Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Cost analysis of nucleic acid amplification for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis, within the context of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System

Análise de custos de um teste de amplificação de ácido nucleico para o diagnóstico da tuberculose pulmonar sob a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde

Márcia Pinto1, Aline Piovezan Entringer1,Ricardo Steffen2, Anete Trajman2,3

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(6):536-538

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We estimated the costs of a molecular test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and resistance to rifampin (Xpert MTB/RIF) and of smear microscopy, within the Brazilian Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, Unified Health Care System). In SUS laboratories in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Manaus, we performed activity-based costing and micro-costing. The mean unit costs for Xpert MTB/RIF and smear microscopy were R$35.57 and R$14.16, respectively. The major cost drivers for Xpert MTB/RIF and smear microscopy were consumables/reagents and staff, respectively. These results might facilitate future cost-effectiveness studies and inform the decision-making process regarding the expansion of Xpert MTB/RIF use in Brazil


Keywords: Costs and cost analysis; Tuberculosis; Nucleic acid amplification techniques.


Cost analysis of nucleic acid amplification for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis, within the context of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System

Análise de custos de um teste de amplificação de ácido nucleico para o diagnóstico da tuberculose pulmonar sob a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde.

Márcia Pinto1; Aline Piovezan Entringer1; Ricardo Steffen2; Anete Trajman2; 3

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):79-79

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Knowledge and perceptions of tuberculosis transmission and prevention among physicians and nurses in three Brazilian capitals with high incidence of tuberculosis

Conhecimento e percepção de médicos e enfermeiros em três capitais brasileiras com alta incidência de tuberculose a respeito da transmissão e prevenção da doença

Jonas Ramos1,a, Maria F Wakoff-Pereira1,b, Marcelo Cordeiro-Santos2,3,c, Maria de Fátima Militão de Albuquerque4,d, Philip C Hill5,e, Dick Menzies6,f, Anete Trajman,6,7,g

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(2):168-170

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Pleural fluid adenosine deaminase detection for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis

Dosagem da atividade da adenosina deaminase no líquido pleural para o diagnóstico da tuberculose pleural

Morrys Casagrande Kaisemann, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Maria de Fátima C Pereira, Anete Trajman

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(6):549-556

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN

Background: The diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis continues to be a challenge due to the low sensitivity of traditional diagnostic methods. Histopathological examination of pleural tissue is the most accurate method, with a sensitivity of up to 80%. Determination of adenosine deaminase levels is a recently introduced method, although its usefulness in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis in Brazil has yet to better elucidated. Objective: To verify the sensitivity and specificity of an experimental method of measuring adenosine deaminase activity in pleural fluid in a series of patients with pleural effusion patients evaluated between August 1998 and November 2002 in Rio de Janeiro (RJ). Results: Out of 137 cases, 111 pleural fluid samples were available. Of those, 83 were from pleural tuberculosis patients. Among the 67 pleural tuberculosis patients tested, 10 (14.9%) presented human immunodeficiency virus. The adenosine deaminase cutoff value of 35U/L was determined by a receiver operator characteristic curve. The sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios (positive and negative) were 92.8%, 93.3%, 25.8 and 13.9, respectively. Mean adenosine deaminase in the pleural tuberculosis group was 84.7 ± 43.1 U/L, versus 15.9 ± 11.1 U/L in the group with other diseases. There was no significant difference in adenosine deaminase activity between patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Conclusions: Adenosine deaminase measurement in pleural fluid is a sensitive and specific method for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis and its use can preclude the need for pleural biopsy in the initial workup of pleural effusion patients. An adenosine deaminase cutoff value of 35U/L is recommended.


Keywords: Pleural fluid. Adenosine deaminase. Diagnosis. Tuberculosis. HIV


Factors associated with delayed diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Fatores associados ao atraso no diagnóstico da tuberculose pulmonar no estado do Rio de Janeiro

Audry Cristina de Fátima Teixeira Machado, Ricardo Ewbank Steffen, Olivia Oxlade, Dick Menzies, Afrânio Kritski, Anete Trajman

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):512-520

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To estimate the total time elapsed between symptom onset and diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (patient delay plus health care system delay), analyzing the factors associated with delayed diagnosis in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based survey involving 218 pulmonary tuberculosis patients treated for two months at 20 health care clinics and 3 hospitals in eight cities within the state of Rio de Janeiro. We collected socioeconomic and demographic data, as well as data regarding the health care system and the medical history of the patients. Results: The median time elapsed from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 68 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 35-119 days). The median patient delay (time from symptom onset to initial medical visit) was 30 days (IQR: 15-60 days), and the median health care system delay (time from initial medical visit to diagnosis) was 21 days (IQR: 8-47 days). A cut-off point of 21 days was adopted. The factors independently associated with patient delay were female gender, cough, and unemployment [adjusted OR (95% CI) = 2.7 (1.3-5.6); 11.6 (2.3-58.8); and 2.0 (1.0-3.8), respectively], whereas only female gender was independently associated with health care system delay (OR= 3.2; 95% CI: 1.7-6.0). Conclusions: Delayed diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis remains a problem in Rio de Janeiro, increasing the risk of transmission and mortality, that risk being greater for women and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. Patients might not recognize the significance of chronic cough as a health problem. Tuberculosis education programs targeting women might improve this situation.


