Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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New perspectives in lung transplantation: from conventional preservation to ex vivo lung perfusion and lung reconditioning

As novas perspectivas do transplante de pulmão: da preservação convencional à perfusão pulmonar ex vivo com recondicionamento pulmonar

Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1057-1059

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Evaluation of pantoprazol treatment response of patients with asthma and gastroesophageal reflux: a randomized prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study

Avaliação da resposta de pacientes asmáticos com refluxo gastroesofágico após terapia com pantoprazol: estudo prospectivo, randomizado, duplo cego e placebo-controlado

Leandro Heusi dos Santos, Iana Oliveira e Silva Ribeiro, Pablo Gerardo Sánchez, Jorge Lima Hetzel, José Carlos Felicetti, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):119-127

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objectives: To determine the effect that the treatment of GERD has on the clinical management, as well as the respiratory function, of patients with asthma and to evaluate the clinical characteristics of this group of patients. Methods: Patients with asthma and concomitant GERD, documented using 24 h pH-metry, were evaluated by means of quality of life questionnaires, as well as questionnaires related to respiratory and digestive symptoms. In addition, esophageal manometry, spirometry and the determination of peak expiratory flow were also performed prior to and after the study. Forty-nine individuals who were diagnosed with GERD by means of 24 h esophageal pH-metry were selected and participated in a clinical randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, involving the administration of 40 mg/day of pantoprazol for 12 consecutive weeks. Results: Forty-four individuals completed the study (n = 22 per group). There was significant improvement in the scores for respiratory symptoms and quality of life only in the group that received pantoprazol (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively). No respiratory function parameters changed in either group. Conclusions: In this study, the effective treatment of GERD improved patient quality of life, and the symptoms of asthma significantly decreased in the group that received the medication. There were no changes in pulmonary function parameters.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Gastroesophageal reflux/treatment; Diagnosis; Antacids.

 


Bronchiectasis: diagnostic and therapeutic features A study of 170 patients

Bronquiectasias: aspectos diagnósticos e terapêuticos Estudo de 170 pacientes

José da Silva Moreira, Nelson da Silva Porto, José de Jesus Peixoto Camargo, José Carlos Felicetti, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Ana Luiza Schneider Moreira, Cristiano Feijó Andrade

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(5):258-263

Abstract PDF PT

Background: Bronchiectasis is a frequently found disease in medical practice in Brazil leading to significant morbidity and decrease in quality of life of the affected individuals. Objectives: To study diagnostic and therapeutic aspects in a series of hospitalized patients with bronchiectasis in a department of pulmonary diseases. Methods: Signs, symptoms, microbiological and radiographic data, and therapeutic results were studied in 170 hospitalized patients between 1978 and 2001 - females 62.4%, males 37.6%, and aged from 12 to 88 years (mean age 36.8 yrs). Previous history of pneumonia in childhood was detected in 52.5% of the patients, tuberculosis in 19.8%; 8.8% had bronchial asthma, and 2 had Kartagener's syndrome. Results: The most common symptoms were cough (100.0%), expectoration (96.0%) and pulmonary rales (66.0%). The pulmonary lesions were unilateral in 46.5% of the cases. Pneumococcus, H. influenzae or mixed flora were found in 85.0% of the examined sputa. All 170 patients received antibiotics and postural drainage, and 88 of them (younger and with a higher functional reserve) were also submitted to pulmonary resections (82 unilateral and 6 bilateral). Two deaths occurred, and repetitive hospitalizations were more frequent among the clinically treated patients. The follow up showed that most of the surgically treated patients had significant symptoms improvement and rarely needed to be re-hospitalized. Conclusions: In the majority of the patients, lung resection surgery improved permanently the prolonged bronchopulmonary symptoms of patients with bronchiectasis, differently from the patients who received only clinical treatment.

 


Keywords: Bronchiectasis/diagnosis. Bronchiectasis/therapy. Bronchiectasis/surgery. Bronchiectasis/complications. Tomography X-ray computed/methods. Inpatients. Retrospective studies.

 


Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

Carcinoma mucoepidermóide

Cristiano Feijó Andrade, Spencer Marcantônio Camargo, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, José Carlos Felicetti

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(6):342-344

Abstract PDF PT

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm of the tracheobronchial tree, of unknown etiology. Its preferred endobronchial location often results in respiratory symptoms such as obstruction of the airways and lung diseases of slow recovery. They usually are slow growing tumors although they may present an aggressive behavior with local invasion and lymph node metastases depending on their histopathologic characteristics. The mainstay therapy is complete surgical resection either by means of lobectomy or by lung sparing procedures such as bronchotomy and bronchoplasty. Prognosis depends upon the degree of cellular differentiation of the tumors. The authors report a case of this rare neoplasia and describe the clinical and radiographic characteristics, and the surgical treatment.

