Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2017 - Volume 43  - Number 1  (January/February)

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Editorial

1 - How can anemia negatively influence gas exchange?

Como a anemia pode influenciar negativamente as trocas gasosas?

Roberta Pulcheri Ramos1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):1-2

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2 - The search for individualized smoking cessation therapy

Busca pela terapia personalizada para o tabagismo

Ilka Lopes Santoro1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):3

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Continuing Education: Imaging

3 - The halo sign

Sinal do halo

Edson Marchiori1,2, Bruno Hochhegger3,4, Gláucia Zanetti2,5

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):4

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Continuing Education : Scientific Methodology

4 - Types of outcomes in clinical research

Tipos de desfecho em pesquisa clínica

Juliana Carvalho Ferreira1,2, Cecilia Maria Patino1,3

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):5

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Original Article

5 - Smoking among female sex workers: prevalence and associated variables

Tabagismo em mulheres profissionais do sexo: prevalência e variáveis associadas

Ligia Lopes Devóglio1, José Eduardo Corrente2, Maria Helena Borgato3, Ilda de Godoy3

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):6-13

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Objective: To assess the prevalence of smoking and associated variables in female sex workers (FSWs). Methods: This was a quantitative cross-sectional study involving FSWs in the city of Botucatu, Brazil, who completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, including data regarding smoking status, motivational stage of change, and degree of nicotine dependence, as well as the Perceived Stress Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: We included 83 FSWs. The mean age was 26.8 years. Among the participants, 58 (69.8%) had at least a high school education, only 26 (31.3%) resided in the city of Botucatu, 59 (71.1%) were smokers, 5 (6.0%) were former smokers, 74 (89.2%) regularly consumed alcohol, and 43 (51.8%) used illicit drugs. The majority of the women were classified as having an intermediate stress level, and 51 (61.4%) were classified as having possible or probable anxiety, whereas depression was found to be improbable in 57 (68.7%). The level of nicotine dependence was high among the smokers, the majority of whom showed no intention to quit smoking. Smoking was associated with illicit drug use (p = 0.0271) and with alcohol consumption (p = 0.0001), although not with the levels of stress, anxiety, or depression; nor was the age at smoking initiation associated with the length of time as an FSW (p = 0.4651). Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking among the FSWs evaluated here was much higher than the 8.3% reported for the overall female population of Brazil. Our findings show that FSWs are exposed to various risk factors inherent to their profession. Therefore, harm reduction is an important strategy to be adopted.

 


Keywords: Women, Smoking, Sex workers; Prevalence; Risk factors.

 

6 - Use of indwelling pleural catheters for the definitive treatment of malignant pleural effusion

Utilização de cateter pleural de longa permanência para o tratamento definitivo de derrame pleural neoplásico

Fernando Conrado Abrão1,2, Igor Renato Louro Bruno de Abreu1,2, Maria Gabriela Cavalcanti1, José Franklin Soares Pompa-Filho1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):14-17

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Objective: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of the use of indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) in patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Methods: We prospectively collected data from patients with MPE undergoing IPC placement between January of 2014 and July of 2015. All patients submitted to IPC placement had a life expectancy > 30 days, in accordance with the MPE treatment guidelines established by the British Thoracic Society. The data collected included gender, age, body mass index, primary cancer site, duration of IPC drainage, IPC-related complications, length of hospital stay, pleural effusion recurrence, and occurrence of spontaneous pleurodesis. Results: A total of 19 patients underwent IPC placement during the study period. Median overall survival after IPC insertion was 145 days. The median follow-up among the surviving patients was 125 days (range, 53-485 days), and the median time between catheter insertion and removal was 31 days (range, 2-126 days). There were IPC-related complications in 5 patients (26.2%), and spontaneous pleurodesis was achieved in 8 (42.0%). Among those 8 patients, the IPC was removed between days 30 and 126 in 4, and spontaneous pleurodesis occurred within the first 30 days in 4. Conclusions: The use of IPCs seems to be feasible and safe in patients with MPE.

 


Keywords: Pleural effusion, malignant; Survival; Palliative care.

 

7 - Family caregiver burden: the burden of caring for lung cancer patients according to the cancer stage and patient quality of life

Sobrecarga do cuidador familiar: a sobrecarga de cuidar de pacientes com câncer de pulmão, de acordo com o estágio do câncer e a qualidade de vida do paciente

Eliana Lourenço Borges1, Juliana Franceschini1, Luiza Helena Degani Costa1, Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes1, Sérgio Jamnik1, Ilka Lopes Santoro1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):18-23

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Objective: Patients with lung cancer experience different feelings and reactions, based on their family, social, cultural, and religious backgrounds, which are a source of great distress, not only for the patients but also for their family caregivers. This study aimed to evaluate the impact that lung cancer stage and quality of life (QoL) of lung cancer patients have on caregiver burden. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Consecutive patient-caregiver dyads were selected and asked to complete the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Family caregivers also completed the Caregiver Burden Scale. Group-based modeling was used in order to identify patients with early- or advanced-stage cancer (IA to IIIA vs. IIIB to IV) plus non-impaired or impaired QoL (SF-36 total score > 50 vs. ≤ 50). Patient-caregiver dyads were stratified into four groups: early-stage cancer+non-impaired QoL; advanced-stage cancer+non-impaired QoL; early-stage cancer+impaired QoL; and advanced-stage cancer+impaired QoL. Results: We included 91 patient-caregiver dyads. The majority of the patients were male and heavy smokers. Family caregivers were younger and predominantly female. The burden, QoL, level of anxiety, and level of depression of caregivers were more affected by the QoL of the patients than by their lung cancer stage. The family caregivers of the patients with impaired QoL showed a higher median burden than did those of the patients with non-impaired QoL, regardless of disease stage. Conclusions: Caregiver burden is more affected by patient QoL than by lung cancer stage.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Quality of life; Caregivers; Anxiety; Depression; Cost of illness.

 

8 - Trends in asthma mortality in the 0- to 4-year and 5- to 34-year age groups in Brazil

Tendências da mortalidade da asma nas faixas etárias de 0 a 4 anos e 5 a 34 anos no Brasil

Gustavo Silveira Graudenz1,2, Dominique Piacenti Carneiro1, Rodolfo de Paula Vieira1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):24-31

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Objective: To provide an update on trends in asthma mortality in Brazil for two age groups: 0-4 years and 5-34 years. Methods: Data on mortality from asthma, as defined in the International Classification of Diseases, were obtained for the 1980-2014 period from the Mortality Database maintained by the Information Technology Department of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System. To analyze time trends in standardized asthma mortality rates, we conducted an ecological time-series study, using regression models for the 0- to 4-year and 5- to 34-year age groups. Results: There was a linear trend toward a decrease in asthma mortality in both age groups, whereas there was a third-order polynomial fit in the general population. Conclusions: Although asthma mortality showed a consistent, linear decrease in individuals ≤ 34 years of age, the rate of decline was greater in the 0- to 4-year age group. The 5- to 34-year group also showed a linear decline in mortality, and the rate of that decline increased after the year 2004, when treatment with inhaled corticosteroids became more widely available. The linear decrease in asthma mortality found in both age groups contrasts with the nonlinear trend observed in the general population of Brazil. The introduction of inhaled corticosteroid use through public policies to control asthma coincided with a significant decrease in asthma mortality rates in both subsets of individuals over 5 years of age. The causes of this decline in asthma-related mortality in younger age groups continue to constitute a matter of debate.

 


Keywords: Asthma/epidemiology; Asthma/mortality; Asthma/drug therapy.

 

9 - Diaphragmatic mobility: relationship with lung function, respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and physical activity in daily life in patients with COPD

Relação da mobilidade diafragmática com função pulmonar, força muscular respiratória, dispneia e atividade física de vida diária em pacientes com DPOC

Flávia Roberta Rocha1, Ana Karla Vieira Brüggemann1, Davi de Souza Francisco1, Caroline Semprebom de Medeiros1, Danielle Rosal2, Elaine Paulin1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):32-37

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Objective: To evaluate diaphragmatic mobility in relation to lung function, respiratory muscle strength, dyspnea, and physical activity in daily life (PADL) in patients with COPD. Methods: We included 25 patients with COPD, classified according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria, and 25 healthy individuals. For all of the participants, the following were evaluated: anthropometric variables, spirometric parameters, respiratory muscle strength, diaphragmatic mobility (by X-ray), PADL, and the perception of dyspnea. Results: In the COPD group, diaphragmatic mobility was found to correlate with lung function variables, inspiratory muscle strength, and the perception of dyspnea, whereas it did not correlate with expiratory muscle strength or PADL. Conclusions: In patients with COPD, diaphragmatic mobility seems to be associated with airway obstruction and lung hyperinflation, as well as with ventilatory capacity and the perception of dyspnea, although not with PADL.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Diaphragm; Spirometry; Dyspnea; Maximal respiratory pressures.

 

10 - Impaired pulmonary function after treatment for tuberculosis: the end of the disease?

Comprometimento da função pulmonar após tratamento para tuberculose: o resultado final da doença?

Mikhail Ivanovich Chushkin1,2, Oleg Nikolayevich Ots1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):38-43

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Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of pulmonary function abnormalities and to investigate the factors affecting lung function in patients treated for pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: A total of 214 consecutive patients (132 men and 82 women; 20-82 years of age), treated for pulmonary tuberculosis and followed at a local dispensary, underwent spirometry and plethysmography at least one year after treatment. Results: Pulmonary impairment was present in 102 (47.7%) of the 214 patients evaluated. The most common functional alteration was obstructive lung disease (seen in 34.6%). Of the 214 patients, 60 (28.0%) showed reduced pulmonary function (FEV1 below the lower limit of normal). Risk factors for reduced pulmonary function were having had culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in the past, being over 50 years of age, having recurrent tuberculosis, and having a lower level of education. Conclusions: Nearly half of all tuberculosis patients evolve to impaired pulmonary function. That underscores the need for pulmonary function testing after the end of treatment.

 


Keywords: Respiratory function tests; Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Spirometry; Lung diseases, obstructive.

 

11 - Phenotypes of asthma in low-income children and adolescents: cluster analysis

Fenótipos de asma em crianças e adolescentes de baixa renda: análise de agrupamentos

Anna Lucia Barros Cabral1, Andrey Wirgues Sousa1,2, Felipe Augusto Rodrigues Mendes2, Celso Ricardo Fernandes de Carvalho2

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):44-50

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Objective: Studies characterizing asthma phenotypes have predominantly included adults or have involved children and adolescents in developed countries. Therefore, their applicability in other populations, such as those of developing countries, remains indeterminate. Our objective was to determine how low-income children and adolescents with asthma in Brazil are distributed across a cluster analysis. Methods: We included 306 children and adolescents (6-18 years of age) with a clinical diagnosis of asthma and under medical treatment for at least one year of follow-up. At enrollment, all the patients were clinically stable. For the cluster analysis, we selected 20 variables commonly measured in clinical practice and considered important in defining asthma phenotypes. Variables with high multicollinearity were excluded. A cluster analysis was applied using a two-step agglomerative test and log-likelihood distance measure. Results: Three clusters were defined for our population. Cluster 1 (n = 94) included subjects with normal pulmonary function, mild eosinophil inflammation, few exacerbations, later age at asthma onset, and mild atopy. Cluster 2 (n = 87) included those with normal pulmonary function, a moderate number of exacerbations, early age at asthma onset, more severe eosinophil inflammation, and moderate atopy. Cluster 3 (n = 108) included those with poor pulmonary function, frequent exacerbations, severe eosinophil inflammation, and severe atopy. Conclusions: Asthma was characterized by the presence of atopy, number of exacerbations, and lung function in low-income children and adolescents in Brazil. The many similarities with previous cluster analyses of phenotypes indicate that this approach shows good generalizability.

 


Keywords: Asthma/classification; Asthma/etiology; Child; Adolescent.

 

Brief Communication

12 - Association of tuberculosis with multimorbidity and social networks

Relação da tuberculose com multimorbidade e redes sociais

Hiram Valenzuela-Jiménez1, Edgar Fabian Manrique-Hernández2, Alvaro Javier Idrovo2

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):51-53

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The combination of tuberculosis with other diseases can affect tuberculosis treatment within populations. In the present study, social network analysis of data retrieved from the Mexican National Epidemiological Surveillance System was used in order to explore associations between the number of contacts and multimorbidity. The node degree was calculated for each individual with tuberculosis and included information from 242 contacts without tuberculosis. Multimorbidity was identified in 49.89% of individuals. The node degrees were highest for individuals with tuberculosis + HIV infection (p < 0.04) and lowest for those with tuberculosis + pulmonary edema (p < 0.07). Social network analysis should be used as a standard method for monitoring tuberculosis and tuberculosis-related syndemics.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; HIV; Nutrition, public health.

 

Case Series

13 - Respiratory manifestations in late-onset Pompe disease: a case series conducted in Brazil

Manifestações respiratórias na doença de Pompe de início tardio: uma série de casos no Brasil

Bruna de Souza Sixel1,2, Luanda Dias da Silva3, Nicolette Celani Cavalcanti4, Glória Maria Cardoso de Andrade Penque5, Sandra Lisboa3, Dafne Dain Gandelman Horovitz6, Juan Clinton Llerena Jr6

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):54-59

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Objective: To describe respiratory function in a series of patients with late-onset Pompe disease after the definitive diagnosis and before enzyme replacement therapy. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving patients with a definitive molecular diagnosis of late-onset Pompe disease. The data analyzed included age at symptom onset; age at definitive diagnosis; type of initial symptoms; time from symptom onset to diagnosis; FVC in the sitting and supine positions; six-minute walk distance; and locomotor ability. Analyses were carried out using frequencies, medians, minimum values, and maximum values. Results: Six patients were included in the study. The median age at symptom onset was 15 years (range, 13-50 years), and the median age at diagnosis was 39.5 years (range, 10-64 years). The median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 8 years (range, 0-45 years). In all cases, the initial manifestation of the disease had been motor weakness. The median FVC in percentage of the predicted value (FVC%) in the sitting and supine positions was 71.0% (range, 22.9-104.6%) and 58.0% (range, 10.9-106.9%), respectively. The median ΔFVC% was 24.5% (range, −4.59 to 52.40%).The median six-minute walk distance was 391.7 m (range, 97-702 m). Conclusions: In this case series, the time from symptom onset to diagnosis was long. Although respiratory signs or symptoms were not the initial manifestations of the disease, 66.7% of the patients showed reduced FVC% in the sitting and supine positions at diagnosis.

