Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2016 - Volume 42  - Number 1  (January/February)

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Editorial

1 - 2016 - a second step

2016 - Um segundo passo

Rogerio Souza

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):5-6

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2 - Ischemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury prevention: many options, no choices

Prevenção de lesão pulmonar induzida por isquemia/reperfusão: muitas opções, nenhuma escolha

Pedro Caruso1,2, Susimeire Gomes1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):7-8

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Original Article

3 - Effects of N-acetylcysteine and pentoxifylline on remote lung injury in a rat model of hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion injury

Efeitos da N-acetilcisteína e pentoxifilina na lesão pulmonar remota em um modelo de lesão de isquemia/reperfusão de membro posterior em ratos

Hamed Ashrafzadeh Takhtfooladi1, Saeed Hesaraki1, Foad Razmara2, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh Takhtfooladi3, Hadi Hajizadeh4

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):9-14

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Objective: To investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and pentoxifylline in a model of remote organ injury after hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats, the lungs being the remote organ system. Methods: Thirty-five male Wistar rats were assigned to one of five conditions (n = 7/group), as follows: sham operation (control group); hind-limb ischemia, induced by clamping the left femoral artery, for 2 h, followed by 24 h of reperfusion (I/R group); and hind-limb ischemia, as above, followed by intraperitoneal injection (prior to reperfusion) of 150 mg/kg of NAC (I/R+NAC group), 40 mg/kg of pentoxifylline (I/R+PTX group), or both (I/R+NAC+PTX group). At the end of the trial, lung tissues were removed for histological analysis and assessment of oxidative stress. Results: In comparison with the rats in the other groups, those in the I/R group showed lower superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels, together with higher malondialdehyde levels and lung injury scores (p < 0.05 for all). Interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration of the lungs was also markedly greater in the I/R group than in the other groups. In addition, I/R group rats showed various signs of interstitial edema and hemorrhage. In the I/R+NAC, I/R+PTX, and I/R+NAC+PTX groups, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione levels, malondialdehyde levels, and lung injury scores were preserved (p < 0.05 for all). The differences between the administration of NAC or pentoxifylline alone and the administration of the two together were not significant for any of those parameters (p > 0.05 for all). Conclusions: Our results suggest that NAC and pentoxifylline both protect lung tissue from the effects of skeletal muscle I/R. However, their combined use does not appear to increase the level of that protection.

 


Keywords: Skeletal muscle; Ischemia; Reperfusion injury; Lung injury; Acetylcysteine; Pentoxifylline.

 

4 - The Manchester Respiratory Activities of Daily Living questionnaire for use in COPD patients: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

The Manchester Respiratory Activities of Daily Living questionnaire para o uso em pacientes com DPOC: tradução e adaptação cultural para a língua portuguesa falada no Brasil

Maíra Junkes-Cunha1, Anamaria Fleig Mayer2,3, Cardine Reis1, Abebaw M. Yohannes4, Rosemeri Maurici1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):15-21

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Objective: To translate The Manchester Respiratory Activities of Daily Living (MRADL) questionnaire into Portuguese and to create a version of the MRADL that is cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil. Methods: The English-language version of the MRADL was translated into Portuguese by two health care researchers who were fluent in English. A consensus version was obtained by other two researchers and a pulmonologist. That version was back-translated into English by another translator who was a native speaker of English and fluent in Portuguese. The cognitive debriefing process consisted in having 10 COPD patients complete the translated questionnaire in order to test its understandability, clarity, and acceptability in the target population. On the basis of the results, the final Portuguese-language version of the MRADL was produced and approved by the committee and one of the authors of the original questionnaire. Results: The author of the MRADL questioned only a few items in the translated version, and some changes were made to the mobility and personal hygiene domains. Cultural differences regarding the domestic activities domain were found, in particular regarding the item "Do you have the ability to do a full clothes wash and hang them out to dry?", due to socioeconomic and climatic issues. The item "Do you take care of your garden?" was questioned by the participants who lived in apartments, being modified to "Do you take care of your garden or plants in your apartment?" Conclusions: The final Portuguese-language version of the MRADL adapted for use in Brazil was found to be easy to understand and easily applied.

 


Keywords: Activities of daily living; Questionnaires; Translations; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.

 

5 - Restrictive pattern on spirometry: association with cardiovascular risk and level of physical activity in asymptomatic adults

Distúrbio ventilatório restritivo sugerido por espirometria: associação com risco cardiovascular e nível de atividade física em adultos assintomáticos

Evandro Fornias Sperandio1, Rodolfo Leite Arantes2, Agatha Caveda Matheus1, Rodrigo Pereira da Silva1, Vinícius Tonon Lauria1, Marcello Romiti2, Antônio Ricardo de Toledo Gagliardi2, Victor Zuniga Dourado2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):22-28

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Objective: To determine whether a restrictive pattern on spirometry is associated with the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL), as well as with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, in asymptomatic adults. Methods: A total of 374 participants (mean age, 41 ± 14 years) underwent spirometry, which included the determination of FVC and FEV1. A restrictive pattern on spirometry was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio > 0.7 and an FVC < 80% of the predicted value. After conducting demographic, anthropometric, and CVD risk assessments, we evaluated body composition, muscle function, and postural balance, as well as performing cardiopulmonary exercise testing and administering the six-minute walk test. The PADL was quantified with a triaxial accelerometer. Results: A restrictive pattern on spirometry was found in 10% of the subjects. After multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for confounders (PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness), the following variables retained significance (OR; 95% CI) as predictors of a restrictive pattern: systemic arterial hypertension (17.5; 1.65-184.8), smoking (11.6; 1.56-87.5), physical inactivity (8.1; 1.43-46.4), larger center-of-pressure area while standing on a force platform (1.34; 1.05-1.71); and dyslipidemia (1.89; 1.12-1.98). Conclusions: A restrictive pattern on spirometry appears to be common in asymptomatic adults. We found that CVD risk factors, especially systemic arterial hypertension, smoking, and physical inactivity, were directly associated with a restrictive pattern, even when the analysis was adjusted for PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness. Longitudinal studies are needed in order to improve understanding of the etiology of a restrictive pattern as well as to aid in the design of preventive strategies.

 


Keywords: Spirometry; Hypertension; Motor activity; Sedentary lifestyle; Smoking.

 

6 - Respiratory therapy: a problem among children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis.

Fisioterapia respiratória: um problema de crianças e adolescentes com fibrose cística

Taiane dos Santos Feiten1, Josani Silva Flores2, Bruna Luciano Farias3, Paula Maria Eidt Rovedder2,3, Eunice Gus Camargo4, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin2,5, Bruna Ziegler1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):29-34

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Objective: To evaluate the level of self-reported adherence to physical therapy recommendations in pediatric patients (6-17 years) with cystic fibrosis (CF) and to ascertain whether the different levels of adherence correlate with pulmonary function, clinical aspects, and quality of life. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The patients and their legal guardians completed a questionnaire regarding adherence to physical therapy recommendations and a CF quality of life questionnaire. We collected demographic, spirometric, and bacteriological data, as well as recording the frequency of hospitalizations and Shwachman-Kulczycki (S-K) clinical scores. Results: We included 66 patients in the study. Mean age, FEV1 (% of predicted), and BMI were 12.2 ± 3.2 years, 90 ± 24%, and 18.3 ± 2.5 kg/m2, respectively. The patients were divided into two groups: high-adherence (n = 39) and moderate/poor-adherence (n = 27). No statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding age, gender, family income, and total S-K clinical scores. There were statistically significant differences between the high-adherence group and the moderate/poor-adherence group, the latter showing lower scores for the "radiological findings" domain of the S-K clinical score (p = 0.030), a greater number of hospitalizations (p = 0.004), and more days of hospitalization in the last year (p = 0.012), as well as lower scores for the quality of life questionnaire domains emotion (p = 0.002), physical (p = 0.019), treatment burden (p < 0.001), health perceptions (p = 0.036), social (p = 0.039), and respiratory (p = 0.048). Conclusions: Low self-reported adherence to physical therapy recommendations was associated with worse radiological findings, a greater number of hospitalizations, and decreased quality of life in pediatric CF patients.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Patient compliance; Physical therapy modalities; Quality of life.

 

7 - Alternative diagnoses based on CT angiography of the chest in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism

Diagnósticos alternativos corroborados por angiotomografia computadorizada de tórax em pacientes com suspeita de tromboembolia pulmonar

Eleci Vaz Ferreira1,2, Marcelo Basso Gazzana2,3, Muriel Bossle Sarmento4, Pedro Arends Guazzelli4, Mariana Costa Hoffmeister4, Vinicius André Guerra2, Renato Seligman4,5, Marli Maria Knorst2,3,4

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):35-41

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Objective: To determine the prevalence of alternative diagnoses based on chest CT angiography (CTA) in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) who tested negative for PTE, as well as whether those alternative diagnoses had been considered prior to the CTA. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study involving 191 adult patients undergoing CTA for suspected PTE between September of 2009 and May of 2012. Chest X-rays and CTAs were reviewed to determine whether the findings suggested an alternative diagnosis in the cases not diagnosed as PTE. Data on symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, and mortality were collected. Results: On the basis of the CTA findings, PTE was diagnosed in 47 cases (24.6%). Among the 144 patients not diagnosed with PTE via CTA, the findings were abnormal in 120 (83.3%). Such findings were consistent with an alternative diagnosis that explained the symptoms in 75 patients (39.3%). Among those 75 cases, there were only 39 (20.4%) in which the same alterations had not been previously detected on chest X-rays. The most common alternative diagnosis, made solely on the basis of the CTA findings, was pneumonia (identified in 20 cases). Symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, and the in-hospital mortality rate did not differ significantly between the patients with and without PTE. However, the median hospital stay was significantly longer in the patients with PTE than in those without (18.0 and 9.5 days, respectively; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Our results indicate that chest CTA is useful in cases of suspected PTE, because it can confirm the diagnosis and reveal findings consistent with an alternative diagnosis in a significant number of patients.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary embolism/diagnosis; Pulmonary embolism/epidemiology; Angiography.

 

8 - The Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma: a specialized care program for children with wheezing or asthma in Brazil

Programa Infantil de Prevenção de Asma: um programa de atenção especializada a crianças com sibilância/asma

Marilyn Urrutia-Pereira1, Jennifer Avila1, Dirceu Solé2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):42-47

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Objective: To present the Programa Infantil de Prevenção de Asma (PIPA, Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma) and the characteristics of the patients followed in this program. Methods: Implemented in the city of Uruguaiana, Brazil, PIPA has as its target population children and adolescents (< 18 years of age) with asthma or suspected asthma. Patients either enroll in PIPA spontaneously or are referred by pediatricians or primary care physicians. In this retrospective study, we use a standardized protocol to assess PIPA patients. Results: By the end of the study period, 646 patients were being followed. Of those, 298 (46.1%) were ≤ 3 years of age. In this group of patients, recurrent wheezing was identified in 60.7%, and the first episode of wheezing occurred in the first six months of life in 86.0%. Severe wheezing was identified in 29.5% and 45.4% in the children ≤ 3 and > 3 years of age, respectively. Physician-diagnosed asthma was reported in 26.5% and 82.2%, respectively. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of passive smoking was high (> 36%), occurring during pregnancy in > 15%; > 40% of the patients had been born by cesarean section; and 30% had a mother who had had < 8 years of schooling. Conclusions: A prevention program for children with asthma is an effective strategy for controlling the disease. Knowledge of local epidemiological and environmental characteristics is essential to reducing the prevalence of the severe forms of asthma, to improving the use of health resources, and to preventing pulmonary changes that could lead to COPD in adulthood.

 


Keywords: Asthma/prevention and control; Asthma/epidemiology; Patient care.

 

9 - Obstructive sleep apnea related to rapid-eye-movement or non-rapid-eye-movement sleep: comparison of demographic, anthropometric, and polysomnographic features.

Apneia obstrutiva do sono relacionada ao sono rapid eye movement ou ao sono non-rapid eye movement: comparação de aspectos demográficos, antropométricos e polissonográficos.

Aysel Sunnetcioglu1, Bunyamin Sertogullarından1, Bulent Ozbay2, Hulya Gunbatar1, Selami Ekin1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):48-54

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Objective: To determine whether there are significant differences between rapid-eye-movement (REM)-related obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and non-REM (NREM)-related OSA, in terms of the demographic, anthropometric, and polysomnographic characteristics of the subjects. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 110 patients (75 males) with either REM-related OSA (n = 58) or NREM-related OSA (n = 52). To define REM-related and NREM-related OSA, we used a previously established criterion, based on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): AHI-REM/AHI-NREM ratio > 2 and ≤ 2, respectively. Results: The mean age of the patients with REM-related OSA was 49.5 ± 11.9 years, whereas that of the patients with NREM-related OSA was 49.2 ± 12.6 years. The overall mean AHI (all sleep stages combined) was significantly higher in the NREM-related OSA group than in the REM-related OSA group (38.6 ± 28.2 vs. 14.8 ± 9.2; p < 0.05). The mean AHI in the supine position (s-AHI) was also significantly higher in the NREM-related OSA group than in the REM-related OSA group (49.0 ± 34.3 vs. 18.8 ± 14.9; p < 0.0001). In the NREM-related OSA group, the s-AHI was higher among the men. In both groups, oxygen desaturation was more severe among the women. We found that REM-related OSA was more common among the patients with mild-to-moderate OSA, whereas NREM-related OSA was more common among those with severe OSA. Conclusions: We found that the severity of NREM-related OSA was associated mainly with s-AHI. Our findings suggest that the s-AHI has a more significant effect on the severity of OSA than does the AHI-REM. When interpreting OSA severity and choosing among treatment modalities, physicians should take into consideration the sleep stage and the sleep posture.

 


Keywords: Sleep, REM; Sleep stages; Sleep apnea, obstructive; Apnea; Sleep apnea syndromes.

 

10 - Cervical computed tomography in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: influence of head elevation on the assessment of upper airway volume

Tomografia computadorizada cervical em pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono: influência da elevação postural na avaliação do volume das vias aéreas superiores

Fábio José Fabrício de Barros Souza1, Anne Rosso Evangelista2, Juliana Veiga Silva2, Grégory Vinícius Périco3, Kristian Madeira4,5

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):55-60

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Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has a high prevalence and carries significant cardiovascular risks. It is important to study new therapeutic approaches to this disease. Positional therapy might be beneficial in reducing the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Imaging methods have been employed in order to facilitate the evaluation of the airways of OSAS patients and can be used in order to determine the effectiveness of certain treatments. This study was aimed at determining the influence that upper airway volume, as measured by cervical CT, has in patients diagnosed with OSAS. Methods: This was a quantitative, observational, cross-sectional study. We evaluated 10 patients who had been diagnosed with OSAS by polysomnography and on the basis of the clinical evaluation. All of the patients underwent conventional cervical CT in the supine position. Scans were obtained with the head of the patient in two positions (neutral and at a 44° upward inclination), and the upper airway volume was compared between the two. Results: The mean age, BMI, and neck circumference were 48.9 ± 14.4 years, 30.5 ± 3.5 kg/m2, and 40.3 ± 3.4 cm, respectively. The mean AHI was 13.7 ± 10.6 events/h (range, 6.0-41.6 events/h). The OSAS was classified as mild, moderate, and severe in 70%, 20%, and 10% of the patients, respectively. The mean upper airway volume was 7.9 cm3 greater when the head was at a 44° upward inclination than when it was in the neutral position, and that difference (17.5 ± 11.0%) was statistically significant (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Elevating the head appears to result in a significant increase in the caliber of the upper airways in OSAS patients.

