A workshop on asthma management programs and centers in Brazil: reviewing and explaining concepts

Programas e centros de atenção a asmáticos no Brasil; uma oficina de trabalho: revisitando e explicitando conceitos

Rafael Stelmach, Alcindo Cerci Neto, Ana Cristina de Carvalho Fernandez Fonseca, Eduardo Vieira Ponte, Gerardo Alves, Ildely Niedia Araujo-Costa, et al.

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(1):3-15

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Objective: To report the results of a workshop regarding asthma management programs and centers (AMPCs) in Brazil, so that they can be used as a tool for the improvement and advancement of current and future AMPCs. Methods: The workshop consisted of five presentations and the corresponding group discussions. The working groups discussed the following themes: implementation of asthma management strategies; human resources needed for AMPCs; financial resources needed for AMPCs; and operational maintenance of AMPCs. Results: The workshop involved 39 participants, from all regions of the country, representing associations of asthma patients (n = 3), universities (n = 7), and AMPCs (n = 29). We found a direct relationship between a lack of planning and the failure of AMPCs. Based on the experiences reported during the workshop, the common assumptions about AMPCs in Brazil were the importance of raising awareness of managers; greater community participation; interdependence between primary care and specialized care; awareness of regionalization; and use of medications available in the public health system. Conclusions: Brazil already has a core of experience in the area of asthma management programs. The implementation of strategies for the management of chronic respiratory disease and their incorporation into health care system protocols would seem to be a natural progression. However, there is minimal experience in this area. Joint efforts by individuals with expertise in AMPCs could promote the implementation of asthma management strategies, thus speeding the creation of treatment networks, which might have a multiplier effect, precluding the need for isolated centers to start from zero.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Academic medical centers; Area health education centers; Health planning organiza-tions; Regional medical programs; Managed care programs.

 

Original Article

3 - Negative impact of asthma on patients in different age groups

Impacto negativo da asma em diferentes faixas etárias

Marcela Batan Alith, Mariana Rodrigues Gazzotti, Federico Montealegre, James Fish, Oliver Augusto Nascimento, José Roberto Jardim

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(1):16-22

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Objective: To evaluate the impact of asthma on patients in Brazil, by age group (12-17 years, 18-40 years, and ≥ 41 years). Methods: From a survey conducted in Latin America in 2011, we obtained data on 400 patients diagnosed with asthma and residing in one of four Brazilian state capitals (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador). The data had been collected using a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. For the patients who were minors, the parents/guardians had completed the questionnaire. The questions addressed asthma control, number of hospitalizations, number of emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. We stratified the data by the selected age groups. Results: The proportions of patients who responded in the affirmative to the following questions were significantly higher in the 12- to 17-year age group than in the other two groups: "Have you had at least one episode of severe asthma that prevented you from playing/exercising in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.012); "Have you been absent from school/work in the last 12 months?" (p < 0.001); "Have you discontinued your asthma relief or control medication in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.008). In addition, 30.2% of the patients in the 12- to 17-year age group reported that normal physical exertion was very limiting (p = 0.010 vs. the other groups), whereas 14% of the patients in the ≥ 41-year age group described social activities as very limiting (p = 0.011 vs. the other groups). Conclusions: In this sample, asthma had a greater impact on the patients between 12 and 17 years of age, which might be attributable to poor treatment compliance.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Age groups; Quality of life.

 

4 - Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration for lung cancer staging: early experience in Brazil

Punção aspirativa por agulha guiada por ultrassom endobrônquico no estadiamento do câncer de pulmão: experiência inicial no Brasil

Viviane Rossi Figueiredo, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Márcia Jacomelli, Sérgio Eduardo Demarzo, Addy Lidvina Mejia Palomino, Ascédio José Rodrigues, Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Paulo Manoel Pego-Fernandes, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(1):23-30

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Objective: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive, safe and accurate method for collecting samples from mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes. This study focused on the initial results obtained with EBUS-TBNA for lung cancer and lymph node staging at three teaching hospitals in Brazil. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with lung cancer and submitted to EBUS-TBNA for mediastinal lymph node staging. The EBUS-TBNA procedures, which involved the use of an EBUS scope, an ultrasound processor, and a compatible, disposable 22 G needle, were performed while the patients were under general anesthesia. Results: Between January of 2011 and January of 2014, 149 patients underwent EBUS-TBNA for lymph node staging. The mean age was 66 ± 12 years, and 58% were male. A total of 407 lymph nodes were sampled by EBUS-TBNA. The most common types of lung neoplasm were adenocarcinoma (in 67%) and squamous cell carcinoma (in 24%). For lung cancer staging, EBUS-TBNA was found to have a sensitivity of 96%, a specificity of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 85%. Conclusions: We found EBUS-TBNA to be a safe and accurate method for lymph node staging in lung cancer patients.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Neoplasm staging; Bronchoscopy; Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration; Lymph nodes.

 

5 - Preoperative predictive factors for intensive care unit admission after pulmonary resection

Fatores preditivos pré-operatórios de internação em unidade de terapia intensiva após ressecção pulmonar

Liana Pinheiro, Ilka Lopes Santoro, João Aléssio Juliano Perfeito, Meyer Izbicki, Roberta Pulcheri Ramos, Sonia Maria Faresin

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(1):31-38

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Objective: To determine whether the use of a set of preoperative variables can predict the need for postoperative ICU admission. Methods: This was a prospective observational cohort study of 120 patients undergoing elective pulmonary resection between July of 2009 and April of 2012. Prediction of ICU admission was based on the presence of one or more of the following preoperative characteristics: predicted pneumonectomy; severe/very severe COPD; severe restrictive lung disease; FEV1 or DLCO predicted to be < 40% postoperatively; SpO2 on room air at rest < 90%; need for cardiac monitoring as a precautionary measure; or American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status ≥ 3. The gold standard for mandatory admission to the ICU was based on the presence of one or more of the following postoperative characteristics: maintenance of mechanical ventilation or reintubation; acute respiratory failure or need for noninvasive ventilation; hemodynamic instability or shock; intraoperative or immediate postoperative complications (clinical or surgical); or a recommendation by the anesthesiologist or surgeon to continue treatment in the ICU. Results: Among the 120 patients evaluated, 24 (20.0%) were predicted to require ICU admission, and ICU admission was considered mandatory in 16 (66.6%) of those 24. In contrast, among the 96 patients for whom ICU admission was not predicted, it was required in 14 (14.5%). The use of the criteria for predicting ICU admission showed good accuracy (81.6%), sensitivity of 53.3%, specificity of 91%, positive predictive value of 66.6%, and negative predictive value of 85.4%. Conclusions: The use of preoperative criteria for predicting the need for ICU admission after elective pulmonary resection is feasible and can reduce the number of patients staying in the ICU only for monitoring.

 


Keywords: Thoracic surgery; Risk factors; Intensive care units.

 

6 - Chronic intermittent hypoxia increases encoding pigment epithelium-derived factor gene expression, although not that of the protein itself, in the temporal cortex of rats

Hipóxia intermitente crônica aumenta a expressão gênica, mas não proteica, de pigment epithelium-derived factor no córtex temporal de ratos

Guilherme Silva Julian, Renato Watanabe de Oliveira, Vanessa Manchim Favaro, Maria Gabriela Menezes de Oliveira, Juliana Cini Perry, Sergio Tufik, Jair Ribeiro Chagas

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(1):39-47

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Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is mainly characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, being associated with several complications. Exposure to IH is the most widely used animal model of sleep apnea, short-term IH exposure resulting in cognitive and neuronal impairment. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a hypoxia-sensitive factor acting as a neurotrophic, neuroprotective, and antiangiogenic agent. Our study analyzed performance on learning and cognitive tasks, as well as PEDF gene expression and PEDF protein expression in specific brain structures, in rats exposed to long-term IH. Methods: Male Wistar rats were exposed to IH (oxygen concentrations of 21-5%) for 6 weeks-the chronic IH (CIH) group-or normoxia for 6 weeks-the control group. After CIH exposure, a group of rats were allowed to recover under normoxic conditions for 2 weeks (the CIH+N group). All rats underwent the Morris water maze test for learning and memory, PEDF gene expression and PEDF protein expression in the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and temporal cortex being subsequently assessed. Results: The CIH and CIH+N groups showed increased PEDF gene expression in the temporal cortex, PEDF protein expression remaining unaltered. PEDF gene expression and PEDF protein expression remained unaltered in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Long-term exposure to IH did not affect cognitive function. Conclusions: Long-term exposure to IH selectively increases PEDF gene expression at the transcriptional level, although only in the temporal cortex. This increase is probably a protective mechanism against IH-induced injury.

 


Keywords: Sleep apnea, central; Disease models, animal; Cognition; Sleep; Sleep apnea, obstructive.

 

7 - Community-acquired pneumonia: economics of inpatient medical care vis-à-vis clinical severity

Pneumonia adquirida na comunidade: economia de cuidados médicos, em relação à gravidade clínica

Vojislav Cupurdija, Zorica Lazic, Marina Petrovic, Slavica Mojsilovic, Ivan Cekerevac, Nemanja Rancic, Mihajlo Jakovljevic

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(1):48-57

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Objective: To assess the direct and indirect costs of diagnosing and treating community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), correlating those costs with CAP severity at diagnosis and identifying the major cost drivers. Methods: This was a prospective cost analysis study using bottom-up costing. Clinical severity and mortality risk were assessed with the pneumonia severity index (PSI) and the mental Confusion-Urea-Respiratory rate-Blood pressure-age ≥ 65 years (CURB-65) scale, respectively. The sample comprised 95 inpatients hospitalized for newly diagnosed CAP. The analysis was run from a societal perspective with a time horizon of one year. Results: Expressed as mean  standard deviation, in Euros, the direct and indirect medical costs per CAP patient were 696  531 and 410  283, respectively, the total per-patient cost therefore being 1,106  657. The combined budget impact of our patient cohort, in Euros, was 105,087 (66,109 and 38,979 in direct and indirect costs, respectively). The major cost drivers, in descending order, were the opportunity cost (lost productivity); diagnosis and treatment of comorbidities; and administration of medications, oxygen, and blood derivatives. The CURB-65 and PSI scores both correlated with the indirect costs of CAP treatment. The PSI score correlated positively with the overall frequency of use of health care services. Neither score showed any clear relationship with the direct costs of CAP treatment. Conclusions: Clinical severity at admission appears to be unrelated to the costs of CAP treatment. This is mostly attributable to unwarranted hospital admission (or unnecessarily long hospital stays) in cases of mild pneumonia, as well as to over-prescription of antibiotics. Authorities should strive to improve adherence to guidelines and promote cost-effective prescribing practices among physicians in southeastern Europe.

 


Keywords: Pneumonia; Cost of illness; Costs and cost analysis; Health care costs; Hospitalization; Severity of illness index.

 

8 - Diagnostic accuracy of the Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency protocol for the diagnosis of acute respiratory failure in spontaneously breathing patients

Acurácia diagnóstica do protocolo de ultrassom pulmonar à beira do leito em situações de emergência para diagnóstico de insuficiência respiratória aguda em pacientes com ventilação espontânea

Felippe Leopoldo Dexheimer Neto, Juliana Mara Stormovski de Andrade, Ana Carolina Tabajara Raupp, Raquel da Silva Townsend, Fabiana Gabe Beltrami, Hélène Brisson, Qin Lu, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(1):58-64

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Objective: Bedside lung ultrasound (LUS) is a noninvasive, readily available imaging modality that can complement clinical evaluation. The Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency (BLUE) protocol has demonstrated a high diagnostic accuracy in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Recently, bedside LUS has been added to the medical training program of our ICU. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of LUS based on the BLUE protocol, when performed by physicians who are not ultrasound experts, to guide the diagnosis of ARF. Methods: Over a one-year period, all spontaneously breathing adult patients consecutively admitted to the ICU for ARF were prospectively included. After training, 4 non-ultrasound experts performed LUS within 20 minutes of patient admission. They were blinded to patient medical history. LUS diagnosis was compared with the final clinical diagnosis made by the ICU team before patients were discharged from the ICU (gold standard). Results: Thirty-seven patients were included in the analysis (mean age, 73.2  14.7 years; APACHE II, 19.2  7.3). LUS diagnosis had a good agreement with the final diagnosis in 84% of patients (overall kappa, 0.81). The most common etiologies for ARF were pneumonia (n = 17) and hemodynamic lung edema (n = 15). The sensitivity and specificity of LUS as measured against the final diagnosis were, respectively, 88% and 90% for pneumonia and 86% and 87% for hemodynamic lung edema. Conclusions: LUS based on the BLUE protocol was reproducible by physicians who are not ultrasound experts and accurate for the diagnosis of pneumonia and hemodynamic lung edema.

 


Keywords: Ultrasonography, interventional; Respiratory insufficiency; Intensive care units.

 

Review Article

9 - Chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis in cystic fibrosis: update on diagnosis and treatment

Rinossinusite crônica e polipose nasossinusal na fibrose cística: atualização sobre diagnóstico e tratamento

Suzie Hyeona Kang, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Otavio Bejzman Piltcher, Raphaella de Oliveira Migliavacca

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(1):65-76

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Although cystic fibrosis (CF) is an irreversible genetic disease, advances in treatment have increased the life expectancy of CF patients. Upper airway involvement, which is mainly due to pathological changes in the paranasal sinuses, is prevalent in CF patients, although many are only mildly symptomatic (with few symptoms). The objective of this literature review was to discuss the pathophysiology and current therapeutic management of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in CF patients. The review was based on current evidence, which was classified in accordance with the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria. When symptomatic, CRS with nasal polyps can affect quality of life and can lead to pulmonary exacerbations, given that the paranasal sinuses can be colonized with pathogenic bacteria, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infection with P. aeruginosa plays a crucial role in morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation in CF patients. Although clinical treatment of the upper airways is recommended as initial management, this recommendation is often extrapolated from studies of CRS in the general population. When sinonasal disease is refractory to noninvasive therapy, surgery is indicated. Further studies are needed in order to gain a better understanding of upper airway involvement and improve the management of CRS in CF patients, with the objective of preserving lung function and avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures.