 



Mediastinal cyst as a cause of severe airway compression and dysphonia

Cisto mediastinal como causa de grave compressão da via aérea central e disfonia

Vanessa Costa Menezes, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Hélio Minamoto, Márcia Jacomelli, Paulo Sampaio Gutierrez, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):636-640

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Radial-probe EBUS for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions

Ecobroncoscopia radial para o diagnóstico de lesões pulmonares periféricas

Marcia Jacomelli, Sergio Eduardo Demarzo, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Addy Lidvina Mejia Palomino, Viviane Rossi Figueiredo

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(4):248-253

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Objective: Conventional bronchoscopy has a low diagnostic yield for peripheral pulmonary lesions. Radial-probe EBUS employs a rotating ultrasound transducer at the end of a probe that is passed through the working channel of the bronchoscope. Radial-probe EBUS facilitates the localization of peripheral pulmonary nodules, thus increasing the diagnostic yield. The objective of this study was to present our initial experience using radial-probe EBUS in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions at a tertiary hospital. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 54 patients who underwent radial-probe EBUS-guided bronchoscopy for the investigation of pulmonary nodules or masses between February of 2012 and September of 2013. Radial-probe EBUS was performed with a flexible 20-MHz probe, which was passed through the working channel of the bronchoscope and advanced through the bronchus to the target lesion. For localization of the lesion and for collection procedures (bronchial brushing, transbronchial needle aspiration, and transbronchial biopsy), we used fluoroscopy. Results: Radial-probe EBUS identified 39 nodules (mean diameter, 1.9 ± 0.7 cm) and 19 masses (mean diameter, 4.1 ± 0.9 cm). The overall sensitivity of the method was 66.7% (79.5% and 25.0%, respectively, for lesions that were visible and not visible by radial-probe EBUS). Among the lesions that were visible by radial-probe EBUS, the sensitivity was 91.7% for masses and 74.1% for nodules. The complications were pneumothorax (in 3.7%) and bronchial bleeding, which was controlled bronchoscopically (in 9.3%). Conclusions: Radial-probe EBUS shows a good safety profile, a low complication rate, and high sensitivity for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions.

 


Keywords: Diagnostic techniques, respiratory system; Lung/ultrasonography; Bronchoscopy/methods; Bronchoscopy/instrumentation.

 


Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs

Efeitos da administração aguda e crônica de metilprednisolona no estresse oxidativo em pulmões de ratos

Ronaldo Lopes Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva Torres, Gabriela Laste, Maria Beatriz Cardoso Ferreira, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Adriane Belló-Klein

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):238-243

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Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.); acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days); and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels.

 


Keywords: Lung; Methylprednisolone; Glucocorticoids; Lipid peroxidation; Antioxidant response elements.

 


Effects of methylprednisolone on inflammatory activity and oxidative stress in the lungs of brain-dead rats

Efeitos da metilprednisolona na atividade inflamatória e estresse oxidativo nos pulmões de ratoscom morte cerebral

Eduardo Sperb Pilla, Raôni Bins Pereira, Luiz Alberto Forgiarini Junior, Luiz Felipe Forgiarini,Artur de Oliveira Paludo, Jane Maria Ulbrich Kulczynski, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso,Cristiano Feijó Andrade

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):173-180

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Objective: To evaluate the effects that early and late systemic administration of methylprednisolone have on lungs in a rat model of brain death. Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were anesthetized and randomly divided into four groups (n = 6 per group): sham-operated (sham); brain death only (BD); brain death plus methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg i.v.) after 5 min (MP5); and brain death plus methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg i.v.) after 60 min (MP60). In the BD, MP5, and MP60 group rats, we induced brain death by inflating a balloon catheter in the extradural space. All of the animals were observed and ventilated for 120 min. We determined hemodynamic and arterial blood gas variables; wet/dry weight ratio; histological score; levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS); superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity; and catalase activity. In BAL fluid, we determined differential white cell counts, total protein, and lactate dehydrogenase levels. Myeloperoxidase activity, lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α levels were assessed in lung tissue. Results: No significant differences were found among the groups in terms of hemodynamics, arterial blood gases, wet/dry weight ratio, BAL fluid analysis, or histological score-nor in terms of SOD, myeloperoxidase, and catalase activity. The levels of TBARS were significantly higher in the MP5 and MP60 groups than in the sham and BD groups (p < 0.001). The levels of TNF-α were significantly lower in the MP5 and MP60 groups than in the BD group (p < 0.001). Conclusions:áIn this model of brain death, the early and late administration of methylprednisolone had similar effects on inflammatory activity and lipid peroxidation in lung tissue.

 


Palavras-chave: Ratos; Morte encefálica; Estresse oxidativo; Pulmão; Hidroxicorticosteroides.

