Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Asthma and COPD according to the pulmonologist

A asma e a DPOC na visão do pneumologista

Hisbello da Silva Campos, Antonio Carlos Moreira Lemos

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(4):301-309

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate how pulmonologists view the impact that asthma and COPD has on their patients, as well as how they treat these diseases. Methods: Survey including 227 pulmonologists participating in the VI Brazilian Congress on Asthma, II Brazilian Congress on COPD and II Brazilian Congress on Smoking, all of which were held in 2007. Results: According to the answers given by the pulmonologists, COPD is a public health problem of equal or greater importance than asthma, and COPD causes various disruptions in the lives of patients and their family members. When prescribing an inhalation device, pulmonologists feel that simplicity of use is more important than is the cost. There was a slight preference for the Aeroliser® and Diskus® systems. The budesonide-formoterol combination was the therapeutic regimen most often cited for the continued treatment of symptomatic asthma, whereas tiotropium bromide was the most often cited medication for the treatment of COPD. Selection of the therapeutic regimen for asthma and COPD is primarily influenced by the results of therapeutic trials published in the literature. Conclusions: The opinions of pulmonologists on the topics under study are in concordance with data in the specialized literature.

 


Keywords: Questionnaires; Asthma; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Physician's practice patterns; Brazil.

 


Is a low level of education a limiting factor for asthma control in a population with access to pulmonologists and to treatment?

A baixa escolaridade é um fator limitante para o controle da asma em uma população com acesso a pneumologista e tratamento?

Cassia Caroline Emilio1,a, Cintia Fernanda Bertagni Mingotti1,b, Paula Regina Fiorin1,c, Leydiane Araujo Lima1,d, Raisa Lemos Muniz1,e, Luis Henrique Bigotto1,f, Evaldo Marchi2,g, Eduardo Vieira Ponte1,h

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(1):e20180052-e20180052

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Objective: To determine whether a low level of education is a risk factor for uncontrolled asthma in a population of patients who have access to pulmonologists and to treatment. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients > 10 years of age diagnosed with asthma who were followed by a pulmonologist for at least 3 months in the city of Jundiai, located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The patients completed a questionnaire specifically designed for this study, the 6-item Asthma Control Questionnaire (to assess the control of asthma symptoms), and a questionnaire designed to assess treatment adherence. Patients underwent spirometry, and patient inhaler technique was assessed. Results: 358 patients were enrolled in the study. Level of education was not considered a risk factor for uncontrolled asthma symptoms (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.94-1.05), spirometry findings consistent with obstructive lung disease (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99-1.01), uncontrolled asthma (OR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.95-1.10), or the need for moderate/high doses of inhaled medication (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.94-1.06). The number of years of schooling was similar between the patients in whom treatment adherence was good and those in whom it was poor (p = 0.08), as well as between those who demonstrated proper inhaler technique and those who did not (p = 0.41). Conclusions: Among asthma patients with access to pulmonologists and to treatment, a low level of education does not appear to be a limiting factor for adequate asthma control.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Educational status; Spirometry; Treatment adherence and compliance.

 


Therapeutic management of tracheobronchial stenosis with stent application

A correção das estenoses traqueobrônquicas mediante o emprego de órteses

Maurício Guidi Saueressig, Amarílio Vieira de Macedo Neto, Alexandre Heitor Moreschi, Rogério Gastal Xavier, Paulo Roberto Stefani Sanches

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(2):84-93

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The surgical treatment of patients with tracheobronchial stenosis requires individualized attention due to the complexity of its origin though tracheoplasty is considered to be the ideal procedure. The most common causes of stenosis are tracheal intubation and the development of neoplasias. These are the very conditions that most benefit from endoscopic treatment when surgical correction is not indicated. Today, endoscopic procedures include the application of different kinds of laser and dilators usually delivered with a rigid bronchoscope, as well as radiotherapy and stents that may be used separately or associated. Basically, there are two types of stents, metal or silicone. The metallic ones are more frequently indicated in cases of tracheomalacia and extrinsic compressive stenosis. Silicone are more applicable in cases of tracheobronchial obstruction resultant from acute inflammation or endoluminal tumor. Although these methods can be used interchangeably in some cases, the best way to correct tracheobronchial stenosis is to correctly decide upon the treatment as early as the preliminary steps.

 


Keywords: Tracheal stenosis. Orthopedics fixation devices. Angioplasty.

 


Selective digestive decontamination is superior to oropharyngeal chlorhexidine in preventing pneumonia and reducing mortality in critically ill patients

A descontaminação digestiva seletiva é superior à clorexidina via orofaringe na prevenção de pneumonia e na redução da mortalidade em pacientes criticamente enfermos

Luciano Silvestri, Hendrick K.F. van Saene, Liviano Folla, Marco Milanese

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(2):270-273

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Can the six-minute walk distance predict the occurrence of acute exacerbations of COPD in patients in Brazil?

A distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de seis minutos pode predizer a ocorrência de exacerbações agudas da DPOC em pacientes brasileiros?

Fernanda Kazmierski Morakami, Andrea Akemi Morita, Gianna Waldrich Bisca, Josiane Marques Felcar, Marcos Ribeiro, Karina Couto Furlanetto, Nidia Aparecida Hernandes, Fabio Pitta

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):280-284

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Objective: To evaluate whether a six-minute walk distance (6MWD) of < 80% of the predicted value can predict the occurrence of acute exacerbations of COPD in patients in Brazil over a 2-year period. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study involving 50 COPD patients in Brazil. At enrollment, anthropometric data were collected and patients were assessed for pulmonary function (by spirometry) and functional exercise capacity (by the 6MWD). The patients were subsequently divided into two groups: 6MWD ≤ 80% of predicted and 6MWD > 80% of predicted. The occurrence of acute exacerbations of COPD over 2 years was identified by analyzing medical records and contacting patients by telephone. Results: In the sample as a whole, there was moderate-to-severe airflow obstruction (mean FEV1 = 41 ± 12% of predicted) and the mean 6MWD was 469 ± 60 m (86 ± 10% of predicted). Over the 2-year follow-up period, 25 patients (50%) experienced acute exacerbations of COPD. The Kaplan-Meier method showed that the patients in whom the 6MWD was ≤ 80% of predicted were more likely to have exacerbations than were those in whom the 6MWD was > 80% of predicted (p = 0.01), whereas the Cox regression model showed that the former were 2.6 times as likely to have an exacerbation over a 2-year period as were the latter (p = 0.02). Conclusions: In Brazil, the 6MWD can predict acute exacerbations of COPD over a 2-year period. The risk of experiencing an acute exacerbation of COPD within 2 years is more than twice as high in patients in whom the 6MWD is ≤ 80% of predicted.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Risk groups; Exercise.

 


Is systemic sclerosis interstitial lung disease slowly progressive?

A doença pulmonar intersticial na esclerose sistêmica é lentamente progressiva?

Chitra Lal, Charlie Strange

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):142-143

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Efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation: exercise capacity, respiratory muscle strength and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

A eficácia da reabilitação pulmonar na capacidade de exercício, força da musculatura inspiratória e qualidade de vida de portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Renata Cláudia Zanchet, Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas, Terezinha Lima

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):118 -124

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Background: Pulmonary rehabilitation is widely recommended for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation in improving exercise capacity, respiratory muscle strength and quality of life of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Method: This was an open, non-randomized clinical trial involving 27 clinically stable ex-smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who were enrolled in a pulmonary rehabilitation program. All were evaluated before and after pulmonary rehabilitation. Results: Mean age was 65 ± 5 years, mean body mass index was 25 ± 4 kg/m2, mean forced expiratory volume in one second was 55 ± 25% of predicted, mean ratio between forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity was 50 ± 12%, and mean arterial oxygen tension was 70 ± 7 mmHg. Comparison of pre- and post-pulmonary rehabilitation values revealed improvement in the distance walked in the 6-minute walk test (513 ± 99 m vs. 570 ± 104 m), maximum upper limb load (2 ± 1 kg vs. 3 ± 1 kg) and maximal inspiratory pressure (-89 ± 23 cmH2O vs. -102 ± 23 cmH2O), as well as in the activity domain, impact domain and total score on the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire. Conclusion: Pulmonary rehabilitation, when performed with care and with a focus on physical training, is efficacious in increasing not only the distance walked in the 6-minute walk test but maximum upper limb load, maximal inspiratory pressure and quality of life as well.

 


Keywords: Key words: Pulmonary rehabilitation. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Quality of life. Respiratory muscles.

 


Ex vivo lung perfusion in Brazil

A experiência brasileira na perfusão pulmonar ex vivo

Luis Gustavo Abdalla1, Karina Andrighetti de Oliveira Braga1, Natalia Aparecida Nepomuceno1, Lucas Matos Fernandes1, Marcos Naoyuki Samano1, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):95-99

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Objective: To evaluate the use of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) clinically to prepare donor lungs for transplantation. Methods: A prospective study involving EVLP for the reconditioning of extended-criteria donor lungs, the criteria for which include aspects such as a PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 300 mmHg. Between February of 2013 and February of 2014, the lungs of five donors were submitted to EVLP for up to 4 h each. During EVLP, respiratory mechanics were continuously evaluated. Once every hour during the procedure, samples of the perfusate were collected and the function of the lungs was evaluated. Results: The mean PaO2 of the recovered lungs was 262.9 ± 119.7 mmHg at baseline, compared with 357.0 ± 108.5 mmHg after 3 h of EVLP. The mean oxygenation capacity of the lungs improved slightly over the first 3 h of EVLP-246.1 ± 35.1, 257.9 ± 48.9, and 288.8 ± 120.5 mmHg after 1, 2, and 3 h, respectively-without significant differences among the time points (p = 0.508). The mean static compliance was 63.0 ± 18.7 mmHg, 75.6 ± 25.4 mmHg, and 70.4 ± 28.0 mmHg after 1, 2, and 3 h, respectively, with a significant improvement from hour 1 to hour 2 (p = 0.029) but not from hour 2 to hour 3 (p = 0.059). Pulmonary vascular resistance remained stable during EVLP, with no differences among time points (p = 0.284). Conclusions: Although the lungs evaluated remained under physiological conditions, the EVLP protocol did not effectively improve lung function, thus precluding transplantation.

 


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Organ preservation; Brain death; Donor selection.

 


Extubation failure influences clinical and functional outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury

A falência da extubação influencia desfechos clínicos e funcionais em pacientes com traumatismo cranioencefálico

Helena França Correia dos Reis, Mônica Lajana Oliveira Almeida, Mário Ferreira da Silva, Mário de Seixas Rocha

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):330-338

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Objective: To evaluate the association between extubation failure and outcomes (clinical and functional) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: A prospective cohort study involving 311 consecutive patients with TBI. The patients were divided into two groups according to extubation outcome: extubation success; and extubation failure (defined as reintubation within 48 h after extubation). A multivariate model was developed in order to determine whether extubation failure was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. Results: The mean age was 35.7 ± 13.8 years. Males accounted for 92.3%. The incidence of extubation failure was 13.8%. In-hospital mortality was 4.5% and 20.9% in successfully extubated patients and in those with extubation failure, respectively (p = 0.001). Tracheostomy was more common in the extubation failure group (55.8% vs. 1.9%; p < 0.001). The median length of hospital stay was significantly greater in the extubation failure group than in the extubation success group (44 days vs. 27 days; p = 0.002). Functional status at discharge was worse among the patients in the extubation failure group. The multivariate analysis showed that extubation failure was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (OR = 4.96; 95% CI, 1.86-13.22). Conclusions: In patients with TBI, extubation failure appears to lengthen hospital stays; to increase the frequency of tracheostomy and of pulmonary complications; to worsen functional outcomes; and to increase mortality.

 


Keywords: Brain injuries; Ventilator weaning; Intensive care units; Glasgow outcome scale.

 


A honra de poder servir à Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia (SBPT)

Thaís Helena Abrahão Thomaz Queluz

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(5):v-

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Time to turn the page

A hora da virada

Carlos R. R. Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):669-670

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Asthma-related hospitalizations and lack of outpatient follow-up treatment

A hospitalização por asma e a carência de acompanhamento ambulatorial

Emanuel Sarinho, Gladys Reis e Silva de Queiroz, Maria Laura Campelo de Melo Dias, Alexandre Jorge Queiroz e Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):365-371

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Objective: To determine whether the children and adolescents with acute asthma attacks admitted to two public hospitals in the city of Recife, Brazil underwent outpatient follow-up treatment for the prevention and control of asthma. Methods: A prospective case series study of hospitalized patients with asthma. The patients were asked to complete a questionnaire at admission in order to determine the frequency of prophylactic outpatient follow-up treatment. Patients presenting two or more attacks of asthma that were responsive to bronchodilators were classified as having asthma. Results: In the intervals between asthma attacks, 67% (112/167 - data regarding 2 patients were not available) of the patients had been treated only in the emergency room. Although 53.3%(89/167 - data regarding 2 patients were not provided) of the patients had been referred to outpatient treatment, only 16% (27/169) had visited an outpatient asthma clinic regularly for preventive treatment, and only 13% (22/169) had used prophylactic medication. Conclusion: Most of the children and adolescents hospitalized with asthma had not undergone preventive outpatient follow-up treatment. Various problems related to the health care system, such as non-referral for outpatient follow-up treatment at hospital discharge, limited access to outpatient clinics, and the cost of prophylactic medication, might have contributed to the low rate of outpatient follow-up treatment in the population studied. Public health care policies that allow asthma control programs to work effectively should be implemented.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Hospitalization; Ambulatory care.

 


Imaging and COPD

A imagem e a DPOC

Bruno Hochhegger1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(6):487-488

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The importance of molecular characterization in lung cancer

A importância da caracterização molecular no câncer de pulmão

Gilberto de Castro Junior1,2,a, Guilherme Harada2,b, Evandro Sobroza de Mello3,c

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(3):e20190139-e20190139

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The influence of genetics on nicotine dependence and the role of pharmacogenetics in treating the smoking habit

A influência da genética na dependência tabágica e o papel da farmacogenética no tratamento do tabagismo

José Miguel Chatkin

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):573-579

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Despite the considerable efforts made in the fight against smoking in the last decades, there are still substantial numbers of people who, in full knowledge of the health hazards, begin smoking or continue smoking. Recent studies have focused on the genetic bases of the nicotine addiction. Various genetic polymorphisms have been associated with smoking. However, environmental factors have also been shown to play a role. In this review, we present some of the principal data collected in genetic studies of smoking behavior. The results obtained through this line of research will eventually aid clinicians in individualizing the type, dosage and duration of treatment for patients with nicotine dependence in accordance with the genotype of each smoker, thereby maximizing the efficacy of the proposed treatment regimen.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Tobacco use cessation; Nicotine; Tobacco use disorder

 


The difficult task of searching for tools that help predict mechanical ventilator weaning success

A ingrata tarefa de se buscar ferramentas que ajudem a predizer o sucesso do desmame da ventilação mecânica

Bruno do Valle Pinheiro

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):249-250

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The parting of Jorge Kavakama, a shining star in Brazilian medicine that has flickered out

A partida de Jorge Kavakama, um pixel que se apaga na medicina brasileira

Mário Terra Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(2):187-

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A pesquisa experimental na pneumologia brasileira

Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(6):307-308

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Air pollution and the respiratory system

A poluição do ar e o sistema respiratório

Marcos Abdo Arbex, Ubiratan de Paula Santos, Lourdes Conceição Martins, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Luiz Alberto Amador Pereira, Alfésio Luis Ferreira Braga

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):643-655

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Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations.

 


Keywords: Respiratory System; Air pollution; Pregnancy; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Asthma; Respiratory tract Infections.

 


Brazilian ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: a question of public health

A ratificação da Convenção-Quadro para o Controle do Tabaco pelo Brasil: uma questão de saúde pública

Ricardo Henrique Sampaio Meirelles

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):2-3

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Polymerase chain reaction used to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin

A reação em cadeia da polimerase na detecção da resistência à penicilina em Streptococcus pneumoniae

Eduardo Walker Zettler, Rosane M. Scheibe, Cícero A.G. Dias, Patricia Santafé, José da Silva Moreira, Diógenes S. Santos, Carlos Cezar Fritscher

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(6):521-527

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Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common etiologic agent of community-acquired respiratory infections. In recent years, S. pneumoniae resistance to antimicrobial agents has increased. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is routinely used to determine resistance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detects the genes responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin within approximately 8 hours. Objective: To compare the PCR and MIC methods in determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin. Method: A total of 153 Streptococcus pneumoniae samples, isolated from various anatomical sites, were evaluated in order to detect mutations in the genes encoding pbp1a, pbp2a and pbp2x, which are responsible for Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin resistance. A correlation was found between mutations and penicillin MIP, as determined by the agar diffusion method. Results: Overal Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was 22.8% (16.3% intermediate resistance and 6.5% high resistance). In a statistically significant finding, we observed no mutations in the penicillin-sensitive samples and only one mutation, typically in the gene encoding pbp2x, among the samples with intermediate resistance, whereas mutations in all three genes studied were observed in the high-resistance samples. Conclusion: For determining Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance to penicillin, PCR is a rapid method of detection that could well be used in clinical practice.

 


Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae. Penicillin resistance. Polymerase chain reaction/methods.

 


Does thromboprophylaxis prevent venous thromboembolism after major orthopedic surgery?

A tromboprofilaxia evita o tromboembolismo venoso após cirurgia ortopédica de grande porte?

Evrim Eylem Akpinar, Derya Hosgün, Burak Akan, Can Ates, Meral Gülhan

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):280-286

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Objective: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is an important complication of major orthopedic surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and factors influencing the development of VTE in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery in a university hospital. Methods: Patients who underwent major orthopedic surgery (hip arthroplasty, knee arthroplasty, or femur fracture repair) between February of 2006 and June of 2012 were retrospectively included in the study. The incidences of PE and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were evaluated, as were the factors influencing their development, such as type of operation, age, and comorbidities. Results: We reviewed the medical records of 1,306 patients. The proportions of knee arthroplasty, hip arthroplasty, and femur fracture repair were 63.4%, 29.9%, and 6.7%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of PE and DVT in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery was 1.99% and 2.22%, respectively. Most of the patients presented with PE and DVT (61.5% and 72.4%, respectively) within the first 72 h after surgery. Patients undergoing femur fracture repair, those aged ≥ 65 years, and bedridden patients were at a higher risk for developing VTE. Conclusions: Our results show that VTE was a significant complication of major orthopedic surgery, despite the use of thromboprophylaxis. Clinicians should be aware of VTE, especially during the perioperative period and in bedridden, elderly patients (≥ 65 years of age).

 


Keywords: Orthopedics; Pulmonary embolism; Venous thrombosis.

 


Latent tuberculosis and the use of immunomodulatory agents.

A tuberculose latente e o uso de imunomoduladores.

Fábio Silva Aguiar1,a, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz Mello1,b.

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(6):e20190361-e20190361

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Is tuberculosis difficult to diagnose in childhood and adolescence?

A tuberculose na infância e na adolescência é difícil de diagnosticar?