 


Keywords: Glycogen storage disease type II; Respiratory function tests; Respiratory muscles/pathology.

 

Review Article

14 - Extracorporeal respiratory support in adult patients

Suporte respiratório extracorpóreo em pacientes adultos

Thiago Gomes Romano1,3, Pedro Vitale Mendes2,3, Marcelo Park2, Eduardo Leite Vieira Costa3,4

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):60-70

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In patients with severe respiratory failure, either hypoxemic or hypercapnic, life support with mechanical ventilation alone can be insufficient to meet their needs, especially if one tries to avoid ventilator settings that can cause injury to the lungs. In those patients, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), which is also very effective in removing carbon dioxide from the blood, can provide life support, allowing the application of protective lung ventilation. In this review article, we aim to explore some of the most relevant aspects of using ECMO for respiratory support. We discuss the history of respiratory support using ECMO in adults, as well as the clinical evidence; costs; indications; installation of the equipment; ventilator settings; daily care of the patient and the system; common troubleshooting; weaning; and discontinuation.

 


Keywords: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; Respiratory distress syndrome, adult; Hypoxia; Hypercapnia.

 

Images in Pulmonary Medicine

15 - Primary epithelioid angiosarcoma of the chest wall complicating calcified fibrothorax and mimicking empyema necessitatis

Angiossarcoma epitelioide primário da parede torácica complicando um fibrotórax calcificado e simulando empiema necessitatis

Luis Gorospe1, Ana Patricia Ovejero-Díaz2, Amparo Benito-Berlinches3

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):71

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Case Report

16 - Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis: report of two cases in Brazil

Fibroelastose pleuroparenquimatosa: relato de dois casos no Brasil

Paula Silva Gomes1, Christina Shiang2, Gilberto Szarf3, Ester Nei Aparecida Martins Coletta4,5, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira6

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):72-75

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Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a rare lung disease. It can be idiopathic or associated with any one of various conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of two cases of PPFE in Brazil. Our first patient presented with pleural and subpleural fibrosis in the upper lobes; a spiculated nodule in the left upper lobe; and a mild reticular pattern in the lower lobes. Surgical lung biopsy revealed PPFE in the upper lobes, including the nodule, and unclassified interstitial pneumonia in the left lower lobe. Our second patient had a history of exposure to domestic birds, indicating a risk of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and presented with advanced lung disease, predominantly in the upper lobes, together with subpleural fibrosis.That patient underwent lung transplantation. In the explant specimen, PPFE and granulomas were identified, suggesting hypersensitivity pneumonitis as an associated cause.

 


Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial/diagnosis; Lung diseases, interstitial/etiology; Alveolitis, extrinsic allergic.

 

Correspondence

17 - Correspondence about the article - Radial-probe EBUS for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions

Correspondência sobre o artigo - Ecobroncoscopia radial para o diagnóstico de lesões pulmonares periféricas

Juliana Guarize1, Stefano Donghi1, Maurício Guidi Saueressig1,2,3

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):76

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Author's reply

18 - Authors' reply

Resposta dos autores

Marcia Jacomelli1, Sergio Eduardo Demarzo1, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso2, Addy Lidvina Mejia Palomino1, Viviane Rossi Figueiredo1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):77

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Erratum

19 - Erratum: Radial-probe EBUS for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions.

Errata: Ecobroncoscopia radial para o diagnóstico de lesões pulmonares periféricas.

Marcia Jacomelli1, Sergio Eduardo Demarzo1, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso2, Addy Lidvina Mejia Palomino1, Viviane Rossi Figueiredo1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):78-79

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20 - Erratum: Factors associated with quality of life in patients with severe asthma: the impact of pharmacotherapy.

Errata: Fatores associados à qualidade de vida sob a perspectiva da terapia medicamentosa em pacientes com asma grave.

Daiane Silva Souza1 Lúcia de Araújo Costa Beisl Noblat2 Pablo de Moura Santos1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):80

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Year 2017 - Volume 43  - Number 2  (March/April)

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Editorial

1 - Thermography as a tool for monitoring the interface between the noninvasive ventilation mask and the skin

Termografia como ferramenta de monitorização do acoplamento da máscara de ventilação não invasiva à pele subjacente

Bruno do Valle Pinheiro1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(2):81-82

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2 - A murine model of elastase- and cigarette smoke-induced emphysema: is it an opportunity to understand CT emphysema in humans?

Modelo murino de enfisema induzido por elastase e fumaça de cigarro: uma oportunidade para entender o enfisema na TC em seres humanos?

Alfredo Nicodemos Cruz Santana1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(2):83-84

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Continuing Education: Imaging

3 - Multiple cavitated nodules

Nódulos múltiplos escavados

Edson Marchiori1, Bruno Hochhegger2,3, Gláucia Zanetti1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(2):85

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Continuing Education : Scientific Methodology

4 - Propensity scores: a tool to help quantify treatment effects in observational studies

Escores de propensão: uma ferramenta para ajudar a quantificar os efeitos de tratamento em estudos observacionais

Cecilia Maria Patino1,2 Juliana Carvalho Ferreira,1,3

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(2):86

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Original Article

5 - Influence of the ventilatory mode on acute adverse effects and facial thermography after noninvasive ventilation

Influência do modo ventilatório nos efeitos adversos agudos e na termografia da face após ventilação não invasiva

Suzy Maria Montenegro Pontes1, Luiz Henrique de Paula Melo2, Nathalia Parente de Sousa Maia3, Andrea da Nóbrega Cirino Nogueira3, Thiago Brasileiro Vasconcelos4, Eanes Delgado Barros Pereira5, Vasco Pinheiro Diógenes Bastos3, Marcelo Alcantara Holanda5

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(2):87-94

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: To compare the incidence and intensity of acute adverse effects and the variation in the temperature of facial skin by thermography after the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Methods: We included 20 healthy volunteers receiving NIV via oronasal mask for 1 h. The volunteers were randomly divided into two groups according to the ventilatory mode: bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Facial thermography was performed in order to determine the temperature of the face where it was in contact with the mask and of the nasal dorsum at various time points. After removal of the mask, the volunteers completed a questionnaire about adverse effects of NIV. Results: The incidence and intensity of acute adverse effects were higher in the individuals receiving BiPAP than in those receiving CPAP (16.1% vs. 5.6%). Thermographic analysis showed a significant cooling of the facial skin in the two regions of interest immediately after removal of the mask. The more intense acute adverse effects occurred predominantly among the participants in whom the decrease in the mean temperature of the nasal dorsum was lower (14.4% vs. 7.2%). The thermographic visual analysis of the zones of cooling and heating on the face identified areas of hypoperfusion or reactive hyperemia. Conclusions: The use of BiPAP mode was associated with a higher incidence and intensity of NIV-related acute adverse effects. There was an association between acute adverse effects and less cooling of the nasal dorsum immediately after removal of the mask. Cutaneous thermography can be an additional tool to detect adverse effects that the use of NIV has on facial skin.

 


Keywords: Masks; Noninvasive ventilation; Thermography.

 

6 - A murine model of elastase- and cigarette smoke-induced emphysema

Modelo murino de enfisema induzido por instilação de elastase e exposição a fumaça de cigarro

Rubia Rodrigues1, Clarice Rosa Olivo1, Juliana Dias Lourenço1, Alyne Riane1, Daniela Aparecida de Brito Cervilha1, Juliana Tiyaki Ito1, Milton de Arruda Martins1, Fernanda Degobbi Tenório Quirino dos Santos Lopes1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(2):95-100

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Objective: To describe a murine model of emphysema induced by a combination of exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) and instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). Methods: A total of 38 C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control (one intranasal instillation of 0.9% saline solution); PPE (two intranasal instillations of PPE); CS (CS exposure for 60 days); and CS + PPE (two intranasal instillations of PPE + CS exposure for 60 days). At the end of the experimental protocol, all animals were anesthetized and tracheostomized for calculation of respiratory mechanics parameters. Subsequently, all animals were euthanized and their lungs were removed for measurement of the mean linear intercept (Lm) and determination of the numbers of cells that were immunoreactive to macrophage (MAC)-2 antigen, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12, and glycosylated 91-kDa glycoprotein (gp91phox) in the distal lung parenchyma and peribronchial region. Results: Although there were no differences among the four groups regarding the respiratory mechanics parameters assessed, there was an increase in the Lm in the CS + PPE group. The numbers of MAC-2-positive cells in the peribronchial region and distal lung parenchyma were higher in the CS + PPE group than in the other groups, as were the numbers of cells that were positive for MMP-12 and gp91phox, although only in the distal lung parenchyma. Conclusions: Our model of emphysema induced by a combination of PPE instillation and CS exposure results in a significant degree of parenchymal destruction in a shorter time frame than that employed in other models of CS-induced emphysema, reinforcing the importance of protease-antiprotease imbalance and oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in the pathogenesis of emphysema.

 


Keywords: Tobacco; Models, animal; Emphysema; Respiratory physiological phenomena; Lung injury.

 

7 - Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: experience in 18 patients during the last 12 years

Pneumomediastino espontâneo: experiência adquirida com 18 pacientes nos últimos 12 anos

Patrícia Dionísio1, Luís Martins1, Susana Moreira1, Alda Manique1, Rita Macedo1, Fátima Caeiro1, Luísa Boal1, Cristina Bárbara1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(2):101-105

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Objetivo: Caracterizar clinicamente todos os pacientes com pneumomediastino espontâneo (PME) admitidos em uma enfermaria de pneumologia para adultos em Lisboa, Portugal. Métodos: Estudo descritivo retrospectivo no qual foram analisados todos os pacientes adultos (≥ 18 anos de idade) com diagnóstico de PME entre janeiro de 2004 e setembro de 2015. Resultados: Pelo menos um fator predisponente foi identificado na maioria (isto é, em 88,9%) dos 18 pacientes que apresentaram PME durante o período de estudo. No tocante a fatores precipitantes, crises de tosse ocorreram em 50,0% dos pacientes. Outros fatores precipitantes foram um aumento repentino do consumo de tabaco, uso de drogas inalatórias, inalação ocupacional de vapores de vernizes, exercício intenso e vômitos. As queixas mais comuns foram dispneia (em 83,3%) e dor torácica (em 77,8%). Outras queixas foram tosse, cervicalgia, disfagia e odinofagia. Constatou-se a presença de enfisema subcutâneo na maioria dos pacientes. O diagnóstico de PME baseou-se na radiografia de tórax em 61,1% dos pacientes. Conclusões: Embora seja uma doença rara, o PME deve ser levado em conta no diagnóstico diferencial de dor torácica e dispneia. O PME pode surgir sem um evento desencadeante e sem achados conclusivos na radiografia de tórax, que é geralmente suficiente para o diagnóstico.

 


Keywords: Enfisema mediastínico; Enfisema subcutâneo; Dispneia.

 

8 - Tuberculosis recurrence in a priority city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

Recorrência de tuberculose em município prioritário do estado de São Paulo

Amadeu Antonio Vieira1,2, Danila Torres Leite3, Solange Adreoni2

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(2):106-112

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Objective: To describe cases of tuberculosis recurrence (TBR), stratified by temporal classification (early or late TBR), and to identify possible predictors of such recurrence. Methods: This was an analytical retrospective observational epidemiological study involving a cohort of 963 new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, reported and treated via the Tuberculosis Control Program in the city of Carapicuíba, Brazil. The study period was from 2000 to 2010. All of the pulmonary tuberculosis patients who successfully completed the treatment (with or without confirmation of cure) were selected and followed until December 31, 2012. Results: Of the 963 cases, TBR occurred in 47 (4.88%). The mean time between the first and second tuberculosis episodes was 36.12 months. Of the 47 TBR cases, 16 (34.04%) occurred within the first 18 months after the completion of the initial treatment (early TBR) and 31 (65.96%) occurred thereafter (late TBR). There were statistically significant differences between the early and late TBR groups only regarding level of education (≤ 3 vs. > 3 years of schooling; p < 0.004) and weight gain at completion of the initial treatment (1.78 kg vs. 5.31 kg; p < 0.045)-not regarding any of the other variables studied. Conclusions: A low level of education might translate to poor treatment adherence, which impedes the killing of bacilli and facilitates their survival in a latent state, making it appear as if the treatment was effective. Minimal or no weight gain at completion of the initial treatment might be a reliable biomarker to be used by health care facilities that provide tuberculosis treatment.

 


Keywords: Recurrence; Tuberculosis; Risk factors.

 

9 - Estimated rates of recurrence, cure, and treatment abandonment in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis treated with a ­four‑drug fixed-dose combination regimen at a tertiary health care facility in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Estimativas das taxas de recidiva, cura e abandono de tratamento em pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar tratados com esquema de dose fixa combinada de quatro drogas em uma unidade de saúde terciária na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

Vangie Dias da Silva1, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz Mello2, Sonia Catarina de Abreu Figueiredo2

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(2):113-120

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To estimate the rates of recurrence, cure, and treatment abandonment in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis treated with a four-drug fixed-dose combination (FDC) regimen, as well as to evaluate possible associated factors. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study involving 208 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis enrolled in the Hospital Tuberculosis Control Program at the Institute for Thoracic Diseases, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between January of 2007 and October of 2010, the patients were treated with the rifampin-isoniazid-pyrazinamide (RHZ) regimen, whereas, between November of 2010 and June of 2013, the patients were treated with the rifampin-isoniazid-pyrazinamide-ethambutol FDC (RHZE/FDC) regimen. Data regarding tuberculosis recurrence and mortality in the patients studied were retrieved from the Brazilian Case Registry Database and the Brazilian Mortality Database, respectively. The follow-up period comprised two years after treatment completion. Results: The rates of cure, treatment abandonment, and death were 90.4%, 4.8%, and 4.8%, respectively. There were 7 cases of recurrence during the follow-up period. No significant differences in the recurrence rate were found between the RHZ and RHZE/FDC regimen groups (p = 0.13). We identified no factors associated with the occurrence of recurrence; nor were there any statistically significant differences between the treatment groups regarding adverse effects or rates of cure, treatment abandonment, or death. Conclusions: The adoption of the RHZE/FDC regimen produced no statistically significant differences in the rates of recurrence, cure, or treatment abandonment; nor did it have any effect on the occurrence of adverse effects, in comparison with the use of the RHZ regimen.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary, Drug combinations; Recurrence.