 


Experimental pleural empyema in rats: effect of the intrapleural administration of dextran 40 during the fibrinopurulent stage

Empiema pleural experimental em ratos: avaliação dos efeitos do uso intrapleural de dextran-40 na fase fibrinopurulenta

Tulio Tonietto, Eduardo Sperb Pilla, Gabriel Ribeiro Madke, Ubirajara de Lima e Silva, José Carlos Felicetti, José de Jesus Peixoto Camargo, Marisa Ribeiro de Itapema Cardoso, Ricardo Bettiol Nonnig, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso

J Bras Pneumol.1999;25(3):-

Abstract PDF PT

Pleural empyema carries high morbidity and mortality rates. Therapy focuses on the control of the infectious process in its initial phase when parenteral antibiotics and chest drainage are likely to be most effective. The ability of dextrans in preventing peritoneal adhesions leads one to test their potential effectiveness in reducing fibrinous proliferation in a rat model of pleural empyema. Twenty-four Wistar rats weighing 250-400 grams were anesthetized, submitted to a right thoracotomy and then randomized into 3 groups (n = 8 each). Animals in group I were given intrapleural dextran 40 (1 ml/kg) + 1 ml/kg of Staphylococcus aureus extract (1010 cells/ml) in heart-brain culture media obtained from oropharyngeal swabs of the animals. Animals in group II received saline solution (1 ml/kg) +1 ml/kg of Staphylococcus aureus extract (1010 cells/ml) in heart-brain culture media. Animals in group III (controls) were given the culture media without bacteria (1 ml/kg) in addition to saline (1 ml/kg). Upon completion, the chest was deaired, the thoracotomy wound was closed, the animals recovered, observed for 4 days, and sacrificed. Only the animals in groups I and II developed pleural effusion and empyema (average volume of 9.7 ml and 8.1 ml respectively, p > 0.05, NS). There was a significant weight loss in groups I and II compared to control animals (p = 0.004). There were no significant differences in blood work-up tests between groups. The pleural fluid of all animals in groups I and II had positive cultures for Staphylococcus aureus. The biochemical analysis of the pleural fluid in animals from groups I and II did not show any significant differences. The authors concluded that in this novel and reliable model of pleural empyema in rats, the intrapleural administration of dextran 40 at time of inoculation of bacteria did not result in any measurable reduction of the pleural reaction after 96 hours of observation.

 


Keywords: Empyema. Pleura. Rat. Dextrans. Staphylococcus.

 


Erratum: Radial-probe EBUS for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions.

Errata: Ecobroncoscopia radial para o diagnóstico de lesões pulmonares periféricas.

Marcia Jacomelli1, Sergio Eduardo Demarzo1, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso2, Addy Lidvina Mejia Palomino1, Viviane Rossi Figueiredo1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):78-79

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Esophageal manometry and 24-h esophageal pH-metry in a large sample of patients with respiratory symptoms

Esofagomanometria e pHmetria esofágica de 24 h em uma ampla amostra de pacientes com manifestações respiratórias

Mirna da Mota Machado, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Iana Oliveira e Silva Ribeiro, Idílio Zamin Júnior, Rene Jacobsen Eilers

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(12):1040-1048

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Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and to evaluate the esophageal motor profile of patients with respiratory symptoms referred to a digestive motility referral center for esophageal function testing. Methods: The results of esophageal manometry and 24-h esophageal pH-metry were analyzed. The inclusion criterion was presenting respiratory symptoms, with or without accompanying digestive symptoms. Results: Of the 1,170 patients included in the study, 602 (51.5%) reported having digestive and respiratory symptoms (DRS group), and 568 (48.5%) reported having only respiratory symptoms (RS group). Asthma was diagnosed in 142 patients in the RS group (RS-A subgroup) and in 201 of those in the DRS group (DRS-A subgroup). Of the 346 cases of esophageal dysmotility, hypomotility was found in 175 (14.3% and 15.6% in the DRS and RS groups, respectively), and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) hypotonia was found in 411 (40.3% and 30.2%, respectively). Hypotonia correlated with GERD. Exposure of the distal esophagus to acid was markedly abnormal in the supine position. The prevalence of GERD in the sample as a whole, the RS-A/DRS-A subgroups and the RS-A subgroup alone was 39.8%, 44.0% and 35.2%, respectively. Conclusions: Hypotonic LES was the most common abnormality and correlated with GERD. Although GERD was more evident in the DRS group, approximately one third of the patients in the RS group also presented GERD (silent GERD). The findings suggest that GERD can be an extrapulmonary cause of chronic respiratory symptoms unresponsive to conventional therapy.

 


Keywords: Gastroesophageal reflux; Signs and symptoms, respiratory; Asthma; Esophageal pH monitoring; Manometry.