João Carlos Coelho Filho, Marwal Araújo Caribé, Simone Castro Couto Caldas, Eduardo Martins Netto

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):288-293

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Objective: To determine the sensitivity of the scoring system proposed by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health in 2002 for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in children and adolescents suspected of having the disease. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 316 children and adolescents (0-14 years of age) diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis between 1997 and 2007 at the Brazilian Institute for Tuberculosis Research, located in the city of Salvador, Brazil. After reviewing the medical charts and chest X-rays of the patients, we calculated the tuberculosis scores. Results: The majority of the subjects (80.4%) had a history of close household contact with an AFB-positive adult within the last two years. The tuberculin test was negative in 11 subjects (3.5%). According to the scoring system, 251 (79.4%) were very likely to have tuberculosis (score, ≥ 40), 63 (19.9%) were moderately likely to have tuberculosis (score, 30-35), and 2 (0.7%) were unlikely to have tuberculosis (score, ≤ 25). When a cut-off score of 30 was used, the sensitivity of this scoring system was 99.3%. Conclusions: In our sample, the sensitivity of this scoring system was high when the selected cut-off score was employed. If a cut-off score of 40 had been used, 20% of the subjects would not have been treated. Therefore, scores between 30 and 35 are critical for diagnostic confirmation. Judicious clinical evaluation should prevail in the decision of treating these patients. When the cut-off score of 30 is used, 30% of individuals with other pathologies will be treated for tuberculosis. This highlights the need for improved diagnostic methods for tuberculosis.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Epidemiology; Diagnostic techniques and procedures.

 


The utility of molecular biology in the diagnosis of tuberculosis

A utilidade da biologia molecular no diagnóstico da tuberculose

Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz Mello, Joseane Fonseca-Costa

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(3):188-190

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Usefulness of chest CT in the diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration

A utilidade da TC de tórax no diagnóstico do sequestro pulmonar

José Gustavo Pugliese, Thiago Prudente Bártholo, Heron Teixeira Andrade dos Santos, Eduardo Haruo Saito, Cláudia Henrique da Costa, Rogério Rufino

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(2):260-264

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Pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital anomaly, characterized by nonfunctional embryonic pulmonary tissue. Pulmonary sequestration accounts for 0.15-6.40% of all congenital pulmonary malformations. This anomaly, which is classified as intralobar or extralobar, involves the lung parenchyma and its vascularization. We report the case of a 56-year-old male presenting with hemoptysis. A chest X-ray showed an area of opacity behind the cardiac silhouette in the base of the left hemithorax. Chest CT scans with intravenous contrast revealed pulmonary sequestration. The patient underwent surgery, in which the anomalous tissue was successful resected. The postoperative evolution was favorable, and the patient was discharged to outpatient treatment.

 


Keywords: Hemoptysis; Bronchopulmonary sequestration; Tomography, spiral computed.

 


Video-assisted thoracoscopy for the diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung disease

A videotoracoscopia no diagnóstico das doenças difusas do parênquima pulmonar

Renato Tadao Ishie, João José de Deus Cardoso, Rafael José Silveira, Lucas Stocco

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(3):234-241

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Objective: To evaluate the role of video-assisted thoracoscopy in the diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. Methods: The medical charts of patients suspected of having diffuse parenchymal lung disease were retrospectively reviewed, as were the results of the anatomopathological examination of lung biopsy specimens collected through video-assisted thoracoscopy. Results: Of the 48 patients included in the study, 25 (52.08%) were female and 23 (47.92%) were male. The mean age was 58.77 years (range, 20-76 years). A total of 54 biopsy fragments were submitted to anatomopathological examination: 24 (44.44%) from the lingula; 10 (18.52%) from the left lower lobe; 7 (12.96%) from the right middle lobe; 6 (11.11%) from the right lower lobe; 5 (9.26%) from the left upper lobe; and 2 (3.71%) from the right upper lobe. The mean duration of thoracic drainage was 2.2 days. Adverse events included conversion to thoracotomy, in 2 patients (4.17%), and residual pneumothorax, in 1 (2.08%). The definitive diagnosis was made in 46 patients (95.83%), and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia was the predominant diagnosis (in 54.18%). The most common diagnoses were usual interstitial pneumonia (in 29.27%), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (in 16.67%) and hypersensitivity pneumonia (in 12.50%). Conclusions: Lung biopsy through video-assisted thoracoscopy is a safe, effective and viable procedure for the diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases.

 


Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial; Thoracoscopy; Diagnosis.

 


Noncompliance with treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis in Cuiabá, in the State of Mato Grosso - Brazil

Abandono do tratamento da tuberculose pulmonar em Cuiabá - MT - Brasil

Silvana Margarida Benevides Ferreira, Ageo Mário Cândido da Silva, Clóvis Botelho

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(5):427-435

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Objective: To analyze factors predictive of noncompliance with pulmonary tuberculosis treatment. Methods: A historical cohort study involving 481 of the 529 active tuberculosis patients registered with the Tuberculosis Control Program in the city of Cuiabá, located in the state of Mato Grosso, during the 1998-2000 period. Data were obtained by analyzing medical charts and registration records. In the bivariate analysis, the chi-square test was used to calculate noncompliance rate ratios (relative risk), 95% confidence intervals were determined, and Fisher's exact test was used. The choice to estimate the rate of incidence was the method of density and a multivariate logistic regression model was constructed in order to identify the variables that were most predictive of noncompliance, using a level of statistical significance of p < 0.05. Results: The global rate of incidence was 27.3%, equivalent to 5.1 noncompliant patients/100 patients/month, increasing in the second and third months of treatment. In the final logistic regression model, the following were considered predictors of noncompliance: unsupervised treatment (odds ratio: 2.58; 95% confidence interval: 1.64 - 4.06; p < 0.001); having been treated during the 1998-1999 period (odds ratio: 1.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.14 - 1.80; p = 0.002); being male (odds ratio: 1.39; 95% confidence interval: 1.10 - 1.76; p = 0.005) and having been out of compliance with previous treatment regimes (odds ratio: 1.37; 95% confidence interval: 1.06 - 1.78; p < 0.017). Conclusion: The results indicate an elevated incidence of noncompliance and show that unsupervised treatment, year in which treatment was received, male gender and prior noncompliance were predictors of future noncompliance.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary/therapy; Treatment refusal; Cohort studies

 


Lung abscess: analysis of 252 consecutive cases diagnosed between 1968 and 2004

Abscesso pulmonar de aspiração: análise de 252 casos consecutivos estudados de 1968 a 2004

José da Silva Moreira, José de Jesus Peixoto Camargo, José Carlos Felicetti, Paulo Roberto Goldenfun, Ana Luiza Schneider Moreira, Nelson da Silva Porto

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(2):136-143

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Objective: To relate the experience of the staff at a health care facility specializing in the management of patients with aspiration lung abscess. Methods: Diagnostic aspects and therapeutic results of 252 consecutive cases of lung abscess seen in patients hospitalized between 1968 and 2004. Results: Of the 252 patients, 209 were male, and 43 were female. The mean age was 41.4 years, and 70.2% were alcoholic. Cough, expectoration, fever and overall poor health were seen over 97% of patients. Chest pain was reported by 64%, 30.2% presented digital clubbing, 82.5% had dental disease, 78.6% reported having lost consciousness at least once, and 67.5% presented foul smelling sputum. In 85.3% of the patients, the lung lesions were located either in the posterior segments of the upper lobe or in the superior segments of the lower lobe, and 96.8% were unilateral. Concomitant pleural empyema was seen in 24 (9.5%) of the patients. Mixed flora was identified in the bronchopulmonary or pleural secretions of 182 patients (72.2%). All patients were initially treated with antibiotics (mainly penicillin or clindamycin), and postural drainage was performed in 98.4% of cases. Surgical procedures were performed in 52 (20.6%) of the patients (drainage of empyema in 24, pulmonary resection in 22 and drainage of the abscess in 6). Cure was obtained in 242 patients (96.0%), and 10 (4.0%) died. Conclusion: Lung abscess occurred predominantly in male adults presenting dental disease and having a history of loss of consciousness (especially as a result of alcohol abuse). Most of the patients were treated clinically with antibiotics and postural drainage, although some surgical procedure was required in one-fifth of the study sample.

 


Keywords: Lung abscess; Pneumonia, aspiration; Bacteria, anaerobic; Bacterial infections; Drainage, postural

 


Effect of adenosine on pulmonary circulation in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension

Ação da adenosina na circulação pulmonar de pacientes com hipertensão pulmonar primária

Rogerio Souza, Marcelo Britto Passos Amato, Sergio Eduardo Demarzo, Daniel Deheinzelin, Carmen Silvia Valente Barbas, Pedro Caruso, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(1):-

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Background: The nucleoside adenosine is a potent vasodilator. Although its effect on the pulmonary arteries is well known, its influence on capillaries and veins has yet to be described. Objective: To evaluate the pre- and post-administration effects of adenosine on arterial and venous resistance in the pulmonary circulation of patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Method: The study involved 7 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension and presenting a positive response to adenosine on the acute test. Before and after adenosine administration, arterial and venous resistances were determined by estimating pulmonary capillary pressure through analysis of pulmonary artery pressure decay curves. Results: Following adenosine administration, there was an increase in the cardiac index (from 1.71 ± 0.23 to 2.72 ± 0.74 L/min-1/m-2) and a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance (from 2924 ± 1060 to 1975 ± 764 dynes/s/cm-5/m-2) with no significant variations in mean pulmonary artery pressure (pre: 75.6 ± 16.8 mmHg; post: 78.1 ± 18.8 mmHg), pulmonary wedge pressure (pre: 15.3 ± 1.5 mmHg; post: 15.4 ± 1.9 mmHg) and pulmonary capillary pressure (pre: 43.8 ± 5.8 mmHg; post: 44.5 ± 4.9 mmHg). The ratio between arterial resistance and total pulmonary vascular resistance also presented a less than significant variation (pre: 50 ± 15%; post: 49 ± 17%). These findings suggest that adenosine affects the capillaries and veins as well as the arteries. Conclusion: We can conclude that the adenosine mechanism is not restricted to the arterial aspect of the pulmonary circulation, and that analysis of pulmonary capillary pressure could prove useful in the study of various drugs that affect the pulmonary circulation.

 


Keywords: Key Words: Adenosine/pharmacocinetic. Adenosine/uso terapêutico. Blood pressure. Hypertension pulmonary.

 


Clinicopathological findings in pulmonary thromboembolism: a 24-year autopsy study

Achados clínicopatológicos na tromboembolia pulmonar: estudo de 24 anos de autópsias

Hugo Hyung Bok Yoo, Fabiana Guandalini Mendes, Christine Elisabete Rubio Alem, Alexandre Todorovic Fabro, José Eduardo Corrente, Thaís Thomaz Queluz

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(5):426-432

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Background: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is still an enigmatic disorder in many epidemiological and clinical features, remaining one of the most commonly misdiagnosed disorders. Objective: To describe the prevalence and pathological findings of PTE in a series of autopsies, to correlate these findings with underlying diseases, and to verify the frequency of PTE clinically suspected before death. Method: The reports on 5261 consecutive autopsies performed from 1979 to 2002 in a Brazilian tertiary referral medical school were reviewed for a retrospective study. From the medical records and autopsy reports of the patients found with macroscopically and/or microscopically documented PTE, were gathered data on demographics, underlying diseases, antemortem suspicion of PTE, and probable PTE site of origin. Results: The autopsy rate was 42.0% and PTE was found in 544 patients. In 225 cases, PTE was the main cause of death (fatal PTE). Infections (p=0.0003) were associated with nonfatal PTE and trauma (p=0.007) with fatal PTE. The rate of antemortem unsuspected PTE was 84.6% and 40.0% of these patients presented fatal PTE. Diseases of the circulatory system (p=0.0001), infections (p<0.0001), diseases of the digestive system (p=0.0001), neoplasia (p=0.024) and trauma (p=0.005) were associated with unsuspected PTE. The most frequent PTE site of origin was the lower limbs (48.9%). Probable PTE sites of origin such as right-sided cardiac chambers (p=0.012) and pelvic veins (p=0.015) were associated with fatal PTE. Conclusion: A large number of cases do not have antemortem suspicion of PTE. Special attention should be paid to the possibility of PTE in patients with diseases of the circulatory system, infections, diseases of the digestive system, neoplasia, and trauma.

 


Keywords: Autopsy. Epidemiology. Pulmonary Thromboembolism.

 


Fiberoptic bronchoscopy findings in patients diagnosed with lung cancer

Achados de fibrobroncoscopia em pacientes com diagnóstico de neoplasia pulmonar

Marcelo Fouad Rabahi, Andréia Alves Ferreira, Bruno Pereira Reciputti, Thalita de Oliveira Matos, Sebastião Alves Pinto

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):445-451

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Objective: To compile fiberoptic bronchoscopy findings in patients diagnosed with lung cancer and to correlate those with histopathological findings. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 212 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of lung cancer by cytological evaluation of BAL specimens or by histopathological evaluation of endobronchial or transbronchial biopsy specimens. The data were collected at the Respiratory Endoscopy Section of Hospital São Salvador, located in the city of Goiânia, Brazil, between 2005 and 2010. The endoscopic findings were classified as endoscopically visible tumor, endoscopically invisible tumor, and mucosal injury, as well as being classified by the presence/type of secretion. The visible tumors were also classified according to their location in the tracheobronchial tree. Results: Endobronchial mass (64%) and mucosal infiltration (35%) were the main endoscopic findings. The histological type was determined in 199 cases, the most prevalent types being squamous carcinoma, in 78 (39%), adenocarcinoma, in 42 (21%), small cell carcinoma, in 24 (12%), and large cell carcinoma, in 2 (1%). More than 45% of the visible tumors were at the upper bronchi. Squamous carcinoma (n = 78) was most commonly visualized as an endobronchial mass (in 74%), mucosal infiltration (in 36%), luminal narrowing (in 10%), or external compression (in 6%). Conclusions: Our results show that an endobronchial mass is the most common bronchoscopic finding that is suggestive of malignancy. Proportionally, mucosal infiltration is the most common finding in small cell carcinoma. In adenocarcinoma, luminal narrowing, external compression, mucosal injury, and endobronchial secretion prevail.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms/diagnosis; Lung neoplasms/classification; Bronchoscopy.

 


Chest X-ray and chest CT findings in patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis following solid organ transplantation: a systematic review

Achados de radiografia e de TC de tórax em pacientes transplantados de órgãos sólidos e diagnosticados com tuberculose pulmonar: uma revisão sistemática

Irai Luis Giacomelli1,a, Roberto Schuhmacher Neto1,b, Edson Marchiori2,c, Marisa Pereira1, Bruno Hochhegger1,d

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(2):161-166

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The objective of this systematic review was to select articles including chest X-ray or chest CT findings in patients who developed pulmonary tuberculosis following solid organ transplantation (lung, kidney, or liver). The following search terms were used: "tuberculosis"; "transplants"; "transplantation"; "mycobacterium"; and "lung". The databases used in this review were PubMed and the Brazilian Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (Virtual Health Library). We selected articles in English, Portuguese, or Spanish, regardless of the year of publication, that met the selection criteria in their title, abstract, or body of text. Articles with no data on chest CT or chest X-ray findings were excluded, as were those not related to solid organ transplantation or pulmonary tuberculosis. We selected 29 articles involving a collective total of 219 patients. The largest samples were in studies conducted in Brazil and South Korea (78 and 35 patients, respectively). The imaging findings were subdivided into five common patterns. The imaging findings varied depending on the transplanted organ in these patients. In liver and lung transplant recipients, the most common pattern was the classic one for pulmonary tuberculosis (cavitation and "tree-in-bud" nodules), which is similar to the findings for pulmonary tuberculosis in the general population. The proportion of cases showing a miliary pattern and lymph node enlargement, which is most similar to the pattern seen in patients coinfected with tuberculosis and HIV, was highest among the kidney transplant recipients. Further studies evaluating clinical data, such as immunosuppression regimens, are needed in order to improve understanding of the distribution of these imaging patterns in this population.

 


Keywords: Tomography, X-ray computed; Radiography; Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Lung/transplantation; Kidney/transplantation; Liver/transplantation.

 


Chest CT findings in patients with dysphagia and aspiration: a systematic review

Achados de TC de tórax em pacientes com disfagia e aspiração pulmonar: uma revisão sistemática

Betina Scheeren1, Erissandra Gomes2, Giordano Alves3, Edson Marchiori3, Bruno Hochhegger1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):313-318

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The objective of this systematic review was to characterize chest CT findings in patients with dysphagia and pulmonary aspiration, identifying the characteristics and the methods used. The studies were selected from among those indexed in the Brazilian Virtual Library of Health, LILACS, Indice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud, Medline, Cochrane Library, SciELO, and PubMed databases. The search was carried out between June and July of 2016. Five articles were included and reviewed, all of them carried out in the last five years, published in English, and coming from different countries. The sample size in the selected studies ranged from 43 to 56 patients, with a predominance of adult and elderly subjects. The tomographic findings in patients with dysphagia-related aspiration were varied, including bronchiectasis, bronchial wall thickening, pulmonary nodules, consolidations, pleural effusion, ground-glass attenuation, atelectasis, septal thickening, fibrosis, and air trapping. Evidence suggests that chest CT findings in patients with aspiration are diverse. In this review, it was not possible to establish a consensus that could characterize a pattern of pulmonary aspiration in patients with dysphagia, further studies of the topic being needed.

 


Keywords: Respiratory aspiration; Tomography, X-ray computed; Lung.

 


Bacterial pneumonia following bone marrow transplantation: HRCT findings

Achados de TCAR nas pneumonias bacterianas após transplante de medula óssea

Luiz Otávio de Mattos Coelho, Taísa Davaus Gasparetto, Dante Luiz Escuissato, Edson Marchiori

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):431-435

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Objective: To describe HRCT findings in patients with bacterial pneumonia following bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 30 patients diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia in whom HRCT of the chest was performed within 24 h after the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis was confirmed, based on a positive culture of sputum or bronchial aspirate, together with a positive pleural fluid or blood culture, within one week after symptom onset. There were 20 male patients and 10 female patients. The median age was 21 years (range, 1-41 years). The BMT had been performed for the treatment of the following: chronic myeloid leukemia, in 14 cases; severe aplastic anemia, in 6; acute myeloid leukemia, in 4; Fanconi's anemia, in 3; and acute lymphocytic leukemia, in 3. Two radiologists analyzed the HRCT scans and reached their final decisions by consensus. Results: The most common HRCT findings were air-space consolidation (in 60%), small centrilobular nodules (in 50%), ground-glass opacities (in 40%), bronchial wall thickening (in 20%), large nodules (in 20%), pleural lesions (in 16.7%) and tree-in-bud opacities (in 10%). The pulmonary lesions were distributed in the central and peripheral areas in 15 patients, whereas they were exclusively peripheral in 11. Lesions were located in the lower and middle lobes of the lung in 22 and 20 patients, respectively. Conclusions: The most common HRCT findings in our patient sample were air-space consolidation, small centrilobular nodules and ground-glass opacities, most often in the central and peripheral regions of the middle and lower lung zones.

 


Keywords: Bone marrow transplantation; Pneumonia, bacterial; Tomography, X-Ray Computed.