 


Keywords: Nose diseases; Cystic fibrosis; Nasal polyps; Paranasal sinuses; Sinusitis.

 

10 - Risk factors associated with adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs

Fatores de risco associados às reações adversas a medicamentos antituberculose

Laíse Soares Oliveira Resende, Edson Theodoro dos Santos-Neto

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(1):77-89

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This review sought to identify the available scientific evidence on risk factors associated with adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs. We performed a systematic review of studies published in the 1965-2012 period and indexed in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases. A total of 1,389 articles were initially selected. After reading their abstracts, we selected 85 studies. Of those 85 studies, 16 were included in the review. Risk factors for adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs included age > 60 years, treatment regimens, alcoholism, anemia, and HIV co-infection, as well as sodium, iron, and albumin deficiency. Protective factors against hepatic adverse effects of antituberculosis drugs included being male (combined OR = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.20-0.72) and showing a rapid/intermediate N-acetyltransferase 2 acetylator phenotype (combined OR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.18-0.90). There is evidence to support the need for management of adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs at public health care facilities.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Drug-related side effects and adverse reactions; Antitubercular agents; Review.

 

Case Report

11 - Video-assisted thoracoscopic implantation of a diaphragmatic pacemaker in a child with tetraplegia: indications, technique, and results

Implante de marca-passo diafragmático por videotoracoscopia em criança com tetraplegia: indi-cações, técnica e resultados

Darcy Ribeiro Pinto Filho, Miguel Lia Tedde, Alexandre José Gonçalves Avino, Suzan Lúcia Brancher Brandão, Iuri Zanatta, Rafael Hahn

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(1):90-94

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We report the case of a child with tetraplegia after cervical trauma, who subsequently underwent diaphragmatic pacemaker implantation. We reviewed the major indications for diaphragmatic pacing and the types of devices employed. We highlight the unequivocal benefit of diaphragmatic pacing in the social and educational reintegration of individuals with tetraplegia.

 


Keywords: Spinal cord injuries; Respiration, artificial; Pacemaker, artificial; Quadriplegia.

 

Letters to the Editor

12 - Nonadherence to treatment in lung transplant recipients: a matter of life and death

Falta de adesão ao tratamento em pacientes submetidos a transplante pulmonar: uma questão de vida ou morte

André Nathan Costa, Elaine Marques Hojaij, Liliane Saraiva de Mello, Felipe Xavier de Melo, Priscila Cilene Leon Bueno de Camargo, Silvia Vidal Campos, Jose Eduardo Afonso Junior, Rafael Medeiros Carraro, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga Teixeira

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(1):95-97

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13 - Anxiety, depression, and motivation for smoking cessation in hospitalized patients with and without cancer

Motivação para cessação do tabagismo, ansiedade e depressão em pacientes internados com e sem neoplasia

Igor Bastos Polônio, Meiryelle Landim Franco, Marina Angélica Mendes Tegon, Célia Beatriz Gianotti Antoneli

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(1):98-100

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14 - Incidence of spontaneous subdural hematoma in incident cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension: a registry of cases occurring over a five-year period

Incidência de hematomas subdurais espontâneos em casos de pacientes com hipertensão arterial pulmonar: análise de um registro de cinco anos

Luis Felipe Lopes Prada, Francisca Gavilanes, Rogério Souza

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(1):101-102

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15 - Hibernoma: an uncommon cause of a pleural mass

Hibernoma: uma causa incomum de massa pleural

Edson Marchiori, Gláucia Zanetti, Bruno Hochhegger

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(1):103-104

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Year 2015 - Volume 41  - Number 2  (March/April)

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Editorial

1 - Relevance of anamnesis and of biomarkers in the assessment of smoking among patients with airway disease

Importância da anamnese e dos biomarcadores na avaliação de tabagismo nas doenças de vias aéreas

Ubiratan de Paula Santos1

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):105-106

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2 - Respiratory muscles: myths and secrets

Musculatura respiratória: mitos e segredos

Eloara Vieira Machado Ferreira1

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):107-109

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Special Article

3 - Diagnostic methods to assess inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength

Métodos diagnósticos para avaliação da força muscular inspiratória e expiratória

Pedro Caruso, André Luis Pereira de Albuquerque, Pauliane Vieira Santana, Leticia Zumpano Cardenas, Jeferson George Ferreira, Elena Prina, Patrícia Fernandes Trevizan, Mayra Caleffi Pereira, Vinicius Iamonti, Renata Pletsch, Marcelo Ceneviva Macchione, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):110-123

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Impairment of (inspiratory and expiratory) respiratory muscles is a common clinical finding, not only in patients with neuromuscular disease but also in patients with primary disease of the lung parenchyma or airways. Although such impairment is common, its recognition is usually delayed because its signs and symptoms are nonspecific and late. This delayed recognition, or even the lack thereof, occurs because the diagnostic tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength are not widely known and available. There are various methods of assessing respiratory muscle strength during the inspiratory and expiratory phases. These methods are divided into two categories: volitional tests (which require patient understanding and cooperation); and non-volitional tests. Volitional tests, such as those that measure maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, are the most commonly used because they are readily available. Non-volitional tests depend on magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerve accompanied by the measurement of inspiratory mouth pressure, inspiratory esophageal pressure, or inspiratory transdiaphragmatic pressure. Another method that has come to be widely used is ultrasound imaging of the diaphragm. We believe that pulmonologists involved in the care of patients with respiratory diseases should be familiar with the tests used in order to assess respiratory muscle function.Therefore, the aim of the present article is to describe the advantages, disadvantages, procedures, and clinical applicability of the main tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength.

 


Keywords: Respiratory muscles; Muscle weakness; Diaphragm; Respiratory function tests; Diagnostic tests, routine.

 

Original Article

4 - Comparison between objective measures of smoking and self-reported smoking status in patients with asthma or COPD: are our patients telling us the truth?

Comparação entre medidas objetivas do tabagismo e tabagismo autodeclarado em pacientes com asma ou DPOC: será que nossos pacientes dizem a verdade?

Rafael Stelmach, Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes, Regina Maria Carvalho-Pinto, Rodrigo Abensur Athanazio, Samia Zahi Rached, Gustavo Faibischew Prado, Alberto Cukier

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):124-132

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Objective: Smoking prevalence is frequently estimated on the basis of self-reported smoking status. That can lead to an underestimation of smoking rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference between self-reported smoking status and that determined through the use of objective measures of smoking at a pulmonary outpatient clinic. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 144 individuals: 51 asthma patients, 53 COPD patients, 20 current smokers, and 20 never-smokers. Smoking status was determined on the basis of self-reports obtained in interviews, as well as through tests of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) and urinary cotinine. Results: All of the asthma patients and COPD patients declared they were not current smokers. In the COPD and asthma patients, the median urinary cotinine concentration was 167 ng/mL (range, 2-5,348 ng/mL) and 47 ng/mL (range, 5-2,735 ng/mL), respectively (p < 0.0001), whereas the median eCO level was 8 ppm (range, 0-31 ppm) and 5 ppm (range, 2-45 ppm), respectively (p < 0.05). In 40 (38%) of the patients with asthma or COPD (n = 104), there was disagreement between the self-reported smoking status and that determined on the basis of the urinary cotinine concentration, a concentration > 200 ng/mL being considered indicative of current smoking. In 48 (46%) of those 104 patients, the self-reported non-smoking status was refuted by an eCO level > 6 ppm, which is also considered indicative of current smoking. In 30 (29%) of the patients with asthma or COPD, the urinary cotinine concentration and the eCO level both belied the patient claims of not being current smokers. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that high proportions of smoking pulmonary patients with lung disease falsely declare themselves to be nonsmokers. The accurate classification of smoking status is pivotal to the treatment of lung diseases. Objective measures of smoking could be helpful in improving clinical management and counseling.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Cotinine; Carbon monoxide; Smoking.

 

5 - Assessment of quality of life in patients with advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma treated with a combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel

Avaliação da qualidade de vida de pacientes com carcinoma pulmonar de células não pequenas em estágio avançado, tratados com carboplatina associada a paclitaxel

Camila Uanne Resende Avelino, Rafael Marques Cardoso, Suzana Sales de Aguiar, Mário Jorge Sobreira da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):133-142

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Objective: Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. Most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage, palliative chemotherapy therefore being the only treatment option. This study was aimed at evaluating the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of advanced-stage NSCLC patients receiving palliative chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Methods: This was a multiple case study of advanced-stage NSCLC outpatients receiving chemotherapy at a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire was used in conjunction with its supplemental lung cancer-specific module in order to assess HRQoL. Results: Physical and cognitive functioning scale scores differed significantly among chemotherapy cycles, indicating improved and worsened HRQoL, respectively. The differences regarding the scores for pain, loss of appetite, chest pain, and arm/shoulder pain indicated improved HRQoL. Conclusions: Chemotherapy was found to improve certain aspects of HRQoL in patients with advanced-stage NSCLC.

 


Keywords: Carcinoma, non-small-cell lung; Quality of life; Palliative care; Carboplatin; Paclitaxel.

 

6 - Variability of the perception of dyspnea in healthy subjects assessed through inspiratory resistive loading

Variabilidade da percepção da dispneia medida através de um sistema de cargas resistivas inspiratórias em indivíduos saudáveis

Bruna Ziegler, Andréia Kist Fernandes, Paulo Roberto Stefani Sanches, Glauco Luís Konzen, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):143-150

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Objective: Few studies have evaluated the variability of the perception of dyspnea in healthy subjects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variability of the perception of dyspnea in healthy subjects during breathing against increasing inspiratory resistive loads, as well as to assess the association between the level of perception of dyspnea and the level of physical activity. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving healthy individuals 16 years of age or older. Subjects underwent inspiratory resistive loading testing, in which the level of perception of dyspnea was quantified with the modified Borg scale. We also determined body mass indices (BMIs), assessed maximal respiratory pressures, performed pulmonary function tests, applied the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ)-long form, and conducted six-minute walk tests (6MWTs). The level of perception of dyspnea was classified as low (Borg score < 2), intermediate (Borg score, 2-5), or high (Borg score > 5). Results: We included 48 healthy subjects in the study. Forty-two subjects completed the test up to a load of 46.7 cmH2O/L/s. The level of perception of dyspnea was classified as low, intermediate, and high in 13, 19, and 10 subjects, respectively. The level of perception of dyspnea was not significantly associated with age, gender, BMI, IPAQ-long form score, maximal respiratory pressures, or pulmonary function test results. Conclusions: The scores for perceived dyspnea induced by inspiratory resistive loading in healthy subjects presented wide variability. The perception of dyspnea was classified as low in 31% of the subjects, intermediate in 45%, and high in 24%. There was no association between the level of perception of dyspnea and the level of physical activity (IPAQ or six-minute walk distance).

 


Keywords: Dyspnea; Respiratory function tests; Exercise test.

 

7 - Lung-dominant connective tissue disease among patients with inter-stitial lung disease: prevalence, functional stability, and common extrathoracic features

Colagenose pulmão dominante em pacientes com doença pulmonar intersticial: prevalência, estabilidade funcional e manifestações extratorácicas comuns

Daniel Antunes Silva Pereira, Olívia Meira Dias, Guilherme Eler de Almeida, Mariana Sponholz Araujo, Letícia Barbosa Kawano-Dourado, Bruno Guedes Baldi, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):151-160

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Objective: To describe the characteristics of a cohort of patients with lung-dominant connective tissue disease (LD-CTD). Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD), positive antinuclear antibody (ANA) results (≥ 1/320), with or without specific autoantibodies, and at least one clinical feature suggestive of connective tissue disease (CTD). Results: Of the 1,998 patients screened, 52 initially met the criteria for a diagnosis of LD-CTD: 37% were male; the mean age at diagnosis was 56 years; and the median follow-up period was 48 months. During follow-up, 8 patients met the criteria for a definitive diagnosis of a CTD. The remaining 44 patients comprised the LD-CTD group, in which the most prevalent extrathoracic features were arthralgia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The most prevalent autoantibodies in this group were ANA (89%) and anti-SSA (anti-Ro, 27%). The mean baseline and final FVC was 69.5% and 74.0% of the predicted values, respectively (p > 0.05). Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia patterns were found in 45% and 9% of HRCT scans, respectively; 36% of the scans were unclassifiable. A similar prevalence was noted in histological samples. Diffuse esophageal dilatation was identified in 52% of HRCT scans. Nailfold capillaroscopy was performed in 22 patients; 17 showed a scleroderma pattern. Conclusions: In our LD-CTD group, there was predominance of females and the patients showed mild spirometric abnormalities at diagnosis, with differing underlying ILD patterns that were mostly unclassifiable on HRCT and by histology. We found functional stability on follow-up. Esophageal dilatation on HRCT and scleroderma pattern on nailfold capillaroscopy were frequent findings and might come to serve as diagnostic criteria.

 


Keywords: Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias; Autoantibodies; Connective tissue diseases; Autoimmunity.