 


Current status and clinical applicability of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration

Estado atual e aplicabilidade clínica da punção aspirativa por agulha guiada por ultrassomendobrônquico

Viviane Rossi Figueiredo, Márcia Jacomelli, Ascédio José Rodrigues, Mauro Canzian,Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):226-237

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has played a key role in the diagnosis of mediastinal, paratracheal, and peribronchial lesions, as well as in lymph node staging for lung cancer. Despite its minimally invasive character, EBUS-TBNA has demonstrated a diagnostic yield comparable with that of established surgical methods. It has therefore gained credibility and has become a routine procedure at various referral centers. A successful EBUS-TBNA procedure requires careful planning, which includes a thorough review of the radiological imaging and special care during specimen collection and preparation, as well as technical expertise, experience with the procedure itself, and knowledge of the potential complications inherent to the procedure. The most common indications for EBUS-TBNA include lymph node staging for lung cancer and the diagnostic investigation of mediastinal/hilar masses and lymph node enlargement. Recently, tumor biomarkers in malignant samples collected during the EBUS-TBNA procedure have begun to be identified, and this molecular analysis has proven to be absolutely feasible. The EBUS-TBNA procedure has yet to be included on the Brazilian Medical Association list of medical procedures approved for reimbursement. The EBUS-TBNA procedure has shown to be a safe and accurate tool for lung cancer staging/restaging, as well as for the diagnosis of mediastinal, paratracheal, and peribronchial lesions/lymph node enlargement.

 


Palavras-chave: Biópsia por agulha fina; Neoplasias pulmonares; Estadiamento de neoplasias.

 


A prospective study of pleural effusions through analysis of DNA ploidy by flow cytometry

Estudo prospectivo de derrames pleurais através da análise de ploidia do DNA por citometria de fluxo

Giuliano Borile, Luciano da Silva Selistre, Samir Abu El Haje, Luiz Jaime Tellez, João Carlos Prolla, Jorge Neumann, Heloisa Sporleder, José de Jesus Peixoto Camargo, José Carlos Felicetti, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso

J Bras Pneumol.1999;25(3):153-158

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This is a prospective study of benign and malignant pleural effusions carried out to determine the diagnostic yield of standard cytopathology compared to findings of DNA ploidy obtained by flow cytometry. Twenty-six samples of pleural effusion obtained by thoracocentesis were analyzed by cytopathology and flow cytometry. Final diagnosis was confirmed in all instances by histopathology of pleural biopsies. Ten samples were excluded from the analysis due to technical reasons, and the remaining 16 were used in the study. There were 13 malignant and 3 benign pleural effusions. Cytopathology revealed 9 malignant effusions and 7 benign effusions (4 false negatives). Flow cytometry findings have shown euploid DNA content in all 3 benign effusions (positive predictive value and specificity of 100%) and in 8 malignant effusions (positive value and specificity of 100%) and in 8 malignant effusions (sensitivity of 38.4% and negative predictive value of 27.2%). Cytopathology showed specificity of 100%, sensitivity of 69.2%, and positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 42.8%, respectively. The authors concluded that in this study the low sensitivity and negative value of flow cytometry in comparison to conventional cytopathology have limited the usefulness of flow cytometry to the finding of euploid DNA contents in benign pleural effusions.

 


Keywords: Flow cytometry. Cytopathology. DNA ploidy. Pleural effusion.

 


Ventilation strategy and its influence on the functional performance of lung grafts in an experimental model of single lung transplantation using non-heart-beating donors

Influência da estratégia ventilatória no desempenho funcional de enxertos pulmonares em um modelo experimental de transplante pulmonar unilateral de doadores após parada cardiocirculatória

Elaine Aparecida Felix, Cristiano Feijó Andrade, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Gabriela Cury Thiesen, Ana Carolina Peçanha Antonio, Lucas Krieger Martins, Tiago Antonio Tonietto

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):554-561

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Objective: To compare the influence of two different ventilation strategies-volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) and pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV)-on the functional performance of lung grafts in a canine model of unilateral left lung transplantation using donor lungs harvested after three hours of normothermic cardiocirculatory arrest under mechanical ventilation. Methods: The study comprised 40 mongrel dogs, randomized into two groups: VCV and PCV. Of the 20 recipients, 5 did not survive the transplant, and 5 died before the end of the post-transplant assessment period. The remaining 10 survivors (5 in each group) were evaluated for 360 min after lung transplantation. The functional performance of the grafts was evaluated regarding respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, and lung graft histology. Results: There were no significant differences between the groups regarding respiratory mechanics (peak inspiratory pressure, plateau pressure, mean airway pressure, dynamic compliance, and static compliance) or gas exchange variables (PaO2, venous oxygen tension, PaCO2, venous carbon dioxide tension, and the arterial-venous oxygen content difference). The histopathological findings were consistent with nonspecific acute lung injury and did not differ between the groups. Conclusions: This model of lung transplantation showed that the functional performance of lung grafts was not influenced by the ventilation strategy employed during the first six hours after reperfusion.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary ventilation; Respiration, artificial; Lung transplantation; Dogs; Organ preservation.

 


Suspension laryngoscopy for the thoracic surgeon: When and how to use it

Laringoscopia de suspensão para o cirurgião torácico: Quando e como utilizá-la

Antonio Oliveira dos Santos Júnior, Hélio Minamoto, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Tales Rubens de Nadai, Rafael Turano Mota, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):238-241

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Suspension laryngoscopy is one of the most common otolaryngological procedures for the diagnosis and surgical approach to the larynx. However, most thoracic surgeons are not familiar with the procedure and seldom use it. The indications for its use are similar to those for that of rigid bronchoscopy (dilatation, endoprosthesis insertion, and tumor resection). It can be performed in children and adults. Suspension laryngoscopy is an alternative when rigid bronchoscopy is unavailable and is therefore a viable option for use at smaller facilities. In this communication, we describe the technique and the applications of suspension laryngoscopy in thoracic surgery.