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Neoplasm metastasis; Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols; Radiotherapy, computer-assisted.


Bottlenecks and recommendations for the incorporation of new technologies in the tuberculosis laboratory network in Brazil

Gargalos e recomendações para a incorporação de novas tecnologias na rede pública laboratorial de tuberculose no Brasil

Maria Alice da Silva Telles, Alexandre Menezes, Anete Trajman

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):766-770

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently recommended new technologies for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The WHO recommendations include the development of a strategic plan for bringing the network up to grade; investment in supervision and quality control; and implementation of a system of laboratory environmental management. Without those measures having been taken, no new technology can be effectively incorporated. We surveyed the tuberculosis laboratory network in Brazil in order to identify possible bottlenecks for the incorporation of new technologies. We identified a lack of resources allocated to supervision and quality control; a low number of requests for cultures; a lack of effective laboratory information systems; and a lack of awareness regarding the future infrastructure needs of the laboratory network at the municipal level.


Keywords: Quality control; Tuberculosis; Laboratories; Clinical laboratory information systems; Technology


Influence of vial size on the results of the tuberculin test

Influência do tamanho do frasco de tuberculina nos resultados da prova tuberculínica

Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Afranio Lineu Kritski, Eleny Guimarães Teixeira, Carla Conceição dos Santos Loredo, Danielle Novelo de Souza, Anete Trajman

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):144-148

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Background: Tuberculin purified protein derivative is stored in vials of various sizes. Its adsorption to the vial can influence the results of tuberculin tests. Objective: To evaluate the effect of vial size on the results obtained in tuberculin tests. Methods: Sixty-four inpatients with active tuberculosis were submitted to two simultaneous tuberculin tests using the Mantoux technique. Patients were randomly allocated to receive two 0.1-ml injections, either one in the right forearm from a 1.5-ml vial and one in the left forearm from a 5-ml vial or vice versa. Induration was determined in a blinded fashion by a single, previously trained observer. Right arm-left arm differences of 2 mm or less were considered concordant results. Results: Twenty-one patients presented no induration and were excluded from analysis. Among the 42 remaining patients, mean induration diameters obtained in tuberculin tests using the larger vials were greater than those obtained in tests using the smaller vials. Concordance was achieved in 40.5% (17/42). The difference was negative (large-vial indurations smaller than small-vial indurations) in 16.7% (7/42) and positive in 42.9% (18/42). Conclusions: The size of the vial may influence tuberculin test results. Adsorption to the sides of the vial may explain this phenomenon. The authors caution others to be aware of the impact of these variations in epidemiological and operational studies.


Keywords: Key words: Tuberculin Skin Test. Tuberculin. Adsorption. PPD. Mantoux.


The role of academic associations in professional training

O papel das ligas acadêmicas na formação profissional

Mayara Lisboa Soares de Bastos, Anete Trajman, Eleny Guimarães Teixeira, Lia Selig, Márcia Teresa Carreira Teixeira Belo

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):803-805

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Deaths attributed to tuberculosis in the state of Rio de Janeiro

Óbitos atribuídos à tuberculose no Estado do Rio de Janeiro

Lia Selig; Márcia Belo; Antônio Jose Ledo Alves da Cunha; Eleny Guimarães Teixeira; Rossana Brito; Ana Lucia Luna; Anete Trajman

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(4):417-424

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Background: In 1998, tuberculosis incidence and mortality rates in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ) were the highest in Brazil. However, the RJ tuberculosis database (SINAN-TBRJ) has proven unreliable. Objective: To evaluate the current tuberculosis control program by analyzing tuberculosis-attributed deaths. Methods: Descriptive studies of the SINAN-TB-RJ and tuberculosis mortality (SIM-TB-RJ) databases were carried out. Both databases were linked using the Reclink program. A study based on medical records was performed in the five hospitals where the greatest numbers of tuberculosis deaths occurred. Results: In the SINAN-TB-RJ database, 16,567 cases were registered in adults (> 14 years of age). Pulmonary disease was present in 13,989 (84.5%), of whom 8223 (56.8%) presented sputum smears that were positive for acid fast bacilli. Anti-HIV testing, recommended for all patients with tuberculosis, was performed in only 4141 (25%) of tuberculosis cases. The SIM-TB-RJ database showed 1146 deaths that were attributed to tuberculosis. Only 478 (41.7%) of those had been reported to the health care system (SINAN-TB-RJ). Among the 302 medical records analyzed, 154 (50.9%)recorded hospitalizations of up to 10 days and 143 (47.3%) had respiratory symptoms for more than 60 days before diagnosis. Among 125 cases of retreatment, the RHZE regimen recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health was prescribed for only 43 (34.4%). Conclusion: This study demonstrates weakness in the RJ tuberculosis control program, characterized by delayed diagnosis, limited use of the recommended tests, poor reporting, and non-compliance with the Ministry of Health guidelines.