 

8 - Diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis: analysis of 20 consecutive patients

Bronquiolite aspirativa difusa: análise de 20 pacientes consecutivos

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):161-166

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Objective: Aspiration can cause a variety of pulmonary syndromes, some of which are not well recognized. The objective of this study was to assess the demographic, clinical, radiological, and histopathological correlates of diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis (DAB), a bronchiolocentric disorder caused by recurrent aspiration. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 20 consecutive patients with DAB seen at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, between January 1, 1998 and June 30, 2014. Results: The median age of the patients was 56.5 years (range, 22-76 years), and the male/female ratio was 2.3:1.0. In 18 patients, the diagnosis of DAB was based on the results of a lung biopsy; in the 2 remaining patients, it was based on clinical and radiological features, together with documented aspiration observed in a videofluoroscopic swallow study. In 19 patients (95%), we identified predisposing factors for aspiration, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), drug abuse, and dysphagia. Common presenting features included cough, sputum production, dyspnea, and fever. Twelve patients (60%) had a history of recurrent pneumonia. In all of the patients, chest CT revealed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates consisting of micronodules and tree-in-bud opacities. In the majority of patients, interventions aimed at preventing recurrent aspiration (e.g., anti-GERD therapies) led to improvement in the symptoms of DAB. Conclusions: Young to middle-aged subjects with recognizable predisposing factors for aspiration and who report a history of recurrent pneumonia are at increased risk for DAB. Although DAB is not well recognized, certain chest CT features are characteristic of the disorder.

 


Keywords: Pneumonia, aspiration; Bronchiolitis; Gastroesophageal reflux; Lung diseases, interstitial.

 

9 - Uncoupling protein-2 mRNA expression in mice subjected to intermittent hypoxia

Expressão do mRNA da uncoupling protein-2 em camundongos submetidos à hipóxia intermitente

Luciana Rodrigues Vieira, Denis Martinez, Luiz Felipe Forgiarini, Darlan Pase da Rosa, Gustavo Alfredo Ochs de Muñoz, Micheli Fagundes, Emerson Ferreira Martins, Carolina Caruccio Montanari, Cintia Zappe Fiori

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):167-174

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate the effect of intermittent hypoxia-a model of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)-on pancreatic expression of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), as well as on glycemic and lipid profiles, in C57BL mice. Methods: For 8 h/day over a 35-day period, male C57BL mice were exposed to intermittent hypoxia (hypoxia group) or to a sham procedure (normoxia group). The intermittent hypoxia condition involved exposing mice to an atmosphere of 92% N and 8% CO2 for 30 s, progressively reducing the fraction of inspired oxygen to 8 ± 1%, after which they were exposed to room air for 30 s and the cycle was repeated (480 cycles over the 8-h experimental period). Pancreases were dissected to isolate the islets. Real-time PCR was performed with TaqMan assays. Results: Expression of UCP2 mRNA in pancreatic islets was 20% higher in the normoxia group than in the hypoxia group (p = 0.11). Fasting serum insulin was higher in the hypoxia group than in the normoxia group (p = 0.01). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance indicated that, in comparison with the control mice, the mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia showed 15% lower insulin resistance (p = 0.09) and 21% higher pancreatic β-cell function (p = 0.01). Immunohistochemical staining of the islets showed no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the area or intensity of α- and β-cell staining for insulin and glucagon. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of the effect of intermittent hypoxia on UCP2 expression. Our findings suggest that UCP2 regulates insulin production in OSA. Further study of the role that UCP2 plays in the glycemic control of OSA patients is warranted.

 


Keywords: Blood glucose; Sleep apnea syndromes; Pancreas; Glucagon-secreting cells.

 

10 - Preventing smoking during pregnancy: the importance of maternal knowledge of the health ha-zards and of the treatment options available

Prevenção do tabagismo na gravidez: importância do conhecimento materno sobre os malefícios para a saúde e opções de tratamento disponíveis

André Luís Bertani, Thais Garcia, Suzana Erico Tanni, Irma Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):175-181

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To examine the pattern of tobacco use and knowledge about tobacco-related diseases, as well as to identify popular types of electronic media, in pregnant women, in order to improve strategies for the prevention or cessation of smoking among such women. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 61 pregnant women, seen at primary care clinics and at a university hospital, in the city of Botucatu, Brazil. For all subjects, we applied the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. For subjects with a history of smoking, we also applied the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, and we evaluated the level of motivation to quit smoking among the current smokers. Results: Of the 61 pregnant women evaluated, 25 (40.9%) were smokers (mean age, 26.4  7.4 years), 24 (39.3%) were former smokers (26.4  8.3 years), and 12 (19.8%) were never-smokers (25.1  7.2 years). Thirty-nine women (63.9%) reported exposure to passive smoking. Of the 49 smokers/former smokers, 13 (26.5%) were aware of the pulmonary consequences of smoking; only 2 (4.1%) were aware of the cardiovascular risks; 23 (46.9%) believed that smoking does not harm the fetus or newborn infant; 21 (42.9%) drank alcohol during pregnancy; 18 (36.7%) reported increased cigarette consumption when drinking; 25 (51.0%) had smoked flavored cigarettes; and 12 (24.5%) had smoked a narghile. Among the 61 pregnant women evaluated, television was the most widely available and favorite form of electronic media (in 85.2%), as well as being the form most preferred (by 49.2%). Conclusions: Among pregnant women, active smoking, passive smoking, and alternative forms of tobacco consumption appear to be highly prevalent, and such women seem to possess little knowledge about the consequences of tobacco use. Educational programs that include information about the consequences of all forms of tobacco use, employing new and effective formats tailored to this particular population, should be developed, in order to promote smoking prevention and cessation among pregnant women. Further samples to explore regional and cultural adaptations should be evaluated.

 


Keywords: Pregnancy; Health knowledge, attitudes, practice; Smoking; Mass media; Smoking cessation; Primary prevention.

 

Review Article

11 - Cognitive impairment in COPD: a systematic review

Comprometimento cognitivo em pacientes com DPOC: uma revisão sistemática

Irene Torres-Sánchez, Elisabeth Rodríguez-Alzueta, Irene Cabrera-Martos, Isabel López-Torres, Maria Paz Moreno-Ramírez, Marie Carmen Valenza

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):182-190

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findings of the articles showed a significant relationship between COPD and cognitive impairment. The most widely studied cognitive domains are memory and attention. Verbal memory and learning constitute the second most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with COPD. The prevalence of impairment in visuospatial memory and intermediate visual memory is 26.9% and 19.2%, respectively. We found that cognitive impairment is associated with the profile of COPD severity and its comorbidities. The articles reviewed demonstrated that there is considerable impairment of the cognitive domains memory and attention in patients with COPD. Future studies should address impairments in different cognitive domains according to the disease stage in patients with COPD.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Mild cognitive impairment; Hypoxia, brain.

 

Case Report

12 - Lymphadenopathy and fever in a chef during a stay in Europe

Linfadenomegalia e febre em chefe de cozinha durante viagem à Europa

Letícia Kawano-Dourado, Daniel Antunes Silva Peirera, Alexandre de Melo Kawassaki, Marisa Dolhnikoff, Marcos Vinicius da Silva, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):191-195

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

This case illustrates a rare presentation (as lymphadenopathy and fever) of one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide-brucellosis-in a 22-year-old Brazilian male (a chef) who had recently returned to Brazil after having lived in and traveled around Europe for one year. The histopathology, clinical history, and response to treatment were all consistent with a diagnosis of brucellosis, which was confirmed by PCR in a urine sample. We also review some aspects of brucellosis, such as the clinical features, diagnosis, and management.

 


Keywords: Brucellosis; Fever; Lymph nodes; Brucella; Mononuclear phagocyte system; Granuloma.

 

Letters to the Editor

13 - Congenital thoracic malformations in pediatric patients: two decades of experience

Malformações torácicas congênitas na infância: experiência de duas décadas

Tatiane da Anunciação Ferreira1, Isabella Santana Santos Chagas2, Regina Terse Trindade Ramos3, Edna Lúcia Souza4

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):196-199

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14 - Cutaneous tuberculosis as metastatic tuberculous abscess

Tuberculose cutânea como abscesso tuberculoso metastático

Cecília Pacheco1, Eloísa Silva2, José Miranda3, Raquel Duarte4

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):200-202

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15 - Tracheobronchomalacia in a patient on invasive mechanical ventilation: the role of electrical impedance tomography in its detection and positive end-expiratory pressure titration

Traqueobroncomalácia em paciente sob ventilação mecânica invasiva: o papel da tomografia de impedância elétrica na sua detecção e na titulação da pressão expiratória final positiva

Olívia Meira Dias1, Eduardo Leite Vieira Costa2, Daniel Antunes Silva Pereira3, Caroline Nappi Chaves3, Samia Zahi Rached3, Carmen Silvia Valente Barbas2

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):203-205

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16 - Cutaneous focal mucinosis of the scalp and adenocarcinoma of the lung: association or coincidence?

Mucinose cutânea focal do couro cabeludo e adenocarcinoma do pulmão: associação ou coincidência?

Tiago Mestre1, Fernando Assis-Pacheco2, Jorge Cardoso3

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):206-208

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Year 2015 - Volume 41  - Number 3  (May/June)

App

Editorial

1 - Bringing the JBP and its readers closer together

O JBP mais próximo do leitor

Rogério Souza1

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(3):209-210

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Original Article

2 - Six-minute walk test and respiratory muscle strength in patients with uncontrolled severe asth-ma: a pilot study

Teste de caminhada de seis minutos e força muscular respiratória em pacientes com asma grave não controlada: um estudo piloto

Luiz Fernando Ferreira Pereira1, Eliane Viana Mancuzo2, Camila Farnese Rezende3, Ricardo de Amorim Côrrea4

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(3):211-218

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate respiratory muscle strength and six-minute walk test (6MWT) variables in patients with uncontrolled severe asthma (UCSA). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving UCSA patients followed at a university hospital. The patients underwent 6MWT, spirometry, and measurements of respiratory muscle strength, as well as completing the Asthma Control Test (ACT). The Mann-Whitney test was used in order to analyze 6MWT variables, whereas the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine whether there was an association between the use of oral corticosteroids and respiratory muscle strength. Results: We included 25 patients. Mean FEV1 was 58.8  21.8% of predicted, and mean ACT score was 14.0  3.9 points. No significant difference was found between the median six-minute walk distance recorded for the UCSA patients and that predicted for healthy Brazilians (512 m and 534 m, respectively; p = 0.14). During the 6MWT, there was no significant drop in SpO2. Mean MIP and MEP were normal (72.9  15.2% and 67.6  22.2%, respectively). Comparing the patients treated with at least four courses of oral corticosteroids per year and those treated with three or fewer, we found no significant differences in MIP (p = 0.15) or MEP (p = 0.45). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that UCSA patients are similar to normal subjects in terms of 6MWT variables and respiratory muscle strength. The use of oral corticosteroids has no apparent impact on respiratory muscle strength.

 


3 - Diagnostic yield of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration for mediastinal staging in lung cancer

Rendimiento diagnóstico de la ultrasonografía endobronquial con aspiración transbronquial por aguja fina en el estudio de etapificación mediastínica en pacientes con cáncer pulmonar

Sebastián Fernández-Bussy1; Gonzalo Labarca2; Sofia Canals3; Iván Caviedes4; Erik Folch5; Adnan Majid6

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(3):219-224

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive diagnostic test with a high diagnostic yield for suspicious central pulmonary lesions and for mediastinal lymph node staging. The main objective of this study was to describe the diagnostic yield of EBUS-TBNA for mediastinal lymph node staging in patients with suspected lung cancer. Methods: Prospective study of patients undergoing EBUS-TBNA for diagnosis. Patients ≥ 18 years of age were recruited between July of 2010 and August of 2013. We recorded demographic variables, radiological characteristics provided by axial CT of the chest, location of the lesion in the mediastinum as per the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer classification, and definitive diagnostic result (EBUS with a diagnostic biopsy or a definitive diagnostic method). Results: Our analysis included 354 biopsies, from 145 patients. Of those 145 patients, 54.48% were male. The mean age was 63.75 years. The mean lymph node size was 15.03 mm, and 90 lymph nodes were smaller than 10.0 mm. The EBUS-TBNA method showed a sensitivity of 91.17%, a specificity of 100.0%, and a negative predictive value of 92.9%. The most common histological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma. Conclusions: EBUS-TBNA is a diagnostic tool that yields satisfactory results in the staging of neoplastic mediastinal lesions.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Bronchoscopy; Endosonography; Neoplasm staging.

 

4 - Mobility therapy and central or peripheral catheter-related adverse events in an ICU in Brazil

Realização de fisioterapia motora e ocorrência de eventos adversos relacionados a cateteres centrais e periféricos em uma UTI brasileira

Natália Pontes Lima1, Gregório Marques Cardim da Silva1, Marcelo Park2, Ruy Camargo Pires-Neto3

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(3):225-230

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether mobility therapy is associated with central or peripheral catheter-related adverse events in critically ill patients in an ICU in Brazil. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the daily medical records of patients admitted to the Clinical Emergency ICU of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas Central Institute between December of 2009 and April of 2011. In addition to the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, we collected data related to central venous catheters (CVCs), hemodialysis (HD) catheters and indwelling arterial catheters (IACs): insertion site; number of catheter days; and types of adverse events. We also characterized the mobility therapy provided. Results: Among the 275 patients evaluated, CVCs were used in 49%, HD catheters were used in 26%, and IACs were used in 29%. A total of 1,268 mobility therapy sessions were provided to patients while they had a catheter in place. Catheter-related adverse events occurred in 20 patients (a total of 22 adverse events): 32%, infection; 32%, obstruction; and 32%, accidental dislodgement. We found that mobility therapy was not significantly associated with any catheter-related adverse event, regardless of the type of catheter employed: CVC-OR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.7-1.0; p = 0.14; HD catheter-OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.89-1.21; p = 0.56; or IAC-OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 0.94-3.23; p = 0.07. Conclusions: In critically ill patients, mobility therapy is not associated with the incidence of adverse events involving CVCs, HD catheters, or IACs.