 


High-resolution computed tomography findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in lung transplant recipients

Achados de tuberculose pulmonar na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução em transplantados de pulmão

Irai Luis Giacomelli, Roberto Schuhmacher Neto, Carlos Schuller Nin, Priscilla de Souza Cassano, Marisa Pereira, José da Silva Moreira, Douglas Zaione Nascimento, Bruno Hochhegger

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):270-273

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Objective: Respiratory infections constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. The incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis is high among such patients. On imaging, tuberculosis has various presentations. Greater understanding of those presentations could reduce the impact of the disease by facilitating early diagnosis. Therefore, we attempted to describe the HRCT patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis in lung transplant recipients. Methods: From two hospitals in southern Brazil, we collected the following data on lung transplant recipients who developed pulmonary tuberculosis: gender; age; symptoms; the lung disease that led to transplantation; HRCT pattern; distribution of findings; time from transplantation to pulmonary tuberculosis; and mortality rate. The HRCT findings were classified as miliary nodules; cavitation and centrilobular nodules with a tree-in-bud pattern; ground-glass attenuation with consolidation; mediastinal lymph node enlargement; or pleural effusion. Results: We evaluated 402 lung transplant recipients, 19 of whom developed pulmonary tuberculosis after transplantation. Among those 19 patients, the most common HRCT patterns were ground-glass attenuation with consolidation (in 42%); cavitation and centrilobular nodules with a tree-in-bud pattern (in 31.5%); and mediastinal lymph node enlargement (in 15.7%). Among the patients with cavitation and centrilobular nodules with a tree-in-bud pattern, the distribution was within the upper lobes in 66.6%. No pleural effusion was observed. Despite treatment, one-year mortality was 47.3%. Conclusions: The predominant HRCT pattern was ground-glass attenuation with consolidation, followed by cavitation and centrilobular nodules with a tree-in-bud pattern. These findings are similar to those reported for immunocompetent patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and considerably different from those reported for AIDS patients with the same disease.

 


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Diagnostic imaging; Mycobacterium infections; Thoracic diseases; Tomography, X-Ray computed/methods; Tuberculosis, pulmonary.

 


Histological features and survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Achados histológicos e sobrevida na fibrose pulmonar idiopática

Ester Nei Aparecida Martins Coletta, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira, Rimarcs Gomes Ferreira, Adalberto Sperb Rubin, Lucimara Sonja Villela, Tatiana Malheiros, João Norberto Stávale

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(6):371-378

Abstract PDF PT

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was recently redefined as usual interstitial pneumonia of unknown etiology. Consequently, the prognostic value of histological findings needs to be reassessed. Objective: To correlate clinical, functional and histological findings with survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Method: Patients (n = 51; mean age: 66 ± 8 years; gender: 21 females/30 males) were evaluated. Of the 51, 26 were smokers or ex-smokers. Duration of symptoms, forced vital capacity and smoking habits were recorded. All patients presented usual interstitial pneumonia verified through histology. Degree of honeycombing, established fibrosis, desquamation, cellularity, myointimal thickening of blood vessels and number of fibroblastic foci were graded according to the semiquantitative method. Results: Median duration of symptoms was 12 months and initial forced vital capacity was 72 ± 21%. Cox multivariate analysis revealed that survival correlated inversely and significantly (p < 0.05) with duration of symptoms and fibroblastic foci score, as well as with myointimal thickening of blood vessels. Limited numbers of fibroblastic foci, as well as myointimal thickening involving less than 50% of blood vessels, were predictive of greater survival. No correlation with survival was found for gender, age, forced vital capacity, inflammation or degree of cellularity. Conclusion: Semiquantitative analysis of lung biopsies yields relevant prognostic information regarding patients with usual interstitial pneumonia.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary fibrosis. Lung diseases, interstitial. Survival analysis.

 


Radiological findings in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

Achados radiológicos em pacientes portadores de apneia obstrutiva do sono

Carlos Fernando de Mello Junior, Hélio Antonio Guimarães Filho, Camila Albuquerque de Brito Gomes, Camila Caroline de Amorim Paiva

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):98-101

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Resumo

A apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) é caracterizada por obstruções recorrentes das vias aéreas superiores durante o sono que ocorrem no nível da faringe. Apesar de a análise cefalométrica ser um importante método no diagnóstico das deformidades craniofaciais, a TC e a ressonância magnética vêm se destacando como os principais métodos de imagem para a investigação das eventuais causas da AOS que, na maioria das vezes, é multifatorial. Esses métodos permitem uma excelente avaliação nos diversos planos anatômicos do eventual sítio da obstrução, o que permite uma melhor avaliação clínica e abordagem cirúrgica. O presente ensaio pictórico tem como objetivo descrever os aspectos que devem ser avaliados no diagnóstico por imagem dos principais fatores predisponentes para a AOS.

 


Palavras-chave: Síndromes da apneia do sono; Imagem por ressonância magnética; Tomografia computadorizada por raios X.

 


Computed tomography findings of postoperative complications in lung transplantation

Achados tomográficos nas complicações pós-operatórias do transplante pulmonar

Bruno Hochhegger, Klaus Loureiro Irion, Edson Marchiori, Rodrigo Bello, José Moreira, José Jesus Camargo

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(3):266-274

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Due to the increasing number and improved survival of lung transplant recipients, radiologists should be aware of the imaging features of the postoperative complications that can occur in such patients. The early treatment of complications is important for the long-term survival of lung transplant recipients. Frequently, HRCT plays a central role in the investigation of such complications. Early recognition of the signs of complications allows treatment to be initiated earlier, which improves survival. The aim of this pictorial review was to demonstrate the CT scan appearance of pulmonary complications such as reperfusion edema, acute rejection, infection, pulmonary thromboembolism, chronic rejection, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, bronchial dehiscence and bronchial stenosis.

 


Keywords: Tomography, X-ray computed; Lung transplantation; Postoperative complications.

 


Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis

Acometimento músculo-esquelético na sarcoidose

Akasbi Nessrine, Abourazzak Fatima Zahra, Harzy Taoufik

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):-

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Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown cause. It most commonly affects the pulmonary system but can also affect the musculoskeletal system, albeit less frequently. In patients with sarcoidosis, rheumatic involvement is polymorphic. It can be the presenting symptom of the disease or can appear during its progression. Articular involvement is dominated by nonspecific arthralgia, polyarthritis, and Löfgren's syndrome, which is defined as the presence of lung adenopathy, arthralgia (or arthritis), and erythema nodosum. Skeletal manifestations, especially dactylitis, appear mainly as complications of chronic, multiorgan sarcoidosis. Muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and usually asymptomatic. The diagnosis of rheumatic sarcoidosis is based on X-ray findings and magnetic resonance imaging findings, although the definitive diagnosis is made by anatomopathological study of biopsy samples. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis is generally relieved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids. In corticosteroid-resistant or -dependent forms of the disease, immunosuppressive therapy, such as treatment with methotrexate or anti-TNF-, is employed. The aim of this review was to present an overview of the various types of osteoarticular and muscle involvement in sarcoidosis, focusing on their diagnosis and management.

 


Keywords: Sarcoidosis; Joints; Muscles; Bone and Bones.

 


Pulmonary involvement in Behcet's disease: a positive single-center experience with the use of immunosuppressive therapy

Acometimento pulmonar na doença de Behçet: uma boa experiência com o uso de imunossupressores

Alfredo Nicodemos Cruz Santana, Telma Antunes, Juliana Monteiro de Barros, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de Carvalho, Carmen Silvia Valente Barbas

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(6):362-366

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Objective: Behcet's syndrome, or Behcet's disease (BD), is a multisystem pathology, and survival is related to pulmonary involvement. However, it appears that different treatments correlate with different prognoses. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and tomographic evolution, as well as the survival, of patients with BD-related pulmonary involvement. Methods: A retrospective review of our experience with pulmonary manifestations in patients with BD treated at our institution between January 1, 1988 and April 30, 2006. The clinical, radiological, treatment and survival data were obtained from medical charts. Results: We identified 9 patients with BD-related pulmonary involvement. The mean age was 34 ± 11.5 years, and 7 of the patients were male. The radiological findings were as follows: pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) in 8 patients; pulmonary embolism in 3 (translating to an incidence of 5.11 cases/100 patient-years); alveolar hemorrhage in one; and pulmonary hypertension in one. The treatment consisted of immunosuppression with prednisone plus chlorambucil (or cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate mofetil) in all patients, with partial or complete resolution of the PAAs. One patient with a PAA and pulmonary hypertension also received sildenafil and warfarin, with good clinical and tomographic response (the first report in the English literature). In our sample, the mean duration of the follow-up period was 6.52 years. The three-year survival rate was 88.8%, as was the five-year survival rate. Conclusions: Patients with BD-related pulmonary involvement can present good survival with immunosuppressive therapy, and BD should be borne in mind as a possible cause of pulmonary hypertension and alveolar hemorrhage.

 


Keywords: Behcet Syndrome; Lung diseases, interstitial; Pulmonary circulation; Hypertension, pulmonary; Pulmonary embolism; Alveolar.

 


Pulmonologists, awake!

Acorda pneumologista !

Geraldo Lorenzi Filho, Flávio Magalhães, Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):382-384

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Pulmonary actinomycosis as a pseudotumor: A rare presentation

Actinomicose pulmonar na forma pseudotumoral: Uma apresentação rara

Hylas Paiva da Costa Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Almeida de Araújo, Jeancarlo Fernandes Cavalcanti, Roberta Lacerda Almeida de Miranda, Rachel de Alcântara Oliveira Ramalho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):689-693

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Some lung diseases are true diagnostic challenges due to their various clinical presentations. Actinomycosis is one such disease, potentially affecting various organs and systems. We report the case of a patient with pulmonary actinomycosis as a pseudotumor, which is usually only diagnosed by thoracotomy or thoracoscopy.

 


Keywords: Actinomycosis; Thoracic neoplasms; Bacterial infections and mycoses.

 


Diagnostic accuracy of the Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency protocol for the diagnosis of acute respiratory failure in spontaneously breathing patients

Acurácia diagnóstica do protocolo de ultrassom pulmonar à beira do leito em situações de emergência para diagnóstico de insuficiência respiratória aguda em pacientes com ventilação espontânea

Felippe Leopoldo Dexheimer Neto, Juliana Mara Stormovski de Andrade, Ana Carolina Tabajara Raupp, Raquel da Silva Townsend, Fabiana Gabe Beltrami, Hélène Brisson, Qin Lu, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(1):58-64

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Objective: Bedside lung ultrasound (LUS) is a noninvasive, readily available imaging modality that can complement clinical evaluation. The Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency (BLUE) protocol has demonstrated a high diagnostic accuracy in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Recently, bedside LUS has been added to the medical training program of our ICU. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of LUS based on the BLUE protocol, when performed by physicians who are not ultrasound experts, to guide the diagnosis of ARF. Methods: Over a one-year period, all spontaneously breathing adult patients consecutively admitted to the ICU for ARF were prospectively included. After training, 4 non-ultrasound experts performed LUS within 20 minutes of patient admission. They were blinded to patient medical history. LUS diagnosis was compared with the final clinical diagnosis made by the ICU team before patients were discharged from the ICU (gold standard). Results: Thirty-seven patients were included in the analysis (mean age, 73.2  14.7 years; APACHE II, 19.2  7.3). LUS diagnosis had a good agreement with the final diagnosis in 84% of patients (overall kappa, 0.81). The most common etiologies for ARF were pneumonia (n = 17) and hemodynamic lung edema (n = 15). The sensitivity and specificity of LUS as measured against the final diagnosis were, respectively, 88% and 90% for pneumonia and 86% and 87% for hemodynamic lung edema. Conclusions: LUS based on the BLUE protocol was reproducible by physicians who are not ultrasound experts and accurate for the diagnosis of pneumonia and hemodynamic lung edema.

 


Keywords: Ultrasonography, interventional; Respiratory insufficiency; Intensive care units.

 


Accuracy of clinical examination findings in the diagnosis of COPD

Acurácia do exame clínico no diagnóstico da DPOC

Waldo Luís Leite Dias de Mattos, Leonardo Gilberto Haas Signori, Fernando Kessler Borges, Jorge Augusto Bergamin, Vivian Machado

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):404-408

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Objective: Simple diagnostic methods can facilitate the diagnosis of COPD, which is a major public health problem. The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of clinical variables in the diagnosis of COPD. Methods: Patients with COPD and control subjects were prospectively evaluated by two investigators regarding nine clinical variables. The likelihood ratio for the diagnosis of COPD was determined using a logistic regression model. Results: The study comprised 98 patients with COPD (mean age, 62.3 ± 12.3 years; mean FEV1, 48.3 ± 21.6%) and 102 controls. The likelihood ratios (95% CIs) for the diagnosis of COPD were as follows: 4.75 (2.29-9.82; p < 0.0001) for accessory muscle recruitment; 5.05 (2.72-9.39; p < 0.0001) for pursed-lip breathing; 2.58 (1.45‑4.57; p < 0.001) for barrel chest; 3.65 (2.01-6.62; p < 0.0001) for decreased chest expansion; 7.17 (3.75-13.73; p < 0.0001) for reduced breath sounds; 2.17 (1.01-4.67; p < 0.05) for a thoracic index ≥ 0.9; 2.36 (1.22-4.58; p < 0.05) for laryngeal height ≤ 5.5 cm; 3.44 (1.92-6.16; p < 0.0001) for forced expiratory time ≥ 4 s; and 4.78 (2.13-10.70; p < 0.0001) for lower liver edge ≥ 4 cm from lower costal edge. Inter-rater reliability for those same variables was, respectively, 0.57, 0.45, 0.62, 0.32, 0.53, 0.32, 0.59, 0.52 and 0.44 (p < 0.0001 for all). Conclusions: Various clinical examination findings could be used as diagnostic tests for COPD.

 


Keywords: Physical examination; Diagnosis; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.

 


Accuracy of inpatient and outpatient gastric lavage in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children

Acurácia do lavado gástrico realizado em ambiente hospitalar e ambulatorial no diagnóstico da tuberculose pulmonar em crianças

Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel, Reynaldo Dietze, Renata Peres Lyrio, Solange Alves Vinhas, Moises Palaci, Rodrigo Ribeiro Rodrigues, Claudio Jose Struchiner

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(6):404-411

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Objective: To compare gastric lavage (GL) performed in inpatients with GL performed in outpatients in terms of its accuracy in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in children. Methods: A prospective study was carried out in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, from 1999 to 2003. A total of 230 children suspected of having TB (103 inpatients and 127 outpatients) were selected to undergo GL. Those thus diagnosed with TB (n = 53) were divided into two groups: inpatient GL (n = 30) and outpatient GL (n = 23). All 53 children were monitored for 6 months in order to evaluate the accuracy of the diagnosis. Accuracy was determined based on any change in diagnosis, cure rate, and the percentage of positive cultures in the two groups studied. Results: The cure rate was 100% in both groups, and there was no change in diagnosis in the 53 children studied. No significant difference was found between the two groups studied in terms of detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (RR = 1.47; 95% CI: 0.95-2.27; p = 0.095), although the outpatient group presented a greater rate of positive cultures. Conclusions: Our results show that the accuracy of GL performed in an inpatient setting is similar to that of GL performed in an outpatient setting. This indicates that hospitalization is required only in more severe cases in which GL cannot be performed as an outpatient procedure.

 


Keywords: Gastric lavage; Tuberculosis; Diagnosis.

 


Adaptation to different noninvasive ventilation masks in critically ill patients

Adaptação a diferentes interfaces de ventilação mecânica não invasiva em pacientes críticos

Renata Matos da Silva, Karina Tavares Timenetski, Renata Cristina Miranda Neves, Liane Hirano Shigemichi, Sandra Sayuri Kanda, Carla Maekawa, Eliezer Silva, Raquel Afonso Caserta Eid

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):-

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify which noninvasive ventilation (NIV) masks are most commonly used and the problems related to the adaptation to such masks in critically ill patients admitted to a hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: An observational study involving patients ≥ 18 years of age admitted to intensive care units and submitted to NIV. The reason for NIV use, type of mask, NIV regimen, adaptation to the mask, and reasons for non-adaptation to the mask were investigated. Results: We evaluated 245 patients, with a median age of 82 years. Acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use (in 71.3%). Total face masks were the most commonly used (in 74.7%), followed by full face masks and near-total face masks (in 24.5% and 0.8%, respectively). Intermittent NIV was used in 82.4% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to the mask was found in 76% of the patients. Masks had to be replaced by another type of mask in 24% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to total face masks and full face masks was found in 75.5% and 80.0% of the patients, respectively. Non-adaptation occurred in the 2 patients using near-total facial masks. The most common reason for non-adaptation was the shape of the face, in 30.5% of the patients. Conclusions: In our sample, acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use, and total face masks were the most commonly used. The most common reason for non-adaptation to the mask was the shape of the face, which was resolved by changing the type of mask employed.

 


Keywords: Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation; Masks; Respiratory insufficiency.

 


Cross-cultural adaptation and assessment of reproducibility of the Duke Activity Status Index for COPD patients in Brazil

Adaptação cultural e avaliação da reprodutibilidade do Duke Activity Status Index para pacientes com DPOC no Brasil

Livia dos Anjos Tavares, José Barreto Neto, José Roberto Jardim, George Márcio da Costa e Souza, Mark A. Hlatky, Oliver Augusto Nascimento

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):684-691

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: To cross-culturally adapt the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) for use in Brazil and evaluate the reproducibility of the new (Brazilian Portuguese-language) version. Methods: We selected stable patients with clinical and spirometric diagnosis of COPD. Initially, the DASI was translated into Brazilian Portuguese, and the cross-cultural adaptation was performed by an expert committee. Subsequently, 12 patients completed the questionnaire, so that their questions and difficulties could be identified and adjustments could be made. An independent translator back-translated the final version into English, which was then submitted to and approved by the original author. The final Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the DASI was applied to 50 patients at three distinct times. For the assessment of interobserver reproducibility, it was applied twice within a 30-min interval by two different interviewers. For the assessment of intraobserver reproducibility, it was applied again 15 days later by one of the interviewers. Results: The mean age of the patients was 62.3 ± 10.0 years, the mean FEV1 was 45.2 ± 14.7% of the predicted value, and the mean body mass index was 26.8 ± 5.8 kg/m2. The intraclass correlation coefficients for intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility were 0.95 and 0.90, respectively. The correlations between the DASI and the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) domains were all negative and statistically significant. The DASI correlated best with the SGRQ activity domain (r = −0.70), the total SGRQ score (r = −0.66), and the six-minute walk distance (r = 0.55). Conclusions: The Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the DASI is reproducible, fast, and simple, correlating well with the SGRQ.

 


Keywords: Activities of daily living; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Reproducibility of results.