 


Keywords: Trachea; Dilatation; Thoracic Surgery; Laryngoscopy.

 


Lobectomy for treating bronchial carcinoma: analysis of comorbidities and their impact on postoperative morbidity and mortality

Lobectomia por carcinoma brônquico: análise das co-morbidades e seu impacto na morbimortalidade pós-operatória

Pablo Gerardo Sánchez, Giovani Schirmer Vendrame, Gabriel Ribeiro Madke, Eduardo Sperb Pilla, José de Jesus Peixoto Camargo, Cristiano Feijó Andrade, José Carlos Felicetti, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):495-504

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the impact that comorbidities have on the postoperative outcomes in patients submitted to lobectomy for the treatment of bronchial carcinoma. Methods: A retrospective study of 493 patients submitted to lobectomy for the treatment of bronchial carcinoma was conducted, and 305 of those patients met the criteria for inclusion in the final study sample. The surgical technique used was similar in all cases. The Torrington-Henderson scale and the Charlson scale were used to analyze comorbidities and to categorize patients into groups based on degree of risk for postoperative complications or death. Results: The postoperative (30-day) mortality rate was 2.9%, and the postoperative complications index was 44%. Prolonged air leakage was the most common complication (in 20.6%). The univariate analysis revealed that gender, age, smoking, neoadjuvant therapy and diabetes all had a significant impact on the incidence of complications. The factors found to be predictive of complications were body mass index (23.8 ± 4.4), forced expiratory volume in one second (74.1 ± 24%) and the ratio between forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity (0.65 ± 0.1). The scales employed proved efficacious in the identification of the risk groups, as well as in drawing correlations with morbidity and mortality (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, body mass index and the Charlson index were found to be the principal determinants of complications. In addition, prolonged air leakage was found to be the principal factor involved in mortality (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Reductions in forced expiratory volume in one second, in the ratio between forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity, and in body mass index, as well as a Charlson score of 3 or 4 and a Torrington-Henderson score of 3, were associated with a greater number of postoperative complications in patients submitted to lobectomy for the treatment of bronchial carcinoma. Air leakage was found to be strongly associated with mortality.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms/surgery; Postoperative complications; Pneumonectomy; Morbidity

 


An experimental rat model of ex vivo lung perfusion for the assessment of lungs after prostacyclin administration: inhaled versus parenteral routes

Modelo experimental de perfusão pulmonar ex vivo em ratos: avaliação de desempenho de pulmões submetidos à administração de prostaciclina inalada versus parenteral

Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Rogério Pazetti, Henrique Takachi Moriya, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Francine Maria de Almeida, Aristides Tadeu Correia, Karina Fechini, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):589-597

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Objective: To present a model of prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) administration (inhaled vs. parenteral) and to assess the functional performance of the lungs in an ex vivo lung perfusion system. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were anesthetized and placed on mechanical ventilation followed by median sterno-laparotomy and anticoagulation. The main pulmonary artery was cannulated. All animals were maintained on mechanical ventilation and were randomized into four groups (10 rats/group): inhaled saline (IS); parenteral saline (PS); inhaled PGI2 (IPGI2); and parenteral PGI2 (PPGI2). The dose of PGI2 used in the IPGI2 and PPGI2 groups was 20 and 10 µg/kg, respectively. The heart-lung blocks were submitted to antegrade perfusion with a low potassium and dextran solution via the pulmonary artery, followed by en bloc extraction and storage at 4°C for 6 h. The heart-lung blocks were then ventilated and perfused in an ex vivo lung perfusion system for 50 min. Respiratory mechanics, hemodynamics, and gas exchange were assessed. Results: Mean pulmonary artery pressure following nebulization decreased in all groups (p < 0.001), with no significant differences among the groups. During the ex vivo perfusion, respiratory mechanics did not differ among the groups, although relative oxygenation capacity decreased significantly in the IS and PS groups (p = 0.04), whereas mean pulmonary artery pressure increased significantly in the IS group. Conclusions: The experimental model of inhaled PGI2 administration during lung extraction is feasible and reliable. During reperfusion, hemodynamics and gas exchange trended toward better performance with the use of PGI2 than that with the use of saline.

 


Keywords: Prostaglandins; Lung transplantation; Reperfusion; Models, animal; Rats.