 


Keywords: Physical therapy modalities; Intensive care units; Catheters; Early ambulation.

 

5 - Organizing pneumonia: chest HRCT findings

Pneumonia em organização: achados da TCAR de tórax

Igor Murad Faria1, Gláucia Zanetti2, Miriam Menna Barreto3, Rosana Souza Rodrigues4, Cesar Augusto Araujo-Neto5, Jorge Luiz Pereira e Silva5, Dante Luiz Escuissato6, Arthur Soares Souza Jr7, Klaus Loureiro Irion8, Alexandre Dias Mançano9, Luiz Felipe Nobre10, Bruno Hochhegger, Edson Marchiori11

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(3):231-237

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the frequency of HRCT findings and their distribution in the lung parenchyma of patients with organizing pneumonia. Methods: This was a retrospective review of the HRCT scans of 36 adult patients (26 females and 10 males) with biopsy-proven organizing pneumonia. The patients were between 19 and 82 years of age (mean age, 56.2 years). The HRCT images were evaluated by two independent observers, discordant interpretations being resolved by consensus. Results: The most common HRCT finding was that of ground-glass opacities, which were seen in 88.9% of the cases. The second most common finding was consolidation (in 83.3% of cases), followed by peribronchovascular opacities (in 52.8%), reticulation (in 38.9%), bronchiectasis (in 33.3%), interstitial nodules (in 27.8%), interlobular septal thickening (in 27.8%), perilobular pattern (in 22.2%), the reversed halo sign (in 16.7%), airspace nodules (in 11.1%), and the halo sign (in 8.3%). The lesions were predominantly bilateral, the middle and lower lung fields being the areas most commonly affected. Conclusions: Ground-glass opacities and consolidation were the most common findings, with a predominantly random distribution, although they were more common in the middle and lower thirds of the lungs.

 


Keywords: Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia; Respiratory tract diseases; Tomography, X-ray computed.

 

6 - Risk factors for respiratory complications after adenotonsillectomy in children with obstructive sleep apnea

Fatores de risco para complicações respiratórias após adenotonsilectomia em crianças com apneia obstrutiva do sono

Renato Oliveira Martins1, Nuria Castello-Branco2, Jefferson Luis de Barros1, Silke Anna Theresa Weber3

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(3):238-245

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify risk factors for respiratory complications after adenotonsillectomy in children ≤ 12 years of age with obstructive sleep apnea who were referred to the pediatric ICU (PICU). Methods: A cross-sectional historical cohort study analyzing 53 children after adenotonsillectomy who met predetermined criteria for PICU referral in a tertiary level teaching hospital. The Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney test, and chi-square test were used to identify risk factors. Results: Of the 805 children undergoing adenotonsillectomy between January of 2006 and December of 2012 in the teaching hospital, 53 were referred to the PICU. Twenty-one children (2.6% of all those undergoing adenotonsillectomy and 39.6% of those who were referred to the PICU) had respiratory complications. Of those 21, 12 were male. The mean age was 5.3  2.6 years. A high apnea-hypopnea index (AHI; p = 0.0269), a high oxygen desaturation index (ODI; p = 0.0082), a low SpO2 nadir (p = 0.0055), prolonged orotracheal intubation (p = 0.0011), and rhinitis (p = 0.0426) were found to be independent predictors of respiratory complications. Some of the complications observed were minor (SpO2 90-80%), whereas others were major (SpO2 ≤ 80%, laryngospasm, bronchospasm, acute pulmonary edema, pneumonia, and apnea). Conclusions: Among children up to 12 years of age with OSA, those who have a high AHI, a high ODI, a low SpO2 nadir, or rhinitis are more likely to develop respiratory complications after adenotonsillectomy than are those without such characteristics.

 


Keywords: Postoperative complications; Tonsillectomy; Sleep apnea, obstructive.

 

Brief Communication

7 - Psychological criteria for contraindication in lung transplant candidates: a five-year study

Critérios psicológicos para contraindicação em candidatos a transplante pulmonar: um estudo de cinco anos

Elaine Marques Hojaij1, Bellkiss Wilma Romano1, André Nathan Costa2, Jose Eduardo Afonso Junior3, Priscila Cilene Leon Bueno de Camargo3, Rafael Medeiros Carraro3, Silvia Vidal Campos4, Marcos Naoyuki Samano5, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga Teixeira6

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(3):246-249

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Lung transplantation presents a wide range of challenges for multidisciplinary teams that manage the care of the recipients. Transplant teams should perform a thorough evaluation of transplant candidates, in order to ensure the best possible post-transplant outcomes. That is especially true for the psychologist, because psychological issues can arise at any point during the perioperative period. The objective of our study was to evaluate the psychological causes of contraindication to waiting list inclusion in a referral program for lung transplantation. We retrospectively analyzed data on psychological issues presented by lung transplant candidates, in order to understand these matters in our population and to reflect upon ways to improve the selection process.

 


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Interview, psychological; Psychological tests; Preoperative care.

 

Continuing Education: Imaging

8 - Small interstitial nodules

Pequenos nódulos intersticiais

Edson Marchiori1, Gláucia Zanetti2, Bruno Hochhegger3

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(3):250

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Review Article

9 - Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia

Diagnóstico de discinesia ciliar primária

Mary Anne Kowal Olm1, Elia Garcia Caldini2, Thais Mauad3

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(3):251-263

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic disorder of ciliary structure or function. It results in mucus accumulation and bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract which leads to chronic upper and lower airway infections, organ laterality defects, and fertility problems. We review the respiratory signs and symptoms of PCD, as well as the screening tests for and diagnostic investigation of the disease, together with details related to ciliary function, ciliary ultrastructure, and genetic studies. In addition, we describe the difficulties in diagnosing PCD by means of transmission electron microscopy, as well as describing patient follow-up procedures.

 


Keywords: Kartagener Syndrome; Cilia; Mucociliary clearance; Ciliary motility disorders; Diagnosis.

 

10 - PET/CT imaging in lung cancer: indications and findings

PET/TC em câncer de pulmão: indicações e achados

Bruno Hochhegger1, Giordano Rafael Tronco Alves2, Klaus Loureiro Irion3, Carlos Cezar Fritscher4, Leandro Genehr Fritscher5, Natália Henz Concatto6, Edson Marchiori7

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(3):264-274

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The use of PET/CT imaging in the work-up and management of patients with lung cancer has greatly increased in recent decades. The ability to combine functional and anatomical information has equipped PET/CT to look into various aspects of lung cancer, allowing more precise disease staging and providing useful data during the characterization of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. In addition, the accuracy of PET/CT has been shown to be greater than is that of conventional modalities in some scenarios, making PET/CT a valuable noninvasive method for the investigation of lung cancer. However, the interpretation of PET/CT findings presents numerous pitfalls and potential confounders. Therefore, it is imperative for pulmonologists and radiologists to familiarize themselves with the most relevant indications for and limitations of PET/CT, seeking to protect their patients from unnecessary radiation exposure and inappropriate treatment. This review article aimed to summarize the basic principles, indications, cancer staging considerations, and future applications related to the use of PET/CT in lung cancer.

 


Keywords: Carcinoma, non-small-cell lung; Small cell lung carcinoma; Positron-emission tomography; Tomography, X-ray computed; Neoplasm staging.

 

Case Series

11 - Use of sirolimus in the treatment of lymphangioleiomyomatosis: favorable responses in patients with different extrapulmonary manifestations

Uso de sirolimo no tratamento de linfangioleiomiomatose: resposta favorável em pacientes com diferentes manifestações extrapulmonares

Carolina Salim Gonçalves Freitas1, Bruno Guedes Baldi2, Mariana Sponholz Araújo1, Glaucia Itamaro Heiden1, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla3, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho4

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(3):275-280

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease that is currently considered a low-grade neoplasm with metastatic potential and variable progression. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, such as sirolimus and everolimus, have recently become a treatment option for LAM patients, especially those with extrapulmonary manifestations. The objective of the present study was to describe a case series of four patients with LAM in Brazil who showed significant improvement, particularly in their extrapulmonary manifestations, after treatment with sirolimus (at 1-4 mg/day). Methods: We describe four cases of LAM patients with different extrapulmonary manifestations who were treated with sirolimus. Results: After treatment with sirolimus for 12 months, one patient presented resolution of severe chylothorax; one had a significant reduction in renal angiomyolipoma volume; and one showed significant regression of retroperitoneal lymphangioleiomyomas and abdominal lymph node enlargement. After treatment with sirolimus for 6 months, the remaining patient had a significant reduction in the volume of a massive retroperitoneal lymphangioleiomyoma. Conclusions: Our findings confirm that mTOR inhibitors are beneficial for patients with LAM, especially those with extrapulmonary manifestations, such as renal angiomyolipoma, lymphangioleiomyomas, and chylous effusions. However, certain aspects, such as the optimal dose, duration of treatment, and long-term adverse effects, have yet to be sufficiently clarified for mTOR inhibitors to be incorporated into LAM management protocols.

 


Keywords: Neoplasms; Lymphangioleiomyomatosis/therapy; TOR serine-threonine kinases; Sirolimus.

 

Case Report

12 - Formation of multiple pulmonary nodules during treatment with leflunomide

Formação de múltiplos nódulos pulmonares durante tratamento com leflunomida

Gilberto Toshikawa Yoshikawa1, George Alberto da Silva Dias1, Satomi Fujihara1, Luigi Ferreira e Silva2, Lorena de Britto Pereira Cruz3, Hellen Thais Fuzii4, Roberta Vilela Lopes Koyama1

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(3):281-284

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pulmonary involvement is one of the extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis and can be due to the disease itself or secondary to the medications used in order to treat it. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and developed multiple pulmonary nodules during treatment with leflunomide.

 


Keywords: Arthritis, rheumatoid; Immunosuppressive agents; Rheumatoid nodule; Lung.

 

Images in Pulmonary Medicine

13 - Intracavitary pulmonary aspergilloma: endoscopic aspects

Aspergiloma pulmonar intracavitário: aspectos endoscópicos

Evelise Lima1, André Louis Lobo Nagy1, Rodrigo Abensur Athanazio2

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(3):285

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Letters to the Editor

14 - Reversed halo sign in acute schistosomiasis

Sinal do halo invertido em esquistossomose aguda

Arthur Soares Souza Jr.1, Antonio Soares Souza2, Luciana Soares-Souza3, Gláucia Zanetti4, Edson Marchiori5

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(3):286-288

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15 - Pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma presenting as multiple cutaneous metastases

Carcinoma neuroendócrino de grandes células do pulmão diagnosticado a partir de múltiplas metástases cutâneas

Tiago Mestre1, Ana Maria Rodrigues2, Jorge Cardoso3

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(3):289-291

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16 - Nontuberculous mycobacteria in respiratory specimens: clinical significance at a tertiary care hospital in the north of Portugal

Micobactérias não tuberculosas em espécimes respiratórios: significado clínico em um hospital terciário no norte de Portugal

Hans Dabó1, Vanessa Santos1, Anabela Marinho2, Angélica Ramos3, Teresa Carvalho3, Manuela Ribeiro3, Adelina Amorim2

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(3):292-294

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Year 2015 - Volume 41  - Number 4  (July/August)

App

Editorial

1 - Treatment of lymphangioleiomyomatosis and Camões

Tratamento da linfangioleiomiomatose e Camões

Rogério Rufino1

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):295-296

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2 - Assessing quadriceps muscle strength as a tool to determine the approach to and prognosis in COPD patients

Avaliação da força do quadríceps como ferramenta para se estabelecer a conduta e o prognóstico em pacientes com DPOC

Luciana Dias Chiavegato1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):297-298

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Original Article

3 - Functional improvement in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing single lung transplantation

Melhora funcional em portadores de fibrose pulmonar idiopática submetidos a transplante pulmonar unilateral

Adalberto Sperb Rubin1,2, Douglas Zaione Nascimento1, Letícia Sanchez1, Guilherme Watte2, Arthur Rodrigo Ronconi Holand1, Derrick Alexandre Fassbind1, José Jesus Camargo1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):299-304

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the changes in lung function in the first year after single lung transplantation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients with IPF who underwent single lung transplantation between January of 2006 and December of 2012, reviewing the changes in the lung function occurring during the first year after the procedure. Results: Of the 218 patients undergoing lung transplantation during the study period, 79 (36.2%) had IPF. Of those 79 patients, 24 (30%) died, and 11 (14%) did not undergo spirometry at the end of the first year. Of the 44 patients included in the study, 29 (66%) were men. The mean age of the patients was 57 years. Before transplantation, mean FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio were 1.78 L (50% of predicted), 1.48 L (52% of predicted), and 83%, respectively. In the first month after transplantation, there was a mean increase of 12% in FVC (400 mL) and FEV1 (350 mL). In the third month after transplantation, there were additional increases, of 5% (170 mL) in FVC and 1% (50 mL) in FEV1. At the end of the first year, the functional improvement persisted, with a mean gain of 19% (620 mL) in FVC and 16% (430 mL) in FEV1. Conclusions: Single lung transplantation in IPF patients who survive for at least one year provides significant and progressive benefits in lung function during the first year. This procedure is an important therapeutic alternative in the management of IPF.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary fibrosis; Respiratory function tests; Lung transplantation.