 

10 - Sweat test and cystic fibrosis: overview of test performance at public and private centers in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

Teste do suor e fibrose cística: panorama da realização do teste em centros públicos e privados do estado de São Paulo

Maria Fátima Servidoni1,2, Carla Cristina Souza Gomez1, Fernando Augusto Lima Marson1,3, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera Toro1, Maria Ângela Gonçalves de Oliveira Ribeiro1, José Dirceu Ribeiro1, Antônio Fernando Ribeiro1; Grupo Colaborativo de Estudos em Fibrose Cística

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(2):121-128

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: The sweat test (ST) measures chloride levels in sweat and is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the reliability of a ST depends on their being performed by experienced technicians and in accordance with strict guidelines. Our aim was to evaluate how sweat stimulation, sweat collection, and chloride measurement are performed at 14 centers (9 public centers and 5 private centers) that routinely perform STs in the state of São Paulo, which has the highest frequency of CF in Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional cohort study, using a standardized questionnaire administered in loco to the staff responsible for conducting STs. Results: No uniformity regarding the procedures was found among the centers. Most centers were noncompliant with the international guidelines, especially regarding the collection of sweat (the samples were insufficient in 10-50% of the subjects tested); availability of stimulation equipment (which was limited at 2 centers); modernity and certification of stimulation equipment (most of the equipment having been used for 3-23 years); and written protocols (which were lacking at 12 centers). Knowledge of ST guidelines was evaluated at only 1 center. Conclusions: Our results show that STs largely deviate from internationally accepted guidelines at the participating centers. Therefore, there is an urgent need for standardization of STs, training of qualified personnel, and acquisition/certification of suitable equipment. These are essential conditions for a reliable diagnosis of CF, especially with the increasing demand due to newborn screening nationwide, and for the assessment of a possible clinical benefit from the use of modulator drugs.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis/diagnosis; Cystic fibrosis/prevention & control; Sweat.

 

11 - Anatomic pulmonary resection via video-assisted thoracic surgery: analysis of 117 cases at a referral center in Brazil

Ressecções pulmonares anatômicas por cirurgia torácica videoassistida: experiência de 117 casos em um centro de referência no Brasil

Stephan Adamour Soder1, Frederico Barth1, Fabiola Adelia Perin1, José Carlos Felicetti1,2, José de Jesus Peixoto Camargo1,2, Spencer Marcantônio Camargo1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(2):129-133

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe our experience with video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) for anatomic pulmonary resection at a referral center for thoracic surgery in Brazil. Methods: All patients who underwent anatomic pulmonary resection by VATS between 2010 and 2015 were included. Clinical and pathological data, as well as postoperative complications, were analyzed. Results: A total of 117 pulmonary resections by VATS were performed, of which 98 were lobectomies and 19 were anatomic segmentectomies. The mean age of the patients was 63.6 years (range, 15-86 years). Females predominated (n = 69; 59%). The mean time to chest tube removal was 2.47 days, and the mean length of ICU stay was 1.88 days. The mean length of hospital stay was 4.48 days. Bleeding ≥ 400 mL occurred in 15 patients. Conversion to thoracotomy was required in 4 patients. Conclusions: Our results are similar to those published in major international studies, indicating that VATS is an important strategy for pulmonary resection. They also show that VATS can be safely performed with adequate training. This technique should be used more often for the treatment of lung diseases in Brazil.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms/therapy; Lung neoplasms/complications; Thoracic surgery, video-assisted.

 

12 - Effects that passive cycling exercise have on muscle strength, duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay in critically ill patients: a randomized clinical trial

Efeito do exercício passivo em cicloergômetro na força muscular, tempo de ventilação mecânica e internação hospitalar em pacientes críticos: ensaio clínico randomizado

Aline dos Santos Machado1, Ruy Camargo Pires-Neto2, Maurício Tatsch Ximenes Carvalho3, Janice Cristina Soares4,5, Dannuey Machado Cardoso6, Isabella Martins de Albuquerque3

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(2):134-139

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the effects that passive cycling exercise, in combination with conventional physical therapy, have on peripheral muscle strength, duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU of a tertiary care university hospital. Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial involving 38 patients (≥ 18 years of age) on mechanical ventilation who were randomly divided into two groups: control (n = 16), receiving conventional physical therapy; and intervention (n = 22), receiving conventional physical therapy and engaging in passive cycling exercise five days per week. The mean age of the patients was 46.42 ± 16.25 years, and 23 were male. The outcomes studied were peripheral muscle strength, as measured by the Medical Research Council scale, duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay. Results: There was a significant increase in peripheral muscle strength (baseline vs. final) in both groups (control: 40.81 ± 7.68 vs. 45.00 ± 6.89; and intervention: 38.73 ± 11.11 vs. 47.18 ± 8.75; p < 0.001 for both). However, the range of increase in strength was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (8.45 ± 5.20 vs. 4.18 ± 2.63; p = 0.005). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of duration of mechanical ventilation or length of hospital stay. Conclusions: The results suggest that the performance of continuous passive mobilization on a cyclical basis helps to recover peripheral muscle strength in ICU patients. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01769846 [http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/])

 


Keywords: Physical therapy modalities; Intensive care units; Early ambulation; Muscle strength.

 

Ensaio Pictórico

13 - Diffuse cystic lung diseases: differential diagnosis

Doenças pulmonares císticas difusas: diagnóstico diferencial

Bruno Guedes Baldi1, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho1, Olívia Meira Dias1, Edson Marchiori2,3, Bruno Hochhegger4,5,6

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(2):140-149

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Diffuse cystic lung diseases are characterized by cysts in more than one lung lobe, the cysts originating from various mechanisms, including the expansion of the distal airspaces due to airway obstruction, necrosis of the airway walls, and parenchymal destruction. The progression of these diseases is variable. One essential tool in the evaluation of these diseases is HRCT, because it improves the characterization of pulmonary cysts (including their distribution, size, and length) and the evaluation of the regularity of the cyst wall, as well as the identification of associated pulmonary and extrapulmonary lesions. When combined with clinical and laboratory findings, HRCT is often sufficient for the etiological definition of diffuse lung cysts, avoiding the need for lung biopsy. The differential diagnoses of diffuse cystic lung diseases are myriad, including neoplastic, inflammatory, and infectious etiologies. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, and follicular bronchiolitis are the most common diseases that produce this CT pattern. However, new diseases have been included as potential determinants of this pattern.

 


Keywords: Cysts; Diagnosis, differential; Lung diseases, interstitial; Tomography, X-ray computed.

 

Images in Pulmonary Medicine

14 - Bloodstained sputum of unknown etiology

Escarro hemoptoico de etiologia desconhecida

Filipa Fernandes1, Rita Gomes1, Filomena Luís1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(2):150

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Case Report

15 - Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica

Traqueobroncopatia osteocondroplástica

Mara Graziele Maciel Silveira1, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira Castellano2, Clarice Emiko Fuzi2, Ester Nei Aparecida Martins Coletta2, Guilherme Nogueira Spinosa2

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(2):151-153

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica is a rare benign disease, of unknown cause, characterized by numerous sessile, cartilaginous, or bony submucosal nodules distributed throughout the anterolateral walls, projecting into the laryngotracheobronchial lumen. In general, tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica is diagnosed incidentally during bronchoscopy or autopsy and is not associated with a specific disease. We report the case of a male patient who was diagnosed with tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica via bronchoscopy and biopsy.

 


Keywords: Dyspnea; Tracheal diseases; Bronchoscopy.

 

Letters to the Editor

16 - Pulmonary talcosis caused by intravenous methadone injection

Talcose pulmonar causada por injeção intravenosa de metadona

Dante Luiz Escuissato1, Rimarcs Gomes Ferreira2, João Adriano de Barros1, Edson Marchiori3

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(2):154-155

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Year 2017 - Volume 43  - Number 3  (May/June)

App

Editorial

1 - BTA distance learning course in pulmonology

Educação a Distância-SBPT para a formação de especialistas em Pneumologia

Irma Godoy, Fernando Luiz Cavalcanti Lundgren

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):157-158

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


2 - The paradox of asthma: neglect, burden, and big data

O paradoxo da asma: negligência, fardo e big data

Rafael Stelmach, Álvaro Augusto Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):159-160

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Continuing Education: Imaging

3 - Opaque hemithorax

Hemitórax opaco

Edson Marchiori1, Bruno Hochhegger2, Gláucia Zanetti1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):161

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Continuing Education : Scientific Methodology

4 - Subgroup analysis and interaction tests: why they are important and how to avoid common mistakes

Análise de subgrupos e testes de interação: por que são importantes e como evitar erros comuns

Juliana Carvalho Ferreira1,2, Cecilia Maria Patino1,3

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):162

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Original Article

5 - The impact of asthma in Brazil: a longitudinal analysis of data from a Brazilian national database system

Impacto da asma no Brasil: análise longitudinal de dados extraídos de um banco de dados governamental brasileiro

Thiago de Araujo Cardoso1, Cristian Roncada1, Emerson Rodrigues da Silva2, Leonardo Araujo Pinto1, Marcus Herbert Jones1, Renato Tetelbon Stein1, Paulo Márcio Pitrez1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):163-168

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To present official longitudinal data on the impact of asthma in Brazil between 2008 and 2013. Methods: This was a descriptive study of data collected between 2008 and 2013 from an official Brazilian national database, including data on asthma-related number of hospitalizations, mortality, and hospitalization costs. A geographical subanalysis was also performed. Results: In 2013, 2,047 people died from asthma in Brazil (5 deaths/day), with more than 120,000 asthma-related hospitalizations. During the whole study period, the absolute number of asthma-related deaths and of hospitalizations decreased by 10% and 36%, respectively. However, the in-hospital mortality rate increased by approximately 25% in that period. The geographic subanalysis showed that the northern/northeastern and southeastern regions had the highest asthma-related hospitalization and in-hospital mortality rates, respectively. An analysis of the states representative of the regions of Brazil revealed discrepancies between the numbers of asthma-related hospitalizations and asthma-related in-hospital mortality rates. During the study period, the cost of asthma-related hospitalizations to the public health care system was US$ 170 million. Conclusions: Although the numbers of asthma-related deaths and hospital admissions in Brazil have been decreasing since 2009, the absolute numbers are still high, resulting in elevated direct and indirect costs for the society. This shows the relevance of the burden of asthma in middle-income countries.

 


Keywords: Asthma/epidemiology; Asthma/mortality; Public health; Hospitalization.

 

6 - Assessment of fatigue using the Identity-Consequence Fatigue Scale in patients with lung cancer

Avaliação da fadiga utilizando a Escala de Identificação e Consequências da Fadiga em pacientes com câncer de pulmão

Ingrid Correia Nogueira1,2, Amanda Souza Araújo1,2, Maria Tereza Morano1,2,3, Antonio George Cavalcante1, Pedro Felipe de Bruin1, Johana Susan Paddison4, Guilherme Pinheiro da Silva1,3, Eanes Delgado Pereira1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):169-175

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: To evaluate the properties of the Identity-Consequence Fatigue Scale (ICFS) in patients with lung cancer (LC), assessing the intensity of fatigue and associated factors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving LC patients, treated at a teaching hospital in Brazil, who completed the ICFS. Patients with chronic heart disease (CHD) and healthy controls, matched for age and gender, also completed the scale. Initially, a Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the ICFS was administered to 50 LC patients by two independent interviewers; to test for reproducibility, it was readministered to those same patients. At baseline, the LC patients were submitted to spirometry and the six-minute walk test, as well as completing the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Inflammatory status was assessed by blood C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. To validate the ICFS, we assessed the correlations of its scores with those variables. Results: The sample comprised 50 patients in each group (LC, CHD, and control). In the LC group, the intraclass correlation coefficients for intra-rater and inter-rater reliability regarding ICFS summary variables ranged from 0.94 to 0.76 and from 0.94 to 0.79, respectively. The ICFS presented excellent internal consistency, and Bland-Altman plots showed good test-retest reliability. The ICFS correlated significantly with FSS, HADS, and SF-36 scores, as well as with CRP levels. Mean ICFS scores in the LC group differed significantly from those in the CHD and control groups. Conclusions: The ICFS is a valid, reliable instrument for evaluating LC patients, in whom depression, quality of life, and CRP levels seem to be significantly associated with fatigue.

 


Keywords: Fatigue; Lung neoplasms; Symptom assessment.

 

7 - Sleep-disordered breathing in patients with COPD and mild hypoxemia: prevalence and predictive variables

Prevalência e variáveis preditivas de distúrbios respiratórios do sono em pacientes com DPOC e hipoxemia leve

José Laerte Rodrigues Silva Júnior1,4, Marcus Barreto Conde2,3, Krislainy de Sousa Corrêa4, Helena Rabahi4, Arthur Alves Rocha5, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi1,4

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):176-182

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To infer the prevalence and variables predictive of isolated nocturnal hypoxemia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with COPD and mild hypoxemia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving clinically stable COPD outpatients with mild hypoxemia (oxygen saturation = 90-94%) at a clinical center specializing in respiratory diseases, located in the city of Goiânia, Brazil. The patients underwent clinical evaluation, spirometry, polysomnography, echocardiography, arterial blood gas analysis, six-minute walk test assessment, and chest X-ray. Results: The sample included 64 patients with COPD and mild hypoxemia; 39 (61%) were diagnosed with sleep-disordered breathing (OSA, in 14; and isolated nocturnal hypoxemia, in 25). Correlation analysis showed that PaO2 correlated moderately with mean sleep oxygen saturation (r = 0.45; p = 0.0002), mean rapid eye movement (REM) sleep oxygen saturation (r = 0.43; p = 0.001), and mean non-REM sleep oxygen saturation (r = 0.42; p = 0.001). A cut-off point of PaO2 ≤ 70 mmHg in the arterial blood gas analysis was significantly associated with sleep-disordered breathing (OR = 4.59; 95% CI: 1.54-13.67; p = 0.01). The model showed that, for identifying sleep-disordered breathing, the cut-off point had a specificity of 73.9% (95% CI: 51.6-89.8%), a sensitivity of 63.4% (95% CI: 46.9-77.9%), a positive predictive value of 81.3% (95% CI: 67.7-90.0%), and a negative predictive value of 53.1% (95% CI: 41.4-64.4%), with an area under the ROC curve of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.57-0.80), correctly classifying the observations in 67.2% of the cases. Conclusions: In our sample of patients with COPD and mild hypoxemia, the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing was high (61%), suggesting that such patients would benefit from sleep studies.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/complications; Sleep wake disorders/epidemiology; Anoxia/etiology.