 


Cultural adaptation and reproducibility of the Breathing Problems Questionnaire for use in patients with COPD in Brazil

Adaptação cultural e reprodutibilidade do Questionário para Problemas Respiratórios em pacientes portadores de DPOC no Brasil

Patrícia Nobre Calheiros da Silva, José Roberto Jardim, George Márcio da Costa e Souza, Michael E Hyland, Oliver Augusto Nascimento

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):339-345

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To translate the Breathing Problems Questionnaire (BPQ) into Portuguese and adapt it to the Brazilian culture, as well as to evaluate its reproducibility in patients with COPD. Methods: After the BPQ had been translated and adapted to the Brazilian culture, it was administered to a subgroup of 8 patients in order to identify their uncertainties and difficulties. The questionnaire was reviewed by an expert committee, and its final version was arrived at. A second translator back-translated the final version into English, which was sent to the original author in order to verify that the original meaning of the questionnaire had been maintained. After the approval of the original author, the final Portuguese-language version of the questionnaire was administered to 50 patients with COPD, in order to evaluate its reproducibility. Results: The mean response time was 9.5 min. Of the 50 patients, 21 were female and 29 were male. The mean age was 65.8 ± 7.5 years. Most of the patients were classified as having moderate COPD (29.16%) or severe COPD (52%). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the total score was 0.94. The ICCs for the eleven BPQ domains and its two subscales were also above 0.70. Moderate correlations were found between the BPQ domains and subscales. Conclusions: The translation and cultural adaptation of the BPQ for use in Brazil was deemed appropriate, because the patients could easily understand and answer the questions. In addition, the Brazilian version of the BPQ questionnaire was found to be reliable, showing good reproducibility.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease; chronic obstructive; Quality of life; Reproducibility of results.

 


Adapting the Bird Mark 7 to deliver noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure: a bench study

Adaptação do Bird Mark 7 para oferta de pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas em ventilação não-invasiva: estudo em modelo mecânico

Beatriz Mayumi Kikuti, Karen Utsunomia, Renata Potonyacz Colaneri, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de Carvalho, Pedro Caruso

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(3):167-172

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To test the efficiency of the Bird Mark 7 ventilator adapted to deliver continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. Methods: This was an experimental study using a mechanical model of the respiratory system. A Bird Mark 7 ventilator was supplied with 400 and 500 kPa and tested at CPAP of 5, 10 and 15 cmH2O. The following variables were analyzed: difference between the preset CPAP and the CPAP actually attained CPAP (trueCPAP); area of airway pressure at the CPAP level employed (AREACPAP); and tidal volume generated. Results: Adapting the Bird Mark 7 to offer CPAP achieved the expected tidal volume in all situations of inspiratory effort (normal or high), ventilator pressure supply (400 or 500 kPa) and CPAP value (5, 10 or 15 cmH2O). At a CPAP of 5 or 10 cmH2O, the trueCPAP was near the preset level, and the AREACPAP was near zero. However, at a CPAP of 15 cmH2O, the value remained below the preset, and the AREACPAP was high. Conclusion: The efficiency of Bird Mark 7 adaptation in offering CPAP was satisfactory at 5 and 10 cmH2O but insufficient at 15 cmH2O. If adapted as described in our study, the Bird Mark 7 might be an option for offering CPAP up to 10 cmH2O in areas where little or no equipment is available.

 


Keywords: Ventilators, mechanical; Positive-pressure respiration; Continuous positive airway pressure.

 


Cross-cultural adaptation of the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review for use in patients with pulmonary hypertension in Colombia

Adaptación transcultural de la escala Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review en pacientes con hipertensión pulmonar en Colombia

Claudio Villaquirán1,2,a, Socorro Moreno3,b, Rubén Dueñas4,c, Paola Acuña5,d, Juan Ricardo Lutz2,e, Jeanette Wilburn6,f, Alice Heaney6,g

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(6):e20180332-e20180332

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To conduct a cross-cultural adaptation of the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) as an instrument to evaluate the perception of symptoms, functional limitation, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in subjects diagnosed with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) in Colombia. Methods: The adaptation process involved 3 phases: translation, cognitive debriefing interviews, and a validation survey. To evaluate the psychometric properties, we recruited individuals ≥ 18 years of age who had been diagnosed with PAH or CTEPH to take part in the latter two stages of the adaptation process. All individuals were being followed on an outpatient basis by the pulmonary hypertension programs at Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Fundación Clínica Shaio,and Clínicos IPS, all located in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. Results: A Spanish-language version of the CAMPHOR was developed for use in Colombia. The internal consistency was excellent for the symptoms, functioning, and quality of life scales (Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.92, 0.87, and 0.93, respectively). Test-retest reliability was above 0.70. The evaluation of the convergent validity and known group validity of the CAMPHOR scales confirmed that there were moderate and strong correlations with the related constructs of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, version 2, as well as showing their capacity to discriminate disease severity. Conclusions: The Spanish-language version of the CAMPHOR developed for use in Colombia was the result of a translation and cultural adaptation process that allows us to consider it equivalent to the original version, having shown good psychometric properties in the study sample. Therefore, its use to assess the impact of interventions on the HRQoL of patients with PAH or CTEPH is recommended, in research and clinical practice.

 


Keywords: Quality of life; Hypertension, pulmonary; Pulmonary embolism; Psychometrics.

 


Lung adenocarcinoma, dermatomyositis, and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome: a rare combination

Adenocarcinoma pulmonar, dermatomiosite e síndrome miastênica de Lambert-Eaton: uma rara associação

Fernanda Manente Milanez, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira, Pedro Henrique Duccini Mendes Trindade, Ricardo Milinavicius, Ester Nei Aparecida Martins Coletta

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(5):333-336

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The incidence of lung neoplasms is increasing in Brazil and in the world, probably as a result of the increase in smoking. Due to the greater number of cases, atypical presentations appear. We report the case of a 66-year-old hypertensive male smoker who presented progressive proximal muscular weakness and, in two months, evolved to dysphagia, dysphonia, and V-shaped skin lesions on the chest. A chest X-ray showed a spiculated pulmonary nodule in the right upper lobe. The biochemical analysis revealed elevated creatine kinase levels. After complementary tests and biopsies, the patient underwent right upper lobectomy. Histopathology showed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The overall analysis of the case and a review of the literature allow us to suggest that the clinical profile of the patient was a result of an overlap of two paraneoplastic syndromes (dermatomyositis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome) secondary to lung adenocarcinoma.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Paraneoplastic syndromes; Dermatomyositis; Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome; Adenocarcinoma.

 


Alveolar adenoma

Adenoma alveolar

Eduardo Haruo Saito, Luciana Ribeiro de Araújo, Leonardo Hoehl Carneiro, Antonio Ambrosio de Oliveira Neto, João Carlos Corrêa, Luiz Sérgio Carvalho Teixeira

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(3):-

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Alveolar adenoma is a rare benign neoplasm of the lungs, and very few cases have been described in the literature. Patients with alveolar adenoma are frequently asymptomatic and are diagnosed through the accidental discovery of a singular, well-delineated nodule on a routine chest X-ray. The definitive diagnosis is made histologically, and the treatment consists of surgical resection of the nodule..

 


Keywords: Adenoma; Lung neoplasms; Pulmonary alveoli/pathology; Coin lesion, pulmonary;

 


Compliance with maintenance treatment of asthma (ADERE study)

Adesão ao tratamento de manutenção em asma (estudo ADERE)

José Miguel Chatkin, Daniela Cavalet-Blanco, Nóris Coimbra Scaglia, Roberto Guidotti Tonietto, Mário B. Wagner, Carlos Cezar Fritscher

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):277-283

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the rate of compliance with preventive treatment of moderate and severe persistent asthma. Methods: Physicians at various medical centers across the country were invited to nominate patients for participation in the study. Inclusion criteria were being over the age of 12 and presenting moderate or severe persistent asthma. Participating patients received salmeterol/fluticasone 50/250 µg by dry powder inhaler for 90 days and were instructed to return the empty packages at the end of the study as a means of determining the total quantity used. In order to evaluate compliance, a member of the research team contacted each patient via telephone at the study outset and again at the end of the 90-day study period. Asthma patients were considered compliant with the treatment if they used at least 85% of the prescribed dose. The following variables were studied: gender, age, race, marital status, years of schooling, smoking habits, other atopic conditions, comorbidities, asthma severity, use of other medication and number of hospital admissions for asthma. Results: A total of 131 patients from fifteen states were included. The overall rate of compliance was found to be 51.9%. There was a significant difference in compliance in relation to asthma severity: compliance was greater among patients with severe persistent asthma than among those with moderate persistent asthma (p = 0.02). There were no statistically significant differences among any of the other variables. Conclusion: The overall rate of compliance with maintenance treatment of asthma was low.

 


Keywords: Asthma/drug therapy; Asthma/prevention & control; Patient compliance; Patient education; Physician-patient relations

 


Treatment compliance of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis in Central-West Brazil

Adesão ao tratamento de pacientes com paracoccidioidomicose na Região Centro-Oeste do Brasil

Ursulla Vilella Andrade1,a, Sandra Maria do Valle Leone de Oliveira1,b, Marilene Rodrigues Chang1,c, Edy Firmina Pereira1,d, Ana Paula da Costa Marques1,e, Lidia Raquel de Carvalho2,f, Rinaldo Poncio Mendes2,g, Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago1,h

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(2):e20180167-e20180167

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the treatment compliance of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Methods: We studied 188 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in the Central-West Region of Brazil from 2000 to 2010, to assess their compliance to treatment. In order to be considered compliant, patients needed to present two established criteria: (1) receive medicines from the pharmacy, and (2) achieve a self-reported utilization of at least 80% of the dispensed antifungal compounds prescribed since their previous appointment. Results: Most patients were male (95.7%), had the chronic form of the disease (94.2%), and were treated with cotrimoxazole (86.2%). Only 44.6% of patients were treatment compliant. The highest loss to follow-up was observed in the first 4 months of treatment (p < 0.02). Treatment compliance was higher for patients with than for those without pulmonary involvement (OR: 2.986; 95%CI 1.351-6.599), and higher for patients with than without tuberculosis as co-morbidity (OR: 2.763; 95%CI 1.004-7.604). Conclusions: Compliance to paracoccidioidomycosis treatment was low, and the period with the highest loss to follow-up corresponds to the first four months. Pulmonary paracoccidioidal involvement or tuberculosis comorbidity predicts a higher compliance to paracoccidioidomycosis therapy.

 


Keywords: Paracoccidioidomycosis; Treatment adherence and compliance; loss to follow-up; mycoses

 


Adherence to treatment in patients with cystic fibrosis

Adesão ao tratamento em pacientes com fibrose cística

Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Greice Rampon, Lílian Rech Pasin, Gretchem Mesquita Ramon, Claudine Lacerda de Oliveira Abrahão, Viviane Ziebell de Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):663-670

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objectives: To evaluate the self-reported degree of adherence to treatment in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), investigating associations with characteristics of the disease and with the degree of adherence perceived by health professionals. Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study involving patients with CF monitored at a Program for Adults with CF. The degree of adherence was evaluated using a questionnaire. Patients were divided into two groups: greater degree of adherence and moderate/poor degree of adherence. Clinical data, Shwachman-Kulczycki clinical score, Brasfield radiographic score and spirometry data were obtained for all patients. Results: Out of 38 patients studied, 31 (81.6%) were classified as presenting a greater degree of adherence and 7 (18.4%) as presenting a moderate/poor degree of adherence. The self-reported patient adherence score correlated with the clinical score (r = −0.36, p = 0.028). The self-reported patient adherence score (median = 0.79) was higher than that perceived by health professionals (median = 0.71, p = 0.003). A greater degree of adherence was self-reported for respiratory therapy (by 84.2%), exercise (by 21.1%), prescribed diet (by 65.8%), pancreatic enzymes (by 96.3%), vitamins (by 79.4%), inhaled antibiotic therapy (by 76.7%) and inhaled DNase (by 79.4%). Conclusions: Self-reported adherence of patients attending a Program for Adults with CF was good. The self-reported patient adherence score correlated inversely with the clinical score. Self-reported patient adherence was greater than the adherence perceived by health professionals.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Patient compliance; Therapeutics.

 


Compliance with environmental control measures in the homes of children and adolescents with asthma

Adesão às medidas de controle ambiental em lares de crianças e adolescentes asmáticos

Nulma Souto Jentzsch, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos, Elza Machado de Melo

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(3):189-194

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine, through home visits, the rate of compliance with environmental control measures in the homes of children with asthma. Methods: This study involved 98 asthma patients between the ages of 4 and 15. The parents of those children and adolescents received instruction in how to carry out environmental control measures and were encouraged to perform such measures continuously for a period of 90 days. Home visits, which included direct inspection of the domicile and administration of a questionnaire, were made before and after this 90-day period. In cases of noncompliance, parents were asked to explain why they did not carry out the control measures. Statistical analysis was performed using the McNemar test. Results: Overall compliance with the various items studied was 11.1%, ranging from -4.1% (for curtain control, p = 0.63) to 22.6% (for stuffed toys, p < 0.001). Passive smoking was reduced to 9.7% (p = 0.02). Among the families studied, the mean monthly income was 2.5 times the national minimum wage. When asked why they had not adopted the recommended measures, noncompliant parents gave, among others, the following explanations: "economic hardship" (60.1%); "the measures were too difficult to carry out" (6.1%); "nonparticipation of the father" (4%); and "lack of time on the part of the mother" (4%). Conclusion: Environmental control measures were carried out sporadically, possibly reflecting the influence of socioeconomic and cultural factors.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Allergens; Environmental exposure; Hypersensivity/prevention & control; Compliance

 


Ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive in partial lobectomy in rats

Adesivo cirúrgico de etil-2-cianoacrilato em lobectomia parcial em ratos

Ariani Cavazzani Szkudlarek, Paula Sincero, Renato Silva de Sousa, Rosalvo Tadeu Hochmuller Fogaça

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):729-734

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the efficacy of ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate adhesive in repairing the lung parenchyma after partial lobectomy in rats, in terms of hemostasis/aerostasis, scarring, and surgical time. Methods: The study involved 30 Wistar rats, randomly divided into five groups (one control group and four study groups). In the study groups, the lung parenchyma was repaired with either cyanoacrylate adhesive or surgical suture following resection of a small or large fragment (25% or 50%, respectively) of the left caudal lung lobe. Results: Surgical time and hemostasis time were shorter in the two groups treated with the adhesive than in the two submitted to suture. There were no significant differences among the groups regarding specific lung compliance. Adherences and inflammatory reactions were more severe in the groups submitted to suture. Conclusions: In this study, the use of cyanoacrylate adhesive helped reduce the surgical time and the intensity of inflammatory reactions, as well as preserving lung compliance. Cyanoacrylate adhesives should be considered an option for lung parenchyma repair, decreasing the risk of complications after partial lobectomy in humans.

 


Keywords: Lung; Pneumonectomy; Cyanoacrylates.

 


Admissão do Jornal de Pneumologia na SciELO Brasil: uma vitória com novos desafios

Thaís Helena Abrahão Thomaz Queluz

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(1):-

PDF PT



Unilateral pulmonary agenesis

Agenesia pulmonar unilateral

Nulma Souto Jentzsch

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):322-324

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text



Speeding up the diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a high-burden region with the use of a commercial line probe assay

Agilizando o diagnóstico da tuberculose multirresistente em uma região endêmica com o uso de um teste comercial de sondas em linha

Angela Pires Brandao1,2,a, Juliana Maira Watanabe Pinhata1,b, Rosangela Siqueira Oliveira1,c, Vera Maria Neder Galesi3,d, Helio Hehl Caiaffa-Filho1,e, Lucilaine Ferrazoli1,f

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(2):e20180128-e20180128

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, by using a commercial line probe assay for rifampicin and isoniazid detection (LPA-plus), in the routine workflow of a tuberculosis reference laboratory. Methods: The LPA-plus was prospectively evaluated on 341 isolates concurrently submitted to the automated liquid drug susceptibility testing system. Results: Among 303 phenotypically valid results, none was genotypically rifampicin false-susceptible (13/13; 100% sensitivity). Two rifampicin-susceptible isolates harboured rpoB mutations (288/290; 99.3% specificity) which, however, were non-resistance-conferring mutations. LPA-plus missed three isoniazid-resistant isolates (23/26; 88.5% sensitivity) and detected all isoniazid-susceptible isolates (277/277; 100% specificity). Among the 38 (11%) invalid phenotypic results, LPA-plus identified 31 rifampicin- and isoniazid-susceptible isolates, one isoniazid-resistant and six as non-Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Conclusions: LPA-plus showed excellent agreement (≥91%) and accuracy (≥99%). Implementing LPA-plus in our setting can speed up the diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, yield a significantly higher number of valid results than phenotypic drug susceptibility testing and provide further information on the drug-resistance level.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant; Molecular diagnostic techniques; Microbial sensitivity tests; Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

 


Clusters of small nodules with no confluence

Aglomerados de pequenos nódulos sem confluência

Edson Marchiori1,2, Bruno Hochhegger3,4, Gláucia Zanetti2,5

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):402-402

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text



Adding value to mechanical ventilation

Agregando valor à ventilação mecânica

Guilherme Schettino

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):455-457

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text



AIDS e tuberculose: novo problema, velho problema

Margareth Pretti Dalcolmo

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(2):3-4

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Diffuse abnormalities of the trachea: computed tomography findings

Alterações difusas da traquéia: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada

Edson Marchiori, Aline Serfaty Pozes, Arthur Soares Souza Junior, Dante Luiz Escuissato, Klaus Loureiro Irion, César de Araujo Neto, Jorge Luiz Barillo, Carolina Althoff Souza, Gláucia Zanetti

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(1):47-54

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The aim of this pictorial essay was to present the main computed tomography findings seen in diffuse diseases of the trachea. The diseases studied included amyloidosis, tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica, tracheobronchomegaly, laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis, lymphoma, neurofibromatosis, relapsing polychondritis, Wegener's granulomatosis, tuberculosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and tracheobronchomalacia. The most common computed tomography finding was thickening of the walls of the trachea, with or without nodules, parietal calcifications, or involvement of the posterior wall. Although computed tomography allows the detection and characterization of diseases of the central airways, and the correlation with clinical data reduces the diagnostic possibilities, bronchoscopy with biopsy remains the most useful procedure for the diagnosis of diffuse lesions of the trachea.

 


Keywords: Thoracic diseases; Tracheal diseases; Tomography, X-ray computed; Trachea.

 


Functional respiratory changes in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

Alterações funcionais respiratórias na colecistectomia por via laparoscópica

Luciana Dias Chiavegato, José Roberto Jardim, Sonia Maria Faresin, Yara Juliano

J Bras Pneumol.1997;23(2):69-76

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to measure the changes in lung volume, pulmonary ventilation, maximum respiratory muscle strength, and the incidence of pulmonary complications in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Type of study: Prospective study. Material and methods: Twenty patients (7 men and 13 women) with mean age of 42.7 years with normal respiratory function were studied. All patients in the preoperative period answered a long questionnaire, had a physical examination done, and had their lung volumes, respiratory muscle strength, diaphragmatic index and pulse oximetry determined. All measurements were repeated on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 6th postoperative days. Results: Patients showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) on the first postoperative day: 26% ± 13% in tidal volume; 20% ± 14% in minute volume; 36% ± 17% in vital capacity; 47% ± 17% in maximum inspiratory pressure, 39% ± 27% in the maximum expiratory pressure and 36% ± 25% in diaphragmatic index. Tidal volume, minute volume and maximum expiratory pressure returned to their basal values on the third postoperative day; vital capacity, maximum inspiratory pressure and diaphragmatic index returned to their basal values between the 4th and 6th postoperative days. Among the 20 patients pulmonary complication was observed in just one patient (lobar atelectasis); there was a full recovery by the third postoperative day with the use of chest physical therapy techniques. Conclusion: The authors conclude that patients undergoing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy show a significant decrease in lung volume and in respiratory muscle strength on the first postoperative day. But, when these measurements are compared to the literature, return to their basal values is faster (between the 4th and 6th postoperative days) than with conventional surgery.