 

4 - Analysis of three different equations for predicting quadriceps femoris muscle strength in patients with COPD

Análise de três diferentes fórmulas de predição de força muscular do quadríceps femoral em pacientes com DPOC

Aline Gonçalves Nellessen¹, Leila Donária¹, Nidia Aparecida Hernandes¹, Fabio Pitta¹

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):305-312

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare equations for predicting peak quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle force; to determine the agreement among the equations in identifying QF muscle weakness in COPD patients; and to assess the differences in characteristics among the groups of patients classified as having or not having QF muscle weakness by each equation. Methods: Fifty-six COPD patients underwent assessment of peak QF muscle force by dynamometry (maximal voluntary isometric contraction of knee extension). Predicted values were calculated with three equations: an age-height-weight-gender equation (Eq-AHWG); an age-weight-gender equation (Eq-AWG); and an age-fat-free mass-gender equation (Eq-AFFMG). Results: Comparison of the percentage of predicted values obtained with the three equations showed that the Eq-AHWG gave higher values than did the Eq-AWG and Eq-AFFMG, with no difference between the last two. The Eq-AHWG showed moderate agreement with the Eq-AWG and Eq-AFFMG, whereas the last two also showed moderate, albeit lower, agreement with each other. In the sample as a whole, QF muscle weakness (< 80% of predicted) was identified by the Eq-AHWG, Eq-AWG, and Eq-AFFMG in 59%, 68%, and 70% of the patients, respectively (p > 0.05). Age, fat-free mass, and body mass index are characteristics that differentiate between patients with and without QF muscle weakness. Conclusions: The three equations were statistically equivalent in classifying COPD patients as having or not having QF muscle weakness. However, the Eq-AHWG gave higher peak force values than did the Eq-AWG and the Eq-AFFMG, as well as showing greater agreement with the other equations.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Muscle strength; Quadriceps muscle; Reference values.

 

5 - Validation of scores of use of inhalation devices: valoration of errors

Validação de escores de uso de dispositivos para inalação: valoração dos erros cometidos

Letícia Zambelli-Simões1, Maria Cleusa Martins2, Juliana Carneiro da Cunha Possari3, Greice Borges Carvalho4, Ana Carla Carvalho Coelho5, Sonia Lucena Cipriano6, Regina Maria de Carvalho-Pinto7, Alberto Cukier7, Rafael Stelmach7

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):313-322

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To validate two scores quantifying the ability of patients to use metered dose inhalers (MDIs) or dry powder inhalers (DPIs); to identify the most common errors made during their use; and to identify the patients in need of an educational program for the use of these devices. Methods: This study was conducted in three phases: validation of the reliability of the inhaler technique scores; validation of the contents of the two scores using a convenience sample; and testing for criterion validation and discriminant validation of these instruments in patients who met the inclusion criteria. Results: The convenience sample comprised 16 patients. Interobserver disagreement was found in 19% and 25% of the DPI and MDI scores, respectively. After expert analysis on the subject, the scores were modified and were applied in 72 patients. The most relevant difficulty encountered during the use of both types of devices was the maintenance of total lung capacity after a deep inhalation. The degree of correlation of the scores by observer was 0.97 (p < 0.0001). There was good interobserver agreement in the classification of patients as able/not able to use a DPI (50%/50% and 52%/58%; p < 0.01) and an MDI (49%/51% and 54%/46%; p < 0.05). Conclusions: The validated scores allow the identification and correction of inhaler technique errors during consultations and, as a result, improvement in the management of inhalation devices.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Dry powder inhalers; Metered dose inhalers; Validation studies.

 

6 - Cocaine-induced pulmonary changes: HRCT findings

Alterações pulmonares induzidas pelo uso de cocaína: avaliação por TCAR de tórax

Renata Rocha de Almeida1, Gláucia Zanetti1,2, Arthur Soares Souza Jr.3, Luciana Soares de Souza4, Jorge Luiz Pereira e Silva5, Dante Luiz Escuissato6, Klaus Loureiro Irion7, Alexandre Dias Mançano8, Luiz Felipe Nobre9, Bruno Hochhegger10, Edson Marchiori1,11

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):323-330

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate HRCT scans of the chest in 22 patients with cocaine-induced pulmonary disease. Methods: We included patients between 19 and 52 years of age. The HRCT scans were evaluated by two radiologists independently, discordant results being resolved by consensus. The inclusion criterion was an HRCT scan showing abnormalities that were temporally related to cocaine use, with no other apparent causal factors. Results: In 8 patients (36.4%), the clinical and tomographic findings were consistent with "crack lung", those cases being studied separately. The major HRCT findings in that subgroup of patients included ground-glass opacities, in 100% of the cases; consolidations, in 50%; and the halo sign, in 25%. In 12.5% of the cases, smooth septal thickening, paraseptal emphysema, centrilobular nodules, and the tree-in-bud pattern were identified. Among the remaining 14 patients (63.6%), barotrauma was identified in 3 cases, presenting as pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and hemopneumothorax, respectively. Talcosis, characterized as perihilar conglomerate masses, architectural distortion, and emphysema, was diagnosed in 3 patients. Other patterns were found less frequently: organizing pneumonia and bullous emphysema, in 2 patients each; and pulmonary infarction, septic embolism, eosinophilic pneumonia, and cardiogenic pulmonary edema, in 1 patient each. Conclusions: Pulmonary changes induced by cocaine use are varied and nonspecific. The diagnostic suspicion of cocaine-induced pulmonary disease depends, in most of the cases, on a careful drawing of correlations between clinical and radiological findings.

 


Keywords: Cocaine, Cocaine-related disorders; Tomography, X-ray computed; Lung diseases.

 

7 - Pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid arthritis: evaluation by radiography and spirometry

Doença pulmonar em pacientes com artrite reumatoide: avaliação radiográfica e espirométrica

Alexandre Melo Kawassaki1, Daniel Antunes Silva Pereira1, Fernando Uliana Kay2, Ieda Maria Magalhães Laurindo3, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho4, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla1

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):331-342

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether simple diagnostic methods can yield relevant disease information in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Patients with RA were randomly selected for inclusion in a cross-sectional study involving clinical evaluation of pulmonary function, including pulse oximetry (determination of SpO2, at rest), chest X-ray, and spirometry. Results: A total of 246 RA patients underwent complete assessments. Half of the patients in our sample reported a history of smoking. Spirometry was abnormal in 30% of the patients; the chest X-ray was abnormal in 45%; and the SpO2 was abnormal in 13%. Normal chest X-ray, spirometry, and SpO2 were observed simultaneously in only 41% of the RA patients. A history of smoking was associated with abnormal spirometry findings, including evidence of obstructive or restrictive lung disease, and with abnormal chest X-ray findings, as well as with an interstitial pattern on the chest X-ray. Comparing the patients in whom all test results were normal (n = 101) with those in whom abnormal test results were obtained (n = 145), we found a statistically significant difference between the two groups, in terms of age and smoking status. Notably, there were signs of airway disease in nearly half of the patients with minimal or no history of tobacco smoke exposure. Conclusions: Pulmonary involvement in RA can be identified through the use of a combination of diagnostic methods that are simple, safe, and inexpensive. Our results lead us to suggest that RA patients with signs of lung involvement should be screened for lung abnormalities, even if presenting with no respiratory symptoms.

 


Keywords: Arthritis, rheumatoid; Lung diseases, interstitial; Spirometry; Radiography, thoracic; Airway ob-struction.

 

8 - Clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with severe therapy-resistant asthma in Brazil

Características clínicas de crianças e adolescentes brasileiros com asma grave resistente a terapia

Andrea Mendonça Rodrigues1, Cristian Roncada1, Giovana Santos2, João Paulo Heinzmann-Filho1, Rodrigo Godinho de Souza2, Mauro Henrique Moraes Vargas1, Leonardo Araújo Pinto3, Marcus Herbert Jones3, Renato Tetelbom Stein3, Paulo Márcio Pitrez3

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):343-350

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether simple diagnostic methods can yield relevant disease information in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Patients with RA were randomly selected for inclusion in a cross-sectional study involving clinical evaluation of pulmonary function, including pulse oximetry (determination of SpO2, at rest), chest X-ray, and spirometry. Results: A total of 246 RA patients underwent complete assessments. Half of the patients in our sample reported a history of smoking. Spirometry was abnormal in 30% of the patients; the chest X-ray was abnormal in 45%; and the SpO2 was abnormal in 13%. Normal chest X-ray, spirometry, and SpO2 were observed simultaneously in only 41% of the RA patients. A history of smoking was associated with abnormal spirometry findings, including evidence of obstructive or restrictive lung disease, and with abnormal chest X-ray findings, as well as with an interstitial pattern on the chest X-ray. Comparing the patients in whom all test results were normal (n = 101) with those in whom abnormal test results were obtained (n = 145), we found a statistically significant difference between the two groups, in terms of age and smoking status. Notably, there were signs of airway disease in nearly half of the patients with minimal or no history of tobacco smoke exposure. Conclusions: Pulmonary involvement in RA can be identified through the use of a combination of diagnostic methods that are simple, safe, and inexpensive. Our results lead us to suggest that RA patients with signs of lung involvement should be screened for lung abnormalities, even if presenting with no respiratory symptoms.

 


Keywords: Arthritis, rheumatoid; Lung diseases, interstitial; Spirometry; Radiography, thoracic; Airway ob-struction.

 

9 - Sleep-disordered breathing in patients with cystic fibrosis

Distúrbios respiratórios do sono em pacientes com fibrose cística

Jefferson Veronezi1,2, Ana Paula Carvalho3, Claudio Ricachinewsky4, Anneliese Hoffmann4, Danielle Yuka Kobayashi5, Otavio Bejzman Piltcher6, Fernando Antonio Abreu e Silva7, Denis Martinez1,2,8

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):351-357

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To test the hypothesis that disease severity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is correlated with an increased risk of sleep apnea. Methods: A total of 34 CF patients underwent clinical and functional evaluation, as well as portable polysomnography, spirometry, and determination of IL-1β levels. Results: Mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), SpO2 on room air, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale score were 4.8 ± 2.6, 95.9 ± 1.9%, and 7.6 ± 3.8 points, respectively. Of the 34 patients, 19 were well-nourished, 6 were at nutritional risk, and 9 were malnourished. In the multivariate model to predict the AHI, the following variables remained significant: nutritional status (β = −0.386; p = 0.014); SpO2 (β = −0.453; p = 0.005), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (β = 0.429; p = 0.006). The model explained 51% of the variation in the AHI. Conclusions: The major determinants of sleep apnea were nutritional status, SpO2, and daytime sleepiness. This knowledge not only provides an opportunity to define the clinical risk of having sleep apnea but also creates an avenue for the treatment and prevention of the disease.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Oxygenation; Sleep apnea, obstructive.

 

10 - Reflex cough PEF as a predictor of successful extubation in neurological patients

Pico de fluxo de tosse reflexa como preditor de sucesso na extubação em pacientes neurológicos

Fernanda Machado Kutchak1,2, Andressa Maciel Debesaitys2, Marcelo de Mello Rieder2,3, Carla Meneguzzi2, Amanda Soares Skueresky3, Luiz Alberto Forgiarini Junior3,4, Marino Muxfeldt Bianchin5

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):358-364

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Objective: To evaluate the use of reflex cough PEF as a predictor of successful extubation in neurological patients who were candidates for weaning from mechanical ventilation. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 135 patients receiving mechanical ventilation for more than 24 h in the ICU of Cristo Redentor Hospital, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Reflex cough PEF, the rapid shallow breathing index, MIP, and MEP were measured, as were ventilatory, hemodynamic, and clinical parameters. Results: The mean age of the patients was 47.8 ± 17 years. The extubation failure rate was 33.3%. A reflex cough PEF of < 80 L/min showed a relative risk of 3.6 (95% CI: 2.0-6.7), and the final Glasgow Coma Scale score showed a relative risk of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.51-0.83). For every 1-point increase in a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8, there was a 36% reduction in the risk of extubation failure. Conclusions: Reflex cough PEF and the Glasgow Coma Scale score are independent predictors of extubation failure in neurological patients admitted to the ICU.

 


Keywords: Weaning; Intensive care units; Cough.

 

Review Article

11 - Identifying activating mutations in the EGFR gene: prognostic and therapeutic implications in non-small cell lung cancer

Identificação de mutações ativadoras no gene EGFR: implicações no prognóstico e no tratamento do carcinoma pulmonar de células não pequenas

Gabriel Lima Lopes1, Edoardo Filippo de Queiroz Vattimo2, Gilberto de Castro Junior2,3

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):365-375

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Promising new therapies have recently emerged from the development of molecular targeted drugs; particularly promising are those blocking the signal transduction machinery of cancer cells. One of the most widely studied cell signaling pathways is that of EGFR, which leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation, increased cell angiogenesis, and greater cell invasiveness. Activating mutations in the EGFR gene (deletions in exon 19 and mutation L858R in exon 21), first described in 2004, have been detected in approximately 10% of all non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in Western countries and are the most important predictors of a response to EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). Studies of the EGFR-TKIs gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib, in comparison with platinum-based regimens, as first-line treatments in chemotherapy-naïve patients have shown that the EGFR-TKIs produce gains in progression-free survival and overall response rates, although only in patients whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the EGFR gene. Clinical trials have also shown EGFR-TKIs to be effective as second- and third-line therapies in advanced NSCLC. Here, we review the main aspects of EGFR pathway activation in NSCLC, underscore the importance of correctly identifying activating mutations in the EGFR gene, and discuss the main outcomes of EGFR-TKI treatment in NSCLC.