 


An experimental rat model of ex vivo lung perfusion for the assessment of lungs regarding histopathological findings and apoptosis: low-potassium dextran vs. histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate

Modelo experimental de perfusão pulmonar ex vivo em ratos: avaliação histopatológica e de apoptose celular em pulmões preservados com solução de baixo potássio dextrana vs. solução histidina-triptofano-cetoglutarato

Edson Azevedo Simões, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Mauro Canzian, Rogério Pazetti, Karina Andriguetti de Oliveira Braga, Natalia Aparecida Nepomuceno, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):461-469

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare histopathological findings and the degree of apoptosis among rat lungs preserved with low-potassium dextran (LPD) solution, histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution, or normal saline (NS) at two ischemia periods (6 h and 12 h) using an experimental rat model of ex vivo lung perfusion. Methods: Sixty Wistar rats were anesthetized, randomized, and submitted to antegrade perfusion via pulmonary artery with one of the preservation solutions. Following en bloc extraction, the heart-lung blocks were preserved for 6 h or 12 h at 4°C and then reperfused with homologous blood for 60 min in an ex vivo lung perfusion system. At the end of the reperfusion, fragments of the middle lobe were extracted and processed for histopathological examination. The parameters evaluated were congestion, alveolar edema, alveolar hemorrhage, inflammatory infiltrate, and interstitial infiltrate. The degree of apoptosis was assessed using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. Results: The histopathological examination showed that all of the lungs preserved with NS presented alveolar edema after 12 h of ischemia. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups in terms of the degree of apoptosis. Conclusions: In this study, the histopathological and apoptosis findings were similar with the use of either LPD or HTK solutions, whereas the occurrence of edema was significantly more common with the use of NS.

 


Keywords: : Organ preservation; Organ preservation solutions; Lung transplantation; Reperfusion injury; Apoptosis.

 


Experimental model of isolated lung perfusion in rats: technique and application in lung preservation studies

Modelo experimental de perfusão pulmonar isolada em ratos: técnica e aplicações em estudos de preservação pulmonar

Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Eduardo de Campos Werebe, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Rogério Pazetti, Karina Andrighetti de Oliveira, Paula Roberta Otaviano Soares, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(4):-

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Small animal models are particularly suitable for lung preservation studies, because they are simple and cost-effective. This brief communication focuses on the technical description of an ex vivo lung perfusion model in rats by means of a commercially available apparatus, which was the first to be installed in a thoracic surgery research laboratory in Brazil. The model and its preparation, together with its applications for lung preservation studies, are described in detail. All technical details can also be seen in a video posted on the website of the Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology.

 


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Reperfusion injury; Rats; Models, animal.

 


Technical modification of unilateral lung transplantation in rats

Modificação da técnica de alotransplante pulmonar unilateral em ratos

Pablo Gerardo Sánchez, Lucas Krieger Martins, Frederico Krieger Martins, Ricardo Schimer, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Cristiano Feijó Andrade

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):443-447

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Vídeo

The increasing demand in transplantation research requires efficient and less expensive animal models in order to obtain reliable results that are reproducible in larger animal models and, ultimately, applied clinically. The model of unilateral left lung transplantation in rats has proven to be a useful alternative for those purposes. We demonstrate a technical modification of this model, which consists of the isolation and ligation of the contralateral (right) pulmonary artery, allowing blood circulation exclusively in the transplanted lung. This model is feasible and reproducible. However, the short survival time restricts the assessment of the transplanted lung to a maximum period of three hours.

 



Antegrade versus retrograde lung perfusion in pulmonary preservation for transplantation in a canine model of post-mortem lung viability

Perfusão pulmonar anterógrada "versus" retrógrada na preservação pulmonar para transplante em modelo canino de viabilidade pulmonar pós-morte

Jean Carlo Kohmann, Ubirajara Lima e Silva, Gabriel Madke, Eduardo Sperb Pilla, José Carlos Felicetti, José de Jesus Peixoto Camargo, Paulo Ivo Homem de Bittencourt, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso

J Bras Pneumol.1999;25(2):78-83

Abstract PDF PT

Lung retrieval following cardio-circulatory arrest has been studied experimentally, however severe ischemia/reperfusion injury requires improved methods of graft preservation. Allograft perfusion with crystalloid solution delivered via pulmonary artery (antegrade perfusion) remains the standard procedure, however it does not provide adequate washout of the blood retained within the bronchial circulation which may trigger reperfusion injury. This has led the authors to test the impact of antegrade versus retrograde (via left atrium) perfusion of lung grafts submitted to 3 hours of warm ischemia after cardio-circulatory arrest in a dog model of left lung allotransplantation. Twelve donor dogs were sacrificed with thiopental sodium and kept under mechanical ventilation at room temperature for 3 hours. They were randomized and the heart-lung blocks harvested after being perfused in a retrograde (group I, n = 6) or antegrade (group II, n = 6) fashion with modified Euro-Collins solution. Twelve recipient animals were submitted to a left lung transplant receiving the grafts from both groups and the assessment was performed during 6 hours. Hemodynamic parameters were similar for animals in both groups. The gas exchange (arterial PaO2 and PaCO2) in recipients of group I (retrograde perfusion) was significantly better when compared to recipients of grafts perfused via pulmonary artery. Intracellular ATP did not show difference between the groups, however there was a measurable drop in its values when samples obtained upon extraction were compared to those measured after reperfusion and at the end of the assessment. The authors concluded that retrograde perfusion yields better pulmonary function after 6 hours of reperfusion in this animal model of left lung allotransplantation following 3 hours of normothermic ischemia under mechanical ventilation.