 


Keywords: Sleep apnea, obstructive/prevention and control; Sleep apnea, obstructive/therapy; Tomography.

 

Review Article

11 - Psychological distress related to smoking cessation in patients with acute myocardial infarction

Sofrimento psicológico relacionado à cessação do tabagismo em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio.

Thyego Mychell Moreira-Santos1, Irma Godoy2, Ilda de Godoy1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):61-67

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Among all causes of preventable deaths, smoking is responsible for the greatest number of deaths worldwide and predisposes to fatal, noncommunicable diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. Lifestyle changes are effective in the treatment of patients with smoking-related diseases and assist in the prevention of premature mortality. Our objective was to investigate the available scientific evidence regarding the psychological distress related to smoking cessation in patients who have had acute myocardial infarction. To that end, we conducted an integrative review of the literature in order to summarize relevant studies on this topic. The selected databases were Scopus, PubMed Central, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science (Core Collection), ScienceDirect, EMBASE, SciELO, LILACS e PsycINFO. On the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria adopted for this study, 14 articles were selected for analysis. Those studies showed that the prevalence of psychological distress is higher among smokers than among nonsmokers, and distress-related symptoms are much more common in smokers with acute myocardial infarction than in those without. Smoking cessation depends on the active participation of the smoker, whose major motivation is the underlying disease. Most studies have shown that there is a need to create treatment subgroups as a means of improving the treatment provided. This review article expands the knowledge regarding smoking cessation and shows the need to invest in future research that investigates subgroups of smokers diagnosed with the major smoking-related comorbidities, such as acute myocardial infarction, in order to develop specific interventions and psychological support strategies.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Stress, psychological; Myocardial infarction; Tobacco use cessation.

 

Case Report

12 - Angiosarcoma of the lung

Angiossarcoma pulmonar

Mónica Grafino1, Paula Alves1, Margarida Mendes de Almeida2, Patrícia Garrido1, Direndra Hasmucrai1, Encarnação Teixeira1, Renato Sotto-Mayor1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):68-70

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Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant vascular tumor. Pulmonary involvement is usually attributable to metastasis from other primary sites, primary pulmonary angiosarcoma therefore being quite uncommon. We report a case of angiosarcoma with pulmonary involvement, probably primary to the lung, which had gone untreated for more than two years. We describe this rare neoplasm and its growth, as well as the extensive local invasion and hematogenous metastasis at presentation. We also discuss its poor prognosis.

 


Keywords: Hemangiosarcoma; Lung neoplasms; Sarcoma.

 

Images in Pulmonary Medicine

13 - Tumor seeding along the needle track after percutaneous lung biopsy

Implante tumoral por agulha após biópsia pulmonar percutânea

Leonardo Guedes Moreira Valle1, Rafael Dahmer Rocha1, Guilherme Falleiros Mendes1, José Ernesto Succi2, Juliano Ribeiro de Andrade1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):71

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Letters to the Editor

14 - Tracheal lobular capillary hemangioma treated with laser photocoagulation

Hemangioma capilar lobular da traqueia tratado com fotocoagulação a laser

Hans Dabó1, Rita Gomes2, Nelson Teixeira1, Gilberto Teixeira3, Gabriela Fernandes1, Adriana Magalhães1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):72-73

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15 - Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis can be a transient diagnosis

Fibrose pulmonar idiopática pode ser um diagnóstico transitório

Martina Rodrigues de Oliveira1, Daniel Antunes Silva Pereira1, Olívia Meira Dias1, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla1, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho1, Bruno Guedes Baldi1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):74-75

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Continuing Education: Imaging

16 - Crazy-paving pattern

Padrão de pavimentação em mosaico

Bruno Hochhegger1,2, Roberto Schumacher Neto1, Edson Marchiori3,4

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):76

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Continuing Education : Scientific Methodology

17 - What is survival analysis, and when should I use it?

O que é análise de sobrevida e quando devo utilizá-la?

Juliana Carvalho Ferreira1,2, Cecilia Maria Patino2,3

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):77

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Erratum

18 - How many patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are there in Brazil?

Quantos pacientes com fibrose pulmonar idiopática existem no Brasil?

José Baddini-Martinez1; Carlos Alberto Pereira2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):78

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19 - Cost analysis of nucleic acid amplification for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis, within the context of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System

Análise de custos de um teste de amplificação de ácido nucleico para o diagnóstico da tuberculose pulmonar sob a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde.

Márcia Pinto1; Aline Piovezan Entringer1; Ricardo Steffen2; Anete Trajman2; 3

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):79

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20 - Bronchiectasis caused by common variable immunodeficiency

Bronquiectasia por imunodeficiência comum variável.

Paulo Henrique do Amor Divino1, José Henrique de Carvalho Basilio1, Renato Moraes Alves Fabbri1, Igor Bastos Polonio1, Wilma Carvalho Neves Forte2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):80

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Year 2016 - Volume 42  - Number 2  (March/April)

App

Editorial

1 - Asthma and smoking: still a prevailing topic

Asma e tabagismo: um tema ainda persistente

Ubiratan de Paula Santos1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):81

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2 - Respiratory muscles in interstitial lung disease: poorly explored and poorly understood

Musculatura respiratória em doença pulmonar intersticial: pouco explorada e pouco compreendida

Bruno Guedes Baldi1, João Marcos Salge1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):82-83

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Original Article

3 - Prevalence of self-reported smoking experimentation in adolescents with asthma or allergic rhinitis

Prevalência do relato de experimentação de cigarro em adolescentes com asma e rinite alérgica

Silvia de Sousa Campos Fernandes1, Cláudia Ribeiro de Andrade1, Alessandra Pinheiro Caminhas2, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos1, Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):84-87

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Objective: To determine the prevalence of smoking experimentation among adolescents with asthma or allergic rhinitis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving adolescent students (13-14 years of age) in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The participants completed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaires, both of which have been validated for use in Brazil. We calculated the prevalence of smoking experimentation in the sample as a whole, among the students with asthma symptoms, and among the students with allergic rhinitis symptoms, as well as in subgroups according to gender and age at smoking experimentation. Results: The sample comprised 3,325 adolescent students. No statistically significant differences were found regarding gender or age. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of smoking experimentation was 9.6%. The mean age for smoking experimentation for the first time was 11.1 years of age (range, 5-14 years). Among the adolescents with asthma symptoms and among those with allergic rhinitis symptoms, the prevalence of self-reported smoking experimentation was 13.5% and 10.6%, respectively. Conclusions: The proportion of adolescents with symptoms of asthma or allergic rhinitis who reported smoking experimentation is a cause for concern, because there is strong evidence that active smoking is a risk factor for the occurrence and increased severity of allergic diseases.

 


Keywords: Asthma/epidemiology; Rhinitis/epidemiology; Smoking/epidemiology.

 

4 - Identifying decreased diaphragmatic mobility and diaphragm thickening in interstitial lung disease: the utility of ultrasound imaging

Identificação da diminuição da mobilidade diafragmática e do espessamento diafragmático na doença pulmonar intersticial: utilidade da ultrassonografia

Pauliane Vieira Santana1,2, Elena Prina1, André Luis Pereira Albuquerque1, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho1, Pedro Caruso1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):88-94

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Objective: To investigate the applicability of ultrasound imaging of the diaphragm in interstitial lung disease (ILD). Methods: Using ultrasound, we compared ILD patients and healthy volunteers (controls) in terms of diaphragmatic mobility during quiet and deep breathing; diaphragm thickness at functional residual capacity (FRC) and at total lung capacity (TLC); and the thickening fraction (TF, proportional diaphragm thickening from FRC to TLC). We also evaluated correlations between diaphragmatic dysfunction and lung function variables. Results: Between the ILD patients (n = 40) and the controls (n = 16), mean diaphragmatic mobility was comparable during quiet breathing, although it was significantly lower in the patients during deep breathing (4.5 ± 1.7 cm vs. 7.6 ± 1.4 cm; p < 0.01). The patients showed greater diaphragm thickness at FRC (p = 0.05), although, due to lower diaphragm thickness at TLC, they also showed a lower TF (p < 0.01). The FVC as a percentage of the predicted value (FVC%) correlated with diaphragmatic mobility (r = 0.73; p < 0.01), and an FVC% cut-off value of < 60% presented high sensitivity (92%) and specificity (81%) for indentifying decreased diaphragmatic mobility. Conclusions: Using ultrasound, we were able to show that diaphragmatic mobility and the TF were lower in ILD patients than in healthy controls, despite the greater diaphragm thickness at FRC in the former. Diaphragmatic mobility correlated with ILD functional severity, and an FVC% cut-off value of < 60% was found to be highly accurate for indentifying diaphragmatic dysfunction on ultrasound.

 


Keywords: Diaphragm/ultrasonography; Lung diseases, interstitial; Respiratory muscles; Respiratory function tests.

 

5 - Ex vivo lung perfusion in Brazil

A experiência brasileira na perfusão pulmonar ex vivo

Luis Gustavo Abdalla1, Karina Andrighetti de Oliveira Braga1, Natalia Aparecida Nepomuceno1, Lucas Matos Fernandes1, Marcos Naoyuki Samano1, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):95-99

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Objective: To evaluate the use of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) clinically to prepare donor lungs for transplantation. Methods: A prospective study involving EVLP for the reconditioning of extended-criteria donor lungs, the criteria for which include aspects such as a PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 300 mmHg. Between February of 2013 and February of 2014, the lungs of five donors were submitted to EVLP for up to 4 h each. During EVLP, respiratory mechanics were continuously evaluated. Once every hour during the procedure, samples of the perfusate were collected and the function of the lungs was evaluated. Results: The mean PaO2 of the recovered lungs was 262.9 ± 119.7 mmHg at baseline, compared with 357.0 ± 108.5 mmHg after 3 h of EVLP. The mean oxygenation capacity of the lungs improved slightly over the first 3 h of EVLP-246.1 ± 35.1, 257.9 ± 48.9, and 288.8 ± 120.5 mmHg after 1, 2, and 3 h, respectively-without significant differences among the time points (p = 0.508). The mean static compliance was 63.0 ± 18.7 mmHg, 75.6 ± 25.4 mmHg, and 70.4 ± 28.0 mmHg after 1, 2, and 3 h, respectively, with a significant improvement from hour 1 to hour 2 (p = 0.029) but not from hour 2 to hour 3 (p = 0.059). Pulmonary vascular resistance remained stable during EVLP, with no differences among time points (p = 0.284). Conclusions: Although the lungs evaluated remained under physiological conditions, the EVLP protocol did not effectively improve lung function, thus precluding transplantation.

 


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Organ preservation; Brain death; Donor selection.

 

6 - Administering the Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire to sarcoidosis patients in Serbia

Aplicação do Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire em pacientes com sarcoidose na Sérvia

Violeta Mihailović-Vučinić1,2, Branislav Gvozdenović3, Mihailo Stjepanović2, Mira Vuković4, Ljiljana Marković-Denić5, Aleksandar Milovanović6, Jelica Videnović-Ivanov2, Vladimir Zugić1,2, Vesna Skodrić-Trifunović 1,2, Snezana Filipović2, Maja Omčikus2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):99-105

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The aim of this study was to use a Serbian-language version of the disease-specific, self-report Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire (SHQ), which was designed and originally validated in the United States, to assess health status in sarcoidosis patients in Serbia, as well as validating the instrument for use in the country. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 346 patients with biopsy-confirmed sarcoidosis. To evaluate the health status of the patients, we used the SHQ, which was translated into Serbian for the purposes of this study. We compared SHQ scores by patient gender and age, as well as by disease duration and treatment. Lower SHQ scores indicate poorer health status. Results: The SHQ scores demonstrated differences in health status among subgroups of the sarcoidosis patients evaluated. Health status was found to be significantly poorer among female patients and older patients, as well as among those with chronic sarcoidosis or extrapulmonary manifestations of the disease. Monotherapy with methotrexate was found to be associated with better health status than was monotherapy with prednisone or combination therapy with prednisone and methotrexate. Conclusions: The SHQ is a reliable, disease-specific, self-report instrument. Although originally designed for use in the United States, the SHQ could be a useful tool for the assessment of health status in various non-English-speaking populations of sarcoidosis patients.

 


Keywords: Sarcoidosis; Health status; Validation studies; Questionnaires; Self report; Serbia.

 

7 - Pleural tuberculosis in the state of Roraima, Brazil, between 2005 and 2013: quality of diagnosis

Tuberculose pleural no estado de Roraima no período de 2005-2013: qualidade diagnóstica

Tao Machado1, Allex Jardim da Fonseca2, Sandra Maria Franco Buenafuente2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):106-113

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the quality of diagnosis and the epidemiological profile of patients with pleural tuberculosis in the state of Roraima, Brazil, in order to provide technical support for the development and implementation of public policies to combat the disease. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study designed to determine the prevalence of pleural forms of tuberculosis in Roraima between 2005 and 2013 and to evaluate the diagnostic criteria used, as well as their determinants. This study was based on secondary data from the Brazilian Case Registry Database, including all reported cases of pleural tuberculosis in the state during the study period. Diagnoses based on bacteriological or histopathological confirmation were defined as high-quality diagnoses. Results: Among the 1,395 cases of tuberculosis reported during the study period, 116 (8.3%) were cases of pleural tuberculosis, accounting for 38.9% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the sample. The incidence rate of pleural tuberculosis did not follow the downward trend observed for the pulmonary form of the disease during the same period. The prevalence of cases with a high-quality diagnosis was 28.5% (95% CI: 20.4-37.6%). In a univariate analysis, none of the demographic or clinical characteristics collected from the database were found to have a significant impact on the outcome (as explanatory variables). Conclusions: The quality of the diagnoses in our study sample was considered unsatisfactory. Limited access to specific diagnostic methods might have contributed to these results.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Tuberculosis/epidemiology; Tuberculosis, pleural.