 

8 - Simple motor tasks independently predict extubation failure in critically ill neurological patients

Tarefas motoras simples predizem independentemente a falha de extubação em pacientes neurológicos críticos

Fernanda Machado Kutchak1,2,3,4, Marcelo de Mello Rieder1,2,4, Josué Almeida Victorino1,4, Carla Meneguzzi4, Karla Poersch3, Luiz Alberto Forgiarini Junior5, Marino Muxfeldt Bianchin1,2,6

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):183-189

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of simple motor tasks such as hand grasping and tongue protrusion as predictors of extubation failure in critically ill neurological patients. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study conducted in the neurological ICU of a tertiary care hospital in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Adult patients who had been intubated for neurological reasons and were eligible for weaning were included in the study. The ability of patients to perform simple motor tasks such as hand grasping and tongue protrusion was evaluated as a predictor of extubation failure. Data regarding duration of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, mortality, and incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia were collected. Results: A total of 132 intubated patients who had been receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 24 h and who passed a spontaneous breathing trial were included in the analysis. Logistic regression showed that patient inability to grasp the hand of the examiner (relative risk = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.01-2.44; p < 0.045) and protrude the tongue (relative risk = 6.84; 95% CI: 2.49-18.8; p < 0.001) were independent risk factors for extubation failure. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (p = 0.02), Glasgow Coma Scale scores at extubation (p < 0.001), eye opening response (p = 0.001), MIP (p < 0.001), MEP (p = 0.006), and the rapid shallow breathing index (p = 0.03) were significantly different between the failed extubation and successful extubation groups. Conclusions: The inability to follow simple motor commands is predictive of extubation failure in critically ill neurological patients. Hand grasping and tongue protrusion on command might be quick and easy bedside tests to identify neurocritical care patients who are candidates for extubation.

 


Keywords: Ventilator weaning; Airway extubation/adverse effects; Critical care; Neurosurgery.

 

9 - Ultrasound-guided intrapleural positioning of pleural catheters: influence on immediate lung expansion and pleurodesis in patients with recurrent malignant pleural effusion

Posicionamento intrapleural, guiado por ultrassonografia, de cateteres pleurais: influência na expansão pulmonar imediata e na pleurodese em pacientes com derrame pleural maligno recorrente

Pedro Henrique Xavier Nabuco de Araujo1, Ricardo Mingarini Terra1, Thiago da Silva Santos1, Rodrigo Caruso Chate2, Antonio Fernando Lins de Paiva2, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):190-194

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the role of intrapleural positioning of a pleural catheter in early lung expansion and pleurodesis success in patients with recurrent malignant pleural effusion (RMPE). Methods: This was a retrospective study nested into a larger prospective cohort study including patients with RMPE recruited from a tertiary university teaching hospital between June of 2009 and September of 2014. The patients underwent pleural catheter insertion followed by bedside pleurodesis. Chest CT scans were performed twice: immediately before pleurodesis (iCT) and 30 days after pleurodesis (CT30). Catheter positioning was categorized based on iCT scans as posterolateral, anterior, fissural, and subpulmonary. We used the pleural volume on iCT scans to estimate early lung expansion and the difference between the pleural volumes on CT30 and iCT scans to evaluate radiological success of pleurodesis. Clinical pleurodesis success was defined as no need for any other pleural procedure. Results: Of the 131 eligible patients from the original study, 85 were included in this nested study (64 women; mean age: 60.74 years). Catheter tip positioning was subpulmonary in 35 patients (41%), anterior in 23 (27%), posterolateral in 17 (20%), and fissural in 10 (12%). No significant differences were found among the groups regarding early lung expansion (median residual pleural cavity = 377 mL; interquartile range: 171-722 mL; p = 0.645), radiological success of pleurodesis (median volume = 33 mL; interquartile range: −225 to 257 mL; p = 0.923), and clinical success of pleurodesis (85.8%; p = 0.676). Conclusions: Our results suggest that the position of the tip of the pleural catheter influences neither early lung expansion nor bedside pleurodesis success in patients with RMPE.

 


Keywords: Pleurodesis; Pleural effusion, malignant; Tomography; Catheters.

 

10 - Hearing thresholds in patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis: baseline audiogram configurations and associations

Limiares auditivos em pacientes com tuberculose resistente: configurações do audiograma basal e associações

Olusola Ayodele Sogebi1, Muse Olatunbosun Fadeyi2, Bolanle Olufunlola Adefuye3, Festus Olukayode Soyinka4

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):195-201

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To use baseline audiogram parameters in order to ascertain whether drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) has effects on hearing, as well as to describe the configurations of the audiograms and to determine whether there are parameters that can be associated with those configurations. Methods: This was a prospective study involving patients diagnosed with DR-TB at a tuberculosis treatment center in the state of Ogun, in Nigeria. The patients included in the study were submitted to pure tone audiometry at baseline (within two weeks after treatment initiation). For comparative analyses, data regarding demographic and clinical characteristics were collected from the medical records of the patients. Results: The final sample comprised 132 patients. The mean age of the patients was 34.5 ± 12.6 years (range, 8-82 years), and the male:female ratio was 2:1. Of the 132 patients, 103 (78.0%) resided in neighboring states, 125 (94.7%) had previously experienced antituberculosis treatment failure, and 18 (13.6%) were retroviral-positive. Normal audiograms were found in 12 patients (9.1%), whereas sensorineural hearing loss was identified in 104 (78.8%), the two most common configurations being ascending, in 54 (40.9%), and sloping, in 26 (19.7%). Pure-tone averages at low frequencies (0.25-1.0 kHz) and high frequencies (2.0-8.0 kHz) were 33.0 dB and 40.0 dB, respectively. Regarding the degree of hearing loss in the better ear, 36 patients (27.3%) were classified as having normal hearing and 67 (50.8%) were classified as having mild hearing loss (26-40 dB), whereas 29 (21.9%) showed moderate or severe hearing loss. Among the variables studied (age, gender, retroviral status, previous treatment outcome, and weight at admission), only male gender was associated with audiometric configurations. Conclusions: In this sample of patients with DR-TB, most presented with bilateral, mild, suboptimal sensorineural hearing loss, and ascending/sloping audiometric configurations were associated with male gender.

 


Keywords: Audiometry, pure-tone; Hearing loss, high-frequency; Drug-related side effects and adverse reactions; Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant.

 

11 - Effective tobacco control measures: agreement among medical students

Medidas eficazes de controle do tabagismo: concordância entre estudantes de medicina

Stella Regina Martins1, Renato Batista Paceli1, Marco Antônio Bussacos2, Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes1, Gustavo Faibischew Prado1, Elisa Maria Siqueira Lombardi1, Mário Terra-Filho1, Ubiratan Paula Santos1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):202-207

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the level of agreement with effective tobacco control measures recommended by the World Health Organization and to assess the attitudes toward, knowledge of, and beliefs regarding smoking among third-year medical students at University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Between 2008 and 2012, all third-year medical students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire based on the Global Health Professionals Student Survey and its additional modules. Results: The study sample comprised 556 students. The level of agreement with the World Health Organization recommendations was high, except for the components "received smoking cessation training" and "raising taxes is effective to reduce the prevalence of smoking". Most of the students reported that they agree with banning tobacco product sales to minors (95%), believe that physicians are role models to their patients (84%), and believe that they should advise their patients to quit cigarette smoking (96%) and using other tobacco products (94%). Regarding smoking cessation methods, most of the students were found to know more about nicotine replacement therapy than about non-nicotine therapies (93% vs. 53%). Only 37% of the respondents were aware of the importance of educational antismoking materials, and only 31% reported that they believe in the effectiveness of encouraging their patients, during medical visits. In our sample, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 5.23%; however, 43.82% of the respondents reported having experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking. Conclusions: Our results revealed the need to emphasize to third-year medical students the importance of raising the prices of and taxes on tobacco products. We also need to make students aware of the dangers of experimenting with tobacco products other than cigarettes, particularly water-pipe tobacco smoking.

 


Keywords: Tobacco products; Health policy; Education, medical, undergraduate; Health knowledge, attitudes, practice.

 

12 - Effects of emissions from sugar cane burning on the trachea and lungs of Wistar rats

Efeitos das emissões geradas pela queima da cana-de-açúcar em traqueia e pulmões de ratos Wistar

Verena Sampaio Barbosa Matos1, Felipe da Silva Gomes2, Tarcio Macena Oliveira2, Renata da Silva Schulz1, Lídia Cristina Villela Ribeiro3, Astria Dias Ferrão Gonzales3,4, Januário Mourão Lima4, Marcos Lázaro da Silva Guerreiro3,4

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):208-214

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the effects of exposure to emissions from sugar cane burning on inflammatory mechanisms in tissues of the trachea and lung parenchyma in Wistar rats after different periods of exposure. Methods: This was an experimental open randomized study. The animals were divided into four groups: a control group (CG) underwent standard laboratory conditions, and three experimental groups were exposed to emissions from sugar cane burning over different periods of time, in days-1 (EG1), 7 (EG7), and 21 (EG21). After euthanasia with 200 mg/kg of ketamine/xylazine, fragments of trachea and lung were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. Histological analyses were performed with H&E and picrosirius red staining. Results: No inflammatory infiltrates were found in the tissues of CG rats. The histological examination of tissues of the trachea and lung parenchyma revealed that the inflammatory process was significantly more intense in EG7 than in the CG (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). In comparison with the CG and EG1, angiogenesis in the lung parenchyma and collagen deposition in tracheal tissues were significantly greater only in EG21 (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). Conclusions: In this sample, emissions from sugar cane burning induced acute focal and diffuse inflammation in the lamina propria of tracheal tissues, with no loss of ciliated epithelial tissue. In the lung parenchyma of the animals in the experimental groups, there was interstitial and alveolar edema, together with polymorphonuclear cell infiltrates.

 


Keywords: Saccharum; Smoke; Inflammation; Respiratory system.

 

13 - Frequency of indeterminate results from an interferon-gamma release assay among HIV-infected individuals

Taxa de resultados indeterminados de ensaio de liberação de interferon-gama entre pessoas infectadas pelo HIV

Sandra Maria do Valle Leone de Oliveira1,2, Anete Trajman3,4, Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago1, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro1,2, Antonio Ruffino-Netto5, Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel6, Julio Croda2,7, Maria da Gloria Bonecini-Almeida8

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):215-218

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the frequency of and factors associated with indeterminate interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) results in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Methods: We tested 81 PLWHA in the central-west region of Brazil, using the tuberculin skin test and an IGRA. Information on sociodemographic and clinical variables was gathered through the use of questionnaires and from medical records. The association of those variables with indeterminate results was analyzed by calculating the adjusted ORs in a multivariate logistic regression model. Concordance was evaluated by determining the kappa statistic. Results: Among the 81 patients evaluated, the tuberculin skin test results were positive in 18 (22.2%) of the patients, and the IGRA results were positive in 10 (12.3%), with a kappa of 0.62. The IGRA results were indeterminate in 22 (27.1%) of the patients (95% CI: 17.8-38.1%). The odds of obtaining indeterminate results were significantly higher in smokers (adjusted OR = 6.0; 95% CI: 1.4-26.7) and in samples stored for less than 35 days (adjusted OR = 14.0; 95% CI: 3.1-64.2). Patients with advanced immunosuppression (CD4+ T-cell count < 200 cells/mm3) were at a higher risk for indeterminate results (OR adjusted for smoking and inadequate duration of sample storage = 4.7; 95% CI: 0.91-24.0), although the difference was not significant. Conclusions: The high prevalence of indeterminate results can be a major limitation for the routine use of IGRAs in PLWHA. The need to repeat the test increases its costs and should be taken into account in cost-effectiveness studies. The processing of samples can significantly alter the results.

 


Keywords: Interferon-gamma release tests; Interferon-gamma; Tuberculosis; HIV; Latent tuberculosis; Tuberculin test.

 

Special Article

14 - Brazilian guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of cystic fibrosis

Diretrizes brasileiras de diagnóstico e tratamento da fibrose cística

Rodrigo Abensur Athanazio1*, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira da Silva Filho2,3*, Alberto Andrade Vergara4, Antônio Fernando Ribeiro5, Carlos Antônio Riedi6, Elenara da Fonseca Andrade Procianoy7, Fabíola Villac Adde2, Francisco José Caldeira Reis4, José Dirceu Ribeiro5, Lídia Alice Torres8, Marcelo Bicalho de Fuccio9, Matias Epifanio10, Mônica de Cássia Firmida11, Neiva Damaceno12, Norberto Ludwig-Neto13,14, Paulo José Cauduro Maróstica7,15, Samia Zahi Rached1, Suzana Fonseca de Oliveira Melo4; Grupo de Trabalho das Diretrizes Brasileiras de Diagnóstico e Tratamento da Fibrose Cística.

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):219-245

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by dysfunction of the CFTR gene. It is a multisystem disease that most often affects White individuals. In recent decades, various advances in the diagnosis and treatment of CF have drastically changed the scenario, resulting in a significant increase in survival and quality of life. In Brazil, the current neonatal screening program for CF has broad coverage, and most of the Brazilian states have referral centers for the follow-up of individuals with the disease. Previously, CF was limited to the pediatric age group. However, an increase in the number of adult CF patients has been observed, because of the greater number of individuals being diagnosed with atypical forms (with milder phenotypic expression) and because of the increase in life expectancy provided by the new treatments. However, there is still great heterogeneity among the different regions of Brazil in terms of the access of CF patients to diagnostic and therapeutic methods. The objective of these guidelines was to aggregate the main scientific evidence to guide the management of these patients. A group of 18 CF specialists devised 82 relevant clinical questions, divided into five categories: characteristics of a referral center; diagnosis; treatment of respiratory disease; gastrointestinal and nutritional treatment; and other aspects. Various professionals working in the area of CF in Brazil were invited to answer the questions devised by the coordinators. We used the PubMed database to search the available literature based on keywords, in order to find the best answers to these questions.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis/diagnosis; Cystic fibrosis/therapy; Cystic fibrosis/complications; Practice guideline.