 


Keywords: Molecular targeted therapy; Receptor, epidermal growth factor; Lung neoplasms/drug therapy; Mutation; Oncogenes.

 

12 - Stereotactic body radiotherapy in lung cancer: an update

Radioterapia estereotáxica extracraniana em câncer de pulmão: atualização

Carlos Eduardo Cintra Vita Abreu1, Paula Pratti Rodrigues Ferreira1, Fabio Ynoe de Moraes1, Wellington Furtado Pimenta Neves Jr1, Rafael Gadia2, Heloisa de Andrade Carvalho1,3

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):376-387

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

For early-stage lung cancer, the treatment of choice is surgery. In patients who are not surgical candidates or are unwilling to undergo surgery, radiotherapy is the principal treatment option. Here, we review stereotactic body radiotherapy, a technique that has produced quite promising results in such patients and should be the treatment of choice, if available. We also present the major indications, technical aspects, results, and special situations related to the technique.

 


Keywords: Radiation oncology; Lung neoplasms/radiotherapy; Lung neoplasms/surgery; Respiratory function tests.

 

Continuing Education: Imaging

13 - Dense consolidation

Consolidação densa

Edson Marchiori1,2, Gláucia Zanetti2,3, Bruno Hochhegger4,5

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):388

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Case Series

14 - Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated pneumonia complicated by purulent pericarditis: case series

Pneumonia por Streptococcus pneumoniae complicada por pericardite purulenta: uma série de casos

Catia Cillóniz1, Ernesto Rangel2, Cornelius Barlascini3, Ines Maria Grazia Piroddi4, Antoni Torres1, Antonello Nicolini4

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):389-394

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: In the antibiotic era, purulent pericarditis is a rare entity. However, there are still reports of cases of the disease, which is associated with high mortality, and most such cases are attributed to delayed diagnosis. Approximately 40-50% of all cases of purulent pericarditis are caused by Gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae in particular. Methods: We report four cases of pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by pericarditis, with different clinical features and levels of severity. Results: In three of the four cases, the main complication was cardiac tamponade. Microbiological screening (urinary antigen testing and pleural fluid culture) confirmed the diagnosis of severe pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by purulent pericarditis. Conclusions: In cases of pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by pericarditis, early diagnosis is of paramount importance to avoid severe hemodynamic compromise. The complications of acute pericarditis appear early in the clinical course of the infection. The most serious complications are cardiac tamponade and its consequences. Antibiotic therapy combined with pericardiocentesis drastically reduces the mortality associated with purulent pericarditis.

 


Keywords: Pneumonia, pneumococcal/complications; Pneumonia, pneumococcal/mortality; Pericarditis/therapy; Cardiac tamponade; Streptococcus pneumoniae/pathogenicity.

 

Images in Pulmonary Medicine

15 - Pulmonary cement embolism

Embolia pulmonar por cimento ósseo

Manuel Lessa Ribeiro Neto1, Marcel Lima Albuquerque1, Daniela Barboza Santos Cavalcante1, João Ricardo Maltez de Almeida2

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):395-396

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Year 2015 - Volume 41  - Number 5  (September/October)

App

Editorial

1 - Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: forty years of history

Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: quarenta anos de história

Manuel Lopes dos Santos

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):397

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2 - Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: 40 years of tradition

Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: 40 anos de tradição

Nelson Morrone

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):398

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3 - Jornal de Pneumologia 1995-1998

Jornal de Pneumologia 1995-1998

Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira1

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):399

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4 - Gratitude for my time at the Jornal de Pneumologia

Gratidão pelo Jornal de Pneumologia que vivi

Thais Helena Abrahão Thomaz Queluz1

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):400

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5 - My time at the JBP

O JBP que vivi

Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho1

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):401

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6 - My time at the Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia

O Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia que eu vivi

José Baddini-Martinez¹

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):402

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7 - My time at the JBP

O JBP que vivi

Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho¹

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):403

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8 - The next 40 years

Os próximos 40 anos

Rogério Souza¹

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):404

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Original Article

9 - Study of inhaler technique in asthma patients: differences between pediatric and adult patients

Estudio sobre la técnica inhalatoria en pacientes asmáticos: diferencias entre pacientes pediátricos y adultos

Pablo Manríquez1, Ana María Acuña2, Luis Muñoz3, Alvaro Reyes4

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):405-409

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Inhaler technique comprises a set of procedures for drug delivery to the respiratory system. The oral inhalation of medications is the first-line treatment for lung diseases. Using the proper inhaler technique ensures sufficient drug deposition in the distal airways, optimizing therapeutic effects and reducing side effects. The purposes of this study were to assess inhaler technique in pediatric and adult patients with asthma; to determine the most common errors in each group of patients; and to compare the results between the two groups. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Using a ten-step protocol, we assessed inhaler technique in 135 pediatric asthma patients and 128 adult asthma patients. Results: The most common error among the pediatric patients was failing to execute a 10-s breath-hold after inhalation, whereas the most common error among the adult patients was failing to exhale fully before using the inhaler. Conclusions: Pediatric asthma patients appear to perform most of the inhaler technique steps correctly. However, the same does not seem to be true for adult patients.

 


Keywords: Administration, inhalation; Aerosols/administration & dosage; Asthma/prevention & control.

 

10 - Diagnostic value of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in various lung diseases

Valor diagnóstico da punção aspirativa por agulha guiada por ultrassom endobrônquico em diferentes doenças pulmonares

Mediha Gonenc Ortakoylu1, Sinem Iliaz1, Ayse Bahadir1, Asuman Aslan1, Raim Iliaz2, Mehmet Akif Ozgul1, Halide Nur Urer3

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):410-414

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Objective: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a new method for the diagnosis and staging of lung disease, and its use is increasing worldwide. It has been used as a means of diagnosing lung cancer in its initial stages, and there are data supporting its use for the diagnosis of benign lung disease. The aim of this study was to share our experience with EBUS-TBNA and discuss its diagnostic value. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the results related to 159 patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA at our pulmonary medicine clinic between 2010 and 2013. We recorded the location and size of lymph nodes seen during EBUS. Lymph nodes that appeared to be affected on EBUS were sampled at least twice. We recorded the diagnostic results of EBUS-TBNA and (for cases in which EBUS-TBNA yielded an inconclusive diagnosis) the final diagnoses after further investigation and follow-up. Results: We evaluated 159 patients, of whom 89 (56%) were male and 70 (44%) were female. The mean age was 54.6 ± 14.2 years among the male patients and 51.9 ± 11.3 years among the female patients. Of the 159 patients evaluated, 115 (84%) were correctly diagnosed by EBUS. The diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA was 83% for benign granulomatous diseases and 77% for malignant diseases. Conclusions: The diagnostic value of EBUS-TBNA is also high for benign pathologies, such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. In patients with mediastinal disorders, the use of EBUS-TBNA should be encouraged, primarily because it markedly reduces the need for mediastinoscopy.

 


Keywords: Sarcoidosis; Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Lung neoplasms; Bronchoscopy; Mediastinoscopy; Endosonography.

 

11 - Sarcopenia in COPD: relationship with COPD severity and prognosis

Sarcopenia na DPOC: relação com a gravidade e o prognóstico da DPOC

Tatiana Munhoz da Rocha Lemos Costa1,2, Fabio Marcelo Costa3, Carolina Aguiar Moreira1,2, Leda Maria Rabelo3, César Luiz Boguszewski1, Victória Zeghbi Cochenski Borba1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):415-421

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Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia in COPD patients, as well as to determine whether sarcopenia correlates with the severity and prognosis of COPD. Methods: A cross-sectional study with COPD patients followed at the pulmonary outpatient clinic of our institution. The patients underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was made on the basis of the skeletal muscle index, defined as appendicular lean mass/height2 only for low-weight subjects and adjusted for fat mass in normal/overweight subjects. Disease severity (COPD stage) was evaluated with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. The degree of obstruction and prognosis were determined by the Body mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index. Results: We recruited 91 patients (50 females), with a mean age of 67.4 ± 8.7 years and a mean BMI of 25.8 ± 6.1 kg/m2. Sarcopenia was observed in 36 (39.6%) of the patients, with no differences related to gender, age, or smoking status. Sarcopenia was not associated with the GOLD stage or with FEV1 (used as an indicator of the degree of obstruction). The BMI, percentage of body fat, and total lean mass were lower in the patients with sarcopenia than in those without (p < 0.001). Sarcopenia was more prevalent among the patients in BODE quartile 3 or 4 than among those in BODE quartile 1 or 2 (p = 0.009). The multivariate analysis showed that the BODE quartile was significantly associated with sarcopenia, regardless of age, gender, smoking status, and GOLD stage. Conclusions: In COPD patients, sarcopenia appears to be associated with unfavorable changes in body composition and with a poor prognosis.

 


Keywords: Sarcopenia; Body composition; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Severity of illness index.

 

12 - Determining respiratory system resistance and reactance by impulse oscillometry in obese individuals

Resistência e reatância do sistema respiratório por oscilometria de impulso em indivíduos obesos

Cláudio Gonçalves de Albuquerque1, Flávio Maciel Dias de Andrade1, Marcus Aurélio de Almeida Rocha1, Alina Farias França de Oliveira1, Waldemar Ladosky1, Edgar Guimarães Victor1, José Ângelo Rizzo1

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):422-426

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Objective: To evaluate peripheral respiratory system resistance and reactance (Rrs and Xrs, respectively) in obese individuals. Methods: We recruited 99 individuals, dividing them into four groups by body mass index (BMI): < 30.0 kg/m2 (control, n = 31); 30.0-39.9 kg/m2 (obesity, n = 13); 40.0-49.9 kg/m2 (severe obesity, n = 28); and ≥ 50.0 kg/m2 (morbid obesity, n = 13). Using impulse oscillometry, we measured total Rrs, central Rrs, and Xrs. Peripheral Rrs was calculated as the difference between total Rrs and central Rrs. All subjects also underwent spirometry. Results: Of the 99 individuals recruited, 14 were excluded because they failed to perform forced expiratory maneuvers correctly during spirometry. The individuals in the severe obesity and morbid obesity groups showed higher peripheral Rrs and lower Xrs in comparison with those in the two other groups. Conclusions: Having a BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2 was associated with a significant increase in peripheral Rrs and with a decrease in Xrs.

 


Keywords: Obesity; Airway obstruction; Oscillometry; Respiratory function tests.

 

13 - Lung function and left ventricular hypertrophy in morbidly obese candidates for bariatric surgery

Função pulmonar e hipertrofia ventricular esquerda em obesos mórbidos candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica

Paulo de Tarso Müller1,2, Hamilton Domingos3, Luiz Armando Pereira Patusco1,2, Gabriel Victor Guimarães Rapello1

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):427-432

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Objective: To look for correlations between lung function and cardiac dimension variables in morbidly obese patients, in order to test the hypothesis that the relative size of the small airways is independently correlated with left ventricular hypertrophy. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 192 medical records containing a clinical protocol employed in candidates for bariatric surgery between January of 2006 and December of 2010. Results: Of the 192 patients evaluated, 39 (10 males and 29 females) met the inclusion criteria. The mean BMI of the patients was 49.2 ± 7.6 kg/m2, and the mean age was 35.5 ± 7.7 years. The FEF25-75/FVC, % correlated significantly with left ventricular posterior wall thickness and relative left ventricular posterior wall thickness, those correlations remaining statistically significant (r = −0.355 and r = −0.349, respectively) after adjustment for weight, gender, and history of systemic arterial hypertension. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis showed that FVC and FEV1 were the major determinants of left ventricular mass (in grams or indexed to body surface area). Conclusions: A reduction in the relative size of the small airways appears to be independently correlated with obesity-related cardiac hypertrophy, regardless of factors affecting respiratory mechanics (BMI and weight), gender, or history of systemic arterial hypertension. However, FEV1 and FVC might be important predictors of left ventricular mass in morbidly obese individuals.

 


Keywords: Obesity; Spirometry; Echocardiography; Body mass index.

 

14 - Depression, anxiety, stress, and motivation over the course of smoking cessation treatment

Depressão, ansiedade, estresse e motivação em fumantes durante o tratamento para a cessação do tabagismo

Maritza Muzzi Cardozo Pawlina1, Regina de Cássia Rondina2, Mariano Martinez Espinosa3, Clóvis Botelho4

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):433-439

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Methods: This cohort study involved patients enrolled in a smoking cessation program in Cuiabá, Brazil. We selected patients who completed the program in six months or less (n = 142). Patient evaluations were conducted at enrollment (evaluation 1 [E1]); after 45 days of treatment with medication and cognitive-behavioral therapy (E2); and at the end of the six-month study period (E3). Patients were evaluated with a standardized questionnaire (to collect sociodemographic data and determine smoking status), as well as with the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults. The data were analyzed with the nonparametric Wilcoxon test for paired comparisons. To compare treatment success (smoking cessation) with treatment failure, the test for two proportions was used. Results: Among the 142 patients evaluated, there were improvements, in terms of the levels of anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress, between E1 and E2, as well as between E1 and E3. In addition, treatment success correlated significantly with the levels of motivation and anxiety throughout the study period, whereas it correlated significantly with the level of depression only at E2 and E3. Conclusions: We conclude that there are in fact changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Those changes appear to be more pronounced in patients in whom the treatment succeeded.