 

8 - Correlation between the severity of critically ill patients and clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration

Correlação entre a gravidade de pacientes críticos e preditores clínicos de risco para a broncoaspiração

Gisele Chagas de Medeiros1, Fernanda Chiarion Sassi2, Lucas Santos Zambom3, Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):114-120

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether the severity of non-neurological critically ill patients correlates with clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration. Methods: We evaluated adults undergoing prolonged orotracheal intubation (> 48 h) and bedside swallowing assessment within the first 48 h after extubation. We collected data regarding the risk of bronchial aspiration performed by a speech-language pathologist, whereas data regarding the functional level of swallowing were collected with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System (ASHA NOMS) scale and those regarding health status were collected with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). Results: The study sample comprised 150 patients. For statistical analyses, the patients were grouped by ASHA NOMS score: ASHA1 (levels 1 and 2), ASHA2 (levels 3 to 5); and ASHA3 (levels 6 and 7). In comparison with the other patients, those in the ASHA3 group were significantly younger, remained intubated for fewer days, and less severe overall clinical health status (SOFA score). The clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration that best characterized the groups were abnormal cervical auscultation findings and cough after swallowing. None of the patients in the ASHA 3 group presented with either of those signs. Conclusions: Critically ill patients 55 years of age or older who undergo prolonged orotracheal intubation (≥ 6 days), have a SOFA score ≥ 5, have a Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 14, and present with abnormal cervical auscultation findings or cough after swallowing should be prioritized for a full speech pathology assessment.

 


Keywords: Deglutition; Deglutition disorders; Intubation, intratracheal; Pneumonia, aspiration; Intensive care units.

 

9 - Exercise performance and differences in physiological response to pulmonary rehabilitation in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with hyperinflation

Desempenho ao exercício e diferenças na resposta fisiológica à reabilitação pulmonar em doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica grave com hiperinsuflação

Andre Luis Pereira de Albuquerque1, Marco Quaranta2, Biswajit Chakrabarti3, Andrea Aliverti2, Peter M. Calverley3

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):121-129

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) improves exercise capacity in most but not all COPD patients. The factors associated with treatment success and the role of chest wall mechanics remain unclear. We investigated the impact of PR on exercise performance in COPD with severe hyperinflation. Methods: We evaluated 22 COPD patients (age, 66 ± 7 years; FEV1 = 37.1 ± 11.8% of predicted) who underwent eight weeks of aerobic exercise and strength training. Before and after PR, each patient also performed a six-minute walk test and an incremental cycle ergometer test. During the latter, we measured chest wall volumes (total and compartmental, by optoelectronic plethysmography) and determined maximal workloads. Results: We observed significant differences between the pre- and post-PR means for six-minute walk distance (305 ± 78 vs. 330 ± 96 m, p < 0.001) and maximal workload (33 ± 21 vs. 39 ± 20 W; p = 0.02). At equivalent workload settings, PR led to lower oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and minute ventilation. The inspiratory (operating) rib cage volume decreased significantly after PR. There were 6 patients in whom PR did not increase the maximal workload. After PR, those patients showed no significant decrease in VCO2 during exercise, had higher end-expiratory chest wall volumes with a more rapid shallow breathing pattern, and continued to experience symptomatic leg fatigue. Conclusions: In severe COPD, PR appears to improve oxygen consumption and reduce VCO2, with a commensurate decrease in respiratory drive, changes reflected in the operating chest wall volumes. Patients with severe post-exercise hyperinflation and leg fatigue might be unable to improve their maximal performance despite completing a PR program.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/rehabilitation; Exercise therapy; Respiratory therapy.

 

10 - Association between physical activity in daily life and pulmonary function in adult smokers

Associação entre o nível de atividade física na vida diária e a função pulmonar em tabagistas adultos

Miriane Lilian Barboza1, Alan Carlos Brisola Barbosa1, Giovanna Domingues Spina1, Evandro Fornias Sperandio1, Rodolfo Leite Arantes2, Antonio Ricardo de Toledo Gagliardi2, Marcello Romiti2, Victor Zuniga Dourado1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):130-135

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL) is associated with pulmonary function in adult smokers. Methods: We selected 62 adult smokers from among the participants of an epidemiological study conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil. The subjects underwent forced spirometry for pulmonary function assessment. The level of PADL was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and triaxial accelerometry, the device being used for seven days. The minimum level of PADL, in terms of quantity and intensity, was defined as 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Correlations between the studied variables were tested with Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, depending on the distribution of the variables. We used linear multiple regression in order to analyze the influence of PADL on the spirometric variables. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Evaluating all predictors, corrected for confounding factors, and using pulmonary function data as outcome variables, we found no significant associations between physical inactivity, as determined by accelerometry, and spirometric indices. The values for FVC were lower among the participants with arterial hypertension, and FEV1/FVC ratios were lower among those with diabetes mellitus. Obese participants and those with dyslipidemia presented with lower values for FVC and FEV1. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there is no consistent association between physical inactivity and pulmonary function in adult smokers. Smoking history should be given special attention in COPD prevention strategies, as should cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Respiratory function tests; Motor activity; Accelerometry.

 

11 - Asthma treatment in children and adolescents in an urban area in southern Brazil: popular myths and features

Mitos populares e características do tratamento da asma em crianças e adolescentes de zona urbana do sul do Brasil

Cristian Roncada1, Suelen Goecks de Oliveira1, Simone Falcão Cidade1, Joseane Guimarães Rafael1, Beatriz Sebben Ojeda1, Beatriz Regina Lara dos Santos1, Andréia da Silva Gustavo1, Paulo Márcio Pitrez1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):136-142

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the frequency of popular myths about and features of asthma treatment in children and adolescents in an urban area in southern Brazil. Methods: The parents or legal guardians of public school students (8-16 years of age) completed a specific questionnaire regarding their understanding of asthma, asthma control, and treatment characteristics. The sample included parents or legal guardians of students with asthma (n = 127) and healthy controls (n = 124). Results: The study involved 251 parents or legal guardians, of whom 127 (68.5%) were the mothers and 130 (51.8%) were White. The mean age of these participants was 38.47 ± 12.07 years. Of the participants in the asthma and control groups, 37 (29.1%) and 26 (21.0%), respectively, reported being afraid of using asthma medications, whereas 61 (48%) and 56 (45.2%), respectively, believed that using a metered dose inhaler can lead to drug dependence. However, only 17 (13.4%) and 17 (13.7%) of the participants in the asthma and control groups, respectively, reported being afraid of using oral corticosteroids. In the asthma group, 55 students (43.3%) were diagnosed with uncontrolled asthma, only 41 (32.3%) had a prescription or written treatment plan, and 38 (29.9%) used asthma medications regularly. Conclusions: Popular myths about asthma treatment were common in our sample, as were uncontrolled asthma and inappropriate asthma management. Further studies in this field should be conducted in other developing countries, as should evaluations of pediatric asthma treatment programs in public health systems.

 


Keywords: Asthma/therapy; Asthma/prevention & control; Child health.

 

Brief Communication

12 - Influence of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds analyzed by an electronic nose

Influência da idade e do gênero no perfil de compostos orgânicos voláteis exalados analisados por nariz eletrônico

Miriane Lilian Barboza1, Alan Carlos Brisola Barbosa1, Giovanna Domingues Spina1, Evandro Fornias Sperandio1, Rodolfo Leite Arantes2, Antonio Ricardo de Toledo Gagliardi2, Marcello Romiti2, Victor Zuniga Dourado1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):143-145

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We aimed to investigate the effects of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds. We evaluated 68 healthy adult never-smokers, comparing them by age and by gender. Exhaled breath samples were analyzed by an electronic nose (e-nose), resulting in "breathprints". Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis showed that older subjects (≥ 50 years of age) could not be distinguished from younger subjects on the basis of their breathprints, as well as that the breathprints of males could not distinguished from those of females (cross-validated accuracy, 60.3% and 57.4%, respectively).Therefore, age and gender do not seem to affect the overall profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds measured by an e-nose.

 


Keywords: Breath tests; Volatile organic compounds; Electronic nose.

 

Review Article

13 - New anticoagulants for the treatment of venous thromboembolism

Os novos anticoagulantes no tratamento do tromboembolismo venoso

Caio Julio Cesar dos Santos Fernandes1, José Leonidas Alves Júnior1, Francisca Gavilanes1, Luis Felipe Prada1, Luciana Kato Morinaga1, Rogerio Souza1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):146-154

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Worldwide, venous thromboembolism (VTE) is among the leading causes of death from cardiovascular disease, surpassed only by acute myocardial infarction and stroke. The spectrum of VTE presentations ranges, by degree of severity, from deep vein thrombosis to acute pulmonary thromboembolism. Treatment is based on full anticoagulation of the patients. For many decades, it has been known that anticoagulation directly affects the mortality associated with VTE. Until the beginning of this century, anticoagulant therapy was based on the use of unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin and vitamin K antagonists, warfarin in particular. Over the past decades, new classes of anticoagulants have been developed, such as factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors, which significantly changed the therapeutic arsenal against VTE, due to their efficacy and safety when compared with the conventional treatment. The focus of this review was on evaluating the role of these new anticoagulants in this clinical context.

 


Keywords: Blood coagulation; Venous thromboembolism\therapy; Venous thromboembolism\prevention and control.

 

Letters to the Editor

14 - Bronchial thermoplasty in a patient with difficult-to-control asthma

Termoplastia brônquica em paciente com asma de difícil controle

Adalberto Rubin1,2, Suzana Zelmanovitz1, Manuela Cavalcanti1, Fernanda Spilimbergo1, Paulo Goldenfum1, José Felicetti3, Paulo Cardoso4

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):155-156

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Images in Pulmonary Medicine

15 - HRCT in smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: a kaleidoscopic overlap of patterns

TCAR em doenças pulmonares intersticiais relacionadas ao tabagismo: uma superposição caleidoscópica de padrões

Gaetano Rea1, Tullio Valente1, Edson Marchiori2,3

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):157

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Correspondence

16 - Pre-operative evaluation in obstructive sleep apnea patients undergoing bariatric surgery: sleep laboratory limitations

Avaliação pré-operatória de apneia obstrutiva do sono em doentes a serem submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica: limitações do laboratório do sono

João Pedro Abreu Cravo1, Antonio Matias Esquinas2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):158

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Author's reply

17 - Authors' reply

Resposta dos autores

Ricardo Luiz de Menezes Duarte1,2, Flavio José Magalhães-da-Silveira1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):159

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Correspondence

18 - Open letter to city, state, and federal health authorities, to State Health Councils, and to the National Council of Municipal Health Secretaries in Brazil

Carta aberta às autoridades federais, estaduais e municipais do setor da saúde, aos Conselhos Estaduais de Saúde e ao Conselho Nacional dos Secretários Municipais de Saúde

.

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):160

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Continuing Education: Imaging

19 - Interlobular septal thickening

Espessamento de septos interlobulares

Edson Marchiori1,2, Gláucia Zanetti2,3, Bruno Hochhegger4,5

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):161

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Continuing Education : Scientific Methodology

20 - What is the importance of calculating sample size?

Qual a importância do cálculo do tamanho amostral?

Cecilia Maria Patino1,2, Juliana Carvalho Ferreira1,3

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):162

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Year 2016 - Volume 42  - Number 3  (May/June)

App

Editorial

1 - Corticosteroids for the prevention of ventilator-induced lung injury?

Corticosteroides para prevenir lesão pulmonar induzida por ventilação mecânica?

Marcelo Alcantara Holanda1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):163

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Continuing Education: Imaging

2 - Multiple calcified nodules

Nódulos múltiplos calcificados

Edson Marchiori1,2, Gláucia Zanetti2,3, Bruno Hochhegger4,5

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):164

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Continuing Education : Scientific Methodology

3 - Choosing wisely between randomized controlled trials and observational designs in studies about interventions

Escolhendo sabiamente entre ensaios clínicos randomizados e desenhos observacionais em estudos sobre intervenções

Juliana Carvalho Ferreira1,2, Cecilia Maria Patino2,3

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):165

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Original Article

4 - Pre-treatment with dexamethasone attenuates experimental ventilator-induced lung injury

Pré-tratamento com dexametasona atenua a lesão pulmonar induzida por ventilação mecânica em modelo experimental

Fernando Fonseca dos Reis1,2, Maycon de Moura Reboredo1,2, Leda Marília Fonseca Lucinda1,2, Aydra Mendes Almeida Bianchi1,2, Maria Aparecida Esteves Rabelo1, Lídia Maria Carneiro da Fonseca1,2, Júlio César Abreu de Oliveira1, Bruno Valle Pinheiro1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):166-173

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the effects that administering dexamethasone before the induction of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) has on the temporal evolution of that injury. Methods: Wistar rats were allocated to one of three groups: pre-VILI administration of dexamethasone (dexamethasone group); pre-VILI administration of saline (control group); or ventilation only (sham group). The VILI was induced by ventilation at a high tidal volume. Animals in the dexamethasone and control groups were euthanized at 0, 4, 24, and 168 h after VILI induction. We analyzed arterial blood gases, lung edema, cell counts (total and differential) in the BAL fluid, and lung histology. Results: At 0, 4, and 24 h after VILI induction, acute lung injury (ALI) scores were higher in the control group than in the sham group (p < 0.05). Administration of dexamethasone prior to VILI induction decreased the severity of the lung injury. At 4 h and 24 h after induction, the ALI score in the dexamethasone group was not significantly different from that observed for the sham group and was lower than that observed for the control group (p < 0.05). Neutrophil counts in BAL fluid were increased in the control and dexamethasone groups, peaking at 4 h after VILI induction (p < 0.05). However, the neutrophil counts were lower in the dexamethasone group than in the control group at 4 h and 24 h after induction (p < 0.05). Pre-treatment with dexamethasone also prevented the post-induction oxygenation impairment seen in the control group. Conclusions: Administration of dexamethasone prior to VILI induction attenuates the effects of the injury in Wistar rats. The molecular mechanisms of such injury and the possible clinical role of corticosteroids in VILI have yet to be elucidated.

 


Keywords: Ventilator-induced lung injury; Dexamethasone; Respiratory distress syndrome, adult.

 

5 - Evaluating bronchodilator response in pediatric patients with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans: use of different criteria for identifying airway reversibility

Avaliação da resposta ao broncodilatador em pacientes pediátricos com bronquiolite obliterante pós-infecciosa: uso de diferentes critérios de identificação de reversibilidade das vias aéreas

Rita Mattiello1, Paula Cristina Vidal2, Edgar Enrique Sarria3, Paulo Márcio Pitrez1, Renato Tetelbom Stein1, Helena Teresinha Mocelin4, Gilberto Bueno Fischer4, Marcus Herbert Jones1, Leonardo Araújo Pinto1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):174-178

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO) is a clinical entity that has been classified as constrictive, fixed obstruction of the lumen by fibrotic tissue. However, recent studies using impulse oscillometry have reported bronchodilator responses in PIBO patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate bronchodilator responses in pediatric PIBO patients, comparing different criteria to define the response. Methods: We evaluated pediatric patients diagnosed with PIBO and treated at one of two pediatric pulmonology outpatient clinics in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Spirometric parameters were measured in accordance with international recommendations. Results: We included a total of 72 pediatric PIBO patients. The mean pre- and post-bronchodilator values were clearly lower than the reference values for all parameters, especially FEF25‑75%. There were post-bronchodilator improvements. When measured as mean percent increases, FEV1 and FEF25-75%, improved by 11% and 20%, respectively. However, when the absolute values were calculated, the mean FEV1 and FEF25-75% both increased by only 0.1 L. We found that age at viral aggression, a family history of asthma, and allergy had no significant effects on bronchodilator responses. Conclusions: Pediatric patients with PIBO have peripheral airway obstruction that is responsive to treatment but is not completely reversible with a bronchodilator. The concept of PIBO as fixed, irreversible obstruction does not seem to apply to this population. Our data suggest that airway obstruction is variable in PIBO patients, a finding that could have major clinical implications.