 


Keywords: Lung. Ischemia. Preservation. Retrograde perfusion. ATP.

 


Ischemic preconditioning by selective occlusion of the pulmonary artery in rats

Pré-condicionamento isquêmico por oclusão seletiva da artéria pulmonar em ratos

Eduardo Sperb Pilla, Giovani Schirmer Vendrame, Pablo Gerardo Sánchez, Gustavo Grun, Eduardo Fontena, Luiz Alberto Forgiarini Júnior, Norma Anair Possa Marroni, Cristiano Feijó Andrade, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(8):583-589

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the effect of lung ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on normothermic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in a rat model, quantifying the production of reactive oxygen species. Methods: Forty-seven male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: control, sham, I/R and IPC. Control group animals were anesthetized and killed by decapitation, after which pneumonectomy was performed and the left lungs were stored in liquid nitrogen. Sham, IPC and I/R group rats were anesthetized, tracheostomized, ventilated, anticoagulated and submitted to left thoracotomy with dissection of the left pulmonary artery for clamping. Sham group rats underwent dissection of the left pulmonary artery, I/R group rats underwent 30 min of total hilar clamping, and IPC group rats underwent 5-min clamping of the left pulmonary artery followed by 30 min of total hilar clamping. Lungs were reperfused for 90 min and ventilated with the same parameters, with additional positive end-expiratory pressure of 1 cmH2O. Hemodynamic and blood gas values were obtained prior to thoracotomy, prior to total hilar clamping, after 30 min of reperfusion and after 90 min of reperfusion. Lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results: There were no significant differences among the groups in terms of the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Nor were there any significant differences among the sham, I/R and IPC groups in terms of arterial oxygen tension, arterial carbon dioxide tension or hemodynamic values. Conclusions: In an in situ I/R rat model, 5-min IPC of the left pulmonary artery does not attenuate I/R injury.

 


Keywords: Ischemia; Reperfusion; Organ preservation; Reactive oxygen species.

 


Prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Prevalência da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico em pacientes com fibrose pulmonar idiopática

Cristiane Dupont Bandeira, Adalberto Sperb Rubin, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, José da Silva Moreira, Mirna da Mota Machado

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(12):1182-1189

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and to evaluate its clinical presentation, as well as the esophageal function profile in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: In this prospective study, 28 consecutive patients with IPF underwent stationary esophageal manometry, 24-h esophageal pH-metry and pulmonary function tests. All patients also completed a symptom and quality of life in GERD questionnaire. Results: In the study sample, the prevalence of GERD was 35.7%. The patients were then divided into two groups: GERD+ (abnormal pH-metry; n = 10) and GERD− (normal pH-metry; n = 18). In the GERD+ group, 77.7% of the patients presented at least one typical GERD symptom. The pH-metry results showed that 8 (80%) of the GERD+ group patients had abnormal supine reflux, and that the reflux was exclusively in the supine position in 5 (50%). In the GERD+ and GERD− groups, respectively, 5 (50.0%) and 7 (38.8%) of the patients presented a hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter, 7 (70.0%) and 10 (55.5%), respectively, presenting lower esophageal dysmotility. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding demographic characteristics, pulmonary function, clinical presentation or manometric findings. Conclusions: The prevalence of GERD in the patients with IPF was high. However, the clinical and functional characteristics did not differ between the patients with GERD and those without.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary fibrosis; Gastroesophageal reflux; Prevalence; Manometry; Esophageal pH monitoring.

 


Prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux in lung transplant candidates with advanced lung disease

Prevalência de refluxo gastroesofágico em pacientes com doença pulmonar avançada candidatos a transplante pulmonar

Gustavo Almeida Fortunato, Mirna Mota Machado, Cristiano Feijó Andrade, José Carlos Felicetti, José de Jesus Peixoto Camargo, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(10):772-778

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess the esophageal function profile and the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in lung transplant candidates. Methods: From July of 2005 to November of 2006, a prospective study was conducted involving 55 candidates for lung transplantation at the Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Prior to transplantation, patients underwent outpatient stationary esophageal manometry and 24-h esophageal pH-metry using one and two electrodes. Results: Abnormal esophageal manometry was documented in 80% of the patients, and 24% of the patients presented pathological acid reflux. Digestive symptoms presented sensitivity and specificity for GER of 50% and 61%, respectively. Of the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 94% presented abnormal esophageal manometry, and 80% presented lower esophageal sphincter hypotonia, making it the most common finding. Patients with bronchiectasis presented the highest prevalence of GER (50%). Conclusions: In patients with advanced lung disease, GER is highly prevalent. In the population studied, digestive symptoms of GER were not predictive of pathological acid reflux. The role that GER plays in chronic rejection should be examined and clarified in future studies.