 


Keywords: Laparoscopic surgery, preoperative and postoperative care and respiratory muscle strength.

 


Functional respiratory changes in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

Alterações funcionais respiratórias na colecistectomia por via laparoscópica

Luciana Dias Chiavegato, José Roberto Jardim, Sonia Maria Faresin, Yara Juliano

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(2):69-76

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to measure the changes in lung volume, pulmonary ventilation, maximum respiratory muscle strength, and the incidence of pulmonary complications in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Type of study: Prospective study. Material and methods: Twenty patients (7 men and 13 women) with mean age of 42.7 years with normal respiratory function were studied. All patients in the preoperative period answered a long questionnaire, had a physical examination done, and had their lung volumes, respiratory muscle strength, diaphragmatic index and pulse oximetry determined. All measurements were repeated on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 6th postoperative days. Results: Patients showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) on the first postoperative day: 26% ± 13% in tidal volume; 20% ± 14% in minute volume; 36% ± 17% in vital capacity; 47% ± 17% in maximum inspiratory pressure, 39% ± 27% in the maximum expiratory pressure and 36% ± 25% in diaphragmatic index. Tidal volume, minute volume and maximum expiratory pressure returned to their basal values on the third postoperative day; vital capacity, maximum inspiratory pressure and diaphragmatic index returned to their basal values between the 4th and 6th postoperative days. Among the 20 patients pulmonary complication was observed in just one patient (lobar atelectasis); there was a full recovery by the third postoperative day with the use of chest physical therapy techniques. Conclusion: The authors conclude that patients undergoing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy show a significant decrease in lung volume and in respiratory muscle strength on the first postoperative day. But, when these measurements are compared to the literature, return to their basal values is faster (between the 4th and 6th postoperative days) than with conventional surgery.

 


Keywords: Laparoscopic surgery, preoperative and postoperative care and respiratory muscle strength.

 


Pulmonary histopathological alterations in patients with acute respiratory failure: an autopsy study

Alterações histopatológicas pulmonares em pacientes com insuficiência respiratória aguda: um estudo em autopsias

Alexandre de Matos Soeiro, Edwin Roger Parra, Mauro Canzian, Cecília Farhat, Vera Luiza Capelozzi

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(2):67-73

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To present the pulmonary histopathological alterations found in the autopsies of patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) and determine whether underlying diseases and certain associated risk factors increase the incidence of these histopathological patterns. Methods: Final autopsy reports were reviewed, and 3030 autopsies of patients > 1 year of age with an underlying disease and associated risk factors were selected. All had developed diffuse infiltrates and died of ARF-related pulmonary alterations. Results: The principal pulmonary histopathological alterations resulting in immediate death were diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), pulmonary edema, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) and alveolar hemorrhage. The principal underlying diseases were AIDS, bronchopneumonia, sepsis, liver cirrhosis, pulmonary thromboembolism, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), cerebrovascular accident, tuberculosis, cancer, chronic kidney failure and leukemia. The principal associated risk factors were as follows: age ≥ 50 years; arterial hypertension; congestive heart failure; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and diabetes mellitus. These risk factors and AIDS correlated with a high risk of developing LIP; these same risk factors, if concomitant with sepsis or liver cirrhosis, correlated with a risk of developing DAD; thromboembolism and these risk factors correlated with a risk of developing alveolar hemorrhage; these risk factors and AMI correlated with a risk of developing pulmonary edema. Conclusion: Pulmonary findings in patients who died of ARF presented four histopathological patterns: DAD, pulmonary edema, LIP and alveolar hemorrhage. Underlying diseases and certain associated risk factors correlated positively with specific histopathological findings on autopsy.

 


Keywords: Respiratory insufficiency; Autopsy; Lung diseases, interstitial; Pulmonary edema; Hemorrhage.

 


Morphological lesions induced by oleic acid in lungs of rats

Alterações morfológicas induzidas pelo ácido oléico em pulmões de ratos

Thais Helena A.T. Queluz, Júlio Defaveri, Silene El-Fakhouri

J Bras Pneumol.1997;23(5):245-251

Abstract PDF PT

Because it has direct and indirect action on lung tissue, oleic acid (OA) has been used experimentally as a model of fat embolism and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The aim of this study was to describe acute and chronic pulmonary lesions induced in rats by intravenous injection of OA. Male Wistar rats were injected a 0.05 ml dose of OA. Groups of 5 animals were sacrificed 2, 24, 48 hours, and 5, 10, 30, and 90 days after injection. Diffuse alveolar edema, foci of intra-alveolar hemorrhage, and foci of ischemic necrosis were observed by light microscopic from 2 to 48 hours. At this period of time, severe endothelial injuries and type II alveolar cell lesions were observed on electron microscopy. After the fifth day, no injury was observed and discrete morphological sequelae were found. The lungs of the animals sacrificed at the thirtieth and ninetieth days were identical to those of the control groups. The present model allows animal to survive, being suitable for studies on fat embolism and on ARDS.

 


Keywords: Oleic acid. Fat embolism. Acute respiratory distress syndrome, ARDS. Experimental model.

 


State-dependent changes in the upper airway assessed by multidetector CT in healthy individuals and during obstructive events in patients with sleep apnea

Alterações nas vias aéreas superiores avaliadas por TC multidetectores durante a vigília e o sono em indivíduos saudáveis e em pacientes com apneia do sono durante eventos obstrutivos

Ula Lindoso Passos1,a, Pedro Rodrigues Genta1,b, Bianca Fernandes Marcondes2,c, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho2,d, Eloisa Maria Mello Santiago Gebrim1,e

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(4):e20180264-e20180264

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether airway narrowing during obstructive events occurs predominantly at the retropalatal level and results from dynamic changes in the lateral pharyngeal walls and in tongue position. Methods: We evaluated 11 patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 7 healthy controls without OSA during wakefulness and during natural sleep (documented by full polysomnography). Using fast multidetector CT, we obtained images of the upper airway in the waking and sleep states. Results: Upper airway narrowing during sleep was significantly greater at the retropalatal level than at the retroglossal level in the OSA group (p < 0.001) and in the control group (p < 0.05). The retropalatal airway volume was smaller in the OSA group than in the control group during wakefulness (p < 0.05) and decreased significantly from wakefulness to sleep only among the OSA group subjects. Retropalatal pharyngeal narrowing was attributed to reductions in the anteroposterior diameter (p = 0.001) and lateral diameter (p = 0.006), which correlated with an increase in lateral pharyngeal wall volume (p = 0.001) and posterior displacement of the tongue (p = 0.001), respectively. Retroglossal pharyngeal narrowing during sleep did not occur in the OSA group subjects. Conclusions: In patients with OSA, upper airway narrowing during sleep occurs predominantly at the retropalatal level, affecting the anteroposterior and lateral dimensions, being associated with lateral pharyngeal wall enlargement and posterior tongue displacement.

 


Keywords: Multidetector computed tomography; Oropharynx; Sleep apnea, obstructive; Polysomnography; Diagnostic imaging; Sleep.

 


Cocaine-induced pulmonary changes: HRCT findings

Alterações pulmonares induzidas pelo uso de cocaína: avaliação por TCAR de tórax

Renata Rocha de Almeida1, Gláucia Zanetti1,2, Arthur Soares Souza Jr.3, Luciana Soares de Souza4, Jorge Luiz Pereira e Silva5, Dante Luiz Escuissato6, Klaus Loureiro Irion7, Alexandre Dias Mançano8, Luiz Felipe Nobre9, Bruno Hochhegger10, Edson Marchiori1,11

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):323-330

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate HRCT scans of the chest in 22 patients with cocaine-induced pulmonary disease. Methods: We included patients between 19 and 52 years of age. The HRCT scans were evaluated by two radiologists independently, discordant results being resolved by consensus. The inclusion criterion was an HRCT scan showing abnormalities that were temporally related to cocaine use, with no other apparent causal factors. Results: In 8 patients (36.4%), the clinical and tomographic findings were consistent with "crack lung", those cases being studied separately. The major HRCT findings in that subgroup of patients included ground-glass opacities, in 100% of the cases; consolidations, in 50%; and the halo sign, in 25%. In 12.5% of the cases, smooth septal thickening, paraseptal emphysema, centrilobular nodules, and the tree-in-bud pattern were identified. Among the remaining 14 patients (63.6%), barotrauma was identified in 3 cases, presenting as pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and hemopneumothorax, respectively. Talcosis, characterized as perihilar conglomerate masses, architectural distortion, and emphysema, was diagnosed in 3 patients. Other patterns were found less frequently: organizing pneumonia and bullous emphysema, in 2 patients each; and pulmonary infarction, septic embolism, eosinophilic pneumonia, and cardiogenic pulmonary edema, in 1 patient each. Conclusions: Pulmonary changes induced by cocaine use are varied and nonspecific. The diagnostic suspicion of cocaine-induced pulmonary disease depends, in most of the cases, on a careful drawing of correlations between clinical and radiological findings.

 


Keywords: Cocaine, Cocaine-related disorders; Tomography, X-ray computed; Lung diseases.

 


Respiratory findings in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: a point of convergence for clinical pulmonologists and neurologists

Alterações respiratórias e morte súbita em epilepsia: um ponto de convergência para pneumologistas clínicos e neurologistas

Fulvio Alexandre Scorza, Vera Cristina Terra, Marly de Albuquerque, Esper Abrão Cavalheiro

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(6):613-614

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text



Indoor air quality, Act 3,523 of the Ministry of Health and Brazilian standards for biological indoor air contaminants

Ambientes climatizados, portaria 3.523 de 28/8/98 do Ministério da Saúde e padrões de qualidade do ar de interiores do Brasil

Paulo Pinto Gontijo Filho, Carlos Roberto Menezes Silva, Afrânio Lineu Kritski

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(5):254-258

Abstract PDF PT

This article reviews Act 3,523 of the Brazilian Ministry of Health which regulates the indoor air quality of air-conditioned environments, focusing mainly on biological standards for contaminant particles. Additionally, a concise analysis on nosocomial air-borne infections is performed, as well as on nosocomial units where air-borne infectious diseases may be important and a special ventilation system is required. Detailed analysis of the most common biological contaminant particles, differences between countries of both Northern and Southern hemispheres, and the aspects of the methodology used to perform their analysis are considered. The authors conclude that there are no established standards for safe levels of air-borne organisms, and that there is no available data in Brazil to set up standards for biological contaminant particles

 


Keywords: Air pollutants. Air conditioning. Air quality standards. Indoor air pollution. Brazil.

 


Outpatient smoking cessation program in the state of Ceará, Brazil: patient profiles and factors associated with treatment success

Ambulatório de apoio ao tabagista no Ceará: perfil dos pacientes e fatores associados ao sucesso terapêutico

Maria Penha Uchoa Sales, Mara Rúbia Fernandes de Figueiredo, Maria Irenilza de Oliveira, Helano Neiva de Castro

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(5):410-417

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate patient profiles and factors associated with successful treatment. Methods: A retrospective study of patients enrolled in the smoking cessation program at the Hospital de Messejana, located in the state of Ceará, Brazil, from October of 2002 to April of 2005. The treatment was evaluated based on patient profile, type of medication prescribed and time on that medication. Results: Of the 320 patients enrolled, 65.5% were women. The mean age at the outset of treatment was 48 years, and the mean duration of the smoking habit was 33 years. More than 90% of the patients had started smoking before the age of 20. Of the 258 individuals who had enrolled in the program at least one year prior, 50.8% had achieved treatment success; 17.8% had relapsed, and 31.4% had not quit smoking. On average, partial success was achieved in the fifth week of the treatment, and relapse occurred predominantly in the fourth month. Approximately 60% of the patients were treated with medication. Conclusion: Quitting smoking was significantly associated with the use of medication, regardless of the profile of the smoker evaluated. In the second year of the program, quitting smoking was more strongly associated with the use of bupropion and nicotine replacement, resulting in a higher success rate and a trend toward a reduction in the relapse rate.

 


Keywords: Smoking/therapy; Tobacco use cessation; Bupropion; Nicotine

 


Mediastinal lymph node amyloidosis in a patient with sarcoidosis

Amiloidose ganglionar mediastinal em paciente com sarcoidose

Lilian Schade, Eliane Ribeiro Carmes, João Adriano de Barros

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):222-225

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

A 27-year-old male patient presented with respiratory symptoms, bilateral enlargement of the cervical lymph nodes and enlarged liver. In the imaging studies, bilateral enlargement of the hilar nodes was observed, together with pulmonary infiltrate. The patient was submitted to lung and liver biopsies, which revealed noncaseating granulomas. The clinical, radiological and histopathological findings were consistent with sarcoidosis and lymph node amyloidosis. The combination of sarcoidosis and amyloidosis has rarely been reported.

 


Keywords: Amyloidosis; Sarcoidosis; Lymph nodes.

 


Pulmonary amyloidosis: radiographic finding of nodular opacities in a heavy smoker

Amiloidose pulmonar: relato de caso de achado radiológico da apresentação nodular em grande fumante

Jorge Montessi, Edmilton Pereira de Almeida, João Paulo Vieira, Cândida Maria Horta, Marcus da Matta Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Dainezzi Bolognani, Sandra Márcia Carvalho Ribeiro Costa

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):343-346

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pulmonary amyloidosis is a rare disease, characterized by extracellular deposition of fibrillary protein in the lungs. Amyloidosis is a generic term for a heterogeneous group of diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the respiratory system, it appears in various forms: tracheobronchial; nodular pulmonary; and alveolar septal (diffuse parenchymal). We present the case of a woman who was a 20 pack-year smoker and had nodular pulmonary amyloidosis, as diagnosed through tests performed prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

 


Keywords: Amyloidosis/diagnosis; Lymphoproliferative disorders; Neoplasms; Lung.

 


Primary tracheobronchial amyloidosis

Amiloidose traqueobrônquica primária

Gustavo Chatkin, Mauríco Pipkin, José Antonio Figueiredo Pinto, Vinicius Duval da Silva, José Miguel Chatkin

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(7):528-531

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Amyloidosis is a disease characterized by extracellular deposition of fibrillar protein in organs and tissues. Primary tracheal amyloidosis is rare. We report here a case of a 55-year-old man with tracheal amyloidosis hospitalized for acute respiratory insufficiency and with a history of recent episodes of pneumonia. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomography showed tracheal obstruction due to a tumor. A passage was created in order to relieve the symptoms. Histological examination (Congo red staining) revealed amyloid deposits but no evidence of neoplasia. Although this is a rare clinical condition, its importance is discussed regarding the differential diagnosis of tracheal tumors and the repercussions for therapeutic decision-making.

 


Keywords: Amyloidosis; Respiratory insufficiency; Congo red; Airway obstruction.

 


Primary tracheobronchial amyloidosis

Amiloidose traqueobrônquica primária

José Wellington Alves dos Santos, Ayrton Schneider Filho, Alessandra Bertolazzi, Gustavo Trindade Michel, Lauro Vinícius Schvarcz da Silva, Carlos Renato Melo, Vinícius Dallagasperina Pedro, Daniel Spilmann, Juliana Kaczmareck Figaro

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(10):881-884

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Tracheobronchial amyloidosis is an uncommon localized form of amyloidosis, characterized by amyloid deposits restricted to the trachea, main bronchi and segmental bronchi. We present the case of a retired 67-year-old man with long-term progressive dyspnea, wheezing and chest pain. A diagnosis of tracheobronchial amyloidosis was made after the third fiberoptic bronchoscopy and histological confirmation through Congo red staining of tissue samples.

 


Keywords: Amiloidose/traquéia; Broncoscopia; Doenças da traquéia/diagnóstico.

 


Bacteriological analysis of induced sputum for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in the clinical practice of a general tertiary hospital

Análise bacteriológica do escarro induzido para o diagnóstico de tuberculose pulmonar na prática clínica de um hospital geral terciário

Sabrina Bollmann Garcia, Christiano Perin, Marcel Muller da Silveira, Gustavo Vergani, Sérgio Saldanha Menna-Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1092-1099

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the diagnostic sensitivity of bacteriological analyses in induced sputum (IS) for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and to identify the clinical characteristics associated with the confirmed diagnosis, as well as to determine the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy carried out when IS tests negative for AFB in smear microscopy. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study of patients suspected of having active pulmonary TB and referred to our clinic for sputum induction. We consecutively reviewed the laboratory data of all patients submitted to sputum induction between June of 2003 and January of 2006, as well as their electronic medical records. In addition, the results of the bacteriological analysis of bronchoscopic specimens collected from the patients whose AFB tests were negative in IS were reviewed. Results: Of the 417 patients included in the study, 83 (19.9%) presented IS samples that tested positive for TB (smear microscopy or culture). In the logistic regression analysis, radiological findings of cavitation (OR = 3.8; 95% CI: 1.9-7.6) and of miliary infiltrate (OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.6-8.6) showed the strongest association with the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. In 134 patients, bronchoscopy was carried out after negative AFB results in IS and added 25 (64.1%) confirmed diagnoses of pulmonary TB. Conclusions: In our clinical practice, the frequency of confirmed diagnosis of pulmonary TB using IS (19.9%) was lower than that previously reported in controlled trials. Cavitation and miliary infiltrate increase the diagnostic probability of pulmonary TB using IS. The use of bronchoscopy when IS tests negative for AFB significantly increases sensitivity in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Diagnosis; Sputum.

 


Comparative analysis and reproducibility of the modified shuttle walk test in normal children and in children with cystic fibrosis

Análise comparativa e reprodutibilidade do teste de caminhada com carga progressiva (modificado) em crianças normais e em portadoras de fibrose cística

Cristiane Cenachi Coelho, Evanirso da Silva Aquino, Dorcas Costa de Almeida, Gisele Caroline Oliveira, Roberta de Castro Pinto, Ivana Mara Oliveira Rezende, Cíntia Passos

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):168-174

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the shuttle walk test, and its respective retest, comparing children with cystic fibrosis (CF) to normal children. Methods: The children were divided into two groups: the CF group, composed of children in whom the diagnosis had been confirmed through sweat testing; and the control group, composed of normal children with no history of pulmonary diseases and no alterations in respiratory function. The children were submitted to at least two consecutive tests, 30 min apart. We evaluated distance walked, cardiac overload, peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and subjective perception of exertion (dyspnea at rest scale and Borg dyspnea scale). Results: A total of 28 children were evaluated. Ages ranged from 7 to 15 years (11.57 ± 2.50 and 11.28 ± 1.85 years for the CF and control groups, respectively). The Borg scale scores were significantly higher in the controls (p = 0.007). No differences were found regarding cardiac overload and SpO2. In relation to the intergroup retest, the controls presented significant improvements on the second test, both in the distance walked and in dyspnea at rest (p = 0.014 and p = 0.036, respectively). The CF group presented a significant improvement only in the dyspnea at rest score (p = 0.168 and p = 0.042, respectively). Conclusion: The cardiac overload imposed by the test did not differ between the groups. The greater fatigue at the beginning of the second test suggests that the 30 min rest between the tests was insufficient.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Exercise test; Heart rate.

