Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Determining the score and cut-off point that would identify asthmatic adults in epidemiological studies using the asthma module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire

Determinação de escore e nota de corte do módulo de asma do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood para discriminação de adultos asmáticos em estudos epidemiológicos

Elayne de Fátima Maçãira, Eduardo Algranti, Rafael Stelmach, Marcos Ribeiro, Maria do Patrocínio Tenório Nunes, Elizabete Medina Coeli Mendonça, Marco Antônio Bussacos

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(6):477-485

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To validate, for use in asthma prevalence studies, the asthma module of the standardized written questionnaire developed for use in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, establishing the score and cut-off point that would identify asthmatic adults. Methods: We interviewed 78 adult outpatients (40 adult asthmatics and 38 age-matched and gender-matched controls) using the asthma module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire, which is composed of questions related to eight dichotomous features of asthma. We determined the score and cut-off point required to accurately identify asthmatic adults, calculating sensitivity, specificity and Youden index. The method was validated against the clinical and functional diagnosis of asthma. The reproducibility of individual questions was evaluated by conducting second interviews with half of the patients some weeks later. Results: The score ranged from 0 to 14 points. A score = 5 allowed patients with asthma to be distinguished from those without (sensitivity = 93%; specificity = 100%; Youden index = 0.93). Most questions presented satisfactory reproducibility in the second interviews conducted after 48.2 ± 11.1 days (kappa and weighted kappa ranging from 0.43 to 1.00 for individual questions). Conclusion: For studies of adult asthma prevalence, the determination/validation of a cut-off point allows an alternative interpretation of the information gathered through the application of the asthma module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, taking into account the totality of the data rather than responses to individual questions.

 


Keywords: Asthma/diagnosis; Asthma/epidemiology; International cooperation; Questionnaires

 


Experimentation with and knowledge regarding water-pipe tobacco smoking among medical students at a major university in Brazil

Experimentação de e conhecimento sobre narguilé entre estudantes de medicina de uma importante universidade do Brasil

Stella Regina Martins, Renato Batista Paceli, Marco Antônio Bussacos, Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes, Gustavo Faibischew Prado, Elisa Maria Siqueira Lombardi, Mário Terra-Filho, Ubiratan Paula Santos

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):-

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. Methods: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. Results: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26%) and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65%) in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001). Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic.

 


Keywords: Tobacco products; Smoking/prevention & control; Education, medical, undergraduate; Health knowledge, attitudes, practice.

 


Effective tobacco control measures: agreement among medical students

Medidas eficazes de controle do tabagismo: concordância entre estudantes de medicina

Stella Regina Martins1, Renato Batista Paceli1, Marco Antônio Bussacos2, Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes1, Gustavo Faibischew Prado1, Elisa Maria Siqueira Lombardi1, Mário Terra-Filho1, Ubiratan Paula Santos1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):202-207

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the level of agreement with effective tobacco control measures recommended by the World Health Organization and to assess the attitudes toward, knowledge of, and beliefs regarding smoking among third-year medical students at University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Between 2008 and 2012, all third-year medical students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire based on the Global Health Professionals Student Survey and its additional modules. Results: The study sample comprised 556 students. The level of agreement with the World Health Organization recommendations was high, except for the components "received smoking cessation training" and "raising taxes is effective to reduce the prevalence of smoking". Most of the students reported that they agree with banning tobacco product sales to minors (95%), believe that physicians are role models to their patients (84%), and believe that they should advise their patients to quit cigarette smoking (96%) and using other tobacco products (94%). Regarding smoking cessation methods, most of the students were found to know more about nicotine replacement therapy than about non-nicotine therapies (93% vs. 53%). Only 37% of the respondents were aware of the importance of educational antismoking materials, and only 31% reported that they believe in the effectiveness of encouraging their patients, during medical visits. In our sample, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 5.23%; however, 43.82% of the respondents reported having experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking. Conclusions: Our results revealed the need to emphasize to third-year medical students the importance of raising the prices of and taxes on tobacco products. We also need to make students aware of the dangers of experimenting with tobacco products other than cigarettes, particularly water-pipe tobacco smoking.

 


Keywords: Tobacco products; Health policy; Education, medical, undergraduate; Health knowledge, attitudes, practice.

 


Mortality from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a temporal trend analysis in Brazil, 1979-2014

Mortalidade por fibrose pulmonar idiopática: análise temporal no Brasil, 1979-2014

Eduardo Algranti, Cézar Akiyoshi Saito, Diego Rodrigues Mendonça e Silva, Ana Paula Scalia Carneiro, Marco Antonio Bussacos

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):445-450

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze mortality from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in Brazil over the period 1979-2014. Methods: Microdata were extracted from the Brazilian National Ministry of Health Mortality Database. Only deaths for which the underlying cause was coded as International Classification of Diseases version 9 (ICD-9) 515 or 516.3 (until 1995) or as ICD version 10 (ICD-10) J84.1 (from 1996 onward) were included in our analysis. Standardized mortality rates were calculated for the 2010 Brazilian population. The annual trend in mortality rates was analyzed by joinpoint regression. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) by age group, time period of death, and gender, using a person-years denominator. Results: A total of 32,092 deaths were recorded in the study period. Standardized mortality rates trended upward, rising from 0.24/100,000 population in 1979 to 1.10/100,000 population in 2014. The annual upward trend in mortality rates had two inflection points, in 1992 and 2008, separating three distinct time segments with an annual growth of 2.2%, 6.8%, and 2.4%, respectively. The comparison of RRs for the age groups, using the 50- to 54-year age group as a reference, and for the study period, using 1979-1984 as a reference, were 16.14 (14.44-16.36) and 6.71 (6.34-7.12), respectively. Men compared with women had higher standardized mortality rates (per 100,000 person-years) in all age groups. Conclusion: Brazilian IPF mortality rates are lower than those of other countries, suggesting underdiagnosis or underreporting. The temporal trend is similar to those reported in the literature and is not explained solely by population aging.

 


Keywords: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/epidemiology; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/mortality; Population dynamics.

 


 

 


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