 


Keywords: Bronchiolitis obliterans; Infection/complications; Airway obstruction; Bronchodilator agents.

 

6 - Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with COPD: mild-to-moderate COPD versus severe-to-very severe COPD

Fatores de risco de doença cardiovascular em pacientes com DPOC: DPOC leve/moderada versus DPOC grave/muito grave

Laura Miranda de Oliveira Caram1, Renata Ferrari1, Cristiane Roberta Naves1, Liana Sousa Coelho1, Simone Alves do Vale1, Suzana Erico Tanni1, Irma Godoy1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):179-184

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess and compare the prevalence of comorbidities and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in COPD patients according to disease severity. Methods: The study included 25 patients with mild-to-moderate COPD (68% male; mean age, 65 ± 8 years; mean FEV1, 73 ± 15% of predicted) and 25 with severe-to-very severe COPD (males, 56%; mean age, 69 ± 9 years; mean FEV1, 40 ± 18% of predicted). Comorbidities were recorded on the basis of data obtained from medical charts and clinical evaluations. Comorbidities were registered on the basis of data obtained from medical charts and clinical evaluations. The Charlson comorbidity index was calculated, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) score was determined. Results: Of the 50 patients evaluated, 38 (76%) had been diagnosed with at least one comorbidity, 21 (42%) having been diagnosed with at least one CVD. Twenty-four patients (48%) had more than one CVD. Eighteen (36%) of the patients were current smokers, 10 (20%) had depression, 7 (14%) had dyslipidemia, and 7 (14%) had diabetes mellitus. Current smoking, depression, and dyslipidemia were more prevalent among the patients with mild-to-moderate COPD than among those with severe-to-very severe COPD (p < 0.001, p = 0.008, and p = 0.02, respectively). The prevalence of high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, ischemic heart disease, and chronic heart failure was comparable between the two groups. The Charlson comorbidity index and HADS scores did not differ between the groups. Conclusions: Comorbidities are highly prevalent in COPD, regardless of its severity. Certain risk factors for CVD, themselves classified as diseases (including smoking, dyslipidemia, and depression), appear to be more prevalent in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Spirometry; Cardiovascular diseases; Risk factors.

 

7 - Robotic pulmonary lobectomy for lung cancer treatment: program implementation and initial experience

Lobectomia pulmonar robótica para tratamento do câncer de pulmão e de metástases pulmonares: implantação do programa e experiência inicial

Ricardo Mingarini Terra1, Pedro Henrique Xavier Nabuco de Araujo2, Leticia Leone Lauricella2, José Ribas Milanez de Campos1, Herbert Felix Costa2, Paulo Manuel Pego-Fernandes1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):185-190

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the implementation of a robotic thoracic surgery program at a public tertiary teaching hospital and to analyze its initial results. Methods: This was a planned interim analysis of a randomized clinical trial aimed at comparing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and robotic surgery in terms of the results obtained after pulmonary lobectomy. The robotic surgery program developed at the Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, is a multidisciplinary initiative involving various surgical specialties, as well as anesthesiology, nursing, and clinical engineering teams. In this analysis, we evaluated the patients included in the robotic lobectomy arm of the trial during its first three months (from April to June of 2015). Results: Ten patients were included in this analysis. There were eight women and two men. The mean age was 65.1 years. All of the patients presented with peripheral tumors. We performed right upper lobectomy in four patients, right lower lobectomy in four, and left upper lobectomy in two. Surgical time varied considerably (range, 135-435 min). Conversion to open surgery or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was not necessary in any of the cases. Intraoperative complications were not found. Only the first patient required postoperative transfer to the ICU. There were no deaths or readmissions within the first 30 days after discharge. The only postoperative complication was chest pain (grade 3), in two patients. Pathological examination revealed complete tumor resection in all cases. Conclusions: When there is integration and proper training of all of the teams involved, the implementation of a robotic thoracic surgery program is feasible and can reduce morbidity and mortality.

 


Keywords: Pneumonectomy; Robotic surgical procedures; Thoracic surgery; Minimally invasive surgical procedures; Lung neoplasms.

 

8 - Bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures and microbiological examinations in proving endobronchial tuberculosis

Procedimentos diagnósticos broncoscópicos e exames microbiológicos para a confirmação de tuberculose endobrônquica

Abdullah Şimşek1 , İlhami Yapıcı1 , Mesiha Babalık1 , Zekiye Şimşek2 , Mustafa Kolsuz1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):191-195

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the proportional distribution of endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) subtypes and to evaluate the types of bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures that can prove granulomatous inflammation. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 18 HIV-negative patients with biopsy-proven EBTB treated between 2010 and 2014. Results: The most common EBTB subtypes, as classified by the bronchoscopic features, were tumorous and granular (in 22.2% for both). Sputum smear microscopy was performed in 11 patients and was positive for AFB in 4 (36.3%). Sputum culture was also performed in 11 patients and was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 10 (90.9%). Smear microscopy of BAL fluid (BALF) was performed in 16 patients and was positive for AFB in 10 (62.5%). Culture of BALF was also performed in 16 patients and was positive for M. tuberculosis in 15 (93.7%). Culture of BALF was positive for M. tuberculosis in 93.7% of the 16 patients tested. Among the 18 patients with EBTB, granulomatous inflammation was proven by the following bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures: bronchial mucosal biopsy, in 8 (44.4%); bronchial brushing, in 7 (38.8%); fine-needle aspiration biopsy, in 2 (11.1%); and BAL, in 2 (11.1%). Bronchial anthracofibrosis was observed in 5 (27.7%) of the 18 cases evaluated. Conclusions: In our sample of EBTB patients, the most common subtypes were the tumorous and granular subtypes. We recommend that sputum samples and BALF samples be evaluated by smear microscopy for AFB and by culture for M. tuberculosis, which could increase the rates of early diagnosis of EBTB. We also recommend that bronchial brushing be employed together with other bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures in patients suspected of having EBTB.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Diagnostic techniques and procedures; Bronchoscopy.

 

9 - Viability of gait speed test in hospitalized elderly patients

Viabilidade do teste de velocidade de marcha em idosos hospitalizados

Bruno Prata Martinez1,2, Anne Karine Menezes Santos Batista3, Isis Resende Ramos3, Júlio Cesar Dantas3, Isabela Barboza Gomes3, Luiz Alberto Forgiarini Jr4, Fernanda Rosa Warken Camelier1, Aquiles Assunção Camelier1,5

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):196-202

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The gait speed test (GST) is a physical test that can predict falls and aid in the diagnosis of sarcopenia in the elderly. However, to our knowledge, there have been no studies evaluating its reproducibility in hospitalized elderly patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and reproducibility of the six-meter GST (6GST) in hospitalized elderly patients. Methods: This repeated measures study involved hospitalized elderly patients (≥ 60 years of age) who underwent the 6GST by the fifth day of hospitalization, were able to walk without assistance, and presented no signs of dyspnea or pain that would prevent them from performing the test. The 6GST was performed three times in sequence, with a rest period between each test, in a level corridor. Gait speed was measured in meters/second. Reproducibility was assessed by comparing the means, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots. Results: We evaluated 110 elderly patients in a total of 330 tests. All participants completed all of the tests. The comparisons between the speeds obtained during the three tests showed high ICCs and a low mean bias (Bland-Altman plots). The correlation and accuracy were greatest when the mean maximum speed was compared with that obtained in the third test (1.26 ± 0.44 m/s vs. 1.22 ± 0.44 m/s; ICC = 0.99; p = 0.001; mean bias = 0.04; and limits of agreement = −0.27 to 0.15). Conclusions: The 6GST was proven to be safe and to have good reproducibility in this sample of hospitalized elderly patients. The third measurement seems to correspond to the maximum speed, since the first two measurements underestimated the actual performance.

 


Keywords: Disability evaluation; Reproducibility of results; Hospitalization; Mobility limitation; Health of the elderly.

 

10 - The value of antibody-coated bacteria in tracheal aspirates for the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a case-control study

Utilidade da avaliação de bactérias revestidas por anticorpos em aspirados traqueais para o diagnóstico de pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica: um estudo caso-controle

Otavio Tavares Ranzani1, Daniel Neves Forte2, Antonio Carlos Forte3, Igor Mimica3, Wilma Carvalho Neves Forte3

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):203-210

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the leading type of hospital-acquired infection in ICU patients. The diagnosis of VAP is challenging, mostly due to limitations of the diagnostic methods available. The aim of this study was to determine whether antibody-coated bacteria (ACB) evaluation can improve the specificity of endotracheal aspirate (EA) culture in VAP diagnosis. Methods: We conducted a diagnostic case-control study, enrolling 45 patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Samples of EA were obtained from patients with and without VAP (cases and controls, respectively), and we assessed the number of bacteria coated with FITC-conjugated monoclonal antibodies (IgA, IgM, or IgG) or an FITC-conjugated polyvalent antibody. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we determined the proportion of ACB among a fixed number of 80 bacteria. Results: The median proportions of ACB were significantly higher among the cases (n = 22) than among the controls (n = 23)-IgA (60.6% vs. 22.5%), IgM (42.5% vs. 12.5%), IgG (50.6% vs. 17.5%), and polyvalent (75.6% vs. 33.8%)-p < 0.001 for all. The accuracy of the best cut-off points for VAP diagnosis regarding monoclonal and polyvalent ACBs was greater than 95.0% and 93.3%, respectively. Conclusions: The numbers of ACB in EA samples were higher among cases than among controls. Our findings indicate that evaluating ACB in EA is a promising tool to improve the specificity of VAP diagnosis. The technique could be cost-effective and therefore useful in low-resource settings, with the advantages of minimizing false-positive results and avoiding overtreatment.

 


Keywords: Pneumonia, ventilator-associated/diagnosis; Immunohistochemistry; Fluorescent antibody technique; Antibodies, bacterial/analysis; Trachea/microbiology; Intensive care units.

 

Brief Communication

11 - Analysis of the stability of housekeeping gene expression in the left cardiac ventricle of rats submitted to chronic intermittent hypoxia

Análise da estabilidade da expressão de genes de referência no ventrículo cardíaco esquerdo de ratos submetidos à hipóxia intermitente crônica

Guilherme Silva Julian1, Renato Watanabe de Oliveira1, Sergio Tufik1, Jair Ribeiro Chagas1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):211-214

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with oxidative stress and various cardiovascular consequences, such as increased cardiovascular disease risk. Quantitative real-time PCR is frequently employed to assess changes in gene expression in experimental models. In this study, we analyzed the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (an experimental model of OSA) on housekeeping gene expression in the left cardiac ventricle of rats. Analyses via four different approaches-use of the geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder algorithms; and 2−ΔCt (threshold cycle) data analysis-produced similar results: all genes were found to be suitable for use, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and 18S being classified as the most and the least stable, respectively. The use of more than one housekeeping gene is strongly advised.

 


Keywords: Cell hypoxia; Reference standards; Sleep apnea, obstructive; Cardiovascular diseases; Models, animal; Polymerase chain reaction.

 

Special Article

12 - Anatomic pulmonary resection by video-assisted thoracoscopy: the Brazilian experience (VATS Brazil study)

Ressecção pulmonar anatômica por videotoracoscopia: experiência brasileira (VATS Brasil)

Ricardo Mingarini Terra1, Thamara Kazantzis1, Darcy Ribeiro Pinto-Filho2, Spencer Marcantonio Camargo3, Francisco Martins-Neto4,5, Anderson Nassar Guimarães6, Carlos Alberto Araújo7, Luis Carlos Losso8, Mario Claudio Ghefter9, Nuno Ferreira de Lima10, Antero Gomes-Neto5, Flávio Brito-Filho10, Rui Haddad11, Maurício Guidi Saueressig12, Alexandre Marcelo Rodrigues Lima13, Rafael Pontes de Siqueira5, Astunaldo Júnior de Macedo e Pinho14, Fernando Vannucci15

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):215-221

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the results of anatomic pulmonary resections performed by video-assisted thoracoscopy in Brazil. Methods: Thoracic surgeons (members of the Brazilian Society of Thoracic Surgery) were invited, via e-mail, to participate in the study. Eighteen surgeons participated in the project by providing us with retrospective databases containing information related to anatomic pulmonary resections performed by video-assisted thoracoscopy. Demographic, surgical, and postoperative data were collected with a standardized instrument, after which they were compiled and analyzed. Results: The surgeons provided data related to a collective total of 786 patients (mean number of resections per surgeon, 43.6). However, 137 patients were excluded because some data were missing. Therefore, the study sample comprised 649 patients. The mean age of the patients was 61.7 years. Of the 649 patients, 295 (45.5%) were male. The majority-521 (89.8%)-had undergone surgery for neoplasia, which was most often classified as stage IA. The median duration of pleural drainage was 3 days, and the median hospital stay was 4 days. Of the 649 procedures evaluated, 598 (91.2%) were lobectomies. Conversion to thoracotomy was necessary in 30 cases (4.6%). Postoperative complications occurred in 124 patients (19.1%), the most common complications being pneumonia, prolonged air leaks, and atelectasis. The 30-day mortality rate was 2.0%, advanced age and diabetes being found to be predictors of mortality. Conclusions: Our analysis of this representative sample of patients undergoing pulmonary resection by video-assisted thoracoscopy in Brazil showed that the procedure is practicable and safe, as well as being comparable to those performed in other countries.

 


Keywords: Thoracic surgery, video-assisted; Thoracoscopy; Pneumonectomy.

 

Ensaio Pictórico

13 - Etiology of primary spontaneous pneumothorax

A etiologia do pneumotórax espontâneo primário

Roberto de Menezes Lyra1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):222-226

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

With the advent of HRCT, primary spontaneous pneumothorax has come to be better understood and managed, because its etiology can now be identified in most cases. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is mainly caused by the rupture of a small subpleural emphysematous vesicle (designated a bleb) or of a subpleural paraseptal emphysematous lesion (designated a bulla). The aim of this pictorial essay was to improve the understanding of primary spontaneous pneumothorax and to propose a description of the major anatomical lesions found during surgery.