 


Critical analysis of scoring systems used in the assessment of Cystic Fibrosis severity: State of the art

Análise crítica dos escores de avaliação de gravidade da fibrose cística: Estado da arte

Camila Isabel da Silva Santos, José Dirceu Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando Ribeiro, Gabriel Hessel

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(3):286-

Abstract PDF PT

This study carries out a descriptive and comparative analysis of the various types of cystic fibrosis severity scores described in the literature and contextualizes the origin and objective of each. A total of 16 scoring systems were found: 8 are used predominantly for clinical evaluation, 5 for radiographic findings, 2 for tomographic findings and 1 for scintigraphic findings. Despite the criticism and controversy regarding these instruments of assessment, they have contributed to a better understanding of the disease and to the development of more effective therapeutic procedures.

 


Keywords: Severity of illness index. Cystic fibrosis. Review literature.

 


Analysis of dry pleural biopsy in 107 patients

Análise da biópsia pleural em 107 pacientes sem líquido pleural

Marcelo Chalhoub, Sérgio Arruda, Ronald Fidélis, Ana Paula Barreto, Manoel Barral Netto

J Bras Pneumol.1999;25(3):141-146

Abstract PDF PT

The clinical-radiographic presentation and tuberculosis prediction in patients that have undergone dry pleural biopsy, as well as its usefulness and complications, have been evaluated in this retrospective study, conducted in the Octávio Mangabeira Hospital (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil), where 107 patients consecutively submitted to this exam have been analyzed. Altogether 108 biopsies have been performed using Cope's needle (biopsies of both hemithoraxes were performed in one patient). The following diagnoses were obtained: a) tuberculosis (n = 66); b) probable tuberculosis (n = 4); c) neoplasm (n = 2); d) parapneumonic (n = 3), and e) not determined (32). Sixty-seven (62.6%) of the patients were male, and mean age was 34.5 ± 15.4 years. Analyses carried out compare patients diagnosed with tuberculosis (whether confirmed or probable) to those with different diagnoses (miscellaneous). Tuberculosis patients were younger (p < 0.01), expectoration was less frequent (p < 0.01), previous tuberculosis was less often reported (p = 0.04) and PPD reactivity was more frequent (p < 0.01). No significant differences were found between the two groups as to the extent of pleural commitment and its variation in the period observed. Presence of acinar infiltrations in the upper lobes was correlated with tuberculosis diagnosis in the 13 patients in which this feature was observed. Pleural fragments were present in 100 out of 108 cases (92.6%) and the diagnosis was made in the first biopsy in 64 out of 108 cases (59.3%). Ten minor complications have occurred (9.3%) in the 108 biopsies: 6 bloody sputums, 3 small pneumothoraxes, and one moderate subcutaneous emphysema. The authors conclude that for the various predictive indicators of tuberculosis analyzed, except for the presence of acinar infiltrations in the upper lobes, there is broad overlap between the two groups compared, meaning that a safe clinical diagnosis cannot be provided and thus reinforcing the need of performing biopsies. Dry pleural biopsy offers a satisfactory diagnostic yield in areas with high prevalence of tuberculosis and proved safe, when performed by experienced personnel.

 


Keywords: Pleural tuberculosis. Pleural thickening. Pleural biopsy. Diagnosis.

 


Oxygen desaturation during the six-minute walk test in COPD patients

Análise da dessaturação de oxigênio durante o teste de caminhada de seis minutos em pacientes com DPOC

Maria Ângela Fontoura Moreira, Gabriel Arriola de Medeiros, Francesco Pinto Boeno, Paulo Roberto Stefani Sanches, Danton Pereira da Silva Júnior, André Frotta Müller

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):222-228

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the behavior of oxygen saturation curves throughout the six-minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with COPD. Methods: We included 85 patients, all of whom underwent spirometry and were classified as having moderate COPD (modCOPD, n = 30) or severe COPD (sevCOPD, n = 55). All of the patients performed a 6MWT, in a 27-m corridor with continuous SpO2 and HR monitoring by telemetry. We studied the SpO2 curves in order to determine the time to a 4% decrease in SpO2, the time to the minimum SpO2 (Tmin), and the post-6MWT time to return to the initial SpO2, the last designated recovery time (RT). For each of those curves, we calculated the slope. Results: The mean age in the modCOPD and sevCOPD groups was 66  10 years and 62  11 years, respectively. At baseline, SpO2 was > 94% in all of the patients; none received supplemental oxygen during the 6MWT; and none of the tests were interrupted. The six-minute walk distance did not differ significantly between the groups. The SpO2 values were lowest in the sevCOPD group. There was no difference between the groups regarding RT. In 71% and 63% of the sevCOPD and modCOPD group patients, respectively, a ≥ 4% decrease in SpO2 occurred within the first minute. We found that FEV1% correlated significantly with the SpO2 (r = −0.398; p < 0.001), Tmin (r = −0.449; p < 0.001), and minimum SpO2 (r = 0.356; p < 0.005). Conclusions: In the sevCOPD group, in comparison with the modCOPD group, SpO2 was lower and the Tmin was greater, suggesting a worse prognosis in the former.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Exercise test; Blood gas monitoring, transcutaneous.

 


Analysis of the stability of housekeeping gene expression in the left cardiac ventricle of rats submitted to chronic intermittent hypoxia

Análise da estabilidade da expressão de genes de referência no ventrículo cardíaco esquerdo de ratos submetidos à hipóxia intermitente crônica

Guilherme Silva Julian1, Renato Watanabe de Oliveira1, Sergio Tufik1, Jair Ribeiro Chagas1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):211-214

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with oxidative stress and various cardiovascular consequences, such as increased cardiovascular disease risk. Quantitative real-time PCR is frequently employed to assess changes in gene expression in experimental models. In this study, we analyzed the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (an experimental model of OSA) on housekeeping gene expression in the left cardiac ventricle of rats. Analyses via four different approaches-use of the geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder algorithms; and 2−ΔCt (threshold cycle) data analysis-produced similar results: all genes were found to be suitable for use, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and 18S being classified as the most and the least stable, respectively. The use of more than one housekeeping gene is strongly advised.

 


Keywords: Cell hypoxia; Reference standards; Sleep apnea, obstructive; Cardiovascular diseases; Models, animal; Polymerase chain reaction.

 


Analysis of pulmonary mechanics in an experimental model of sepsis

Análise da mecânica pulmonar em modelo experimental de sepse

Rodrigo Storck Carvalho, André Gustavo Magalhãer de Pinho, Ana Paula Alves de Andrade, César Augusto Melo e Silva, Carlos Eduardo Gaio, Paulo Tavares

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):316-321

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether pulmonary mechanics are altered in mice with sepsis. Methods: A total of 40 Balb/c mice were divided into two groups: survival (n = 21) and pulmonary mechanics (n = 19). The survival group was divided into three subgroups: control (n = 7), sublethal (n = 7) and lethal (n = 7). The pulmonary mechanics group was also divided into three subgroups: control (n = 5), sublethal (n = 7) and lethal (n = 7). Sepsis was induced through cecal ligation and puncture, the latter varying in degree (sublethal or lethal). At eight hours after the intervention, pulmonary mechanics were measured through end-inflation occlusion. In the pulmonary mechanics group, the following variables were studied: total pressure, resistance, viscoelasticity, dynamic compliance and static compliance. The data obtained were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Results: The data for the survival group indicate the efficacy of the model employed. There were no statistically significant differences among the pulmonary mechanics subgroups in terms of dynamic compliance, static compliance, total pressure, resistance or viscoelasticity. Conclusion: At eight hours after cecal ligation and puncture, there were no changes in the lung parenchyma, nor were any alterations observed in the viscous and viscoelastic components of the lung.

 


Keywords: Sepsis; Respiratory mechanics; Lung/injuries; Punctures/instrumentation; Respiratory distress syndrome, adult; Mice

 


Analysis of acute and chronic vascular remodeling in an experimental model of pulmonary ischemia

Análise da remodelação vascular na isquemia pulmonar experimental, nas fases aguda e crônica

Wanderley M. Bernardo, Fabio B. Jatene, Lea Maria M. F. Demarchi, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Rogério Pazetti, Dolores H. R. F. Rivero¸ Rosangela Monteiro, Sérgio A. de Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(1):-

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Background: Structural alterations to the pulmonary circulation characterize the vascular remodeling process and are likely correlated with local variations in flow and ischemia. Objective: To define the histological alterations to the pulmonary circulation seen after experimentally-induced ischemia of the pulmonary artery and to correlate those alterations with known patterns of blood redistribution and vascular remodeling. Method: Wistar rats (n = 48) were randomized into two groups with ligation of the pulmonary artery and without (controls) and were sacrificed on post-ischemia days 1, 7, 30 and 60. Lungs were removed and inspected for signs of parenchymal injury. External diameters, as well as wall thicknesses in the pulmonary, alveolar and bronchial end arterioles, were measured. Internal diameter and wall thickness percentage were calculated. Results: Infarction, necrosis and hemorrhage occurred only in ischemic lungs. In nonischemic lungs, there was a sustained increase in the internal and external arteriolar diameters, with an initial reduction in wall thickness on day 1, and day-60 values were similar to those seen in controls. In ischemic lungs, there was a transitory reduction in the internal and external diameters of the pulmonary and bronchial end arterioles, together with an initial, equally transitory, increase in their wall thickness. The alveolar arterioles presented sustained and progressive increases in external diameter and wall thickness, with concomitant reductions in internal diameter. Conclusion: This model mimics distal arterial disease in patients with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. The vascular response in nonischemic lungs was consistent with a pattern of flow remodeling, whereas that seen in ischemic lungs was more consistent with flow and ischemia. In the pulmonary and bronchial end arterioles, the response was transitory, in contrast to the sustained and progressive response seen in the alveolar arterioles, which was probably caused by delayed local flow.

 


Keywords: Key-words: Pulmonary embolism. Pulmonary circulation. Vascular remodelling. Pulmonary artery.

 


Analysis of the use of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire as an instrument to measure nicotine dependence

Análise da utilização do Questionário de Tolerância de Fagerström (QTF) como instrumento de medida da dependência nicotínica

Luis Suárez Halty, Maura Dumont Hüttner, Isabel Cristina de Oliveira Netto, Valéria A. dos Santos, Grasiele Martins

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):180-186

Abstract PDF PT

Introduction: The University Hospital is reference in the city of Rio Grande, in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southeast part of Brazil, for chronic lung disease patients, with a major smoking cessation program. Aim: The purpose of this work was to analyze the utilization of Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire to assess the nicotine dependence of smoking patients with reference to individualization of treatment. Material and Method: The authors used the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (FTQ) in daily smoking adult patients from the Medical Clinic and Chest Medicine Units of the University Hospital and Rio Grande Santa Casa Hospital, during the period of one year. Three hundred and one valid questionnaires were filled out, 40.5% by females and 59.5% by males. Mean age was 48.6 years. The score of the questionnaires classified patients by dependence into five degrees: very low, low, medium, high, and very high. Results: 54.9% belong to the group of high nicotine dependence (score ³ 6), with a significant correlation of elevated nicotine dependence and cigarettes per day or time to the first cigarette of the day (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The use of the FTQ demonstrated ease of administration and more than 50% of the patients with a degree of chemical dependence that anticipate discomfort at cessation of smoking and need of treatment to control the withdrawal symptoms.

 



Analysis of hospitalizations for respiratory diseases in Tangará da Serra, Brazil

Análise das internações por doenças respiratórias em Tangará da Serra - Amazônia Brasileira

Antonia Maria Rosa, Eliane Ignotti, Sandra de Souza Hacon, Hermano Albuquerque de Castro

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(8):575-582

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze hospitalizations for respiratory diseases among children under 15 years of age in an area with high levels of environmental pollution. Methods: A cross-sectional study of hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases of patients residing in the city of Tangará da Serra, located in the state of Mato Grosso (Brazilian Amazon region), from 2000 to 2005. Data on hospital admissions were obtained from the Brazilian Unified Health Care System and from Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics population estimates. Results: In 2005, the rate of hospitalization for respiratory diseases among children under 15 years of age in the microregion of Tangará da Serra was 70.1/1,000 children. Between 2000 and 2005, there were 12,777 such admissions, of which 8,142 (63.7%) were for respiratory diseases. During the dry season (May to October), the rate of admissions for respiratory diseases was 10% higher than during the rainy season (November to April). The principal causes of admission included pneumonia (90.7%) and respiratory insufficiency (8.5%). Admissions of children under 5 years of age for pneumonia were 4 times the expected number for the city. Children under 12 months of age were the most frequently hospitalized, with an average increase of 32.4 admissions per 1,000 children per year. Conclusions: Tangará da Serra presented a high number of pediatric admissions for respiratory diseases. Therefore, it is logical to consider it a priority area for investigation and monitoring of the environmental risk factors for such diseases.

 


Keywords: Respiratory tract diseases; Pneumonia; Hospitalization; Climate; Air pollution/Brazil.

 


Analysis of 39 cases of idiopathic chronic interstitial pneumonia

Análise de 39 casos de pneumonia intersticial crônica idiopática

Rogério Rufino, Leonardo Rizzo, Cláudia Henrique da Costa, Roberto José de Lima, Kalil Madi

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):505-509

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To make a retrospective analysis of lung biopsy samples obtained from patients diagnosed with chronic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, as defined in the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification system made public in 2000. Methods: Samples from 252 open-lung biopsies of patients with interstitial lung disease, all performed between 1977 and 1999, were reviewed, and 39 cases of idiopathic interstitial lung disease were selected and re-evaluated by two pathologists in accordance with the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification system. Results: Among those 39 cases, the diagnoses were maintained in 28 (71.8%). A new pathologic entity, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, was included in the reclassification, and overlapping patterns were observed in 6 cases. Of the 28 cases in which the diagnosis of chronic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia remained unchanged, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was accompanied by cryptogenic organizing pneumonia in 4, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia was accompanied by nonspecific interstitial pneumonia in 1, and desquamative interstitial pneumonia was accompanied by nonspecific interstitial pneumonia in 1. All cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were confirmed, although 3 of those were found to be accompanied by cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. Virtually all prior diagnoses were maintained in the review of the biopsy samples (p > 0,05). Conclusion: The American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society system of classifying interstitial lung disease is a useful tool for pathologists who deal with lung biopsies.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary fibrosis; Lung diseases, interstitial

 


Cost analysis in the ICU from the standpoint of physical therapy

Análise de custos em UTI sob a perspectiva da fisioterapia

Liria Yuri Yamauchi1,a

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(3):175-175

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Analysis of different primers used in the PCR method: diagnosis of tuberculosis in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

Análise de diferentes primers utilizados na PCR visando ao diagnóstico da tuberculose no Estado do Amazonas

Mauricio Morishi Ogusku; Julia Ignez Salem

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(4):433-439

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Background: Various primers are being tested for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. The accuracy of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) depends on the target sequence used and whether the test will be performed in culture or in clinical specimens. Objectives: To identify DNA sequences, specifically those commonly reported as targets for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), in clinical samples of M. tuberculosis strains. Method: Eighty-one clinical samples from suspected TB patients were initially processed and submitted to bacilloscopy (smear) and culture, and PCR was performed with specific primers for the following targets: IS 6110, 65 kDa, 38 kDa and MPB64. Results: Smear and culture results were negative in 24 samples, as was the PCR. The 19 samples testing smear positive, as well as the isolated strains, were 100% positive on PCR, with the exception of the 89.4% result from PCR with MPB64 primers. In the 38 smear negative and culture positive samples, PCR results were inconsistent. The primers specific for amplifying the 123 bp IS 6110 fragment gave the highest positivity (92.1%), diagnostic agreement (0.9143), co-positivity (94.7%) and co-negativity (100%). Conclusion: The IS 6110, 38 kDa, MPB64 and 65 kDa sequences were found in the genome of all M. tuberculosis strains isolated in patients from the state of Amazonas. The protocol for processing the clinical samples prior to PCR analysis and the specific primers used to amplify the 123bp IS 6110 fragment showed a greater efficiency in diagnosing pulmonary (paucibacillary) tuberculosis in comparison to published data.

 


Keywords: Primers/PCR. Diagnosis/Tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

 


Restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene in clinical isolates from patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresina, Brazil

Análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 de isolados clínicos de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar em Teresina, Piauí

Maria das Graças Motta e Bona, Maria José Soares Leal, Liline Maria Soares Martins, Raimundo Nonato da Silva, José Adail Fonseca de Castro, Semiramis Jamil Hadad do Monte

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):628-635

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Objective: To identify mycobacterial species in the sputum of patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine the impact that the acquisition of this knowledge has on the therapeutic approach. Methods: We evaluated 106 patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and referred to the pulmonology department of a public hospital in the city of Teresina, Brazil. Morning sputum specimens were evaluated for the presence of mycobacteria by sputum smear microscopy and culture. We used PCR and restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene (PRA-hsp65) to identify the strains of mycobacteria isolated in culture. Results: A total of 206 sputum samples were analyzed. Patient ages ranged from 15 to 87 years, and 67% were male. There was cough in 100% of the cases. The predominant radiographic pattern was moderate disease, observed in 70%. Smear positivity was 76%, and isolation in culture occurred in 91% of the cultures. Traditional tests identified nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 9% of the isolates. The PRA-hsp65 method confirmed these data, showing seven band patterns that were able to identify the isolated species of NTM: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5; and M. gordonae 7. All of the patients with NTM were over 60 years of age, and bronchiectasis was seen in 88% of the X-rays. There were two cases of reinfection, initially attributed to M. abscessus and M. kansasii. Conclusions: In immunocompetent patients, NTM can infect the lungs. It is important to identify the specific NTM in order to establish the correct diagnosis and choose the most appropriate therapeutic regimen. The PRA-hsp65 method is useful in identifying NTM species and can be implemented in molecular biology laboratories that do not specialize in the identification of mycobacteria. Keywords:

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mycobacteria, atypical; Polymerase chain reaction; Brazil.

 


Subgroup analysis and interaction tests: why they are important and how to avoid common mistakes

Análise de subgrupos e testes de interação: por que são importantes e como evitar erros comuns

Juliana Carvalho Ferreira1,2, Cecilia Maria Patino1,3

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):162-162

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Analysis of three different equations for predicting quadriceps femoris muscle strength in patients with COPD

Análise de três diferentes fórmulas de predição de força muscular do quadríceps femoral em pacientes com DPOC

Aline Gonçalves Nellessen¹, Leila Donária¹, Nidia Aparecida Hernandes¹, Fabio Pitta¹

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):305-312

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Objective: To compare equations for predicting peak quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle force; to determine the agreement among the equations in identifying QF muscle weakness in COPD patients; and to assess the differences in characteristics among the groups of patients classified as having or not having QF muscle weakness by each equation. Methods: Fifty-six COPD patients underwent assessment of peak QF muscle force by dynamometry (maximal voluntary isometric contraction of knee extension). Predicted values were calculated with three equations: an age-height-weight-gender equation (Eq-AHWG); an age-weight-gender equation (Eq-AWG); and an age-fat-free mass-gender equation (Eq-AFFMG). Results: Comparison of the percentage of predicted values obtained with the three equations showed that the Eq-AHWG gave higher values than did the Eq-AWG and Eq-AFFMG, with no difference between the last two. The Eq-AHWG showed moderate agreement with the Eq-AWG and Eq-AFFMG, whereas the last two also showed moderate, albeit lower, agreement with each other. In the sample as a whole, QF muscle weakness (< 80% of predicted) was identified by the Eq-AHWG, Eq-AWG, and Eq-AFFMG in 59%, 68%, and 70% of the patients, respectively (p > 0.05). Age, fat-free mass, and body mass index are characteristics that differentiate between patients with and without QF muscle weakness. Conclusions: The three equations were statistically equivalent in classifying COPD patients as having or not having QF muscle weakness. However, the Eq-AHWG gave higher peak force values than did the Eq-AWG and the Eq-AFFMG, as well as showing greater agreement with the other equations.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Muscle strength; Quadriceps muscle; Reference values.