 

Images in Pulmonary Medicine

15 - A storm of stones in the lungs: an uncommon sequela of varicella pneumonia

Granizo nos pulmões: uma sequela incomum de pneumonia por varicela

Gaetano Rea1, Adriano Costigliola2, Cecilia Calabrese2

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):246

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


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16 - .

Edital de Seleção

Fernando Lundgren, Rogerio Souza

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):

PDF PT Portuguese Text


Year 2017 - Volume 43  - Number 4  (July/August)

App

Editorial

1 - JBP and bibliometric indices

JBP e os índices bibliométricos

Rogério Souza

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):247-248

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2 - The difficult task of searching for tools that help predict mechanical ventilator weaning success

A ingrata tarefa de se buscar ferramentas que ajudem a predizer o sucesso do desmame da ventilação mecânica

Bruno do Valle Pinheiro

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):249-250

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Continuing Education: Imaging

3 - Thickening of the tracheal wall

Espessamento da parede traqueal

Edson Marchiori, Bruno Hochhegger, Gláucia Zanetti

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):251

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Continuing Education : Scientific Methodology

4 - Prognostic studies for health care decision making

Estudos prognósticos para a tomada de decisão em saúde

Cecilia Maria Patino, Juliana Carvalho Ferreira

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):252

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Original Article

5 - Usefulness of radiological signs of pulmonary congestion in predicting failed spontaneous breathing trials

Utilidade de sinais radiológicos de congestão pulmonar para predizer o fracasso do teste de respiração espontânea

Ana Carolina Peçanha Antonio, Cassiano Teixeira, Priscylla Souza Castro, Ana Paula Zanardo, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Marli Knorst

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):253-258

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Inspiratory fall in intrathoracic pressure during a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) may precipitate cardiac dysfunction and acute pulmonary edema. We aimed to determine the relationship between radiological signs of pulmonary congestion prior to an SBT and weaning outcomes. Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study involving patients in an adult medical-surgical ICU. All enrolled individuals met the eligibility criteria for liberation from mechanical ventilation. Tracheostomized subjects were excluded. The primary endpoint was SBT failure, defined as the inability to tolerate a T-piece trial for 30-120 min. An attending radiologist applied a radiological score on interpretation of digital chest X-rays performed before the SBT. Results: A total of 170 T-piece trials were carried out; SBT failure occurred in 28 trials (16.4%), and 133 subjects (78.3%) were extubated at first attempt. Radiological scores were similar between SBT-failure and SBT-success groups (median [interquartile range] = 3 [2-4] points vs. 3 [2-4] points; p = 0.15), which, according to the score criteria, represented interstitial lung congestion. The analysis of ROC curves demonstrated poor accuracy (area under the curve = 0.58) of chest x-rays findings of congestion prior to the SBT for discriminating between SBT failure and SBT success. No correlation was found between fluid balance in the 48 h preceding the SBT and radiological score results (ρ = −0.13). Conclusions: Radiological findings of pulmonary congestion should not delay SBT indication, given that they did not predict weaning failure in the medical-surgical critically ill population. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02022839 [http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/])

 


Keywords: Radiography; Pulmonary edema; Ventilator weaning.

 

6 - Laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis: chest CT findings

Papilomatose laringotraqueobrônquica: avaliação por TC de tórax

Helena Ribeiro Fortes, Felipe Mussi von Ranke, Dante Luiz Escuissato, Cesar Augusto Araujo Neto, Gláucia Zanetti, Bruno Hochhegger, Klaus Loureiro Irion, Carolina Althoff Souza, Edson Marchiori

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):259-263

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

To evaluate the findings on chest CTs in 16 patients (8 men and 8 women) with laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving patients ranging from 2 to 72 years of age. The evaluation of the CT scans was independently performed by two observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. The inclusion criteria were presence of abnormalities on the CT scans, and the diagnosis was confirmed by anatomopathological examination of the papillomatous lesions. Results: The most common symptoms were hoarseness, cough, dyspnea, and recurrent respiratory infections. The major CT findings were nodular formations in the trachea, solid or cavitated nodules in the lung parenchyma, air trapping, masses, and consolidation. Nodular formations in the trachea were observed in 14 patients (87.5%). Only 2 patients had lesions in lung parenchyma without tracheal involvement. Only 1 patient had no pulmonary dissemination of the disease, showing airway involvement only. Solid and cavitated lung nodules were observed in 14 patients (87.5%) and 13 (81.2%), respectively. Masses were observed in 6 patients (37.5%); air trapping, in 3 (18.7%); consolidation in 3 (18.7%); and pleural effusion, in 1 (6.3%). Pulmonary involvement was bilateral in all cases. Conclusions: The most common tomography findings were nodular formations in the trachea, as well as solid or cavitated nodules and masses in the lung parenchyma. Malignant transformation of the lesions was observed in 5 cases.

 


Keywords: Papilloma; Tomography, X-ray computed; Lung diseases.

 

7 - Translation and cultural adaptation of a specific instrument for measuring asthma control and asthma status: the Asthma Control and Communication Instrument

Tradução e adaptação cultural de um instrumento específico para medir o controle e estado da asma: Asthma Control and Communication Instrument

Michelle Gonçalves de Souza Tavares, Carolina Finardi Brümmer, Gabriela Valente Nicolau, José Tavares de Melo Jr, Nazaré Otilia Nazário, Leila John Marques Steidle, Cecília Maria Patino, Marcia Margaret Menezes Pizzichini, Emílio Pizzichini

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):264-269

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: To translate the Asthma Control and Communication Instrument (ACCI) to Portuguese and adapt it for use in Brazil. Methods: The ACCI was translated to Portuguese and adapted for use in Brazil in accordance with internationally accepted guidelines. The protocol included the following steps: permission and rights of use granted by the original author; translation of the ACCI from English to Portuguese; reconciliation; back-translation; review and harmonization of the back-translation; approval from the original author; review of the Portuguese version of the ACCI by an expert panel; cognitive debriefing (the clarity, understandability, and acceptability of the translated version being tested in a sample of the target population); and reconciliation and preparation of the final version. Results: During the cognitive debriefing process, 41 asthma patients meeting the inclusion criteria completed the ACCI and evaluated the clarity of the questions/statements. The clarity index for all ACCI items was > 0.9, meaning that all items were considered to be clear. Conclusions: The ACCI was successfully translated to Portuguese and culturally adapted for use in Brazil, the translated version maintaining the psychometric properties of the original version. The ACCI can be used in clinical practice because it is easy to understand and easily applied.

 


8 - High-resolution computed tomography findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in lung transplant recipients

Achados de tuberculose pulmonar na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução em transplantados de pulmão

Irai Luis Giacomelli, Roberto Schuhmacher Neto, Carlos Schuller Nin, Priscilla de Souza Cassano, Marisa Pereira, José da Silva Moreira, Douglas Zaione Nascimento, Bruno Hochhegger

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):270-273

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Respiratory infections constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. The incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis is high among such patients. On imaging, tuberculosis has various presentations. Greater understanding of those presentations could reduce the impact of the disease by facilitating early diagnosis. Therefore, we attempted to describe the HRCT patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis in lung transplant recipients. Methods: From two hospitals in southern Brazil, we collected the following data on lung transplant recipients who developed pulmonary tuberculosis: gender; age; symptoms; the lung disease that led to transplantation; HRCT pattern; distribution of findings; time from transplantation to pulmonary tuberculosis; and mortality rate. The HRCT findings were classified as miliary nodules; cavitation and centrilobular nodules with a tree-in-bud pattern; ground-glass attenuation with consolidation; mediastinal lymph node enlargement; or pleural effusion. Results: We evaluated 402 lung transplant recipients, 19 of whom developed pulmonary tuberculosis after transplantation. Among those 19 patients, the most common HRCT patterns were ground-glass attenuation with consolidation (in 42%); cavitation and centrilobular nodules with a tree-in-bud pattern (in 31.5%); and mediastinal lymph node enlargement (in 15.7%). Among the patients with cavitation and centrilobular nodules with a tree-in-bud pattern, the distribution was within the upper lobes in 66.6%. No pleural effusion was observed. Despite treatment, one-year mortality was 47.3%. Conclusions: The predominant HRCT pattern was ground-glass attenuation with consolidation, followed by cavitation and centrilobular nodules with a tree-in-bud pattern. These findings are similar to those reported for immunocompetent patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and considerably different from those reported for AIDS patients with the same disease.

 


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Diagnostic imaging; Mycobacterium infections; Thoracic diseases; Tomography, X-Ray computed/methods; Tuberculosis, pulmonary.

 

9 - Pneumonia mortality trends in all Brazilian geographical regions between 1996 and 2012

Tendência de mortalidade por pneumonia nas regiões brasileiras no período entre 1996 e 2012

Rosemeire de Olanda Ferraz, Jane Kelly Oliveira-Friestino, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo Francisco

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):274-279

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the temporal trends in pneumonia mortality rates (standardized by age, using the 2010 population of Brazil as the standard) in all Brazilian geographical regions between 1996 and 2012. Methods: This was an ecological time-series study examining secondary data from the Mortality Database maintained by the Information Technology Department of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System. Polynomial and joinpoint regression models, and corresponding 95% CIs, were used for trend analysis. Results: The pneumonia mortality rates in the South, Southeast, and Central-West showed a decreasing behavior until 2000, followed by increases, whereas, in the North and Northeast, they showed increasing trends virtually throughout the period studied. There was variation in annual percent change in pneumonia mortality rates in all regions except the North. The Central-West had the greatest decrease in annual percent change between 1996 and 2000, followed by an increase of the same magnitude until 2005. The 80 years and over age group was the one most influencing the trend behavior of pneumonia mortality rates in all regions. Conclusions: In general, pneumonia mortality trends reversed, with an important increase occurring in the years after 2000.

 


Keywords: Pneumonia/mortality; Pneumonia/epidemiology; Time series studies.

 

10 - Can the six-minute walk distance predict the occurrence of acute exacerbations of COPD in patients in Brazil?

A distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de seis minutos pode predizer a ocorrência de exacerbações agudas da DPOC em pacientes brasileiros?

Fernanda Kazmierski Morakami, Andrea Akemi Morita, Gianna Waldrich Bisca, Josiane Marques Felcar, Marcos Ribeiro, Karina Couto Furlanetto, Nidia Aparecida Hernandes, Fabio Pitta

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):280-284

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate whether a six-minute walk distance (6MWD) of < 80% of the predicted value can predict the occurrence of acute exacerbations of COPD in patients in Brazil over a 2-year period. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study involving 50 COPD patients in Brazil. At enrollment, anthropometric data were collected and patients were assessed for pulmonary function (by spirometry) and functional exercise capacity (by the 6MWD). The patients were subsequently divided into two groups: 6MWD ≤ 80% of predicted and 6MWD > 80% of predicted. The occurrence of acute exacerbations of COPD over 2 years was identified by analyzing medical records and contacting patients by telephone. Results: In the sample as a whole, there was moderate-to-severe airflow obstruction (mean FEV1 = 41 ± 12% of predicted) and the mean 6MWD was 469 ± 60 m (86 ± 10% of predicted). Over the 2-year follow-up period, 25 patients (50%) experienced acute exacerbations of COPD. The Kaplan-Meier method showed that the patients in whom the 6MWD was ≤ 80% of predicted were more likely to have exacerbations than were those in whom the 6MWD was > 80% of predicted (p = 0.01), whereas the Cox regression model showed that the former were 2.6 times as likely to have an exacerbation over a 2-year period as were the latter (p = 0.02). Conclusions: In Brazil, the 6MWD can predict acute exacerbations of COPD over a 2-year period. The risk of experiencing an acute exacerbation of COPD within 2 years is more than twice as high in patients in whom the 6MWD is ≤ 80% of predicted.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Risk groups; Exercise.

 

11 - Sleep quality in medical students: a comparison across the various phases of the medical course

Qualidade de sono em estudantes de medicina: comparação das diferentes fases do curso

Camila de Castro Corrêa, Felipe Kazan de Oliveira, Diego Scherlon Pizzamiglio, Erika Veruska Paiva Ortolan, Silke Anna Theresa Weber

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):285-289

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate and compare subjective sleep quality in medical students across the various phases of the medical course. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving medical undergraduates at one medical school in the city of Botucatu, Brazil. All first- to sixth-year students were invited to complete the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, which has been validated for use in Brazil. Participants were divided into three groups according to the phase of the medical course: group A (first- and second-years); group B (third- and fourth-years); and group C (fifth- and sixth-years). The results obtained for the instrument components were analyzed for the total sample and for the groups. Results: Of the 540 students invited to participate, 372 completed the instrument fully. Of those, 147 (39.5%) reported their sleep quality to be either very or fairly bad; 110 (29.5%) reported taking more than 30 min to fall asleep; 253 (68.0%) reported sleeping 6-7 h per night; 327 (87.9%) reported adequate sleep efficiency; 315 (84.6%) reported no sleep disturbances; 32 (8.6%) reported using sleeping medication; and 137 (36.9%) reported difficulty staying awake during the day at least once a week. Group comparison revealed that students in group A had worse subjective sleep quality and greater daytime dysfunction than did those in groups B and C. Conclusions: Medical students seem to be more exposed to sleep disturbance than other university students, and first- and second-years are more affected than those in other class years because they have worse subjective sleep quality. Active interventions should be implemented to improve sleep hygiene in medical students.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Risk groups; Exercise.