 


Keywords: Pneumothorax; Pulmonary emphysema; Tomography, X-ray computed.

 

Images in Pulmonary Medicine

14 - Implications of a tracheal bronchus in a patient with thymoma

Implicações de um brônquio traqueal em um paciente com timoma

Luis Gorospe1, Ana Paz Valdebenito-Montecino2, Ana Patricia Ovejero-Díaz2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):227

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Case Report

15 - Impact of long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators on lung function in a patient with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans

Impacto do tratamento de longo prazo com corticosteroides e broncodilatadores inalatórios na função pulmonar em um paciente com bronquiolite obliterante pós-infecciosa

Cecilia Calabrese1, Nadia Corcione1, Gaetano Rea2, Francesco Stefanelli3, Ilernando Meoli3, Alessandro Vatrella4

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):228-231

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO) is a small airways disease characterized by fixed airflow limitation. Therefore, inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids are not recommended as maintenance therapy options. The management of PIBO currently consists only of close monitoring of affected patients, aimed at the prevention and early treatment of pulmonary infections. In recent years, there has been an increase in the incidence of PIBO in the pediatric population. Patients with PIBO are characterized by a progressive decline in lung function, accompanied by a decrease in overall functional capacity. Here, we report the case of a relatively young man diagnosed with PIBO and followed for three years. After short- and long-term therapy with an inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2 agonist combination, together with an inhaled long-acting antimuscarinic, the patient showed relevant improvement of airway obstruction that had been irreversible at the time of the bronchodilator test. The lung function of the patient worsened when he interrupted the triple inhaled therapy. In addition, a 3-week pulmonary rehabilitation program markedly improved his physical performance.

 


Keywords: Bronchiolitis obliterans/therapy; Infection/complications; Adrenergic beta-2 receptor antagonists/therapeutic use; Administration, inhalation; Anti-inflammatory agents/therapeutic use; Muscarinic antagonists/therapeutic use; Lung diseases/rehabilitation.

 

Letters to the Editor

16 - Reversed halo sign in invasive fungal infections

Sinal do halo invertido em infecções fúngicas invasivas

Edson Marchiori1, Bruno Hochhegger1, Gláucia Zanetti1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):232

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


17 - An old risk factor for COPD: rest in peace, 15%

Um velho fator de risco para DPOC: descanse em paz, 15%

Paulo César Rodrigues Pinto Corrêa1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):233-234

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Correspondence

18 - Inhalation therapy in mechanical ventilation

Terapia inalatória em ventilação mecânica

Ângelo Roncalli Miranda Rocha1,2,3, Caio Henrique Veloso da Costa1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):235

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Author's reply

19 - AUTHORS' REPLY

Resposta dos autores

Juçara Gasparetto Maccari1,2, Cassiano Teixeira1,2,3

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):236

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Year 2016 - Volume 42  - Number 4  (July/August)

App

Editorial

1 - Eosinophils in COPD: why should I care?

Eosinófilos na DPOC: por que devo me importar?

Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(4):237-238

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Continuing Education: Imaging

2 - Conglomerate masses

Massas conglomeradas

Edson Marchiori, Bruno Hochhegger, Gláucia Zanetti

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(4):239

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Continuing Education : Scientific Methodology

3 - Test for trend: evaluating dose-response effects in association studies

Teste de tendência: avaliando os efeitos dose-resposta em estudos de associação

Cecilia Maria Patino, Juliana Carvalho Ferreira

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(4):240

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Original Article

4 - Inflammatory and immunological profiles in patients with COPD: relationship with FEV1 reversibility

Perfil inflamatório e imunológico em pacientes com DPOC: relação com a reversibilidade do VEF1

Cleriston Farias Queiroz, Antonio Carlos Moreira Lemos, Maria de Lourdes Santana Bastos, Margarida Célia Lima Costa Neves, Aquiles Assunção Camelier, Natália Barbosa Carvalho, Edgar Marcelino de Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(4):241-274

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether COPD severity correlates with sputum cell counts, atopy, and asthma. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 37 patients with COPD and 22 healthy subjects with normal lung function (controls). Sputum cell counts were determined by microscopy after centrifugation of samples. Skin prick tests were performed, and serum cytokines were determined by ELISA. Results: Patients were stratified by bronchodilator response: a non-reversible airflow limitation (nonRAL) group comprised 24 patients showing no significant post-bronchodilator change in FEV1; and a partially reversible airflow limitation (partialRAL) group comprised 13 patients showing FEV1 reversibility (post-bronchodilator FEV1 increase ≥ 12%). The proportion of eosinophils in sputum was higher in the partialRAL group than in the nonRAL group (p < 0.01), and there was an inverse correlation between the proportion of eosinophils and FEV1 (p < 0.05). However, none of the patients had a history of asthma and skin prick test results did not differ between the two groups. In the patient sputum samples, neutrophils predominated. Serum levels of TNF, IL-6, IL-8, and RANTES (CCL5) were higher in patients than in controls (p < 0.001) but did not differ between the two patient groups. Conclusions: COPD patients with partial FEV1 reversibility appear to have higher sputum eosinophil counts and greater airway hyperresponsiveness than do those with no FEV1 reversibility. However, we found that COPD severity did not correlate with atopy or with the cytokine profile.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Cytokines; Chemokines; Eosinophils; Sputum/cytology; Forced expiratory volume.

 

5 - Radial-probe EBUS for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions

Ecobroncoscopia radial para o diagnóstico de lesões pulmonares periféricas

Marcia Jacomelli, Sergio Eduardo Demarzo, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Addy Lidvina Mejia Palomino, Viviane Rossi Figueiredo

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(4):248-253

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Conventional bronchoscopy has a low diagnostic yield for peripheral pulmonary lesions. Radial-probe EBUS employs a rotating ultrasound transducer at the end of a probe that is passed through the working channel of the bronchoscope. Radial-probe EBUS facilitates the localization of peripheral pulmonary nodules, thus increasing the diagnostic yield. The objective of this study was to present our initial experience using radial-probe EBUS in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions at a tertiary hospital. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 54 patients who underwent radial-probe EBUS-guided bronchoscopy for the investigation of pulmonary nodules or masses between February of 2012 and September of 2013. Radial-probe EBUS was performed with a flexible 20-MHz probe, which was passed through the working channel of the bronchoscope and advanced through the bronchus to the target lesion. For localization of the lesion and for collection procedures (bronchial brushing, transbronchial needle aspiration, and transbronchial biopsy), we used fluoroscopy. Results: Radial-probe EBUS identified 39 nodules (mean diameter, 1.9 ± 0.7 cm) and 19 masses (mean diameter, 4.1 ± 0.9 cm). The overall sensitivity of the method was 66.7% (79.5% and 25.0%, respectively, for lesions that were visible and not visible by radial-probe EBUS). Among the lesions that were visible by radial-probe EBUS, the sensitivity was 91.7% for masses and 74.1% for nodules. The complications were pneumothorax (in 3.7%) and bronchial bleeding, which was controlled bronchoscopically (in 9.3%). Conclusions: Radial-probe EBUS shows a good safety profile, a low complication rate, and high sensitivity for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions.

 


Keywords: Diagnostic techniques, respiratory system; Lung/ultrasonography; Bronchoscopy/methods; Bronchoscopy/instrumentation.

 

6 - Growth, lung function, and physical activity in schoolchildren who were very-low-birth-weight preterm infants

Crescimento, função pulmonar e atividade física em escolares nascidos prematuros e com muito baixo peso

Aline Dill Winck1,2, João Paulo Heinzmann-Filho3, Deise Schumann4, Helen Zatti4, Rita Mattiello3,5, Marcus Herbert Jones3,5, Renato Tetelbom Stein3,

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(4):254-260

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare somatic growth, lung function, and level of physical activity in schoolchildren who had been very-low-birth-weight preterm infants (VLBWPIs) or normal-birth-weight full-term infants. Methods: We recruited two groups of schoolchildren between 8 and 11 years of age residing in the study catchment area: those who had been VLBWPIs (birth weight < 1,500 g); and those who had been normal-birth-weight full-term infants (controls, birth weight ≥ 2,500 g). Anthropometric and spirometric data were collected from the schoolchildren, who also completed a questionnaire regarding their physical activity. In addition, data regarding the perinatal and neonatal period were collected from the medical records of the VLBWPIs. Results: Of the 93 schoolchildren screened, 48 and 45 were in the VLBWPI and control groups, respectively. No significant differences were found between the groups regarding anthropometric characteristics, nutritional status, or pulmonary function. No associations were found between perinatal/neonatal variables and lung function parameters in the VLBWPI group. Although the difference was not significant, the level of physical activity was slightly higher in the VLBWPI group than in the control group. Conclusions: Among the schoolchildren evaluated here, neither growth nor lung function appear to have been affected by prematurity birth weight, or level of physical activity.

 


Keywords: Premature birth; Birth weight; Respiratory function tests; Motor activity; Pediatrics.

 

7 - Lack of association between viral load and severity of acute bronchiolitis in infants

Falta de associação entre carga viral e gravidade da bronquiolite aguda em lactentes

Ana Paula Duarte de Souza, Lidiane Alves de Azeredo Leitão, Fernanda Luisi, Rodrigo Godinho Souza, Sandra Eugênia Coutinho, Jaqueline Ramos da Silva, Rita Mattiello, Paulo Márcio Condessa Pitrez, Renato Tetelbom Stein, Leonardo Araújo Pinto

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(4):261-265

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate the correlation between respiratory syncytial viral load and length of hospitalization in infants with acute wheezing episodes. Methods: This was a two-year, cross-sectional study of infants ≤ 12 months of age with bronchiolitis at the time of admission to a tertiary hospital. For the identification of respiratory viruses, nasopharyngeal secretions were collected. Samples were analyzed (throughout the study period) by direct immunofluorescence and (in the second year of the study) by quantitative real-time PCR. We screened for three human viruses: rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and metapneumovirus. Results: Of 110 samples evaluated by direct immunofluorescence, 56 (50.9%) were positive for a single virus, and 16 (14.5%) were positive for two or more viruses. Among those 72 samples, the most prevalent virus was respiratory syncytial virus, followed by influenza. Of 56 samples evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, 24 (42.8%) were positive for a single virus, and 1 (1.7%) was positive for two viruses. Among those 25 samples, the most prevalent virus was again respiratory syncytial virus, followed by human rhinovirus. Coinfection did not influence the length of the hospital stay or other outcome s. In addition, there was no association between respiratory syncytial virus load and the length of hospitalization. Conclusions: Neither coinfection nor respiratory syncytial viral load appears to influence the outcomes of acute bronchiolitis in infants.

 


Keywords: Bronchiolitis; Coinfection; Viral load; Hospitalization; Respiratory syncytial virus, human.

 

8 - STOP-Bang questionnaire: translation to Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

Tradução e adaptação transcultural do questionário STOP-Bang para a língua portuguesa falada no Brasil

Lorena Barbosa de Moraes Fonseca, Erika Aparecida Silveira, Nathalia Meireles Lima, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(4):266-272

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To translate and perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, high blood Pressure, Body mass index, Age, Neck circumference, and Gender (STOP-Bang) questionnaire so that it can be used as a screening tool for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in Brazil. Methods: Based on the principles of good practice for the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of such instruments, the protocol included the following steps: acquisition of authorization from the lead author of the original questionnaire; translation of the instrument to Brazilian Portuguese, carried out by two translators; reconciliation; back-translation to English, carried out by two English teachers who are fluent in Portuguese; review of the back-translation; harmonization; review and approval of the questionnaire by the original author; cognitive debriefing involving 14 patients who completed the questionnaire; analysis of the results; and review and preparation of the final version of the instrument approved by the review committee. Results: The final version of the STOP-Bang questionnaire for use in Brazil showed a clarity score > 9 (on a scale of 1-10) for all of the questions. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.62, demonstrating the internal consistency of the instrument. The means and standard deviations of the age, body mass index, and neck circumference of the patients studied were 46.8 ± 11.2 years, 43.7 ± 8.5 kg/m2, and 41.3 ± 3.6 cm, respectively. Conclusions: The STOP-Bang questionnaire proved to be understandable, clear, and applicable. The original instrument and the translated version, cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, were consistently equivalent. Therefore, it can become a widely used screening tool for patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea.

 


Keywords: Sleep apnea, obstructive; Questionnaires; Translations.

 

9 - Influence of heart failure on resting lung volumes in patients with COPD

Influência da insuficiência cardíaca nos volumes pulmonares de repouso em pacientes com DPOC

Aline Soares de Souza, Priscila Abreu Sperandio, Adriana Mazzuco, Maria Clara Alencar, Flávio Ferlin Arbex, Mayron Faria de Oliveira, Denis Eunan O'Donnell, José Alberto Neder

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(4):273-278

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the influence of chronic heart failure (CHF) on resting lung volumes in patients with COPD, i.e., inspiratory fraction-inspiratory capacity (IC)/TLC-and relative inspiratory reserve-[1 − (end-inspiratory lung volume/TLC)]. Methods: This was a prospective study involving 56 patients with COPD-24 (23 males/1 female) with COPD+CHF and 32 (28 males/4 females) with COPD only-who, after careful clinical stabilization, underwent spirometry (with forced and slow maneuvers) and whole-body plethysmography. Results: Although FEV1, as well as the FEV1/FVC and FEV1/slow vital capacity ratios, were higher in the COPD+CHF group than in the COPD group, all major "static" volumes-RV, functional residual capacity (FRC), and TLC-were lower in the former group (p < 0.05). There was a greater reduction in FRC than in RV, resulting in the expiratory reserve volume being lower in the COPD+CHF group than in the COPD group. There were relatively proportional reductions in FRC and TLC in the two groups; therefore, IC was also comparable. Consequently, the inspiratory fraction was higher in the COPD+CHF group than in the COPD group (0.42 ± 0.10 vs. 0.36 ± 0.10; p < 0.05). Although the tidal volume/IC ratio was higher in the COPD+CHF group, the relative inspiratory reserve was remarkably similar between the two groups (0.35 ± 0.09 vs. 0.44 ± 0.14; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Despite the restrictive effects of CHF, patients with COPD+CHF have relatively higher inspiratory limits (a greater inspiratory fraction). However, those patients use only a part of those limits, probably in order to avoid critical reductions in inspiratory reserve and increases in elastic recoil.

 


Keywords: Respiratory function tests; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Heart failure; Spirometry.