 


Descriptive analysis of and overall survival after surgical treatment of lung metastases

Análise descritiva e sobrevida global do tratamento cirúrgico das metástases pulmonares

Giana Balestro Poletti, Ivan Felizardo Contrera Toro, Thais Ferreira Alves, Eliana Cristina Martins Miranda, José Cláudio Teixeira Seabra, Ricardo Kalaf Mussi

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):650-658

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Objective: To describe demographic characteristics, surgical results, postoperative complications, and overall survival rates in surgically treated patients with lung metastases. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 119 patients who underwent a total of 154 lung metastasis resections between 1997 and 2011. Results: Among the 119 patients, 68 (57.1%) were male and 108 (90.8%) were White. The median age was 52 years (range, 15-75 years). In this sample, 63 patients (52.9%) presented with comorbidities, the most common being systemic arterial hypertension (69.8%) and diabetes (19.0%). Primary colorectal tumors (47.9%) and musculoskeletal tumors (21.8%) were the main sites of origin of the metastases. Approximately 24% of the patients underwent more than one resection of the lesions, and 71% had adjuvant treatment prior to metastasectomy. The rate of lung metastasis recurrence was 19.3%, and the median disease-free interval was 23 months. The main surgical access used was thoracotomy (78%), and the most common approach was wedge resection with segmentectomy (51%). The rate of postoperative complications was 22%, and perioperative mortality was 1.9%. The overall survival rates at 12, 36, 60, and 120 months were 96%, 77%, 56%, and 39%, respectively. A Cox analysis confirmed that complications within the first 30 postoperative days were associated with poor prognosis (hazard ratio = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.09-3.06; p = 0.02). Conclusions: Surgical treatment of lung metastases is safe and effective, with good overall survival, especially in patients with fewer metastases.

 


Keywords: Neoplasm metastasis; Survival analysis; Thoracic surgery; Metastasectomy.

 


Analysis of the Tuberculosis Control Program in the city of Cáceres, Brazil, prior to and after the implementation of a Family Health Program

Análise do Programa de Controle da Tuberculose em Cáceres, Mato Grosso, antes e depois da implantação do Programa de Saúde da Família

Eliane Ignotti, Beatriz Fátima Alves de Oliveira, Shaiana Hartwig, Hellen Caroline de Oliveira, João Henrique Gurtler Scatena

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):287-294

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Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of the Tuberculosis Control Program, in conjunction with the recently incorporated Family Health Program, in the city of Cáceres, Brazil, between 1999 and 2004. Methods: This was a descriptive epidemiological study, based on the registry of tuberculosis cases diagnosed and treated in Cáceres, according to the characteristics of the cases diagnosed, whether or not the protocol for diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of patients was followed, as well as the type of health care facility involved. Results: The incidence of tuberculosis was reduced from 99.4 to 49.8 (per 100,000 inhabitants) between 1999 and 2004. The patients presented characteristics similar to those of patients from other regions of Brazil, with a predominance of males during their most economically productive years. Among the patients presenting pulmonary forms and treated via the Family Health Program, there was a reduction in the number of sputum smear microscopies performed at the moment of diagnosis (OR = 0.33; 95%CI: 0.16-0.66) and prior to discharge (OR = 0.32; 95%CI: 0.18‑0.59). The patients monitored via the Family Health Program presented a 16.4% lower cure rate than did those treated at the referral center, as well as being more likely to abandon treatment (OR = 2.93; 95%CI: 1.15-7.46) and to die (OR = 5.71; 95%CI: 1.85‑18.1). Conclusion: The decentralization of the treatment services to the family health clinics did not improve the treatment or monitoring of tuberculosis cases in the city of Cáceres.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; Community Health Services; Health care reform/Brazil.

 


Analysis of treatment outcomes related to the tuberculosis control program in the city of Campinas, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

Análise do programa de controle da tuberculose em relação ao tratamento, em Campinas - SP

Helenice Bosco de Oliveira, Leticia Marin-León, Jovana Gardinali

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):133-138

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Background: Tuberculosis cure is dependent upon treatment adherence. Objective: To analyze the results of tuberculosis treatment in public health clinics in the city of Campinas, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, during 2002. Method: From a cohort of 484 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis, we evaluated 436. Treatment outcomes were described for all patients, whether new patients or patients in retreatment, including those presenting the pulmonary form, with or without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) comorbidity. Results: The success rate was 68.6% (72.3% among non-AIDS patients and 57.6% among AIDS patients). Among new cases, the non-AIDS group presented a 2.2-times greater chance of presenting favorable results. In the AIDS group, no differences were observed between new patients and those in retreatment. Among the unfavorable outcomes, only lethality presented a difference (18.9% among AIDS patients and 8.0% among non-AIDS patients). In patients presenting the pulmonary form, the success rate was similar between those who were initially acid-fast bacilli positive and those who were not. Conclusion: The tuberculosis control program in Campinas presented low effectiveness. In comparison to the 2001 national cohort, success rates were higher for non-AIDS patients but lower for AIDS patients. The higher success rate among cases of tuberculosis without AIDS was primarily derived from the treatment of new cases. The unfavorable profile of tuberculosis patients co-infected with AIDS, characterized by the (18.9%) lethality and the (15.3%) noncompliance, were partially responsible for the lower success rate seen among such patients. It is notable that such high proportions of noncompliant patients were seen in a city providing easy access to treatment. In order to improve the program, medical teams should receive further training in supervised treatment, health education and techniques for interacting with patients, all of which will require considerable investment.

 


Keywords: Key words: Tuberculosis. Treatment Refusal. Retreatment. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Comorbidity

 


Analysis of the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in elderly patients at a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Análise do tratamento da tuberculose pulmonar em idosos de um hospital universitário do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

João Paulo Cantalice Filho, Márcio Neves Bóia, Clemax Couto Sant`Anna

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):691-698

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Objective: To describe the clinical and therapeutic aspects of pulmonary tuberculosis and compare the adverse effects of the treatment and its outcome in elderly and nonelderly patients. Methods: This was a case-control study of 117 elderly individuals (over the age of 60 years) and 464 nonelderly individuals (aged 15-49 years). All subjects presented pulmonary tuberculosis that had been diagnosed and treated at the Thoracic Diseases Institute of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro between 1980 and 1996. Results: In the elderly group, pulmonary tuberculosis was found to be correlated with diabetes (OR = 3.98; 95% CI = 2.07-7.65; p = 0.001), lung disease (OR = 7.24; 95% CI = 3.64‑14.46; p = 0.001) and heart disease (OR = 5.86; 95% CI = 2.88-11.95; p = 0.001). Smoking (OR = 2.07; 95% CI = 1.26‑3.42; p = 0.002) and alcohol abuse (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.01-2.68; p = 0.041) were also more common in the elderly group. In the elderly group, the treatment more frequently resulted in adverse reactions (OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.04-2.54; p = 0.024), especially gastrointestinal reactions (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.01-2.77; p = 0.047), and treatment efficacy was lower: cure rate, 51%; mortality rate, 24%. Treatment adherence was low (approximately 77%) in both groups. Conclusions: In the elderly group, adverse reactions were more common, treatment outcomes were less favorable, there was a greater frequency of clinical complications and deaths related to drug toxicity, and the prevalence of concomitant diseases was higher.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Aged; Drug therapy; Treatment outcome.

 


Analysis and validation of probabilistic models for predicting malignancy in solitary pulmonary nodules in a population in Brazil

Análise e validação de modelos probabilísticos de malignidade de nódulo pulmonar solitário em uma população no Brasil

Cromwell Barbosa de Carvalho Melo, João Aléssio Juliano Perfeito, Danilo Félix Daud, Altair da Silva Costa Júnior, Ilka Lopes Santoro, Luiz Eduardo Villaça Leão

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):559-565

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Objective: To analyze clinical and radiological findings that influence the pathological diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) and to compare/validate two probabilistic models for predicting SPN malignancy in patients with SPN in Brazil. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 110 patients diagnosed with SPN and submitted to resection of SPN at a tertiary hospital between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics studied were gender, age, presence of systemic comorbidities, history of malignancy prior to the diagnosis of SPN, histopathological diagnosis of SPN, smoking status, smoking history, and time since smoking cessation. The radiological characteristics studied, in relation to the SPN, were presence of spiculated margins, maximum transverse diameter, and anatomical location. Two mathematical models, created in 1997 and 2007, respectively, were used in order to determine the probability of SPN malignancy. Results: We found that SPN malignancy was significantly associated with age (p = 0.006; OR = 5.70 for age > 70 years), spiculated margins (p = 0.001), and maximum diameter of SPN (p = 0.001; OR = 2.62 for diameters > 20 mm). The probabilistic model created in 1997 proved to be superior to that created in 2007-area under the ROC curve, 0.79 ± 0.44 (95% CI: 0.70 0.88) vs. 0.69 ± 0.50 (95% CI: 0.59-0.79). Conclusions: Advanced age, greater maximum SPN diameter, and spiculated margins were significantly associated with the diagnosis of SPN malignancy. Our analysis shows that, although both mathematical models were effective in determining SPN malignancy in our population, the 1997 model was superior.

 


Keywords: Solitary Pulmonary Nodule; Risk Factors; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung.

 


Spatial analysis of deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis in the city of São Luís, Brazil

Análise espacial dos óbitos por tuberculose pulmonar em São Luís, Maranhão

Marcelino Santos-Neto, Mellina Yamamura, Maria Concebida da Cunha Garcia, Marcela Paschoal Popolin, Tatiane Ramos dos Santos Silveira, Ricardo Alexandre Arcêncio

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):543-551

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Objective: To characterize deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis, according to sociodemographic and operational variables, in the city of São Luís, Brazil, and to describe their spatial distribution. Methods: This was an exploratory ecological study based on secondary data from death certificates, obtained from the Brazilian Mortality Database, related to deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis. We included all deaths attributed to pulmonary tuberculosis that occurred in the urban area of São Luís between 2008 and 2012. We performed univariate and bivariate analyses of the sociodemographic and operational variables of the deaths investigated, as well as evaluating the spatial distribution of the events by kernel density estimation. Results: During the study period, there were 193 deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis in São Luís. The median age of the affected individuals was 52 years. Of the 193 individuals who died, 142 (73.60%) were male, 133 (68.91%) were Mulatto, 102 (53.13%) were single, and 64 (33.16%) had completed middle school. There was a significant positive association between not having received medical care prior to death and an autopsy having been performed (p = 0.001). A thematic map by density of points showed that the spatial distribution of those deaths was heterogeneous and that the density was as high as 8.12 deaths/km2. Conclusions: The sociodemographic and operational characteristics of the deaths from pulmonary tuberculosis evaluated in this study, as well as the identification of priority areas for control and surveillance of the disease, could promote public health policies aimed at reducing health inequities, allowing the optimization of resources, as well as informing decisions regarding the selection of strategies and specific interventions targeting the most vulnerable populations.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary/mortality; Communicable disease control; Spatial analysis.

 


Anthropometric status of individuals with COPD in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, over time - analysis of a population-based study

Análise evolutiva antropométrica em indivíduos com DPOC na cidade de São Paulo - estudo de base populacional

Josiane Marchioro1,a, Mariana Rodrigues Gazzotti1,b, Graciane Laender Moreira1,c, Beatriz Martins Manzano1,d, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes2,e, Rogélio Perez-Padilla3,f, José Roberto Jardim1,g, Oliver Augusto Nascimento1,4,h; PLATINO Team

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(6):e20170157-e20170157

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Objective: To evaluate the anthropometric data obtained for residents of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in a study of Latin America conducted in two phases (baseline, in 2003, and follow-up, in 2012). Methods: This was an analysis of data obtained for São Paulo residents in a two-phase population-based study evaluating the prevalence of COPD and its relationship with certain risk factors among individuals ≥ 40 years of age. The anthropometric data included values for weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. In the follow-up phase of that study, the same variables were evaluated in the same population sample as that of the baseline phase. Results: Of the 1,000 São Paulo residents enrolled in the baseline phase of that study, 587 participated in the follow-up phase, and 80 (13.6%) of those 587 subjects had COPD. Comparing the baseline and follow-up phases, we found increases in all anthropometric measures in both groups (COPD and non-COPD), although the differences were significant only in the non-COPD group. The subjects with mild COPD showed increases in weight and BMI (Δweight = 1.6 ± 5.7 and ΔBMI = 0.7 ± 2.2), whereas those with moderate or severe COPD showed reductions (Δweight = −1.7 ± 8.1 and ΔBMI = −0.4 ± 3.0), as did those with severe or very severe COPD (Δweight = −0.5 ± 5.4 and ΔBMI = −0.8 ± 3.3). Conclusions: Between the two phases of the study, the subjects with mild COPD showed increases in weight and BMI, whereas those with a more severe form of the disease showed reductions.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Body mass index; Obesity; Waist circumference.

 


Exploratory analysis of requests for authorization to dispense high-cost medication to COPD patients: the São Paulo

Análise exploratória de solicitações de autorização para dispensação de medicação de alto custo para portadores de DPOC:

Regina Maria Carvalho-Pinto11,a, Ingredy Tavares da Silva1,2,b, Lucas Yoshio Kido Navacchia1,c, Flavia Munhos Granja1,2,d, Gustavo Garcia Marques1,2,e, Telma de Cassia dos Santos Nery1,f, Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes1,g, Alberto Cukier1,h, Rafael Stelmach1,i

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(6):e20180355-e20180355

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Objective: A resolution passed by the government of the Brazilian state of São Paulo established a protocol for requesting free COPD medications, including tiotropium bromide, creating regional authorization centers to evaluate and approve such requests, given the high cost of those medications. Our objective was to analyze the requests received by an authorization center that serves cities in the greater metropolitan area of (the city of) São Paulo between 2011 and 2016. Methods: Data regarding the authorization, return, or rejection of the requests were compiled and analyzed in order to explain those outcomes. Subsequently, the clinical and functional data related to the patients were evaluated. Results: A total of 7,762 requests for dispensing COPD medication were analyzed. Requests related to male patients predominated. Among the corresponding patients, the mean age was 66 years, 12% were smokers, 88% had frequent exacerbations, and 84% had severe/very severe dyspnea. The mean FEV1 was 37.2% of the predicted value. The total number of requests decreased by 24.5% from 2012 to 2013 and was lowest in 2015. Most (65%) of the requests were accepted. The main reasons for the rejection/return of a request were a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio > 0.7, a post-bronchodilator FEV1 > 50% of the predicted value, and failure to provide information regarding previous use of a long-acting β2 agonist. During the study period, the total number of requests returned/rejected decreased slightly, and there was improvement in the quality of the data included on the forms. Conclusions: Here, we have identified the characteristics of the requests for COPD medications and of the corresponding patients per region served by the authorization center analyzed, thus contributing to the improvement of local public health care measures.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Clinical protocols; Drug costs; Tiotropium bromide.

 


Molecular analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from an outpatient clinic in Porto Alegre, (RS)

Análise molecular de cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis provenientes de um centro de saúde ambulatorial em Porto Alegre, (RS)

Michele Borges; Patrícia Izquierdo Cafrune; Lia Gonçalves Possuelo; Andréia Rosane de Moura Valim; Marta Osório Ribeiro; Maria Lucia Rosa Rossetti

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(4):448-454

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Background: Tuberculosis is an ancient disease, which still remains one of the major ills faced by mankind in the 21st century. In recent decades, new technologies employing the knowledge gained from molecular biology studies have allowed for more accurate detection of tuberculosis and increased investigation of the etiology and epidemiology of the disease. Aim: Evaluating the degree of similarity among strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis provided by the Phthisiology Sector of Centro de Saúde Navegantes (Navegantes Health Clinic) in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Method: A retrospective study was performed involving RFLP typing of 55 sputum samples from outpatients examined at the Centro de Saúde Navegantes. The results of the genotyping were correlated to the conventional epidemiology data. Results: A single pattern was seen in 39 (70.9%) of the isolates, whereas 16 isolates (29.1%) showed clustering patterns and were grouped into 8 clusters of 2 patients each. An epidemiological link was found for 6 (37.5%) of the 16 patients in the clusters. Conclusion: The appropriate combination of conventional epidemiology and genotyping of M. tuberculosis contributes to a better understanding of the dynamics of tuberculosis transmission even when such a study is performed in a single, isolated health clinic.

 


Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Transmission. Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length. Epidemiology.

 


Semiquantitative analysis of surgical biopsies of distinct lung lobes of patients with usual interstitial pneumonia/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Análise semiquantitativa de biópsias cirúrgicas de diferentes lobos pulmonares de pacientes com pneumonia intersticial usual/fibrose pulmonar idiopática

José Júlio Saraiva Gonçalves, Luiz Eduardo Villaça Leão, Rimarcs Gomes Ferreira, Renato Oliveira, Luiz Hirotoshi Ota, Ricardo Sales dos Santos

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(7):676-682

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Objective: To evaluate the differences between surgical biopsies of distinct lung lobes in terms of the histopathological features of usual interstitial pneumonia, using a semiquantitative score. Methods: We selected all of the patients diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and submitted to surgical biopsy in two distinct lobes between 1995 and 2005 at the Hospital São Paulo and other hospitals operated by the Federal University of São Paulo. In the histological evaluation of the specimens, we used a semiquantitative method based on previous studies, assigning a score to each of the biopsied sites. Results: In this sample of patients, we found no statistically significant differences that would alter the stage of the disease, based on the score used. This finding was independent of the biopsy site (middle lobe or lingular segment). Conclusions: No significant histological differences were found between the lung lobes studied. The definitive histological diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia did not alter the stage of the disease.

 


Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial; Pulmonary fibrosis; Thoracic surgery; Pathology; Thoracic surgery, ­video-assisted.