 

Special Article

12 - Recommendations for the pharmacological treatment of COPD: questions and answers

Recomendações para o tratamento farmacológico da DPOC: perguntas e respostas

Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes1, Alberto Cukier1, Aquiles Assunção Camelier2,3, Carlos Cezar Fritscher4, Cláudia Henrique da Costa5, Eanes Delgado Barros Pereira6, Irma Godoy7, José Eduardo Delfini Cançado8, José Gustavo Romaldini8, Jose Miguel Chatkin4, José Roberto Jardim9, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi10, Maria Cecília Nieves Maiorano de Nucci11, Maria da Penha Uchoa Sales12, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira Castellano13, Miguel Abidon Aidé14, Paulo José Zimermann Teixeira15,16, Renato Maciel17, Ricardo de Amorim Corrêa18, Roberto Stirbulov8, Rodrigo Abensur Athanazio1, Rodrigo Russo19, Suzana Tanni Minamoto7, Fernando Luiz Cavalcanti Lundgren20

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):290-301

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The treatment of COPD has become increasingly effective. Measures that range from behavioral changes, reduction in exposure to risk factors, education about the disease and its course, rehabilitation, oxygen therapy, management of comorbidities, and surgical and pharmacological treatments to end-of-life care allow health professionals to provide a personalized and effective therapy. The pharmacological treatment of COPD is one of the cornerstones of COPD management, and there have been many advances in this area in recent years. Given the greater availability of drugs and therapeutic combinations, it has become increasingly challenging to know the indications for, limitations of, and potential risks and benefits of each treatment modality. In order to critically evaluate recent evidence and systematize the major questions regarding the pharmacological treatment of COPD, 24 specialists from all over Brazil gathered to develop the present recommendations. A visual guide was developed for the classification and treatment of COPD, both of which were adapted to fit the situation in Brazil. Ten questions were selected on the basis of their relevance in clinical practice. They address the classification, definitions, treatment, and evidence available for each drug or drug combination. Each question was answered by two specialists, and then the answers were consolidated in two phases: review and consensus by all participants. The questions answered are practical questions and help select from among the many options the best treatment for each patient and his/her peculiarities.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/drug therapy; pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/prevention & control; pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/therapy.

 

Meta-analysis

13 - Long-acting muscarinic antagonists vs. long-acting β2 agonists in COPD exacerbations: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Antagonistas muscarínicos de longa duração vs. β2-agonistas de longa duração em exacerbações da DPOC: revisão sistemática e meta-análise

Israel Silva Maia1, Mariângela Pimentel Pincelli1, Victor Figueiredo Leite2, João Amadera3, Anna Maria Buehler4

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):302-312

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

The objective of this systematic review was to characterize chest CT findings in patients with dysphagia and pulmonary aspiration, identifying the characteristics and the methods used. The studies were selected from among those indexed in the Brazilian Virtual Library of Health, LILACS, Indice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud, Medline, Cochrane Library, SciELO, and PubMed databases. The search was carried out between June and July of 2016. Five articles were included and reviewed, all of them carried out in the last five years, published in English, and coming from different countries. The sample size in the selected studies ranged from 43 to 56 patients, with a predominance of adult and elderly subjects. The tomographic findings in patients with dysphagia-related aspiration were varied, including bronchiectasis, bronchial wall thickening, pulmonary nodules, consolidations, pleural effusion, ground-glass attenuation, atelectasis, septal thickening, fibrosis, and air trapping. Evidence suggests that chest CT findings in patients with aspiration are diverse. In this review, it was not possible to establish a consensus that could characterize a pattern of pulmonary aspiration in patients with dysphagia, further studies of the topic being needed.

 


Keywords: Respiratory aspiration; Tomography, X-ray computed; Lung.

 

Review Article

14 - Chest CT findings in patients with dysphagia and aspiration: a systematic review

Achados de TC de tórax em pacientes com disfagia e aspiração pulmonar: uma revisão sistemática

Betina Scheeren1, Erissandra Gomes2, Giordano Alves3, Edson Marchiori3, Bruno Hochhegger1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):313-318

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of this systematic review was to characterize chest CT findings in patients with dysphagia and pulmonary aspiration, identifying the characteristics and the methods used. The studies were selected from among those indexed in the Brazilian Virtual Library of Health, LILACS, Indice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud, Medline, Cochrane Library, SciELO, and PubMed databases. The search was carried out between June and July of 2016. Five articles were included and reviewed, all of them carried out in the last five years, published in English, and coming from different countries. The sample size in the selected studies ranged from 43 to 56 patients, with a predominance of adult and elderly subjects. The tomographic findings in patients with dysphagia-related aspiration were varied, including bronchiectasis, bronchial wall thickening, pulmonary nodules, consolidations, pleural effusion, ground-glass attenuation, atelectasis, septal thickening, fibrosis, and air trapping. Evidence suggests that chest CT findings in patients with aspiration are diverse. In this review, it was not possible to establish a consensus that could characterize a pattern of pulmonary aspiration in patients with dysphagia, further studies of the topic being needed.

 


Keywords: Respiratory aspiration; Tomography, X-ray computed; Lung.

 

Images in Pulmonary Medicine

15 - Multislice CT in the diagnosis of bronchopleural fistula

TC multidetectores no diagnóstico de fístula broncopleural

Bruno Hochhegger1, Gláucia Zanetti2, Edson Marchiori2

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):319

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Case Report

16 - Pulmonary foreign body granulomatosis in a chronic user of powder cocaine

Granulomatose pulmonar de corpo estranho em um usuário crônico de cocaína em pó

Shruti Khurana1, Ankit Chhoda2, Sandeep Sahay3, Priyanka Pathania4

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):320-321

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We describe the case of a 33-year-old man, a chronic user of powder cocaine, who presented with dyspnea, fever, night sweats, and significant weight loss. Chest HRCT revealed centrilobular nodules, giving an initial impression of miliary tuberculosis. Therefore, he was started on an empirical, four-drug antituberculosis treatment regimen. Four weeks later, despite the tuberculosis treatment, he continued to have the same symptoms. We then performed transbronchial lung biopsy. Histopathological analysis of the biopsy sample revealed birefringent foreign body granuloma. A corroborative history of cocaine snorting, the presence of centrilobular nodules, and the foreign body-related histopathological findings led to a diagnosis of pulmonary foreign body granulomatosis. This report underscores the fact that pulmonary foreign body granulomatosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of clinical profiles resembling tuberculosis.

 


Keywords: Lung; Granuloma, foreign-body; Cocaine-related disorders.

 

Letters to the Editor

17 - The reversed halo sign: also think about chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

Sinal do halo invertido: pense também em pneumonia eosinofílica crônica

Gaetano Rea1, Giorgia Dalpiaz2, Alessandro Vatrella3, Stefania Damiani4, Edson Marchiori5,6

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):322-323

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


18 - Pneumothorax: between the beach and the stratosphere

Pneumotórax: entre a praia e a estratosfera

Eduardo Kaiser Ururahy Nunes Fonseca1, Adham do Amaral e Castro1, Yoshino Tamaki Sameshima1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):324-325

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Erratum

19 - Manuscrito: The halo sign.

Manuscript: The halo sign.

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J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):326

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Year 2017 - Volume 43  - Number 5  (September/October)

App

Editorial

1 - Momentum

Momentum

Rogério Souza1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(5):327

PDF PT Portuguese Text


Continuing Education: Imaging

2 - Honeycombing

Faveolamento

Edson Marchiori1, Bruno Hochhegger2, Gláucia Zanetti1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(5):329

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Continuing Education : Scientific Methodology

3 - Understanding diagnostic tests. Part 1.

Entendendo os testes diagnósticos. Parte 1.

Juliana Carvalho Ferreira1,2, Cecilia Maria Patino1,3

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(5):330

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Original Article

4 - The Quebec Sleep Questionnaire on quality of life in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

Quebec Sleep Questionnaire sobre qualidade de vida em pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono: tradução e adaptação cultural para uso no Brasil

José Tavares de Melo Júnior1, Rosemeri Maurici1,2, Michelle Gonçalves de Souza Tavares3, Marcia Margareth Menezes Pizzichini1,4, Emilio Pizzichini1,2,5

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(5):331-336

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: To translate the Quebec Sleep Questionnaire (QSQ), a specific instrument for the assessment of quality of life in patients with sleep obstructive apnea, into Portuguese and to create a version that is cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil. Methods: The Portuguese-language version was developed according to a rigorous methodology, which included the following steps: preparation; translation from English into Portuguese in three versions; reconciliation to a single version; back-translation of that version into English; comparison and harmonization of the back-translation with the original version; review of the Portuguese-language version; cognitive debriefing; text review; and arrival at the final version. Results: The Portuguese-language version of the QSQ for use in Brazil had a clarity score, as measured by cognitive debriefing, ranging from 0.81 to 0.99, demonstrating the consistency of translation and cross-cultural adaptation processes. Conclusions: The process of translating the QSQ into Portuguese and creating a version that is cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil produced a valid instrument to assess the quality of life in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

 


Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea, Quality of life; Translations; Validation studies.

 

5 - Factors associated with malnutrition in adolescent and adult patients with cystic fibrosis

Fatores associados à desnutrição em pacientes adolescentes e adultos com fibrose cística

Gabriela Cristofoli Barni1, Gabriele Carra Forte1, Luis Felipe Forgiarini1,2, Claudine Lacerda de Oliveira Abrahão3, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin1,4

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(5):337-343

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition in patients attending an adult cystic fibrosis (CF) program and to investigate the associations of malnutrition with the clinical characteristics of those patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving patients with clinically stable CF patients (16 years of age or older). The patients underwent clinical assessment, nutritional assessments, pulmonary function tests, and pancreatic function assessment. They also completed a questionnaire regarding diet compliance. On the basis of their nutritional status, the patients were classified divided into three groups: adequate nutrition; at nutritional risk; and malnutrition. Results: The study has included 73 patients (mean age, 25.6 ± 7.3 years), 40 of whom (54.8%) were female. The mean body mass index was 21.0 ± 3.0 kg/m2 and the mean FEV1 was 59.7 ± 30.6% of predicted. In this sample of patients, 32 (43.8%), 23 (31.5%), and 18 (24.7%) of the patients were allocated to the adequate nutrition, nutritional risk, and malnutrition groups, respectively. The logistic regression analysis identified three independent factors associated with the risk of malnutrition: Shwachman-Kulczycki score, percent predicted FEV1; and age. Conclusions: Malnutrition remains a common complication in adolescents and adults with CF, despite dietary advice. Malnutrition is associated with age, clinical severity, and lung function impairment.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Malnutrition; Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency; Respiratory function tests.

 

6 - Parapneumonic pleural effusion: early versus late thoracoscopy

Derrame pleural parapneumônico: comparação entre toracoscopia precoce e tardia

Rodrigo Romualdo Pereira1, Cristina Gonçalves Alvim2, Cláudia Ribeiro de Andrade2, Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina2

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(5):344-350

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the best time to perform thoracoscopy for the treatment of complicated parapneumonic pleural effusion in the fibrinopurulent phase in patients ≤ 14 years of age, regarding the postoperative evolution and occurrence of complications. Methods: This was a retrospective comparative study involving patients with parapneumonic pleural effusion presenting with septations or loculations on chest ultrasound who underwent thoracoscopy between January of 2000 and January of 2013. The patients were divided into two groups: early thoracoscopy (ET), performed by day 5 of hospitalization; and late thoracoscopy (LT), performed after day 5 of hospitalization. Results: We included 60 patients, 30 in each group. The mean age was 3.4 years; 28 patients (46.7%) were male; and 47 (78.3%) underwent primary thoracoscopy (no previous simple drainage). The two groups were similar regarding gender, age, weight, and type of thoracoscopy (p > 0.05 for all). There was a significant difference between the ET and the LT groups regarding the length of the hospital stay (14.5 days vs. 21.7 days; p < 0.001). There were also significant differences between the groups regarding the duration of fever in days; the total number of days from admission to the initiation of drainage; and the total number of days with the drain in place. Eight patients (13.6%) had at least one post-thoracoscopy complication, there being no difference between the groups. There were no deaths. Conclusions: Performing ET by day 5 of hospitalization was associated with shorter hospital stays, shorter duration of drainage, and shorter duration of fever, although not with a higher frequency of complications, requiring ICU admission, or requiring blood transfusion.

 


Keywords: Empyema, pleural; Thoracoscopy; Pneumonia.

 

7 - Frequency of COPD in health care workers who smoke

Frequência de DPOC em profissionais de saúde que fumam

Ivan Kopitovic1,2, Aleksandar Bokan1,2, Ilija Andrijevic1,2, Miroslav Ilic1,2, Sanja Marinkovic3, Dragana Milicic1,2, Marija Vukoja1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(5):351-356

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: COPD is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Health care providers should counsel their smoking patients with COPD to quit smoking as the first treatment step. However, in countries with high prevalences of smoking, health care workers may also be smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and severity of COPD in health care workers who smoke. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All health care workers who smoke, from nine health care centers in Serbia, were invited to participate in the study and perform spirometry. The diagnosis of COPD was based on a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio of < 0.70. All patients completed the COPD Assessment Test and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. Results: The study involved 305 subjects, and 47 (15.4%) were male. The mean age of the participants was 49.0 ± 6.5 years. Spirometry revealed obstructive ventilatory defect in 33 subjects (10.8%); restrictive ventilatory defect, in 5 (1.6%); and small airway disease, in 96 (31.5%). A diagnosis of COPD was made in 29 patients (9.5%), 25 (86.2%) of whom were newly diagnosed. On the basis of the Global Initiative for COPD guidelines, most COPD patients belonged to groups A or B (n = 14; 48.2%, for both); 1 belonged to group D (3.6%); and none, to group C. Very high nicotine dependence was more common in those with COPD than in those without it (20.7% vs. 5.4%, p = 0.01). Conclusions: In this sample of health care workers, the frequency of COPD was comparable with that in the general population. The presence of COPD in health care workers who smoke was associated with higher nicotine dependence.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/prevention & control; Smoking; Health personnel.

 

8 - Quality of Communication Questionnaire para pacientes com DPOC em cuidados paliativos: tradução e adaptação cultural para uso no Brasil

Quality of Communication Questionnaire para pacientes com DPOC em cuidados paliativos: tradução e adaptação cultural para uso no Brasil

Flávia Del Castanhel1, Suely Grosseman2

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(5):357-362

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objetivo: Realizar a tradução para a língua portuguesa e a adaptação cultural para uso no Brasil do Quality of Communication Questionnaire (QOC) para pacientes com DPOC em cuidados paliativos. Métodos: Após a aprovação do autor do questionário e do comitê de ética da instituição, a versão original do QOC com 13 itens foi traduzida, de forma independente, por dois tradutores brasileiros com fluência na língua inglesa. Uma síntese das duas traduções foi realizada por uma médica bilíngue e os dois tradutores, que chegaram a um consenso, gerando uma versão na língua portuguesa. Essa versão foi retraduzida por dois tradutores nativos de países de língua inglesa com fluência na língua portuguesa. Para resolver quaisquer discrepâncias, um comitê de especialistas comparou a versão original com todas as versões produzidas e, assim, obteve-se a versão pré-final do QOC. O pré-teste foi aplicado em 32 pacientes internados em UTIs de três hospitais públicos da grande Florianópolis (SC) para avaliar a clareza e a aceitabilidade cultural da versão pré-final do QOC. Resultados: A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 48,5 ± 18,8 anos. A maioria dos itens foi bem compreendida e aceita, recebendo pontuações ≥ 8. Um item, sobre morte, suscitou dificuldades na compreensão dos participantes do pré-teste. Ao submeter a retradução ao autor do QOC, ele solicitou alterações em dois itens, que foram acatadas. Após essas alterações, a versão final foi aprovada. Conclusões: A tradução e a adaptação cultural do QOC para uso no Brasil foi concluída com sucesso.