 

10 - Evaluation of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in pyrochlore mine workers

Avaliação da função pulmonar e sintomas respiratórios em trabalhadores da mineração de pirocloro

Ritta de Cássia Canedo Oliveira Borges, José Cerqueira Barros Júnior, Fabrício Borges Oliveira, Marisa Andrade Brunherotti, Paulo Roberto Veiga Quemelo

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(4):279-285

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify respiratory symptoms and evaluate lung function in mine workers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study involving production sector workers of a pyrochlore mining company. The subjects completed the British Medical Research Council questionnaire, which is designed to evaluate respiratory symptoms, occupational exposure factors, and smoking status. In addition, they underwent pulmonary function tests with a portable spirometer. Results: The study involved 147 workers (all male). The mean age was 41.37 ± 8.71 years, and the mean duration of occupational exposure was 12.26 ± 7.09 years. We found that 33 (22.44%) of the workers had respiratory symptoms and that 26 (17.69%) showed abnormalities in the spirometry results. However, we found that the spirometry results did not correlate significantly with the presence of respiratory symptoms or with the duration of occupational exposure. Conclusions: The frequencies of respiratory symptoms and spirometric changes were low when compared with those reported in other studies involving occupational exposure to dust. No significant associations were observed between respiratory symptoms and spirometry results.

 


Keywords: Spirometry; Mining; Niobium; Occupational exposure.

 

Brief Communication

11 - Recent transmission of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a prison population in southern Brazil

Transmissão recente de Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistentes aos antimicrobianos em população carcerária no sul do Brasil

Ana Julia Reis, Simone Maria Martini de David, Luciana de Souza Nunes, Andreia Rosane de Moura Valim, Lia Gonçalves Possuelo

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(4):286-289

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective study, characterized by classical and molecular epidemiology, involving M. tuberculosis isolates from a regional prison in southern Brazil. Between January of 2011 and August of 2014, 379 prisoners underwent sputum smear microscopy and culture; 53 (13.9%) were diagnosed with active tuberculosis. Of those, 8 (22.9%) presented with isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis. Strain genotyping was carried out by 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem-repeat analysis; 68.6% of the patients were distributed into five clusters, and 87.5% of the resistant cases were in the same cluster. The frequency of drug-resistant tuberculosis cases and the rate of recent transmission were high. Our data suggest the need to implement an effective tuberculosis control program within the prison system.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Prisons; Molecular epidemiology.

 

Review Article

12 - Smoking control: challenges and achievements

Controle do tabagismo: desafios e conquistas

Luiz Carlos Corrêa da Silva, Alberto José de Araújo, Ângela Maria Dias de Queiroz, Maria da Penha Uchoa Sales, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira Castellano; Comissão de Tabagismo da SBPT

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(4):290-298

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases.

 


Keywords: Tobacco products; Smoking; Health policy; Smoking cessation; Health personnel.

 

Letters to the Editor

13 - Resistance profile of strains of Mycobacterium fortuitum isolated from clinical specimens

Perfil de resistência de cepas de Mycobacterium fortuitum isoladas de espécimes clínicos

Debora Ribeiro de Souza Santos, Maria Cristina Silva Lourenço, Fábrice Santana Coelho, Fernanda Carvalho Queiroz Mello, Rafael Silva Duarte

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(4):299-301

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14 - Management of pericardial cyst in the mediastinum: a single-port approach

Manejo de cisto pericárdico no mediastino: uma abordagem com acesso único

Dario Amore, Antonio Mazzella, Alessandro Izzo, Antonio Cennamo, Fabio Perrotta

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(4):302-303

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


15 - Not every irreversible airflow obstruction is COPD

Nem toda obstrução fixa é DPOC

José Baddini-Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(4):304-305

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Correspondence

16 - The rapid shallow breathing index as a predictor of successful mechanical ventilation weaning: clinical utility when calculated from ventilator data

Índice de respiração rápida e superficial como previsor de sucesso de desmame da ventilação mecânica: utilidade clínica quando mensurado a partir de dados do ventilador

Luiz Alberto Forgiarini Junior1, Antonio M. Esquinas2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(4):306

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Year 2016 - Volume 42  - Number 5  (September/October)

App

Editorial

1 - Diagnosing alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: does it prevent or improve the course of COPD?

Diagnóstico de deficiência de alfa-1 antitripsina: traz benefícios para a prevenção ou evolução do paciente com DPOC?

Irma Godoy1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):307-308

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Continuing Education: Imaging

2 - Intracavitary nodule

Nódulo intracavitário

Edson Marchiori1,2, Bruno Hochhegger3,4, Gláucia Zanetti2,5

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):309

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Continuing Education : Scientific Methodology

3 - Randomization: beyond tossing a coin

Randomização: mais do que o lançamento de uma moeda

Juliana Carvalho Ferreira1,2, Cecilia Maria Patino1,3

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):310

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Original Article

4 - Prevalence of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and allele frequency in patients with COPD in Brazil

Prevalência da deficiência de alfa-1 antitripsina e frequência alélica em pacientes com DPOC no Brasil

Rodrigo Russo1,2, Laura Russo Zillmer1, Oliver Augusto Nascimento1, Beatriz Manzano1, Ivan Teruaki Ivanaga1, Leandro Fritscher3, Fernando Lundgren4, Marc Miravitlles5, Heicilainy Del Carlos Gondim6, Gildo Santos Junior7, Marcela Amorim Alves4, Maria Vera Oliveira8, Altay Alves Lino de Souza9, Maria Penha Uchoa Sales10, José Roberto Jardim1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):311-316

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (AATD), as well as allele frequency, in COPD patients in Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 926 COPD patients 40 years of age or older, from five Brazilian states. All patients underwent determination of AAT levels in dried blood spot (DBS) samples by nephelometry. Those with DBS AAT levels ≤ 2.64 mg/dL underwent determination of serum AAT levels. Those with serum AAT levels of < 113 mg/dL underwent genotyping. In case of conflicting results, SERPINA1 gene sequencing was performed. Results: Of the 926 COPD patients studied, 85 had DBS AAT levels ≤ 2.64 mg/dL, and 24 (2.6% of the study sample) had serum AAT levels of < 113 mg/dL. Genotype distribution in this subset of 24 patients was as follows: PI*MS, in 3 (12.5%); PI*MZ, in 13 (54.2%); PI*SZ, in 1 (4.2%); PI*SS, in 1 (4.2%); and PI*ZZ, in 6 (25.0%). In the sample as a whole, the overall prevalence of AATD was 2.8% and the prevalence of the PI*ZZ genotype (severe AATD) was 0.8% Conclusions: The prevalence of AATD in COPD patients in Brazil is similar to that found in most countries and reinforces the recommendation that AAT levels be measured in all COPD patients.

 


Keywords: alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency/epidemiology; pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/epidemiology; Alleles; alpha 1-antitrypsin.

 

5 - Factors associated with disease-specific survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer

Fatores associados à sobrevida doença-específica em pacientes com câncer de pulmão de células não pequenas

Mirian Carvalho de Souza1, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz2, Ana Glória Godoi Vasconcelos3

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):317-325

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Lung cancer is a global public health problem and is associated with high mortality. Lung cancer could be largely avoided by reducing the prevalence of smoking. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of social, behavioral, and clinical factors on the survival time of patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated at Cancer Hospital I of the José Alencar Gomes da Silva National Cancer Institute, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2000 and 2003. Methods: This was a retrospective hospital cohort study involving 1,194 patients. The 60-month disease-specific survival probabilities were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method for three stage groups. The importance of the studied factors was assessed with a hierarchical theoretical model after adjustment by Cox multiple regression. Results: The estimated 60-month specific-disease lethality rate was 86.0%. The 60-month disease-specific survival probability ranged from 25.0% (stages I/II) to 2.5% (stage IV). The performance status, the intention to treat, and the initial treatment modality were the major prognostic factors identified in the study population. Conclusions: In this cohort of patients, the disease-specific survival probabilities were extremely low. We identified no factors that could be modified after the diagnosis in order to improve survival. Primary prevention, such as reducing the prevalence of smoking, is still the best method to reduce the number of people who will suffer the consequences of lung cancer.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms/epidemiology; Carcinoma, non-small-cell lung; Survival analysis.

 

6 - Bronchodilator response cut-off points and FEV0.75 reference values for spirometry in preschoolers

Pontos de corte da resposta ao broncodilatador e valores de referência para VEF0,75 em espirometria de pré-escolares

Edjane Figueiredo Burity1, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira2, Marcus Herbert Jones3, Larissa Bouwman Sayão4, Armèle Dornelas de Andrade4, Murilo Carlos Amorim de Britto1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):326-332

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the cut-off points for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% bronchodilator responses in healthy preschool children and to generate reference values for FEV0.75. Methods: This was a cross-sectional community-based study involving children 3-5 years of age. Healthy preschool children were selected by a standardized questionnaire. Spirometry was performed before and after bronchodilator use. The cut-off point of the response was defined as the 95th percentile of the change in each parameter. Results: We recruited 266 children, 160 (60%) of whom were able to perform acceptable, reproducible expiratory maneuvers before and after bronchodilator use. The mean age and height were 57.78 ± 7.86 months and 106.56 ± 6.43 cm, respectively. The success rate for FEV0.5 was 35%, 68%, and 70% in the 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, respectively. The 95th percentile of the change in the percentage of the predicted value in response to bronchodilator use was 11.6%, 16.0%, 8.5%, and 35.5% for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results provide cut-off points for bronchodilator responsiveness for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% in healthy preschool children. In addition, we proposed gender-specific reference equations for FEV0.75. Our findings could improve the physiological assessment of respiratory function in preschool children.

 


Keywords: Spirometry; Bronchodilator agents; Reference values; Child, preschool.

 

7 - Effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on structural and functional parameters in the respiratory system of guinea pigs

Efeitos da inalação passiva da fumaça de cigarro em parâmetros estruturais e funcionais no sistema respiratório de cobaias

Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos1, Fernanda Yvelize Ramos de Araújo1, João Paulo Melo de Pinho2, Pedro Marcos Gomes Soares1, Vasco Pinheiro Diógenes Bastos3

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):333-340

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the effects of passive inhalation of cigarette smoke on the respiratory system of guinea pigs. Methods: Male guinea pigs were divided into two groups: control and passive smoking, the latter being exposed to the smoke of ten cigarettes for 20 min in the morning, afternoon and evening (30 cigarettes/day) for five days. After that period, inflammatory parameters were studied by quantifying mesenteric mast cell degranulation, as well as oxidative stress, in BAL fluid. In addition, we determined MIP, MEP, and mucociliary transport (in vivo), as well as tracheal contractility response (in vitro). Results: In comparison with the control group, the passive smoking group showed a significant increase in mast cell degranulation (19.75 ± 3.77% vs. 42.53 ± 0.42%; p < 0.001) and in the levels of reduced glutathione (293.9 ± 19.21 vs. 723.7 ± 67.43 nM/g of tissue; p < 0.05); as well as a significant reduction in mucociliary clearance (p < 0.05), which caused significant changes in pulmonary function (in MIP and MEP; p < 0.05 for both) and airway hyperreactivity. Conclusions: Passive inhalation of cigarette smoke caused significant increases in mast cell degranulation and oxidative stress. This inflammatory process seems to influence the decrease in mucociliary transport and to cause changes in pulmonary function, leading to tracheal hyperreactivity.

 


Keywords: Inflammation; Inhalation exposure; Tobacco smoke pollution.

 

8 - Lung volumes and airway resistance in patients with a possible restrictive pattern on spirometry

Volumes pulmonares e resistência das vias aéreas em pacientes com possível padrão restritivo à espirometria

Kenia Schultz1,2, Luiz Carlos D'Aquino3, Maria Raquel Soares4, Andrea Gimenez5, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira4,5

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):341-347

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: Many patients with proportional reductions in FVC and FEV1 on spirometry show no reduction in TLC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role that measuring lung volumes and airway resistance plays in the correct classification of patients with a possible restrictive pattern on spirometry. Methods: This was a prospective study involving adults with reduced FVC and FEV1, as well as an FEV1/FV(C) ratio within the predicted range. Restrictive lung disease (RLD) was characterized by TLC below the 5th percentile, as determined by plethysmography. Obstructive lung disease (OLD) was characterized by high specific airway resistance, significant changes in post-bronchodilator FEV1, or an FEF25-75% < 50% of predicted, together with a high RV/TLC ratio. Nonspecific lung disease (NLD) was characterized by TLC within the predicted range and no obstruction. Combined lung disease (CLD) was characterized by reduced TLC and findings indicative of airflow obstruction. Clinical diagnoses were based on clinical suspicion, a respiratory questionnaire, and the review of tests of interest. Results: We included 300 patients in the study, of whom 108 (36%) were diagnosed with RLD. In addition, 120 (40%) and 72 (24%) were diagnosed with OLD/CLD and NLD, respectively. Among the latter, 24 (33%) were clinically diagnosed with OLD. In this sample, 151 patients (50.3%) were obese, and obesity was associated with all patterns of lung disease. Conclusions: Measuring lung volumes and airway resistance is often necessary in order to provide an appropriate characterization of the pattern of lung disease in patients presenting with a spirometry pattern suggestive of restriction. Airflow obstruction is common in such cases.

 


Keywords: Spirometry; Airway resistance; Lung volume measurements.

 

9 - Prevalence of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in prisoners

Prevalência da infecção latente por Mycobacterium tuberculosis em pessoas privadas de liberdade

Pedro Daibert de Navarro1,2, Isabela Neves de Almeida1, Afrânio Lineu Kritski3, Maria das Graças Ceccato4, Mônica Maria Delgado Maciel1, Wânia da Silva Carvalho4, Silvana Spindola de Miranda5

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):348-355

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of and the factors associated with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in prisoners in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional cohort study conducted in two prisons in Minas Gerais. Tuberculin skin tests were performed in the individuals who agreed to participate in the study. Results: A total of 1,120 individuals were selected for inclusion in this study. The prevalence of LTBI was 25.2%. In the multivariate analysis, LTBI was associated with self-reported contact with active tuberculosis patients within prisons (adjusted OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.05-2.18) and use of inhaled drugs (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.03-2.13). Respiratory symptoms were identified in 131 (11.7%) of the participants. Serological testing for HIV was performed in 940 (83.9%) of the participants, and the result was positive in 5 (0.5%). Two cases of active tuberculosis were identified during the study period. Conclusions: Within the prisons under study, the prevalence of LTBI was high. In addition, LTBI was associated with self-reported contact with active tuberculosis patients and with the use of inhaled drugs. Our findings demonstrate that it is necessary to improve the conditions in prisons, as well as to introduce strategies, such as chest X-ray screening, in order to detect tuberculosis cases and, consequently, reduce M. tuberculosis infection within the prison system.

 


Keywords: Prisons; Tuberculin test; Latent tuberculosis, HIV.