 


Keywords: Anxiety; Depression; Motivation; Cognitive therapy; Smoking cessation.

 

15 - Factors predictive of obstructive sleep apnea in patients undergoing pre-operative evaluation for bariatric surgery and referred to a sleep laboratory for polysomnography

Fatores preditivos para apneia obstrutiva do sono em pacientes em avaliação pré-operatória de cirurgia bariátrica e encaminhados para polissonografia em um laboratório do sono

Ricardo Luiz de Menezes Duarte1,2, Flavio José Magalhães-da-Silveira1

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):440-448

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify the main predictive factors for obtaining a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients awaiting bariatric surgery. Methods: Retrospective study of consecutive patients undergoing pre-operative evaluation for bariatric surgery and referred for in-laboratory polysomnography. Eight variables were evaluated: sex, age, neck circumference (NC), BMI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score, snoring, observed apnea, and hypertension. We employed ROC curve analysis to determine the best cut-off value for each variable and multiple linear regression to identify independent predictors of OSA severity. Results: We evaluated 1,089 patients, of whom 781 (71.7%) were female. The overall prevalence of OSA-defined as an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5.0 events/h-was 74.8%. The best cut-off values for NC, BMI, age, and ESS score were 42 cm, 42 kg/m2, 37 years, and 10 points, respectively. All eight variables were found to be independent predictors of a diagnosis of OSA in general, and all but one were found to be independent predictors of a diagnosis of moderate/severe OSA (AHI ≥ 15.0 events/h), the exception being hypertension. We devised a 6-item model, designated the NO-OSAS model (NC, Obesity, Observed apnea, Snoring, Age, and Sex), with a cut-off value of ≥ 3 for identifying high-risk patients. For a diagnosis of moderate/severe OSA, the model showed 70.8% accuracy, 82.8% sensitivity, and 57.9% specificity. Conclusions: In our sample of patients awaiting bariatric surgery, there was a high prevalence of OSA. At a cut-off value of ≥ 3, the proposed 6-item model showed good accuracy for a diagnosis of moderate/severe OSA.

 


Keywords: Polysomnography; Sleep apnea, obstructive; Bariatric surgery.

 

Brief Communication

16 - Control measures to trace ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis

Medidas de controle dispensadas a contatos ≤ 15 anos de casos índices com tuberculose pulmonar ativa

Cláudia Di Lorenzo Oliveira1, Angelita Cristine de Melo2, Lílian Ruth Silva de Oliveira3, Emerson Lopes Froede1, Paulo Camargos3

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):449-453

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

This was descriptive study carried out in a medium-sized Brazilian city. In ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, we assessed compliance with the Brazilian national guidelines for tuberculosis control. We interviewed 43 contacts and their legal guardians. Approximately 80% of the contacts were not assessed by the municipal public health care system, and only 21% underwent tuberculin skin testing. The results obtained with the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector method suggest that health care teams have a biased attitude toward assessing such contacts and underscore the need for training health professionals regarding tuberculosis control programs.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary\epidemiology, Tuberculosis, pulmonary\prevention and control; Contact tracing.

 

Review Article

17 - Control measures to trace ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis

Atualização no diagnóstico e tratamento da fibrose pulmonar idiopática

José Baddini-Martinez1, Bruno Guedes Baldi2, Cláudia Henrique da Costa3, Sérgio Jezler4, Mariana Silva Lima5, Rogério Rufino3,6

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):454-466

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a type of chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia, of unknown etiology, which is associated with a progressive decrease in pulmonary function and with high mortality rates. Interest in and knowledge of this disorder have grown substantially in recent years. In this review article, we broadly discuss distinct aspects related to the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We list the current diagnostic criteria and describe the therapeutic approaches currently available, symptomatic treatments, the action of new drugs that are effective in slowing the decline in pulmonary function, and indications for lung transplantation.

 


Keywords: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/diagnosis; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/therapy; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/rehabilitation.

 

18 - Inhalation therapy in mechanical ventilation

Terapia inalatória em ventilação mecânica

Juçara Gasparetto Maccari, Cassiano Teixeira, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Augusto Savi, Felippe Leopoldo Dexheimer-Neto, Marli Maria Knorst

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):467-472

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Patients with obstructive lung disease often require ventilatory support via invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, depending on the severity of the exacerbation. The use of inhaled bronchodilators can significantly reduce airway resistance, contributing to the improvement of respiratory mechanics and patient-ventilator synchrony. Although various studies have been published on this topic, little is known about the effectiveness of the bronchodilators routinely prescribed for patients on mechanical ventilation or about the deposition of those drugs throughout the lungs. The inhaled bronchodilators most commonly used in ICUs are beta adrenergic agonists and anticholinergics. Various factors might influence the effect of bronchodilators, including ventilation mode, position of the spacer in the circuit, tube size, formulation, drug dose, severity of the disease, and patient-ventilator synchrony. Knowledge of the pharmacological properties of bronchodilators and the appropriate techniques for their administration is fundamental to optimizing the treatment of these patients.

 


Keywords: Bronchial hyperreactivity; Drug delivery systems; Respiration, artificial.

 

Case Report

19 - Acute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, shortly after occupational exposure to polluted muddy water, in a previously healthy subject

Aspergilose pulmonar invasiva aguda, logo após exposição ocupacional a água poluída barrenta, em indivíduo previamente saudável

Vikas Pilaniya, Kamal Gera, Rajesh Gothi, Ashok Sha

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):473-477

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) predominantly occurs in severely neutropenic immunocompromised subjects. The occurrence of acute IPA after brief but massive exposure to Aspergillus conidia in previously healthy subjects has been documented, although only six such cases have been reported. The diagnosis was delayed in all six of the affected patients, five of whom died. We report the case of a 50-year-old HIV-negative male, a water pipeline maintenance worker, who presented with acute-onset dyspnea and fever one day after working for 2 h in a deep pit containing polluted, muddy water. Over a one-month period, his general condition deteriorated markedly, despite antibiotic therapy. Imaging showed bilateral diffuse nodules with cavitation, some of which were surrounded by ground-glass opacity suggestive of a halo sign (a hallmark of IPA). Cultures (of sputum/bronchial aspirate samples) and serology were positive for Aspergillus fumigatus. After being started on itraconazole, the patient improved. We conclude that massive exposure to Aspergillus conidia can lead to acute IPA in immunocompetent subjects.

 


Keywords: Environmental exposure; Azoles; Water pollution; Immunocompetence; Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

 

Letters to the Editor

20 - Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis: incidental findings in a patient with suspected pneumonia

Fibroelastose pleuroparenquimatosa idiopática: achados incidentais em uma paciente com suspeita de pneumonia

Gaetano Rea1, Venerino Poletti2, Carlo Iadevaia3, Marialuisa Bocchino4, Gennaro Mazzarella3

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):478-479

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


21 - BCGitis: A rare complication after intravesical BCG therapy

BCGite: Uma complicação rara da terapia intravesical com BCG

Maria João Oliveira, Daniel Vaz, Aurora Carvalho, Rosário Braga, Raquel Duarte

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):480-481

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


22 - Bronchiectasis caused by common variable immunodeficiency

Bronquiectasia por imunodeficiência comum variável

Paulo Henrique do Amor Divino, José Henrique de Carvalho Basilio, Renato Moraes Alves Fabbri, Igor Polônio Bastos, Wilma Carvalho Neves Forte

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):482-483

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Continuing Education: Imaging

23 - Diffuse lung cysts

Cistos pulmonares difusos

Edson Marchiori, Gláucia Zanetti, Bruno Hochhegger

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):484

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Continuing Education : Scientific Methodology

24 - What does the p value really mean?

O que realmente significa o valor-p?

Juliana Carvalho Ferreira, Cecilia Maria Patino

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):485

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Images in Pulmonary Medicine

25 - Right lung exclusion in massive pulmonary thromboembolism

Exclusão pulmonar direita em tromboembolismo pulmonar maciço

Rodrigo Abensur Athanazio, Samia Zahi Rached

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):486

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Year 2015 - Volume 41  - Number 6  (November/December)

App

Editorial

1 - Imaging and COPD

A imagem e a DPOC

Bruno Hochhegger1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(6):487-488

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Original Article

2 - Influence of emphysema distribution on pulmonary function parameters in COPD patients

Influência da distribuição do enfisema nos parâmetros de função pulmonar em pacientes com DPOC

Helder Novais e Bastos1,2,3, Inês Neves1, Margarida Redondo1, Rui Cunha4,5, José Miguel Pereira4,5, Adriana Magalhães1, Gabriela Fernandes1,5

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(6):489-495

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the impact that the distribution of emphysema has on clinical and functional severity in patients with COPD. Methods: The distribution of the emphysema was analyzed in COPD patients, who were classified according to a 5-point visual classification system of lung CT findings. We assessed the influence of emphysema distribution type on the clinical and functional presentation of COPD. We also evaluated hypoxemia after the six-minute walk test (6MWT) and determined the six-minute walk distance (6MWD). Results: Eighty-six patients were included. The mean age was 65.2 ± 12.2 years, 91.9% were male, and all but one were smokers (mean smoking history, 62.7 ± 38.4 pack-years). The emphysema distribution was categorized as obviously upper lung-predominant (type 1), in 36.0% of the patients; slightly upper lung-predominant (type 2), in 25.6%; homogeneous between the upper and lower lung (type 3), in 16.3%; and slightly lower lung-predominant (type 4), in 22.1%. Type 2 emphysema distribution was associated with lower FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and DLCO. In comparison with the type 1 patients, the type 4 patients were more likely to have an FEV1 < 65% of the predicted value (OR = 6.91, 95% CI: 1.43-33.45; p = 0.016), a 6MWD < 350 m (OR = 6.36, 95% CI: 1.26-32.18; p = 0.025), and post-6MWT hypoxemia (OR = 32.66, 95% CI: 3.26-326.84; p = 0.003). The type 3 patients had a higher RV/TLC ratio, although the difference was not significant. Conclusions: The severity of COPD appears to be greater in type 4 patients, and type 3 patients tend to have greater hyperinflation. The distribution of emphysema could have a major impact on functional parameters and should be considered in the evaluation of COPD patients.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Pulmonary emphysema; Respiratory function tests; Tomography, X-ray computed.

 

3 - Factors associated with quality of life in patients with severe asthma: the impact of pharmacotherapy

Fatores associados à qualidade de vida sob a perspectiva da terapia medicamentosa em pacientes com asma grave

Daiane Silva Souza1, Lúcia de Araújo Costa Beisl Noblat2, Pablo de Moura Santos1

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(6):496-501

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify, characterize, and quantify associations of various factors with quality of life (QoL) in patients with asthma, according to the pharmacotherapy employed. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 49 patients (≥ 18 years of age) with severe uncontrolled or refractory asthma treated at a specialized outpatient clinic of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System, regularly using high doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICs) or other medications, and presenting comorbidities. At a single time point, QoL was assessed with the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The overall AQLQ score and those of its domains were correlated with demographic variables (gender and age); Asthma Control Questionnaire score; pharmacotherapy (initial IC dose, inhaler devices, and polytherapy); and comorbidities. Results: Better AQLQ scores were associated with asthma control-overall (OR = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.004-0.341; p < 0.001), "symptoms" domain (OR = 0.086; 95% CI: 0.016-0.476; p = 0.001), and "emotional function" domain (OR = 0.086; 95% CI: 0.016-0.476; p = 0.001)-and with IC dose ≤ 800 µg-"activity limitation" domain (OR = 0.249; 95% CI: 0.070-0.885; p = 0.029). Worse AQLQ scores were associated with polytherapy-"activity limitation" domain (OR = 3.651; 95% CI: 1.061-12.561; p = 0.036)-and number of comorbidities ≤ 5-"environmental stimuli" domain (OR = 5.042; 95% CI: 1.316-19.317; p = 0.015). Conclusions: Our results, the importance of this issue, and the lack of studies taking pharmacotherapy into consideration warrant longitudinal studies to establish a causal relationship between the identified factors and QoL in asthma patients.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Asthma/drug therapy; Quality of life; Medication therapy management.

 

4 - Evaluation of quality of life according to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents.

Avaliação da qualidade de vida de acordo com o nível de controle e gravidade da asma em crianças e adolescentes

Natasha Yumi Matsunaga1, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira Ribeiro2, Ivete Alonso Bredda Saad3, André Moreno Morcillo4, José Dirceu Ribeiro2,5, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera Toro2,5

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(6):502-508

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate quality of life according to the level of asthma control and degree of asthma severity in children and adolescents. Methods: We selected children and adolescents with asthma (7-17 years of age) from the Pediatric Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Asthma control and asthma severity were assessed by the Asthma Control Test and by the questionnaire based on the Global Initiative for Asthma, respectively. The patients also completed the Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ), validated for use in Brazil, in order to evaluate their quality of life. Results: The mean age of the patients was 11.22 ± 2.91 years, with a median of 11.20 (7.00-17.60) years. We selected 100 patients, of whom 27, 33, and 40 were classified as having controlled asthma (CA), partially controlled asthma (PCA), and uncontrolled asthma (UA), respectively. As for asthma severity, 34, 19, and 47 were classified as having mild asthma (MiA), moderate asthma (MoA), and severe asthma (SA), respectively. The CA and the PCA groups, when compared with the NCA group, showed higher values for the overall PAQLQ score and all PAQLQ domains (activity limitation, symptoms, and emotional function; p < 0.001 for all). The MiA group showed higher scores for all of the PAQLQ components than did the MoA and SA groups. Conclusions: Quality of life appears to be directly related to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents, being better when asthma is well controlled and asthma severity is lower.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Quality of life; Child; Adolescent.