 


Keywords: Doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica; Inquéritos e questionários; Comunicação; Unidades de terapia intensiva.

 

9 - Lung cancer: changes in histology, gender, and age over the last 30 years in Brazil

Câncer de pulmão: mudanças na histologia, sexo e idade nos últimos 30 anos no Brasil

Maria Teresa Ruiz Tsukazan1,2, Álvaro Vigo2, Vinícius Duval da Silva3, Carlos Henrique Barrios4, Jayme de Oliveira Rios1, José Antônio de Figueiredo Pinto1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(5):363-367

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the trends in tumor histology, gender and age among patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with lung resection. The histology of lung cancer has changed in developed countries, and there is still little information available on the topic for developing countries. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 1,030 patients with NSCLC treated with lung resection between 1986 and 2015 at a university hospital in southern Brazil. Differences in histology, stage, and type of surgery were analyzed by gender and for three periods (1986-1995, 1996-2005, and 2006-2015). Results: Most (64.5%) of the patients were males, and the main histological types were squamous cell carcinoma (in 40.6%) and adenocarcinoma (in 44.5%). The mean age at surgery during the first period was 56.4 years for women and 58.9 years for men, compared with 62.2 for women and 64.6 for men in the third period (p < 0.001). The proportion of females increased from 26.6% in the first period to 44.1% in the third. From the first to the third period, the proportion of patients with squamous cell carcinoma decreased from 49.6% to 34.8% overall (p < 0.001), decreasing to an even greater degree (from 38.9% to 23.2%) among men. Among the NSCLC patients in our sample, females with adenocarcinoma accounted for 11.9% in the first period and 24.0% in the third period (p < 0.001). Conclusions: As has been seen in developed countries, the rates of lung cancer in females in southern Brazil have been rising over the last three decades, although they have yet to surpass those observed for males in the region. The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma has decreased in males, approaching adenocarcinoma rates, whereas adenocarcinoma has significantly increased among women.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Epidemiology; Histology; Adenocarcinoma; Carcinoma, non-small-cell lung; Carcinoma, squamous cell.

 

10 - Epidemiological trends of allergic diseases in adolescents

Tendência epidemiológica das prevalências de doenças alérgicas em adolescentes

Silvia de Souza Campos Fernandes1, Cláudia Ribeiro de Andrade1, Cristina Gonçalves Alvim1, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos1, Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(5):368-372

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess the prevalences of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in adolescents in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in 2012 by administering the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire, as well as to compare the observed prevalences with those found in studies performed 10 years earlier and employing the same methodology used here. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between May and December of 2012 and involving adolescents in the 13- to 14-year age bracket. Participants were randomly selected from among adolescents studying at public schools in Belo Horizonte and completed the ISAAC questionnaire. Proportions were calculated in order to assess the prevalences of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in the sample as a whole, and the chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used in order to compare the prevalences observed in 2012 with those found in 2002. Results: The prevalences of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in 2012 were 19.8%, 35.3%, and 16.3%, respectively, being significantly higher than those found in 2002 (asthma, p = 0.006; allergic rhinitis, p < 0.01; and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, p = 0.002). Conclusions: The prevalences of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis among adolescents in 2012 were found to be high, having increased in comparison with those found 10 years earlier, despite efforts in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Rhinitis, allergic; Prevalence; Adolescent.

 

11 - Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea: a systematic review and meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials

Efeitos da pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas na pressão arterial em pacientes com hipertensão resistente e apneia obstrutiva do sono: revisão sistemática e meta-análise de seis ensaios clínicos controlados aleatórios

Qiang Lei1, Yunhui Lv2, Kai Li1, Lei Ma1, Guodong Du1, Yan Xiang1, Xuqing Li1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(5):373-379

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate systematically the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and the Web of Science were searched for studies investigating the effects of CPAP on blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension and OSA. The selected studies underwent quality assessment and meta-analysis, as well as being tested for heterogeneity. Results: Six randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled estimates of the changes in mean systolic blood pressure and mean diastolic blood pressure (as assessed by 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring) were −5.40 mmHg (95% CI: −9.17 to −1.64; p = 0.001; I2 = 74%) and −3.86 mmHg (95% CI: −6.41 to −1.30; p = 0.00001; I2 = 79%), respectively. Conclusions: CPAP therapy can significantly reduce blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension and OSA.

 


Keywords: Continuous positive airway pressure; Sleep apnea, obstructive; Hypertension; Meta-analysis.

 

Special Article

12 - Current use and acceptability of novel diagnostic tests for active tuberculosis: a worldwide survey

Uso atual e aceitabilidade de novos testes diagnósticos para tuberculose ativa: um inquérito mundial

Massimo Amicosante1,2A, Lia D'Ambrosio3,4, Marcela Munoz5, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz Mello6, Marc Tebruegge7,8,9, Novel Njweipi Chegou10, Fouad Seghrouchni11, Rosella Centis3, Delia Goletti12, Graham Bothamley13, Giovanni Battista Migliori3; TB Diagnostic Survey Working Group

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(5):380-392

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the current use and potential acceptance (by tuberculosis experts worldwide) of novel rapid tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis that are in line with World Health Organization target product profiles. Methods: A multilingual survey was disseminated online between July and November of 2016. Results: A total of 723 individuals from 114 countries responded to the survey. Smear microscopy was the most commonly used rapid tuberculosis test (available to 90.9% of the respondents), followed by molecular assays (available to 70.7%). Only a small proportion of the respondents in middle- and low-income countries had access to interferon-gamma-release assays. Serological and lateral flow immunoassays were used by more than a quarter (25.4%) of the respondents. Among the respondents who had access to molecular tests, 46.7% were using the Xpert assay overall, that proportion being higher in lower middle-income countries (55.6%) and low-income countries (76.6%). The data also suggest that there was some alignment of pricing for molecular assays. Respondents stated they would accept novel rapid tuberculosis tests if available, including molecular assays (acceptable to 86.0%) or biomarker-based serological assays (acceptable to 81.7%). Simple biomarker-based assays were more commonly deemed acceptable in middle- and low-income countries. Conclusions: Second-generation molecular assays have become more widely available in high- and low-resource settings. However, the development of novel rapid tuberculosis tests continues to be considered important by tuberculosis experts. Our data also underscore the need for additional training and education of end users.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Surveys and questionnaires; Income; Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification; Molecular diagnostic techniques/methods; Serologic tests/methods.

 

Ensaio Pictórico

13 - Usual interstitial pneumonia: typical, possible, and

Pneumonia intersticial usual: padrões típico, possível e inconsistente

Pedro Paulo Teixeira e Silva Torres1, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi2, Maria Auxiliadora Carmo Moreira2, Gustavo de Souza Portes Meirelles3, Edson Marchiori4

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(5):393-398

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a severe and progressive chronic fibrosing interstitial lung disease, a definitive diagnosis being established by specific combinations of clinical, radiological, and pathological findings. According to current international guidelines, HRCT plays a key role in establishing a diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Current guidelines describe three UIP patterns based on HRCT findings: a typical UIP pattern; a pattern designated "possible UIP"; and a pattern designated "inconsistent with UIP", each pattern having important diagnostic implications. A typical UIP pattern on HRCT is highly accurate for the presence of histopathological UIP, being currently considered to be diagnostic of UIP. The remaining patterns require further diagnostic investigation. Other known causes of a UIP pattern include drug-induced interstitial lung disease, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, occupational diseases (e.g., asbestosis), and connective tissue diseases, all of which should be included in the clinical differential diagnosis. Given the importance of CT studies in establishing a diagnosis and the possibility of interobserver variability, the objective of this pictorial essay was to illustrate all three UIP patterns on HRCT.

 


Keywords: Tomography, X-ray computed; Lung diseases, interstitial; Pulmonary fibrosis.

 

Images in Pulmonary Medicine

14 - Liquid silicone injection in the chest wall simulating cysticercosis

Injeção de silicone líquido na parede torácica simulando cisticercose

Luiz Felipe Nobre1, Gláucia Zanetti2, Edson Marchiori2

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(5):399

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Letters to the Editor

15 - When is the use of contrast media in chest CT indicated?

Quando é indicado o uso de meios de contraste na TC de tórax?

Bruno Hochhegger1,2,3, Robson Rottenfusser4,5, Edson Marchiori6

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(5):400

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Year 2017 - Volume 43  - Number 6  (November/December)

App

Editorial

1 - Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in Brazil: challenges for epidemiological characterization and management

Fibrose pulmonar idiopática no Brasil: desafios para caracterização epidemiológica e abordagem

Bruno Guedes Baldi1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):401-402

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


2 - Evolution in the management of non-small cell lung cancer in Brazil

A evolução no manejo do câncer de pulmão de células não pequenas no Brasil

Caio Júlio Cesar dos Santos Fernandes1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):403-404

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


3 - Noninvasive positive airway pressure: from critically ill patients to physical exercise in outpatients

Pressão positiva não invasiva nas vias aéreas: de pacientes em estado crítico a exercício físico em pacientes ambulatoriais

Vinicius Zacarias Maldaner da Silva1, Alfredo Nicodemos Cruz Santana2

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):405-406

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Continuing Education: Imaging

4 - Tree-in-bud pattern

Padrão de árvore em brotamento

Edson Marchiori1, Bruno Hochhegger2, Gláucia Zanetti1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):407

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Continuing Education : Scientific Methodology

5 - Understanding diagnostic tests. Part 2.

Entendendo os testes diagnósticos: parte 2

Cecilia Maria Patino1,2, Juliana Carvalho Ferreira1,3

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):408

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Original Article

6 - Impact of continuous positive airway pressure on the pulmonary changes promoted by immersion in water

Impacto da pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas sobre as alterações pulmonares promovidas pela imersão em água

Danize Aparecida Rizzetti1, Janayna Rodembuch Borba Quadros1, Bruna Esmerio Ribeiro1, Letícia Callegaro1, Aline Arebalo Veppo2, Giulia Alessandra Wiggers1, Franck Maciel Peçanha1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):409-415

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether different levels of CPAP improve the lung volumes and capacities of healthy subjects immersed in water. Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial, conducted between April and June of 2016, involving healthy female volunteers who were using oral contraceptives. Three 20-min immersion protocols were applied: control (no CPAP); CPAP5 (CPAP at 5 cmH2O); and CPAP10 (CPAP at 10 cmH2O). We evaluated HR, SpO2, FVC, FEV1, the FEV1/FVC ratio, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and FEF25-75%) at three time points: pre-immersion; 10 min after immersion; and 10 min after the end of each protocol. Results: We evaluated 13 healthy volunteers. The CPAP10 protocol reversed the restrictive pattern of lung function induced by immersion in water, maintaining pulmonary volumes and capacities for a longer period than did the CPAP5 protocol. Conclusions: When the hemodynamic change causing a persistent lung disorder, only the application of higher positive pressures is effective in maintaining long-term improvements in the pulmonary profile.

 


Keywords: Physical therapy modalities; Noninvasive ventilation; Continuous positive airway pressure.

 

7 - Tuberculosis infection among primary health care workers

Infecção por tuberculose entre profissionais de saúde da atenção básica

Thamy Carvalho Lacerda1,2,3, Fernanda Mattos de Souza1, Thiago Nascimento do Prado1,2,4,5, Rodrigo Leite Locatelli1,2, Geisa Fregona1,3, Rita de Cássia Duarte Lima2,5, Ethel Leonor Maciel1,2,5

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):416-423

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of and determine the risk factors associated with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among primary health care workers in the city of Vitória, Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with data collected through a survey regarding socio-demographic, occupational, clinical, and exposure characteristics, as well as knowledge about tuberculosis, conducted between 2011 and 2012. All participants underwent a tuberculin skin test (TST), and TSTs were read at 72 h by a trained professional. Results: A total of 218 primary health care workers participated in the study. The prevalence of TST positivity at the ≥ 10-mm and ≥ 5-mm cut-off points was, respectively, 39.4% (95% CI: 32.9-45.9) and 54.1% (95% CI: 47.4-60.7). Regarding occupational categories, community health agents had the highest proportion of TST positivity, regardless of the cut-off point (≥ 10 mm: 47.5%; and ≥ 5 mm: 60.5%). Regarding factors associated with TST results, "having had a previous TST" showed a statistically significant association with TST positivity at the ≥ 10-mm and ≥ 5-mm cut-off points (OR = 2.5 [95% CI: 1.17-5.30] and OR = 2.18 [95% CI: 1.23-3.87], respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of LTBI was found to be high among the primary health care workers in this sample. Therefore, we recommend the establishment of a periodic screening program for LTBI and implementation of effective biosafety policies for the prevention of this infection among primary health care workers.

 


Keywords: Health personnel; Tuberculin test; Latent tuberculosis; Primary health care.