 

10 - Staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies: degree of sensitization and association with severity of asthma

Anticorpos IgE específicos para superantígenos estafilocócicos: grau de sensibilização e associação com a gravidade da asma

José Elabras Filho1,2, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz Mello2, Omar Lupi1,3, Blanca Elena Rios Gomes Bica1, José Angelo de Souza Papi1, Alfeu Tavares França1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):356-361

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the presence of staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies and degree of IgE-mediated sensitization, as well as whether or not those are associated with the severity of asthma in adult patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients with asthma under treatment at a tertiary care university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Consecutive patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of asthma based on the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria: mild asthma (MA), comprising patients with mild intermittent or persistent asthma; and moderate or severe asthma (MSA). We determined the serum levels of staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies, comparing the results and performing a statistical analysis. Results: The study included 142 patients: 72 in the MA group (median age = 46 years; 59 females) and 70 in the MSA group (median age = 56 years; 60 females). In the sample as a whole, 62 patients (43.7%) presented positive results for staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies: staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), in 29 (20.4%); SEB, in 35 (24.6%); SEC, in 33 (23.2%); and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), in 45 (31.7%). The mean serum levels of IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were 0.96 U/L, 1.09 U/L, 1.21 U/L, and 1.18 U/L, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the qualitative or quantitative results. Conclusions: Serum IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were detected in 43.7% of the patients in our sample. However, neither the qualitative nor quantitative results showed a statistically significant association with the clinical severity of asthma.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Immunoglobulin E; Superantigens; Bacterial toxins; Staphylococcus aureus.

 

11 - Gel pillow designed specifically for obstructive sleep apnea treatment with continuous positive airway pressure

Travesseiro de gel com formato específico para o tratamento de apneia obstrutiva do sono com pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas

Adriana Salvaggio1, Anna Lo Bue1, Serena Iacono Isidoro1, Salvatore Romano1, Oreste Marrone1, Giuseppe Insalaco1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether the use of a gel pillow with side cutouts designed to accommodate a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) mask and reduce head temperature improves the efficacy of and adherence to auto-CPAP therapy. Methods: Twenty-three consecutive CPAP-naïve patients with obstructive sleep apnea were enrolled in the study. Patients were given an auto-CPAP machine with an appropriate CPAP mask and were instructed to use CPAP for 15 nights. They were instructed to sleep with their own pillow (the control pillow) from nights 1 to 5 and with either a foam pillow or a gel pillow, both of which had side cutouts, for 5 consecutive nights each, in random order. After night 15, auto-CPAP machine data were downloaded and patients rated their satisfaction with each pillow on a visual analog scale. Results: Twenty-two patients completed the protocol. The pressures administered, residual apnea-hypopnea index, air leaks, and mean duration of CPAP use did not differ among the periods during which each pillow was used. Patients were significantly more satisfied with the gel pillow than with the control pillow and the foam pillow (p = 0.022 and p = 0.004, respectively), their level of satisfaction with the gel pillow correlating significantly with excessive daytime sleepiness (r2 = 0.19; p = 0.0443). Conclusions: Among obstructive sleep apnea patients treated with nasal CPAP, the use of a gel pillow with side cutouts appears to have no impact on treatment effectiveness. Nevertheless, such patients seem to prefer a gel pillow over other types of pillows.

 


Keywords: Sleep; Continuous positive airway pressure; Sleep apnea, obstructive; Masks.

 

12 - Effects of indacaterol versus tiotropium on exercise tolerance in patients with moderate COPD: a pilot randomized crossover study

Efeitos do indacaterol versus tiotrópio na tolerância ao exercício em pacientes com DPOC moderada: estudo cruzado randomizado piloto

Danilo Cortozi Berton1, Álvaro Huber dos Santos2, Ivo Bohn Jr.2, Rodrigo Quevedo de Lima2, Vanderléia Breda2, Paulo José Zimermann Teixeira2,3,4

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):362-366

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare a once-daily long-acting β2 agonist (indacaterol 150 µg) with a once-daily long-acting anticholinergic (tiotropium 5 µg) in terms of their effects on exercise endurance (limit of tolerance, Tlim) in patients with moderate COPD. Secondary endpoints were their effects on lung hyperinflation, exercise-related dyspnea, and daily-life dyspnea. Methods: This was a randomized, single-blind, crossover pilot study involving 20 patients (mean age, 60.9 ± 10.0 years; mean FEV1, 69 ± 7% of predicted). Spirometric parameters, Transition Dyspnea Index scores, Tlim, and exertional dyspnea were compared after three weeks of each treatment (with a one-week washout period between treatments). Results: Nineteen patients completed the study (one having been excluded because of COPD exacerbation). Improvement in Tlim from baseline tended to be greater after treatment with tiotropium than after treatment with indacaterol (96 ± 163 s vs. 8 ± 82 s; p = 0.06). Tlim significantly improved from baseline after treatment with tiotropium (having increased from 396 ± 319 s to 493 ± 347 s; p = 0.010) but not after treatment with indacaterol (having increased from 393 ± 246 to 401 ± 254 s; p = 0.678). There were no differences between the two treatments regarding improvements in Borg dyspnea scores and lung hyperinflation at "isotime" and peak exercise. There were also no significant differences between treatments regarding Transition Dyspnea Index scores (1.5 ± 2.1 vs. 0.9 ± 2.3; p = 0.39). Conclusions: In patients with moderate COPD, tiotropium tends to improve Tlim in comparison with indacaterol. No significant differences were observed between the two treatments regarding their effects on lung hyperinflation, exercise-related dyspnea, and daily-life dyspnea. Future studies, including a larger number of patients, are required in order to confirm our findings and explore mechanistic explanations. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01693003 [http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/])

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Exercise; Bronchodilator agents.

 

Review Article

13 - Is there a rationale for pulmonary rehabilitation following successful chemotherapy for tuberculosis?

Existe razão para reabilitação pulmonar após o tratamento quimioterápico bem-sucedido para tuberculose?

Marcela Muñoz-Torrico1, Adrian Rendon2, Rosella Centis3, Lia D'Ambrosio3,4, Zhenia Fuentes5, Carlos Torres-Duque6, Fernanda Mello7, Margareth Dalcolmo8, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla9, Antonio Spanevello10,11, Giovanni Battista Migliori3

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):367-373

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The role of tuberculosis as a public health care priority and the availability of diagnostic tools to evaluate functional status (spirometry, plethysmography, and DLCO determination), arterial blood gases, capacity to perform exercise, lesions (chest X-ray and CT), and quality of life justify the effort to consider what needs to be done when patients have completed their treatment. To our knowledge, no review has ever evaluated this topic in a comprehensive manner. Our objective was to review the available evidence on this topic and draw conclusions regarding the future role of the "post-tuberculosis treatment" phase, which will potentially affect several million cases every year. We carried out a non-systematic literature review based on a PubMed search using specific keywords (various combinations of the terms "tuberculosis", "rehabilitation", "multidrug-resistant tuberculosis", "pulmonary disease", "obstructive lung disease", and "lung volume measurements"). The reference lists of the most important studies were retrieved in order to improve the sensitivity of the search. Manuscripts written in English, Spanish, and Russian were selected. The main areas of interest were tuberculosis sequelae following tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment; "destroyed lung"; functional evaluation of sequelae; pulmonary rehabilitation interventions (physiotherapy, long-term oxygen therapy, and ventilation); and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.The evidence found suggests that tuberculosis is definitively responsible for functional sequelae, primarily causing an obstructive pattern on spirometry (but also restrictive and mixed patterns), and that there is a rationale for pulmonary rehabilitation. We also provide a list of variables that should be discussed in future studies on pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with post-tuberculosis sequelae.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/complications; Tuberculosis/rehabilitation, Tuberculosis/therapy; Quality of life; Diagnostic imaging; Respiratory function tests.

 

Images in Pulmonary Medicine

14 - Prominent bronchial vasculature, hemoptysis, and bilateral ground-glass opacities in a young woman with mitral stenosis

Vasculatura brônquica proeminente, hemoptise e opacidades em vidro fosco bilaterais em uma jovem com estenose mitral

Fabian Aigner1, Rudolf Speich1, Macé Matthew Schuurmans1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):386

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Case Report

15 - Applications for a hybrid operating room in thoracic surgery: from multidisciplinary procedures to ­­image-guided video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery

Usos da sala híbrida em cirurgia torácica: de procedimentos multidisciplinares à cirurgia toracoscópica videoassistida guiada por imagem

Ricardo Mingarini Terra1,2, Juliano Ribeiro Andrade2, Alessandro Wasum Mariani1,2, Rodrigo Gobbo Garcia2, Jose Ernesto Succi2,3, Andrey Soares2,4, Paulo Marcelo Zimmer2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):387-390

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The concept of a hybrid operating room represents the union of a high-complexity surgical apparatus with state-of-the-art radiological tools (ultrasound, CT, fluoroscopy, or magnetic resonance imaging), in order to perform highly effective, minimally invasive procedures. Although the use of a hybrid operating room is well established in specialties such as neurosurgery and cardiovascular surgery, it has rarely been explored in thoracic surgery. Our objective was to discuss the possible applications of this technology in thoracic surgery, through the reporting of three cases.

 


Keywords: Thoracic surgery, video-assisted; Bronchoscopy; Thoracoscopy; Radiology, interventional.

 

Letters to the Editor

16 - An uncommon chest mass: oleothorax

Uma massa torácica incomum: oleotórax

Bruno Hochhegger1, Gláucia Zanetti2, Edson Marchiori2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):391

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17 - A rare case of hemorrhagic pneumonia due to Cladosporium cladosporioides

Um caso raro de pneumonia hemorrágica por Cladosporium cladosporioides

Sérgio Grava1,2, Francisco Antonio Dias Lopes3, Rodrigo Silva Cavallazzi4, Melyssa Fernanda Norman Negri Grassi5, Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski1,2,5

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):392-394

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Correspondence

18 - Cervical computed tomography in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: influence of head elevation on the assessment of upper airway volume

Tomografia computadorizada cervical em pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono: influência da elevação postural na avaliação do volume das vias aéreas superiores

Shailendra Singh Rana1, Om Prakash Kharbanda1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):395

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Author's reply

19 - Author's replay

Resposta dos autores

Fábio José Fabrício de Barros Souza1, Anne Rosso Evangelista2, Juliana Veiga Silva2, Grégory Vinícius Périco3, Kristian Madeira4,5

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):396

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Correspondence

20 - Pulmonary rehabilitation in severe COPD with hyperinflation: some insights into exercise performance

Reabilitação pulmonar em DPOC grave com hiperinsuflação: algumas percepções sobre desempenho ao exercício

Luiz Alberto Forgiarini Junior1, Antonio Matias Esquinas2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):397

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Author's reply

21 - Author's replay

Resposta dos autores

Andre Luis Pereira de Albuquerque1,2, Marco Quaranta3, Biswajit Chakrabarti4, Andrea Aliverti3, Peter M. Calverley4

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):398

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Year 2016 - Volume 42  - Number 6  (November/December)

App

Editorial

1 - Consolidating in the present, with an eye to the future

Sedimentando o presente, visando o futuro

Rogerio Souza

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):399-400

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2 - The JBP and sleep medicine

JBP e a medicina do sono

Pedro Rodrigues Genta1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):401

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Continuing Education: Imaging

3 - Clusters of small nodules with no confluence

Aglomerados de pequenos nódulos sem confluência

Edson Marchiori1,2, Bruno Hochhegger3,4, Gláucia Zanetti2,5

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):402

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Continuing Education : Scientific Methodology

4 - Developing research questions that make a difference

Desenvolvendo perguntas do estudo que fazem a diferença

Cecilia Maria Patino1,2, Juliana Carvalho Ferreira2,3

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):403

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Original Article

5 - Effects of positive expiratory pressure on pulmonary clearance of aerosolized technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid in healthy individuals

Efeitos da pressão expiratória positiva na depuração pulmonar do ácido dietilenotriaminopentacético marcado com tecnécio-99m em aerossol em indivíduos saudáveis

Isabella Martins de Albuquerque1, Dannuey Machado Cardoso2, Paulo Ricardo Masiero3, Dulciane Nunes Paiva4, Vanessa Regiane Resqueti5, Guilherme Augusto de Freitas Fregonezi5, Sérgio Saldanha Menna-Barreto6

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):404-408

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the effects of positive expiratory pressure (PEP) on pulmonary epithelial membrane permeability in healthy subjects. Methods: We evaluated a cohort of 30 healthy subjects (15 males and 15 females) with a mean age of 28.3 ± 5.4 years, a mean FEV1/FVC ratio of 0.89 ± 0.14, and a mean FEV1 of 98.5 ± 13.1% of predicted. Subjects underwent technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy in two stages: during spontaneous breathing; and while breathing through a PEP mask at one of three PEP levels-10 cmH2O (n = 10), 15 cmH2O (n = 10), and 20 cmH2O (n = 10). The 99mTc-DTPA was nebulized for 3 min, and its clearance was recorded by scintigraphy over a 30-min period during spontaneous breathing and over a 30-min period during breathing through a PEP mask. Results: The pulmonary clearance of 99mTc-DTPA was significantly shorter when PEP was applied-at 10 cmH2O (p = 0.044), 15 cmH2O (p = 0.044), and 20 cmH2O (p = 0.004)-in comparison with that observed during spontaneous breathing. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that PEP, at the levels tested, is able to induce an increase in pulmonary epithelial membrane permeability and lung volume in healthy subjects.

 


Keywords: Lung/metabolism; Technetium Tc 99m pentetate/pharmacokinetics; Radiopharmaceuticals; Positive-pressure respiration.

 

6 - Pulmonary function in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease: have we paid proper attention to this problem?

Função pulmonar em crianças e adolescentes com doença falciforme: temos dado atenção adequada a esse problema?

Ana Karine Vieira1, Cristina Gonçalves Alvim2, Maria Cristina Marquez Carneiro3, Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina4

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):409-415

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate pulmonary function and functional capacity in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 70 children and adolescents (8-15 years of age) with sickle cell disease who underwent pulmonary function tests (spirometry) and functional capacity testing (six-minute walk test). The results of the pulmonary function tests were compared with variables related to the severity of sickle cell disease and history of asthma and of acute chest syndrome. Results: Of the 64 patients who underwent spirometry, 15 (23.4%) showed abnormal results: restrictive lung disease, in 8 (12.5%); and obstructive lung disease, in 7 (10.9%). Of the 69 patients who underwent the six-minute walk test, 18 (26.1%) showed abnormal results regarding the six-minute walk distance as a percentage of the predicted value for age, and there was a ≥ 3% decrease in SpO2 in 36 patients (52.2%). Abnormal pulmonary function was not significantly associated with any of the other variables studied, except for hypoxemia and restrictive lung disease. Conclusions: In this sample of children and adolescents with sickle cell disease, there was a significant prevalence of abnormal pulmonary function. The high prevalence of respiratory disorders suggests the need for a closer look at the lung function of this population, in childhood and thereafter.

 


Keywords: Anemia, sickle cell; Respiratory function tests; Exercise test.