 

5 - Variation in lung function is associated with worse clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis

Variação na função pulmonar está associada com piores desfechos clínicos em indivíduos com fibrose cística

João Paulo Heinzmann-Filho1,2, Leonardo Araujo Pinto1,2, Paulo José Cauduro Marostica3, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes Donadio1,2,4

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(6):509-515

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether the variation in lung function over one year is associated with worse clinical outcomes, as well as with a decline in lung function in the following years, in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: This was a retrospective study involving CF patients (4-19 years of age), evaluated over a three-year period. We evaluated demographic characteristics, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, antibiotic use, hospitalization, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), and lung function. The inclusion criterion was having undergone pulmonary function testing at least three times in the first year and at least once in each of the next two years. Results: We evaluated 35 CF patients. The variation in FEV1 in the first year (ΔFEV1) was greater among those who, in the third year, showed reduced FEV1, had a below-average 6MWD, or were hospitalized than among those with normal FEV1, normal 6MWD, or no hospital admissions, in that same year (p < 0.05), although no such difference was found for antibiotic use in the third year. Subjects showing a ΔFEV1 ≥ 10% also showed a greater decline in FEV1 over the two subsequent years (p = 0.04). The ΔFEV1 also showed an inverse correlation with absolute FEV1 in the third year (r = −0.340, p = 0.04) and with the rate of FEV1 decline (r = −0.52, p = 0.001). Linear regression identified ΔFEV1 as a predictor of FEV1 decline (coefficient of determination, 0.27). Conclusions: Significant variation in lung function over one year seems to be associated with a higher subsequent rate of FEV1 decline and worse clinical outcomes in CF patients. Short-term ΔFEV1 might prove useful as a predictor of CF progression in clinical practice.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Respiratory function tests; Disease progression; Hospitalization; Forced expiratory volume.

 

6 - Sport-specific influences on respiratory patterns in elite athletes.

Influências específicas do esporte nos padrões respiratórios em atletas de elite

Tijana Durmic1,2, Biljana Lazovic2,3, Marina Djelic2,4, Jelena Suzic Lazic5, Dejan Zikic2,6, Vladimir Zugic2,7, Milica Dekleva2,8, Sanja Mazic2,4

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(6):516-522

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To examine differences in lung function among sports that are of a similar nature and to determine which anthropometric/demographic characteristics correlate with lung volumes and flows. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving elite male athletes (N = 150; mean age, 21 ± 4 years) engaging in one of four different sports, classified according to the type and intensity of exercise involved. All athletes underwent full anthropometric assessment and pulmonary function testing (spirometry). Results: Across all age groups and sport types, the elite athletes showed spirometric values that were significantly higher than the reference values. We found that the values for FVC, FEV1, vital capacity, and maximal voluntary ventilation were higher in water polo players than in players of the other sports evaluated (p < 0.001). In addition, PEF was significantly higher in basketball players than in handball players (p < 0.001). Most anthropometric/demographic parameters correlated significantly with the spirometric parameters evaluated. We found that BMI correlated positively with all of the spirometric parameters evaluated (p < 0.001), the strongest of those correlations being between BMI and maximal voluntary ventilation (r = 0.46; p < 0.001). Conversely, the percentage of body fat correlated negatively with all of the spirometric parameters evaluated, correlating most significantly with FEV1 (r = −0.386; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our results suggest that the type of sport played has a significant impact on the physiological adaptation of the respiratory system. That knowledge is particularly important when athletes present with respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea, cough, and wheezing. Because sports medicine physicians use predicted (reference) values for spirometric parameters, the risk that the severity of restrictive disease or airway obstruction will be underestimated might be greater for athletes.

 


Keywords: Athletes; Sports; Spirometry; Respiratory function tests.

 

7 - The impact of anti-smoking laws on high school students in Ankara, Turkey

O impacto das leis antifumo em alunos do ensino médio em Ancara, Turquia

Melike Demir1, Gulistan Karadeniz2, Fikri Demir3, Cem Karadeniz4, Halide Kaya1, Derya Yenibertiz5, Mahsuk Taylan1, Sureyya Yilmaz1, Velat Sen3

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(6):523-529

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the factors affecting the smoking habits of high school students, their thoughts about changes resulting from anti-smoking laws, and how they are affected by those laws. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 11th-grade students at eight high schools in Ankara, Turkey, were invited to complete a questionnaire. Results: A total of 1,199 students completed the questionnaire satisfactorily. The mean age of the respondents was 17.0 ± 0.6 years; 56.1% were female, of whom 15.3% were smokers; and 43.9% were male, of whom 43.7% were smokers (p < 0.001). The independent risk factors for smoking were male gender, attending a vocational school, having a sibling who smokes, having a friend who smokes, and poor academic performance. Of the respondents, 74.7% were aware of the content of anti-smoking laws; 81.8% approved of the restrictions and fines; and 8.1% had quit smoking because of those laws. According to the respondents, the interventions that were most effective were the (television) broadcast of films about the hazards of smoking and the ban on cigarette sales to minors. The prevalence of smoking was highest (31.5%) among students attending vocational high schools but lowest (7.5%) among those attending medical vocational high schools. Although 57.1% of the smokers were aware of the existence of a smoking cessation helpline, only 3.7% had called, none of whom had made any attempt to quit smoking. Conclusions: Although most of the students evaluated were aware of the harmful effects of smoking and approved of the anti-smoking laws, only a minority of those who smoked sought professional help to quit.

 


Keywords: Smoking/prevention & control; Smoking/trends; Smoking/psychology; Students/statistics & numerical data; Adolescent; Young Adult.

 

8 - The rapid shallow breathing index as a predictor of successful mechanical ventilation weaning: clinical utility when calculated from ventilator data

Índice de respiração rápida e superficial como previsor de sucesso de desmame da ventilação mecânica: utilidade clínica quando mensurado a partir de dados do ventilador

Leonardo Cordeiro de Souza1,2,3,4, Jocemir Ronaldo Lugon1,5

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(6):530-535

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The use of the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) is recommended in ICUs, where it is used as a predictor of mechanical ventilation (MV) weaning success. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the RSBI calculated by the traditional method (described in 1991) with that of the RSBI calculated directly from MV parameters. Methods: This was a prospective observational study involving patients who had been on MV for more than 24 h and were candidates for weaning. The RSBI was obtained by the same examiner using the two different methods (employing a spirometer and the parameters from the ventilator display) at random. In comparing the values obtained with the two methods, we used the Mann-Whitney test, Pearson's linear correlation test, and Bland-Altman plots. The performance of the methods was compared by evaluation of the areas under the ROC curves. Results: Of the 109 selected patients (60 males; mean age, 62 ± 20 years), 65 were successfully weaned, and 36 died. There were statistically significant differences between the two methods for respiratory rate, tidal volume, and RSBI (p < 0.001 for all). However, when the two methods were compared, the concordance and the intra-observer variation coefficient were 0.94 (0.92-0.96) and 11.16%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was similar for both methods (0.81 ± 0.04 vs. 0.82 ± 0.04; p = 0.935), which is relevant in the context of this study. Conclusions: The satisfactory performance of the RSBI as a predictor of weaning success, regardless of the method employed, demonstrates the utility of the method using the mechanical ventilator.

 


Keywords: Respiration, artificial; Ventilator weaning; Spirometry.

 

Brief Communication

9 - Cost analysis of nucleic acid amplification for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis, within the context of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System

Análise de custos de um teste de amplificação de ácido nucleico para o diagnóstico da tuberculose pulmonar sob a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde

Márcia Pinto1, Aline Piovezan Entringer1,Ricardo Steffen2, Anete Trajman2,3

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(6):536-538

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We estimated the costs of a molecular test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and resistance to rifampin (Xpert MTB/RIF) and of smear microscopy, within the Brazilian Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, Unified Health Care System). In SUS laboratories in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Manaus, we performed activity-based costing and micro-costing. The mean unit costs for Xpert MTB/RIF and smear microscopy were R$35.57 and R$14.16, respectively. The major cost drivers for Xpert MTB/RIF and smear microscopy were consumables/reagents and staff, respectively. These results might facilitate future cost-effectiveness studies and inform the decision-making process regarding the expansion of Xpert MTB/RIF use in Brazil

 


Keywords: Costs and cost analysis; Tuberculosis; Nucleic acid amplification techniques.

 

Review Article

10 - Sleep in the intensive care unit

Sono na unidade de terapia intensiva

Flávia Gabe Beltrami1, Xuân-Lan Nguyen2, Claire Pichereau3, Eric Maury3, Bernard Fleury4, Simone Fagondes1,5

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(6):539-546

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Poor sleep quality is a consistently reported by patients in the ICU. In such a potentially hostile environment, sleep is extremely fragmented and sleep architecture is unconventional, with a predominance of superficial sleep stages and a limited amount of time spent in the restorative stages. Among the causes of sleep disruption in the ICU are factors intrinsic to the patients and the acute nature of their condition, as well as factors related to the ICU environment and the treatments administered, such as mechanical ventilation and drug therapy. Although the consequences of poor sleep quality for the recovery of ICU patients remain unknown, it seems to influence the immune, metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurological systems. There is evidence that multifaceted interventions focused on minimizing nocturnal sleep disruptions improve sleep quality in ICU patients. In this article, we review the literature regarding normal sleep and sleep in the ICU. We also analyze sleep assessment methods; the causes of poor sleep quality and its potential implications for the recovery process of critically ill patients; and strategies for sleep promotion.

 


Keywords: Sleep; Sleep deprivation; Intensive care units.

 

11 - Lung transplantation: overall approach regarding its major aspects.

Transplante pulmonar: abordagem geral sobre seus principais aspectos.

Priscila Cilene León Bueno de Camargo1, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga Teixeira1, Rafael Medeiros Carraro1, Silvia Vidal Campos1, José Eduardo Afonso Junior1, André Nathan Costa1, Lucas Matos Fernandes1, Luis Gustavo Abdalla1, Marcos Naoyuki Samano1, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(6):547-553

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Resumo

O transplante pulmonar é uma terapia bem estabelecida para pacientes com doença pulmonar avançada.A avaliação do candidato para o transplante é uma tarefa complexa e envolve uma equipe multidisciplinar que acompanha o paciente para além do período pós-operatório.O tempo médio atual em lista de espera para transplante pulmonar é de aproximadamente 18 meses no estado de São Paulo. Em 2014, dados da Associação Brasileira de Transplante de Órgãos mostram que 67 transplantes pulmonares foram realizados no Brasil e que 204 pacientes estavam na lista de espera para transplante pulmonar.O transplante pulmonar é principalmente indicado no tratamento de DPOC, fibrose cística, doença intersticial pulmonar, bronquiectasia não fibrocística e hipertensão pulmonar.Esta revisão abrangente teve como objetivos abordar os aspectos principais relacionados ao transplante pulmonar: indicações, contraindicações, avaliação do candidato ao transplante, avaliação do candidato doador, gestão do paciente transplantado e complicações maiores. Para atingirmos tais objetivos, utilizamos como base as diretrizes da Sociedade Internacional de Transplante de Coração e Pulmão e nos protocolos de nosso Grupo de Transplante Pulmonar localizado na cidade de São Paulo.

 


Case Report

12 - The challenge of managing extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis at a referral hospital in the state of São Paulo, Brazil: a report of three cases

O desafio do tratamento da tuberculose extensivamente resistente em um hospital de referência no estado de São Paulo: um relato de três casos

Marcos Abdo Arbex1,2, Hélio Ribeiro de Siqueira3,4, Lia D'Ambrosio5,6, Giovanni Battista Migliori5

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(6):554-559

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Here, we report the cases of three patients diagnosed with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and admitted to a referral hospital in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, showing the clinical and radiological evolution, as well as laboratory test results, over a one-year period. Treatment was based on the World Health Organization guidelines, with the inclusion of a new proposal for the use of a combination of antituberculosis drugs (imipenem and linezolid). In the cases studied, we show the challenge of creating an acceptable, effective treatment regimen including drugs that are more toxic, are more expensive, and are administered for longer periods. We also show that treatment costs are significantly higher for such patients, which could have an impact on health care systems, even after hospital discharge. We highlight the fact that in extreme cases, such as those reported here, hospitalization at a referral center seems to be the most effective strategy for providing appropriate treatment and increasing the chance of cure. In conclusion, health professionals and governments must make every effort to prevent cases of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant; Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis; Antitubercular agents; Antibiotics, antitubercular.

 

Letters to the Editor

13 - How many patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are there in Brazil?

Quantos pacientes com fibrose pulmonar idiopática existem no Brasil?

José Baddini-Martinez1, Carlos Alberto Pereira2

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(6):560-561

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14 - Intracavitary nodule in active tuberculosis: differential diagnosis of aspergilloma

Nódulo intracavitário em tuberculose em atividade: diagnóstico diferencial de aspergiloma

Edson Marchiori1,2, Bruno Hochhegger3,4, Gláucia Zanetti2,5

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(6):562-563

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Continuing Education: Imaging

15 - Reversed halo sign

Sinal do halo invertido

Edson Marchiori1,2, Gláucia Zanetti2,3, Bruno Hochhegger4,5

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(6):564

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Continuing Education : Scientific Methodology

16 - Confidence intervals: a useful statistical tool to estimate effect sizes in the real world

Intervalos de confiança: uma ferramenta útil para estimar o tamanho do efeito no mundo real

Cecilia Maria Patino,1,2 Juliana Carvalho Ferreira2,3

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(6):565-566

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