 

8 - Accuracy of closed pleural biopsy in the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion

Exactitud de la biopsia pleural cerrada para el diagnóstico de derrame pleural maligno

Renata Báez-Saldaña1,2, Uriel Rumbo-Nava1, Araceli Escobar-Rojas2, Patricia Castillo-González1, Santiago León-Dueñas1, Teresa Aguirre-Pérez1, María Eugenia Vázquez-Manríquez3

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):424-430

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Previous studies have demonstrated that closed pleural biopsy (CPB) has a sensitivity of less than 60% for diagnosing malignancy. Therefore, controversy has recently emerged regarding the value of CPB as a diagnostic test. Our objective was to assess the accuracy of CPB in diagnosing malignancy in patients with pleural effusion. Methods: This was a prospective 8-year study of individuals who underwent CPB to establish the etiology of pleural effusion. Information on each patient was obtained from anatomopathological reports and medical records. When CPB findings showed malignancy or tuberculosis, the biopsy was considered diagnostic, and that was the definitive diagnosis. In cases in which biopsy histopathological findings were nonspecific, a definitive diagnosis was established on the basis of other diagnostic procedures, such as thoracoscopy, thoracotomy, fiberoptic bronchoscopy, biochemical and cellular measurements in pleural fluid, and/or microbiological tests. The accuracy of CPB was determined with 2 × 2 contingency tables. Results: A total of 1034 biopsies from patients with pleural effusion were studied. Of those, 171 (16.54%) were excluded from the accuracy analysis either because of inadequate samples or insufficient information. The results of the accuracy analysis were as follows: sensitivity, 77%; specificity, 98%; positive predictive value, 99%; negative predictive value, 66%; positive likelihood ratio, 38.5; negative likelihood ratio, 0.23; pre-test probability, 2.13; and post-test probability, 82. Conclusions: CPB is useful in clinical practice as a diagnostic test, because there is an important change from pre-test to post-test probability.

 


Keywords: Biopsy; Pleural effusion, malignant/diagnosis; Pleural effusion, malignant/epidemiology.

 

9 - Survival in a cohort of patients with lung cancer: the role of age and gender in prognosis

Sobrevida em uma coorte de pacientes com câncer de pulmão: papel da idade e do sexo no prognóstico

Juliana Pereira Franceschini, Sérgio Jamnik, Ilka Lopes Santoro

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):431-436

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as well as their disease course, by age group and gender. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with NSCLC from 2000 to 2012 and followed until July 2015 in a tertiary referral hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Based on the 25th and 75th percentiles of the age distribution, patients were stratified into three age groups: < 55 years; ≥ 55 and < 72 years; and ≥ 72 years. Survival time was evaluated during the follow-up period of the study. Functions of overall and gender-specific survival stratified by age groups (event: all-cause mortality) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Differences among survival curves were assessed via the log-rank test. Results: We included 790 patients with the following age distribution: < 55 years, 165 patients; ≥ 55 and < 72 years, 423; and ≥ 72 years, 202. In the entire sample, there were 493 men (62.4%). Adenocarcinoma was the most common histological pattern in the < 72-year age groups; 575 patients (73%) presented with advanced disease (stages IIIB-IV). The median 5-year survival was 12 months (95% CI: 4-46 months), with no significant differences among the age groups studied. Conclusions: NSCLC remains more common in men, although we found an increase in the proportion of the disease in women in the < 55-year age group. Adenocarcinoma predominated in women. In men, squamous cell carcinoma predominated in the ≥ 72-year age group. Most patients presented with advanced-stage disease at diagnosis. There were no statistical differences in survival between genders or among age groups.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Age groups, Sex; Survival.

 

10 - Evaluation of the impact that the changes in tuberculosis treatment implemented in Brazil in 2009 have had on disease control in the country

Avaliação do impacto das mudanças do tratamento da tuberculose implantadas em 2009 no controle da tuberculose pulmonar no Brasil

Marcelo Fouad Rabahi, José Laerte Rodrigues da Silva Júnior, Marcus Barreto Conde

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):437-444

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the impact that the 2009 changes in tuberculosis treatment in Brazil had on the rates of cure, tuberculosis recurrence, mortality, treatment abandonment, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Methods: An ordinary least squares regression model was used in order to perform an interrupted time series analysis of secondary data collected from the Brazilian Tuberculosis Case Registry Database for the period between January of 2003 and December of 2014. Results: The 2009 changes in tuberculosis treatment in Brazil were found to have no association with reductions in the total number of cases (β = 2.17; 95% CI: −3.80 to 8.14; p = 0.47) and in the number of new cases (β = −0.97; 95% CI: −5.89 to 3.94; p = 0.70), as well as having no association with treatment abandonment rates (β = 0.40; 95% CI: −1.12 to 1.93; p = 0.60). The changes in tuberculosis treatment also showed a trend toward an association with decreased cure rates (β = −4.14; 95% CI: −8.63 to 0.34; p = 0.07), as well as an association with increased mortality from pulmonary tuberculosis (β = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.16 to 1.38; p = 0.01). Although there was a significant increase in MDR-TB before and after the changes (p < 0.0001), there was no association between the intervention (i.e., the changes in tuberculosis treatment) and the increase in MDR-TB cases. Conclusions: The changes in tuberculosis treatment were unable to contain the decrease in cure rates, the increase in treatment abandonment rates, and the increase in MDR-TB rates, being associated with increased mortality from pulmonary tuberculosis during the study period.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary/epidemiology; Tuberculosis, pulmonary/drug therapy; Tuberculosis, pulmonary/mortality; Interrupted time series analysis; Drug resistance, multiple; Drug compounding.

 

11 - Mortality from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a temporal trend analysis in Brazil, 1979-2014

Mortalidade por fibrose pulmonar idiopática: análise temporal no Brasil, 1979-2014

Eduardo Algranti, Cézar Akiyoshi Saito, Diego Rodrigues Mendonça e Silva, Ana Paula Scalia Carneiro, Marco Antonio Bussacos

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):445-450

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze mortality from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in Brazil over the period 1979-2014. Methods: Microdata were extracted from the Brazilian National Ministry of Health Mortality Database. Only deaths for which the underlying cause was coded as International Classification of Diseases version 9 (ICD-9) 515 or 516.3 (until 1995) or as ICD version 10 (ICD-10) J84.1 (from 1996 onward) were included in our analysis. Standardized mortality rates were calculated for the 2010 Brazilian population. The annual trend in mortality rates was analyzed by joinpoint regression. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) by age group, time period of death, and gender, using a person-years denominator. Results: A total of 32,092 deaths were recorded in the study period. Standardized mortality rates trended upward, rising from 0.24/100,000 population in 1979 to 1.10/100,000 population in 2014. The annual upward trend in mortality rates had two inflection points, in 1992 and 2008, separating three distinct time segments with an annual growth of 2.2%, 6.8%, and 2.4%, respectively. The comparison of RRs for the age groups, using the 50- to 54-year age group as a reference, and for the study period, using 1979-1984 as a reference, were 16.14 (14.44-16.36) and 6.71 (6.34-7.12), respectively. Men compared with women had higher standardized mortality rates (per 100,000 person-years) in all age groups. Conclusion: Brazilian IPF mortality rates are lower than those of other countries, suggesting underdiagnosis or underreporting. The temporal trend is similar to those reported in the literature and is not explained solely by population aging.

 


Keywords: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/epidemiology; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/mortality; Population dynamics.

 

12 - Niemann-Pick disease type B: HRCT assessment of pulmonary involvement

Doença de Niemann-Pick tipo B: avaliação do comprometimento pulmonar por TCAR

Heloisa Maria Pereira Freitas1, Alexandre Dias Mançano2, Rosana Souza Rodrigues1,3, Bruno Hochhegger4, Pedro Paulo Teixeira e Silva Torres5, Dante Escuissato6, Cesar Augusto Araujo Neto7, Edson Marchiori1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):451-455

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze HRCT findings in patients with Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type B, in order to determine the frequency of HRCT patterns and their distribution in the lung parenchyma, as well as the most common clinical characteristics. Methods: We studied 13 patients (3 males and 10 females) aged 5 to 56 years. HRCT images were independently evaluated by two observers, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. The inclusion criteria were presence of abnormal HRCT findings and diagnosis of NPD type B confirmed by histopathological examination of a bone marrow, lung, or liver biopsy specimen. Results: The most common clinical findings were hepatosplenomegaly and mild to moderate dyspnea. The most common HRCT patterns were smooth interlobular septal thickening and ground-glass opacities, which were both present in all patients. Intralobular lines were present in 12 patients (92.3%). A crazy-paving pattern was observed in 5 patients (38.4%), and areas of air trapping were identified in only 1 case (7.6%). Pulmonary involvement was bilateral in all cases, with the most affected area being the lower lung zone. Conclusions: Smooth interlobular septal thickening, with or without associated ground-glass opacities, in patients with hepatosplenomegaly is the most common finding in NPD type B.

 


Keywords: Niemann-Pick diseases; Tomography, X-ray computed; Lung diseases.

 

13 - Validation of the STOP-Bang questionnaire as a means of screening for obstructive sleep apnea in adults in Brazil

Validação do questionário STOP-Bang para a identificação de apneia obstrutiva do sono em adultos no Brasil

Ricardo Luiz de Menezes Duarte, Lorena Barbosa de Moraes Fonseca, Flavio José Magalhães-da-Silveira, Erika Aparecida da Silveira, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):456-463

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To validate the Portuguese-language version of the STOP-Bang (acronym for Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, high blood Pressure, Body mass index, Age, Neck circumference, and Gender) questionnaire, culturally adapted for use in Brazil, as a means of screening for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults. Methods: In this validation study, we enrolled patients ≥ 18 years of age, recruited between May of 2015 and August of 2016. All patients completed the STOP-Bang questionnaire and underwent overnight polysomnography. To evaluate the performance of the questionnaire, we used contingency tables and areas under the (receiver operating characteristic) curve (AUCs). Results: We included 456 patients. The mean age was 43.7 ± 12.5 years, and 291 (63.8%) of the patients were male. On the basis of the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), we categorized OSA as mild/moderate/severe (any OSA; AHI ≥ 5 events/h), moderate/severe (AHI ≥ 15 events/h), or severe (AHI ≥ 30 events/h). The overall prevalence of OSA was 78.3%, compared with 52.0%, and 28.5% for moderate/severe and severe OSA, respectively. The most common score on the STOP-Bang questionnaire was 4 points (n = 106), followed by 3 points (n = 85) and 5 points (n = 82). An increase in the score was paralleled by a reduction in sensitivity with a corresponding increase in specificity for all AHI cut-off points. The AUCs obtained for the identification of any, moderate/severe, and severe OSA were: 0.743, 0.731, and 0.779, respectively. For any OSA, the score on the questionnaire (cut-off, ≥ 3 points) presented sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 83.5%, 45.5%, and 75.2%, respectively. Conclusions: The STOP-Bang questionnaire performed adequately for OSA screening, indicating that it could be used as an effective screening tool for the disorder.

 


Keywords: Sleep apnea, obstructive/diagnosis; Polysomnography; Diagnostic techniques and procedures; Surveys and questionnaires.

 

14 - Efeitos de estratégias de longo prazo simples de cuidados respiratórios em homens idosos com DPOC

Fabrício Zambom-Ferraresi, Pilar Cebollero,Javier Hueto, María Hernández, José Cascante, María Milagros Antón

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):464-471

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate a 24-month supervised, community-based maintenance exercise program after 3 months of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in comparison with a 27-month physical activity counseling program, in terms of the effects on maximal muscle strength, muscle power output, and exercise capacity, in individuals with COPD. Methods: Sixty-three men with moderate-to-severe COPD were recruited from two previous studies. Of those 63 participants, 31 were offered 3 months of PR followed by a 24-month supervised maintenance exercise program (24MME group) and 32 were offered a 27-month physical activity counseling program (27MPAC group). Measurements at 3 months and at the end of the study period included maximal strength of the upper and lower limbs, power output of the lower limbs, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), and quality of life. Results: At 27 months, the improvements in maximal strength of the upper and lower limbs were greater in the 24MME group than in the 27MPAC group (37.6 ± 28.3% and 28.4 ± 13.3%, respectively, vs. 8.8 ± 16% and 13.6 ± 16.4%, respectively; p < 0.05), as was the improvement in power output of the lower limbs (24.6 ± 18.4% vs. −2.3 ± 28.5%; p < 0.01). The increase in the 6MWD after 3 months was also greater in the 24MME group than in the 27MPAC group (33.2 ± 36.6 m vs. 2.9 ± 34.7 m; p < 0.05), although there were no differences between the two groups in terms of the Δ6MWD at 27 months (vs. baseline). Conclusions: A supervised, community-based maintenance program is a successful long-term strategy to preserve the benefits of PR on peripheral muscle function and exercise capacity in individuals with COPD. However, physical activity counseling can maintain maximal muscle strength and exercise capacity in such individuals.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Muscle strength; Leg/physiology, Muscle, skeletal/physiology; Physical fitness; Exercise therapy/methods.

 

Review Article

15 - Tuberculosis treatment

Tratamento da tuberculose

Marcelo Fouad Rabahi1,2, José Laerte Rodrigues da Silva Júnior2, Anna Carolina Galvão Ferreira1,3, Daniela Graner Schuwartz Tannus-Silva1, Marcus Barreto Conde4,5

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):472-486

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Tuberculosis treatment remains a challenge due to the need to consider, when approaching it, the context of individual and collective health. In addition, social and economic issues have been shown to be variables that need to be considered when it comes to treatment effectiveness. We conducted a critical review of the national and international literature on the treatment of tuberculosis in recent years with the aims of presenting health care workers with recommendations based on the situation in Brazil and better informing decision-making regarding tuberculosis patients so as to minimize morbidity and interrupt disease transmission.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/drug therapy; Tuberculosis/prevention & control; Tuberculosis/surgery; Tuberculosis/classification.

 

Letters to the Editor

16 - Omalizumab in patients with severe uncontrolled asthma: well-defined eligibility criteria to promote asthma control

Omalizumabe em pacientes com asma grave não controlada: critérios de elegibilidade bem definidos para promover o controle da asma

Regina Maria de Carvalho-Pinto1, Rosana Câmara Agondi2, Pedro Giavina-Bianchi2, Alberto Cukier1, Rafael Stelmach1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):487-489

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


17 - Primary sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma of the pleura

Fibrossarcoma epitelioide esclerosante primário da pleura

Erlon de Ávila Carvalho1, Daniel Oliveira Bonomi1, Astunaldo Júnior Macedo Pinho1, Paulo Guilherme Oliveira Salles1, Henrique Cunha Vieira1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):490-491

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Index of Issues

18 - .

Índice remissivo de assuntos do volume 43 (1-6) 2017

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J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):

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Index of Authors

19 - .

Índice remissivo de autores do volume 43 (1-6) 2017

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Relationship of Reviewers

20 - Relationship of Reviewers 43 (1-6) 2017

Relação de revisores do volume 43 (1-6) 2017

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J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):

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