 

7 - Temporal analysis of reported cases of tuberculosis and of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in Brazil between 2002 and 2012*

Análise temporal dos casos notificados de tuberculose e de coinfecção tuberculose- -HIV na população brasileira no período entre 2002 e 2012

Renato Simões Gaspar1, Natália Nunes1, Marina Nunes2, Vandilson Pinheiro Rodrigues3

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):416-422

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate the reported cases of tuberculosis and of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in Brazil between 2002 and 2012. Methods: This was an observational study based on secondary time series data collected from the Brazilian Case Registry Database for the 2002-2012 period. The incidence of tuberculosis was stratified by gender, age group, geographical region, and outcome, as was that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection. Results: Nationally, the incidence of tuberculosis declined by 18%, whereas that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection increased by 3.8%. There was an overall decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis, despite a significant increase in that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in women. The incidence of tuberculosis decreased only in the 0- to 9-year age bracket, remaining stable or increasing in the other age groups. The incidence of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection increased by 209% in the ≥ 60-year age bracket. The incidence of tuberculosis decreased in all geographical regions except the south, whereas that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection increased by over 150% in the north and northeast. Regarding the outcomes, patients with tuberculosis-HIV co-infection, in comparison with patients infected with tuberculosis only, had a 48% lower chance of cure, a 50% greater risk of treatment nonadherence, and a 94% greater risk of death from tuberculosis. Conclusions: Our study shows that tuberculosis continues to be a relevant public health issue in Brazil, because the goals for the control and cure of the disease have yet to be achieved. In addition, the sharp increase in the incidence of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in women, in the elderly, and in the northern/northeastern region reveals that the population of HIV-infected individuals is rapidly becoming more female, older, and more impoverished.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; HIV infections/epidemiology; Comorbidity.

 

8 - Association between severe asthma and changes in the stomatognathic system

Associação entre asma grave e alterações do sistema estomatognático

Mayra Carvalho-Oliveira1,2, Cristina Salles3, Regina Terse4, Argemiro D'Oliveira Júnior2,5

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):423-428

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe orofacial muscle function in patients with severe asthma. Methods: This was a descriptive study comparing patients with severe controlled asthma (SCA) and severe uncontrolled asthma (SUA). We selected 160 patients, who completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and the 6-item Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-6), as well as undergoing evaluation of orofacial muscle function. Results: Of the 160 patients evaluated, 126 (78.8%) and 34 (21.2%) presented with SCA and SUA, respectively, as defined by the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria. Regardless of the level of asthma control, the most frequent changes found after evaluation of muscle function were difficulty in chewing, oronasal breathing pattern, below-average or poor dental arch condition, and difficulty in swallowing. When the sample was stratified by FEV1 (% of predicted), was significantly higher proportions of SUA group patients, compared with SCA group patients, showed habitual open-mouth chewing (24.8% vs. 7.7%; p < 0.02), difficulty in swallowing water (33.7% vs. 17.3%; p < 0.04), and voice problems (81.2% vs. 51.9%; p < 0.01). When the sample was stratified by ACQ-6 score, the proportion of patients showing difficulty in swallowing bread was significantly higher in the SUA group than in the SCA group (66.6% vs. 26.6%; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The prevalence of changes in the stomatognathic system appears to be high among adults with severe asthma, regardless of the level of asthma control. We found that some such changes were significantly more common in patients with SUA than in those with SCA.

 


Keywords: Speech/physiology; Stomatognathic system/physiopathology; Asthma/complications; Deglutition disorders; Mastication/physiology.

 

9 - Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and ICU Mobility Scale: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score e ICU Mobility Scale: tradução e adaptação cultural para a língua portuguesa falada no Brasil

Yurika Maria Fogaça Kawaguchi1, Ricardo Kenji Nawa2,3, Thais Borgheti Figueiredo4, Lourdes Martins5, Ruy Camargo Pires-Neto1,6

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):429-431

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: To translate the Perme Intensive Care Unit Mobility Score and the ICU Mobility Scale (IMS) into Portuguese, creating versions that are cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil, and to determine the interobserver agreement and reliability for both versions. Methods: The processes of translation and cross-cultural validation consisted in the following: preparation, translation, reconciliation, synthesis, back-translation, review, approval, and pre-test. The Portuguese-language versions of both instruments were then used by two researchers to evaluate critically ill ICU patients. Weighted kappa statistics and Bland-Altman plots were used in order to verify interobserver agreement for the two instruments. In each of the domains of the instruments, interobserver reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The correlation between the instruments was assessed by Spearman's correlation test. Results: The study sample comprised 103 patients-56 (54%) of whom were male-with a mean age of 52 ± 18 years. The main reason for ICU admission (in 44%) was respiratory failure. Both instruments showed excellent interobserver agreement (κ > 0.90) and reliability (α > 0.90) in all domains. Interobserver bias was low for the IMS and the Perme Score (−0.048 ± 0.350 and −0.06 ± 0.73, respectively). The 95% CIs for the same instruments ranged from −0.73 to 0.64 and −1.50 to 1.36, respectively. There was also a strong positive correlation between the two instruments (r = 0.941; p < 0.001). Conclusions: In their versions adapted for use in Brazil, both instruments showed high interobserver agreement and reliability.

 


Keywords: Physical therapy modalities; Intensive care units; Translations; Validation studies.

 

10 - The halo sign: HRCT findings in 85 patients

Sinal do halo: achados de TCAR em 85 pacientes

Giordano Rafael Tronco Alves1, Edson Marchiori1, Klaus Irion2, Carlos Schuler Nin3, Guilherme Watte3, Alessandro Comarú Pasqualotto3, Luiz Carlos Severo3, Bruno Hochhegger1,3

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):435-439

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The halo sign consists of an area of ground-glass opacity surrounding pulmonary lesions on chest CT scans. We compared immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients in terms of halo sign features and sought to identify those of greatest diagnostic value. Methods: This was a retrospective study of CT scans performed at any of seven centers between January of 2011 and May of 2015. Patients were classified according to their immune status. Two thoracic radiologists reviewed the scans in order to determine the number of lesions, as well as their distribution, size, and contour, together with halo thickness and any other associated findings. Results: Of the 85 patients evaluated, 53 were immunocompetent and 32 were immunosuppressed. Of the 53 immunocompetent patients, 34 (64%) were diagnosed with primary neoplasm. Of the 32 immunosuppressed patients, 25 (78%) were diagnosed with aspergillosis. Multiple and randomly distributed lesions were more common in the immunosuppressed patients than in the immunocompetent patients (p < 0.001 for both). Halo thickness was found to be greater in the immunosuppressed patients (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Etiologies of the halo sign differ markedly between immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. Although thicker halos are more likely to occur in patients with infectious diseases, the number and distribution of lesions should also be taken into account when evaluating patients presenting with the halo sign.

 


Keywords: Tomography, X-ray computed; Aspergillosis; Lung neoplasms.

 

Brief Communication

11 - Educational interventions to improve inhaler techniques and their impact on asthma and COPD control: a pilot effectiveness-implementation trial

Educação para a melhora da técnica inalatória e seu impacto no controle da asma e DPOC: um estudo piloto de efetividade-intervenção

Tiago Maricoto1, Sofia Madanelo2, Luís Rodrigues3, Gilberto Teixeira3, Carla Valente3, Lília Andrade3, Alcina Saraiva3

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):440-443

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

To assess the impact that educational interventions to improve inhaler techniques have on the clinical and functional control of asthma and COPD, we evaluated 44 participants before and after such an intervention. There was a significant decrease in the number of errors, and 20 patients (46%) significantly improved their technique regarding prior exhalation and breath hold. In the asthma group, there were significant improvements in the mean FEV1, FVC, and PEF (of 6.4%, 8.6%, and 8.3% respectively). Those improvements were accompanied by improvements in Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test scores but not in Asthma Control Test scores. In the COPD group, there were no significant variations. In asthma patients, educational interventions appear to improve inhaler technique, clinical control, and functional control.

 


Keywords: Asthma, Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Nebulizers and vaporizers.

 

Case Series

12 - An initial experience with a digital drainage system during the postoperative period of pediatric thoracic surgery

Experiência inicial com um sistema de drenagem digital no pós-operatório de cirurgia torácica pediátrica

Altair da Silva Costa Jr1,2,3, Thiago Bachichi1, Caio Holanda1, Luiz Augusto Lucas Martins De Rizzo4

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):444-446

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To report an initial experience with a digital drainage system during the postoperative period of pediatric thoracic surgery. Methods: This was a prospective observational study involving consecutive patients, ≤ 14 years of age, treated at a pediatric thoracic surgery outpatient clinic, for whom pulmonary resection (lobectomy or segmentectomy via muscle-sparing thoracotomy) was indicated. The parameters evaluated were air leak (as quantified with the digital system), biosafety, duration of drainage, length of hospital stay, and complications. The digital system was used in 11 children (mean age, 5.9 ± 3.3 years). The mean length of hospital stay was 4.9 ± 2.6 days, the mean duration of drainage was 2.5 ± 0.7 days, and the mean drainage volume was 270.4 ± 166.7 mL. The mean maximum air leak flow was 92.78 ± 95.83 mL/min (range, 18-338 mL/min). Two patients developed postoperative complications (atelectasis and pneumonia, respectively). The use of this digital system facilitated the decision-making process during the postoperative period, reducing the risk of errors in the interpretation and management of air leaks.

 


Keywords: Drainage; Thoracic surgery; Pediatrics.

 

13 - Hard metal lung disease: a case series

Doença pulmonar por metal duro: uma série de casos

Rafael Futoshi Mizutani1, Mário Terra-Filho1,2, Evelise Lima1, Carolina Salim Gonçalves Freitas1, Rodrigo Caruso Chate3, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla1,2, Regiani Carvalho-Oliveira4, Ubiratan Paula Santos1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):447-452

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe diagnostic and treatment aspects of hard metal lung disease (HMLD) and to review the current literature on the topic. Methods: This was a retrospective study based on the medical records of patients treated at the Occupational Respiratory Diseases Clinic of the Instituto do Coração, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2010 and 2013. Results: Of 320 patients treated during the study period, 5 (1.56%) were diagnosed with HMLD. All of those 5 patients were male (mean age, 42.0 ± 13.6 years; mean duration of exposure to hard metals, 11.4 ± 8.0 years). Occupational histories were taken, after which the patients underwent clinical evaluation, chest HRCT, pulmonary function tests, bronchoscopy, BAL, and lung biopsy. Restrictive lung disease was found in all subjects. The most common chest HRCT finding was ground glass opacities (in 80%). In 4 patients, BALF revealed multinucleated giant cells. In 3 patients, lung biopsy revealed giant cell interstitial pneumonia. One patient was diagnosed with desquamative interstitial pneumonia associated with cellular bronchiolitis, and another was diagnosed with a hypersensitivity pneumonitis pattern. All patients were withdrawn from exposure and treated with corticosteroid. Clinical improvement occurred in 2 patients, whereas the disease progressed in 3. Conclusions: Although HMLD is a rare entity, it should always be included in the differential diagnosis of respiratory dysfunction in workers with a high occupational risk of exposure to hard metal particles. A relevant history (clinical and occupational) accompanied by chest HRCT and BAL findings suggestive of the disease might be sufficient for the diagnosis.

 


Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial; Cobalt; Tungsten; Occupational exposure; Hard metal.

 

14 - Mouthpiece ventilation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a rescue strategy for noncompliant patients

Ventilação bucal na distrofia muscular de Duchenne: uma estratégia de resgate para pacientes não aderentes

Giuseppe Fiorentino1, Anna Annunziata1, Rosa Cauteruccio1, Gianfranco Scotto di Frega1, Antonio Esquinas2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):453-456

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate mouthpiece ventilation (MPV) in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who are noncompliant with noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Methods: We evaluated four young patients with DMD who had previously refused to undergo NIV. Each patient was reassessed and encouraged to try MPV. Results: The four patients tolerated MPV well and were compliant with NIV at home. MPV proved to be preferable and more comfortable than NIV with any other type of interface. Two of the patients required overnight NIV and eventually agreed to use a nasal mask during the night. Conclusions: The advantages of MPV over other types of NIV include fewer speech problems, better appearance, and less impact on the patient, eliminating the risk of skin breakdown, gastric distension, conjunctivitis, and claustrophobia. The use of a mouthpiece interface should be always considered in patients with DMD who need to start NIV, in order to promote a positive approach and a rapid acceptance of NIV. Using MPV during the daytime makes patients feel safe and more likely to use NIV at night. In addition, MPV increases treatment compliance for those who refuse to use other types of interfaces.

 


Keywords: Muscular dystrophy, Duchenne; Noninvasive ventilation; Patient compliance.

 

Review Article

15 - The role of physical exercise in obstructive sleep apnea

O papel do exercício físico na apneia obstrutiva do sono

Flávio Maciel Dias de Andrade1,2, Rodrigo Pinto Pedrosa1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):457-464

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common clinical condition, with a variable and underestimated prevalence. OSA is the main condition associated with secondary systemic arterial hypertension, as well as with atrial fibrillation, stroke, and coronary artery disease, greatly increasing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure is not tolerated by all OSA patients and is often not suitable in cases of mild OSA. Hence, alternative methods to treat OSA and its cardiovascular consequences are needed. In OSA patients, regular physical exercise has beneficial effects other than weight loss, although the mechanisms of those effects remain unclear. In this population, physiological adaptations due to physical exercise include increases in upper airway dilator muscle tone and in slow-wave sleep time; and decreases in fluid accumulation in the neck, systemic inflammatory response, and body weight. The major benefits of exercise programs for OSA patients include reducing the severity of the condition and daytime sleepiness, as well as increasing sleep efficiency and maximum oxygen consumption. There are few studies that evaluated the role of physical exercise alone for OSA treatment, and their protocols are quite diverse. However, aerobic exercise, alone or combined with resistance training, is a common point among the studies. In this review, the major studies and mechanisms involved in OSA treatment by means of physical exercise are presented. In addition to systemic clinical benefits provided by physical exercise, OSA patients involved in a regular, predominantly aerobic, exercise program have shown a reduction in disease severity and in daytime sleepiness, as well as an increase in sleep efficiency and in peak oxygen consumption, regardless of weight loss.

 


Keywords: Exercise therapy; Sleep apnea, obstructive; Cardiovascular diseases.

 

Images in Pulmonary Medicine

16 - An uncommon tomographic association: amiodarone pulmonary toxicity and adenocarcinoma

Uma associação tomográfica incomum: toxicidade pulmonar por amiodarona e adenocarcinoma

Arthur Soares Souza Jr1,2, Gláucia Zanetti3, Edson Marchiori3

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):465

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Letters to the Editor

17 - Pulmonary fat embolism of neoplastic origin

Embolia pulmonar gordurosa de origem neoplásica

Flávia Pinto1, Miriam Menna Barreto1, Daniela Braz Parente1, Edson Marchiori1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):466-467

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Relationship of Reviewers

 


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