Keywords: Tuberculosis. Epidemiology. Program Evaluation


Predictors of tuberculosis treatment outcomes

Preditores dos desfechos do tratamento da tuberculose

Renata de Lima Orofino, Pedro Emmanuel Americano do Brasil, Anete Trajman, Carolina Arana Stanis Schmaltz, Margareth Dalcolmo, Valéria Cavalcanti Rolla

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):88-97

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze tuberculosis treatment outcomes and their predictors. Methods: This was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2004 and 2006 at the Instituto de Pesquisa Evandro Chagas, in the city of Rio de Janeiro. We estimated adjusted risk ratios (ARRs) for the predictors of treatment outcomes. Results: Among 311 patients evaluated, the rates of cure, treatment abandonment, treatment failure, and mortality were 72%, 19%, 2%, and 6%, respectively. Changes in the treatment regimen due to adverse events occurred in 8%. The factors found to reduce the probability of cure were alcoholism (ARR, 0.30), use of the streptomycin+ethambutol+ofloxacin (SEO) regimen (ARR, 0.32), HIV infection without the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART; ARR, 0.36), and use of the rifampin+isoniazid+pyrazinamide+ethambutol regimen (ARR, 0.58). Being younger and being alcoholic both increased the probability of abandonment (ARR, 3.84 and 1.76, respectively). It was impossible to determine the ARR for the remaining outcomes due to their low prevalence. However, using the relative risk (RR), we identified the following potential predictors of mortality: use of the SEO regimen (RR, 11.43); HIV infection without ART (RR, 9.64); disseminated tuberculosis (RR, 9.09); lack of bacteriological confirmation (RR, 4.00); diabetes mellitus (RR, 3.94); and homosexual/bisexual behavior (RR, 2.97). Low income was a potential predictor of treatment failure (RR, 11.70), whereas disseminated tuberculosis and HIV infection with ART were potential predictors of changes in the regimen due to adverse events (RR, 3.57 and 2.46, respectively). Conclusions: The SEO regimen should not be used for extended periods. The data confirm the importance of ART and suggest the need to use it early.


Keywords: Tuberculosis; HIV; Rifampin; Drug toxicity; Risk factors; Medication adherence.


Frequency of indeterminate results from an interferon-gamma release assay among HIV-infected individuals

Taxa de resultados indeterminados de ensaio de liberação de interferon-gama entre pessoas infectadas pelo HIV

Sandra Maria do Valle Leone de Oliveira1,2, Anete Trajman3,4, Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago1, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro1,2, Antonio Ruffino-Netto5, Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel6, Julio Croda2,7, Maria da Gloria Bonecini-Almeida8

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):215-218

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Objective: To evaluate the frequency of and factors associated with indeterminate interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) results in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Methods: We tested 81 PLWHA in the central-west region of Brazil, using the tuberculin skin test and an IGRA. Information on sociodemographic and clinical variables was gathered through the use of questionnaires and from medical records. The association of those variables with indeterminate results was analyzed by calculating the adjusted ORs in a multivariate logistic regression model. Concordance was evaluated by determining the kappa statistic. Results: Among the 81 patients evaluated, the tuberculin skin test results were positive in 18 (22.2%) of the patients, and the IGRA results were positive in 10 (12.3%), with a kappa of 0.62. The IGRA results were indeterminate in 22 (27.1%) of the patients (95% CI: 17.8-38.1%). The odds of obtaining indeterminate results were significantly higher in smokers (adjusted OR = 6.0; 95% CI: 1.4-26.7) and in samples stored for less than 35 days (adjusted OR = 14.0; 95% CI: 3.1-64.2). Patients with advanced immunosuppression (CD4+ T-cell count < 200 cells/mm3) were at a higher risk for indeterminate results (OR adjusted for smoking and inadequate duration of sample storage = 4.7; 95% CI: 0.91-24.0), although the difference was not significant. Conclusions: The high prevalence of indeterminate results can be a major limitation for the routine use of IGRAs in PLWHA. The need to repeat the test increases its costs and should be taken into account in cost-effectiveness studies. The processing of samples can significantly alter the results.


Keywords: Interferon-gamma release tests; Interferon-gamma; Tuberculosis; HIV; Latent tuberculosis; Tuberculin test.


Tuberculosis and gender in a priority city in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Tuberculose e gênero em um município prioritário no estado do Rio de Janeiro

Márcia Teresa Carreira Teixeira Belo, Ronir Ragio Luiz, Christy Hanson, Lia Selig, Eleny Guimarães Teixeira, Thiago Chalfoun, Anete Trajman

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):621-625

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of this study was to compare gender differences among tuberculosis patients in a city with a high incidence of tuberculosis. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study involving 560 tuberculosis patients (373 males and 187 females). Sociodemographic and clinical data, as well as data related to diagnostic criteria and treatment outcome, were collected (from the questionnaires and medical records) and subsequently compared between the genders. The median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 90 days. There were no differences between the genders regarding the clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, previous noncompliance with treatment, time from symptom onset, number of medical appointments prior to diagnosis, or treatment outcome. Gender-specific approaches are not a priority in Brazil. However, regardless of patient gender, the delay in diagnosis is a major concern.


Keywords: Poverty; Tuberculosis; Income.




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