 


Keywords: Gastroesophageal reflux; Lung transplantation; Manometry; Esophageal pH monitoring.

 


Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration for lung cancer staging: early experience in Brazil

Punção aspirativa por agulha guiada por ultrassom endobrônquico no estadiamento do câncer de pulmão: experiência inicial no Brasil

Viviane Rossi Figueiredo, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Márcia Jacomelli, Sérgio Eduardo Demarzo, Addy Lidvina Mejia Palomino, Ascédio José Rodrigues, Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Paulo Manoel Pego-Fernandes, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(1):23-30

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive, safe and accurate method for collecting samples from mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes. This study focused on the initial results obtained with EBUS-TBNA for lung cancer and lymph node staging at three teaching hospitals in Brazil. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with lung cancer and submitted to EBUS-TBNA for mediastinal lymph node staging. The EBUS-TBNA procedures, which involved the use of an EBUS scope, an ultrasound processor, and a compatible, disposable 22 G needle, were performed while the patients were under general anesthesia. Results: Between January of 2011 and January of 2014, 149 patients underwent EBUS-TBNA for lymph node staging. The mean age was 66 ± 12 years, and 58% were male. A total of 407 lymph nodes were sampled by EBUS-TBNA. The most common types of lung neoplasm were adenocarcinoma (in 67%) and squamous cell carcinoma (in 24%). For lung cancer staging, EBUS-TBNA was found to have a sensitivity of 96%, a specificity of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 85%. Conclusions: We found EBUS-TBNA to be a safe and accurate method for lymph node staging in lung cancer patients.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Neoplasm staging; Bronchoscopy; Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration; Lymph nodes.

 


Authors' reply

Resposta dos autores

Marcia Jacomelli1, Sergio Eduardo Demarzo1, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso2, Addy Lidvina Mejia Palomino1, Viviane Rossi Figueiredo1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):77-77

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Bronchial thermoplasty in asthma

Termoplastia brônquica em asma

Adalberto Sperb Rubin, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(4):-

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Currently available treatments for asthma provide satisfactory control of the disease in most cases. However, a significant number of patients do not respond to such treatments (i.e., do not achieve effective symptom relief). One novel approach to treating asthma is bronchial thermoplasty, in which the airway smooth muscle is specifically and directly treated. This procedure delivers radiofrequency energy to the airways in order to reduce smooth muscle-mediated bronchoconstriction. In this article, we present the thermoplasty technique, summarizing the results of the major randomized clinical trials of the procedure, as well as discussing its mechanisms of action and potential adverse effects. We also propose strategies for the future clinical use of this new treatment.

 


Keywords: Asthma/prevention & control; Asthma/therapy; Bronchoscopy.

 


Bronchial thermoplasty: report on the first endoscopic treatment for asthma in Latin America*

Termoplastia brônquica: relato do primeiro tratamento endoscópico de asma na América Latina

Adalberto Sperb Rubin, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(1):59-62

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Bronchial thermoplasty is a new bronchoscopic procedure that delivers radiofrequency energy to the airway and potentially reduces the smooth muscle-mediated bronchoconstriction. We report the case of a 48-year-old man with persistent moderate asthma submitted to bronchial thermoplasty. The treatment increased the forced expiratory volume in one second, increased the number of symptom-free days, reduced the use of relief medications, and improved the Juniper Asthma Quality of Life Scale score. In this patient, bronchial thermoplasty was well tolerated and safe. This was the first bronchial thermoplasty performed in Latin America. At 12 months after the procedure, the results were encouraging in terms of its potential benefits in patients with difficult-to-control asthma.

 


Keywords: Asthma/treatment; Respiratory function tests; Case reports [publication type].

 


Endobronchial ultrasound in esophageal cancer - when upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is not enough

Ultrassonografia endobrônquica no câncer de esôfago - quando a endoscopia digestiva alta não é suficiente

Lília Maia Santos1,2,a, Márcia Jacomelli1,b, Paulo Rogério Scordamaglio1,c, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso3,d, Viviane Rossi Figueiredo1,e

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(3):e20180312-e20180312

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Liquid ventilation: literature review

Ventilação líquida: revisão da literatura

Cristiano Feijó Andrade, Elaine Aparecida Felix Fortis, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(6):351-361

Abstract PDF PT

New methods of ventilation are being studied in different settings of pulmonary insufficiency in which the ultimate goal is to improve gas exchange and to minimize aggression to the lung parenchyma. The use of liquid perfluorocarbons administered directly in the airways has been ostensibly studied in pulmonary lesion models and in some clinical essays with good results relating to gas exchange, ventilatory mechanics, and anti-inflammatory properties. PFCs are substances with low surface tension, high density, they are not soluble in water, and allow for high diffusion of oxygen and carbonic gas. They act by recruiting collapsed alveoli, improving the gas exchange, protecting pulmonary architecture, and they wash out alveoli debris. This review article focuses on the different liquid ventilation strategies with perfluorocarbons, and provides information on the state of the art of liquid ventilation.

 



 

 


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