 


Sequential analysis as a tool for detection of amikacin ototoxicity in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

Análise sequencial como ferramenta na detecção da ototoxicidade da amicacina no tratamento da tuberculose multirresistente

Karla Anacleto de Vasconcelos1, Silvana Maria Monte Coelho Frota2, Antonio Ruffino-Netto3, Afrânio Lineu Kritski4

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(2):85-92

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Objetivo: Verificar a detecção precoce de ototoxicidade causada pelo uso de amicacina numa população tratada para tuberculose multirresistente (TBMR) por meio da realização de três testes distintos: audiometria tonal liminar (ATL), audiometria de altas frequências (AAF) e pesquisa de emissões otoacústicas por produto de distorção (EOAPD). Métodos: Estudo longitudinal de coorte prospectiva incluindo pacientes de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 18 e 69 anos, com diagnóstico de TBMR pulmonar e que necessitaram utilizar amicacina por seis meses em seu esquema medicamentoso antituberculose pela primeira vez. A avaliação auditiva foi realizada antes do início do tratamento e depois de dois e seis meses do início do tratamento. A análise dos resultados foi realizada por meio de análise estatística sequencial. Resultados: Foram incluídos 61 pacientes, mas a população final foi constituída de 10 pacientes (7 homens e 3 mulheres), em razão da análise sequencial. Ao se comparar os valores das respostas dos testes com aqueles encontrados na avaliação basal, foram verificadas mudanças nos limiares auditivos compatíveis com ototoxicidade após dois meses de tratamento através da AAF e após seis meses de tratamento através da ATL. Entretanto, essas mudanças não foram verificadas através da pesquisa de EOAPD. Conclusões: Ao se considerar o método estatístico utilizado nessa população, é possível concluir que mudanças nos limiares auditivos foram associadas ao uso da amicacina no período de seis meses por meio de AAF e ATL e que a pesquisa de EOAPD não se mostrou eficiente na identificação dessas mudanças.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Hearing loss; Aminoglycosides/toxicity.

 


Temporal analysis of reported cases of tuberculosis and of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in Brazil between 2002 and 2012*

Análise temporal dos casos notificados de tuberculose e de coinfecção tuberculose- -HIV na população brasileira no período entre 2002 e 2012

Renato Simões Gaspar1, Natália Nunes1, Marina Nunes2, Vandilson Pinheiro Rodrigues3

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):416-422

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Objective: To investigate the reported cases of tuberculosis and of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in Brazil between 2002 and 2012. Methods: This was an observational study based on secondary time series data collected from the Brazilian Case Registry Database for the 2002-2012 period. The incidence of tuberculosis was stratified by gender, age group, geographical region, and outcome, as was that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection. Results: Nationally, the incidence of tuberculosis declined by 18%, whereas that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection increased by 3.8%. There was an overall decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis, despite a significant increase in that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in women. The incidence of tuberculosis decreased only in the 0- to 9-year age bracket, remaining stable or increasing in the other age groups. The incidence of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection increased by 209% in the ≥ 60-year age bracket. The incidence of tuberculosis decreased in all geographical regions except the south, whereas that of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection increased by over 150% in the north and northeast. Regarding the outcomes, patients with tuberculosis-HIV co-infection, in comparison with patients infected with tuberculosis only, had a 48% lower chance of cure, a 50% greater risk of treatment nonadherence, and a 94% greater risk of death from tuberculosis. Conclusions: Our study shows that tuberculosis continues to be a relevant public health issue in Brazil, because the goals for the control and cure of the disease have yet to be achieved. In addition, the sharp increase in the incidence of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in women, in the elderly, and in the northern/northeastern region reveals that the population of HIV-infected individuals is rapidly becoming more female, older, and more impoverished.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; HIV infections/epidemiology; Comorbidity.

 


Anemia in hospitalized patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

Anemia em pacientes internados com tuberculose pulmonar

Marina Gribel Oliveira, Karina Neves Delogo, Hedi Marinho de Melo Gomes de Oliveira, Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Afranio Lineu Kritski, Martha Maria Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):403-410

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Objective: To describe the prevalence of anemia and of its types in hospitalized patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: This was a descriptive, longitudinal study involving pulmonary tuberculosis inpatients at one of two tuberculosis referral hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We evaluated body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), arm muscle area (AMA), ESR, mean corpuscular volume, and red blood cell distribution width (RDW), as well as the levels of C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, transferrin, and ferritin. Results: We included 166 patients, 126 (75.9%) of whom were male. The mean age was 39.0  10.7 years. Not all data were available for all patients: 18.7% were HIV positive; 64.7% were alcoholic; the prevalences of anemia of chronic disease and iron deficiency anemia were, respectively, 75.9% and 2.4%; and 68.7% had low body weight (mean BMI = 18.21 kg/m2). On the basis of TST and AMA, 126 (78.7%) of 160 patients and 138 (87.9%) of 157 patients, respectively, were considered malnourished. Anemia was found to be associated with the following: male gender (p = 0.03); low weight (p = 0.0004); low mean corpuscular volume (p = 0.03);high RDW (p = 0; 0003); high ferritin (p = 0.0005); and high ESR (p = 0.004). We also found significant differences between anemic and non-anemic patients in terms of BMI (p = 0.04), DCT (p = 0.003), and ESR (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In this sample, high proportions of pulmonary tuberculosis patients were classified as underweight and malnourished, and there was a high prevalence of anemia of chronic disease. In addition, anemia was associated with high ESR and malnutrition.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Anemia; Malnutrition; Iron.

 


Pulmonary artery aneurysms in Behçet's disease: regression after immunosuppressive treatment

Aneurismas das artérias pulmonares na doença de Behçet: regressão após tratamento imunossupressor

Isabela Fernandes de Magalhães, Iugiro R. Kuroki, Agnaldo José Lopes, Elisa M.N. Albuquerque, Evandro Mendes Klumb, Aline Elisa Goulart

J Bras Pneumol.1999;25(3):176-180

Abstract PDF PT

Behçet's disease is a systemic disease with clinical manifestations, whose underlying histopathologic lesion is a non-specific vasculitis. Pulmonary artery aneurysms and, more rarely, pleuropulmonary manifestations may be found. Some reports are available in the literature about the use of immunosuppressive agents in these conditions. The authors describe a case in whom clinical remission and radiologic resolution were observed after corticosteroid and cyclophophamide therapy.

 


Keywords: Behçet's disease. Pulmonary artery aneurysms.

 


Primary epithelioid angiosarcoma of the chest wall complicating calcified fibrothorax and mimicking empyema necessitatis

Angiossarcoma epitelioide primário da parede torácica complicando um fibrotórax calcificado e simulando empiema necessitatis

Luis Gorospe1, Ana Patricia Ovejero-Díaz2, Amparo Benito-Berlinches3

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):71-71

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Angiosarcoma of the lung

Angiossarcoma pulmonar

Mónica Grafino1, Paula Alves1, Margarida Mendes de Almeida2, Patrícia Garrido1, Direndra Hasmucrai1, Encarnação Teixeira1, Renato Sotto-Mayor1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):68-70

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Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant vascular tumor. Pulmonary involvement is usually attributable to metastasis from other primary sites, primary pulmonary angiosarcoma therefore being quite uncommon. We report a case of angiosarcoma with pulmonary involvement, probably primary to the lung, which had gone untreated for more than two years. We describe this rare neoplasm and its growth, as well as the extensive local invasion and hematogenous metastasis at presentation. We also discuss its poor prognosis.

 


Keywords: Hemangiosarcoma; Lung neoplasms; Sarcoma.

 


Long-acting muscarinic antagonists vs. long-acting &#946;2 agonists in COPD exacerbations: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Antagonistas muscarínicos de longa duração vs. β2-agonistas de longa duração em exacerbações da DPOC: revisão sistemática e meta-análise

Israel Silva Maia1, Mariângela Pimentel Pincelli1, Victor Figueiredo Leite2, João Amadera3, Anna Maria Buehler4

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):302-312

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

The objective of this systematic review was to characterize chest CT findings in patients with dysphagia and pulmonary aspiration, identifying the characteristics and the methods used. The studies were selected from among those indexed in the Brazilian Virtual Library of Health, LILACS, Indice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud, Medline, Cochrane Library, SciELO, and PubMed databases. The search was carried out between June and July of 2016. Five articles were included and reviewed, all of them carried out in the last five years, published in English, and coming from different countries. The sample size in the selected studies ranged from 43 to 56 patients, with a predominance of adult and elderly subjects. The tomographic findings in patients with dysphagia-related aspiration were varied, including bronchiectasis, bronchial wall thickening, pulmonary nodules, consolidations, pleural effusion, ground-glass attenuation, atelectasis, septal thickening, fibrosis, and air trapping. Evidence suggests that chest CT findings in patients with aspiration are diverse. In this review, it was not possible to establish a consensus that could characterize a pattern of pulmonary aspiration in patients with dysphagia, further studies of the topic being needed.

 


Keywords: Respiratory aspiration; Tomography, X-ray computed; Lung.

 


Staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies: degree of sensitization and association with severity of asthma

Anticorpos IgE específicos para superantígenos estafilocócicos: grau de sensibilização e associação com a gravidade da asma

José Elabras Filho1,2, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz Mello2, Omar Lupi1,3, Blanca Elena Rios Gomes Bica1, José Angelo de Souza Papi1, Alfeu Tavares França1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):356-361

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Objective: To determine the presence of staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies and degree of IgE-mediated sensitization, as well as whether or not those are associated with the severity of asthma in adult patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients with asthma under treatment at a tertiary care university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Consecutive patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of asthma based on the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria: mild asthma (MA), comprising patients with mild intermittent or persistent asthma; and moderate or severe asthma (MSA). We determined the serum levels of staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies, comparing the results and performing a statistical analysis. Results: The study included 142 patients: 72 in the MA group (median age = 46 years; 59 females) and 70 in the MSA group (median age = 56 years; 60 females). In the sample as a whole, 62 patients (43.7%) presented positive results for staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies: staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), in 29 (20.4%); SEB, in 35 (24.6%); SEC, in 33 (23.2%); and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), in 45 (31.7%). The mean serum levels of IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were 0.96 U/L, 1.09 U/L, 1.21 U/L, and 1.18 U/L, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the qualitative or quantitative results. Conclusions: Serum IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were detected in 43.7% of the patients in our sample. However, neither the qualitative nor quantitative results showed a statistically significant association with the clinical severity of asthma.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Immunoglobulin E; Superantigens; Bacterial toxins; Staphylococcus aureus.

 


Applicability of the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis

Aplicabilidade do questionário de qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde - the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey - em pacientes portadores de esclerose sistêmica progressiva

Thamine Lessa Andrade, Aquiles Assunção Camelier, Fernanda Warken Rosa, Marcia Pina Santos, Sérgio Jezler, Jorge Luiz Pereira e Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):414-422

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To evaluate the applicability of the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) as an instrument to measure health-related quality of life in a sample of patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) through the analysis of its reproducibility and its correlation with functional and clinical parameters. Methods: A test-retest reproducibility study for the comparative analysis of the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of the SF-12 and the SF-36. A total of 46 patients diagnosed with PSS were studied, regardless of the presence of respiratory symptoms. Results: The physical component summary 12 (PCS-12) score had an ICC of 0.47 (95%CI: 0.05-0.71; p < 0.02), whereas the mental component summary (MCS-12) score had an ICC of 0.72 (95%CI: 0.49-0.84; p < 0.001). The PCS-36 score had an ICC of 0.88 (95%CI: 0.78-0.93; p < 0.001), and the MCS-36 score also had an ICC of 0.88 (95%CI: 0.78-0.93; p < 0.001). Conclusion: The SF-12 is a reliable instrument for measuring health-related quality of life in patients with PSS, since it has been proven to be reproducible. However, this version of the SF-12 should only be used in clinical research settings.

 


Keywords: Quality of life; Questionnaires; Statistics; Scleroderma, systemic.

 


Clinical application of CT and CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy in patients with indeterminate pulmonary nodules

Aplicação clínica da TC e biópsia transtorácica percutânea guiada por TC em pacientes com nódulos pulmonares indeterminados

Luciana Vargas Cardoso, Arthur Soares Souza Júnior

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):380-388

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate the clinical application of CT and CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (CT-PTNB) in patients with indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPNs). Methods: We retrospectively studied 113 patients with PNs undergoing CT and CT-PTNB. Variables such as gender, age at diagnosis, smoking status, CT findings, and CT-PTNB techniques were analyzed. Data analysis was performed with the Student's t-test for independent samples the chi-square test, and normal approximation test for comparison of two proportions. Results: Of the 113 patients studied, 68 (60.2%) were male and 78 (69%) were smokers. The diameter of malignant lesions ranged from 2.6 cm to 10.0 cm. Most of the IPNs (85%) were located in the peripheral region. The biopsied IPNs were found to be malignant in 88 patients (77.8%) and benign in 25 (22.2%). Adenocarcinoma was the most common malignant tumor, affecting older patients. The IPN diameter was significantly greater in patients with malignant PNs than in those with benign IPNs (p < 0.001). Having regular contour correlated significantly with an IPN being benign (p = 0.022), whereas spiculated IPNs and bosselated IPNs were more often malignant (in 50.7% and 28.7%, respectively). Homogeneous attenuation and necrosis were more common in patients with malignant lesions (51.9% and 26.9%, respectively) Conclusions: In our sample, CT and CT-PTNB were useful in distinguishing between malignant and benign IPNs. Advanced age and smoking were significantly associated with malignancy. Certain CT findings related to IPNs (larger diameter, spiculated borders, homogeneous attenuation, and necrosis) were associated with malignancy.

 


Keywords: Solitary pulmonary nodule; Tomography; Image-guided biopsy.

 


Clinical application of serum tumor markers in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma

Aplicação clínica dos marcadores tumorais séricos em carcinoma não-pequenas células do pulmão

Jefferson Luiz Gross, Riad Naim Younes, José Alexandre Marzagão Barbuto, Fabio José Haddad, Daniel Dehenzelin

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(4):175-182

Abstract PDF PT

The usefulness of serum tumor markers in lung cancer is not well defined. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the correlation between serum tumor markers and tumor extension and its prognostic value. Patients and method: From February 1995 to September 1997, 103 patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma were evaluated at the Department of Thoracic Surgery. Serum levels of CEA, CYFRA21.1, CA15.3, CA19.9, CA72.4, and NSE were determined before treatment. Results: The serum level of CYFRA21.1 was the most frequent elevated tumor marker (55%). Patients with advanced tumor had higher mean serum level of CEA (90.8 ng/ml), CYFRA21.1 (20.3 ng/ml) and CA15.3 (56.5%) than those with localized carcinoma, respectively 10.2 ng/ml, 12.6 ng/ml and 22.2 ng/ml. Considering all serum tumor markers evaluated in this study, only patients with elevated CEA had greater chance (5.6) of presenting with advanced non-small lung carcinoma than patients with normal CEA. Overall survival was influenced by performance status (p = 0.001), tumor extension (p = 0.006), elevated serum level of CEA (p = 0.043), more than two elevated serum tumor markers (p < 0.001), and type of treatment (p < 0.001). The prognostic value of anatomical tumor extension reached the limit of significance (p = 0.052); however, two or more elevated serum tumor markers and type of treatment had independent prognostic value (respectively, p = 0.035 and p = 0.005). Conclusion: None of these serum tumor markers had clinical value in the management of NSCLC patients.

 


Keywords: biological tumor markers, neoplasm staging, non-small cell lung carcinoma, prognosis

 


Administering the Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire to sarcoidosis patients in Serbia

Aplicação do Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire em pacientes com sarcoidose na Sérvia

Violeta Mihailović-Vučinić1,2, Branislav Gvozdenović3, Mihailo Stjepanović2, Mira Vuković4, Ljiljana Marković-Denić5, Aleksandar Milovanović6, Jelica Videnović-Ivanov2, Vladimir Zugić1,2, Vesna Skodrić-Trifunović 1,2, Snezana Filipović2, Maja Omčikus2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):99-105

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Objective: The aim of this study was to use a Serbian-language version of the disease-specific, self-report Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire (SHQ), which was designed and originally validated in the United States, to assess health status in sarcoidosis patients in Serbia, as well as validating the instrument for use in the country. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 346 patients with biopsy-confirmed sarcoidosis. To evaluate the health status of the patients, we used the SHQ, which was translated into Serbian for the purposes of this study. We compared SHQ scores by patient gender and age, as well as by disease duration and treatment. Lower SHQ scores indicate poorer health status. Results: The SHQ scores demonstrated differences in health status among subgroups of the sarcoidosis patients evaluated. Health status was found to be significantly poorer among female patients and older patients, as well as among those with chronic sarcoidosis or extrapulmonary manifestations of the disease. Monotherapy with methotrexate was found to be associated with better health status than was monotherapy with prednisone or combination therapy with prednisone and methotrexate. Conclusions: The SHQ is a reliable, disease-specific, self-report instrument. Although originally designed for use in the United States, the SHQ could be a useful tool for the assessment of health status in various non-English-speaking populations of sarcoidosis patients.

 


Keywords: Sarcoidosis; Health status; Validation studies; Questionnaires; Self report; Serbia.

 


Therapeutic application of collateral ventilation with pulmonary drainage in the treatment of diffuse emphysema: report of the first three cases

Aplicação terapêutica da ventilação colateral com drenagem pulmonar no tratamento do enfisema pulmonar difuso: relato dos três primeiros casos

Roberto Saad Junior, Vicente Dorgan Neto, Marcio Botter, Roberto Stirbulov, Jorge Henrique Rivaben, Roberto Gonçalves

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(1):14-19

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Objective: To report the results obtained in three patients with diffuse pulmonary emphysema during the pre- and post-operative periods following a new surgical technique: collateral ventilation with lung parenchyma drainage. Methods: Patients suffering from pulmonary failure and disabling dyspnea, despite having received the gold standard treatment, including pulmonary rehabilitation, were selected for the evaluation of pulmonary drainage. During the pre- and post-operative periods, patients were submitted to plethysmography and six-minute walk tests, as well as completing the following quality of life questionnaires: Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status and Medical Research Council Scale. In all three cases, the post-operative follow-up period was at least 300 days. The tests were performed at the following time points: during the pre-operative period; between post-operative days 30 and 40; and on post-operative day 300. Data were analyzed using profile plots of the means. Results: When the results obtained in the pre-operative period were compared to those obtained at the two post-operative time points evaluated, improvements were observed in all parameters studied. Conclusions: The results suggest that the surgical technique proposed for the treatment of patients suffering from severe diffuse emphysema successfully reduces the debilitating symptoms of these patients, improving their quality of life considerably.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary emphysema; Lung diseases, obstructive; Lung, hyperlucent.

 


Obstructive sleep apnea and asthma

Apneia obstrutiva do sono e asma

Cristina Salles, Regina Terse-Ramos, Adelmir Sousa-Machado, Álvaro A Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):604-612

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in asthma patients and have been associated with asthma severity. It is known that asthma symptoms tend to be more severe at night and that asthma-related deaths are most likely to occur during the night or early morning. Nocturnal symptoms occur in 60-74% of asthma patients and are markers of inadequate control of the disease. Various pathophysiological mechanisms are related to the worsening of asthma symptoms, OSAS being one of the most important factors. In patients with asthma, OSAS should be investigated whenever there is inadequate control of symptoms of nocturnal asthma despite the treatment recommended by guidelines having been administered. There is evidence in the literature that the use of continuous positive airway pressure contributes to asthma control in asthma patients with obstructive sleep apnea and uncontrolled asthma.

 



Obstructive sleep apnea related to rapid-eye-movement or non-rapid-eye-movement sleep: comparison of demographic, anthropometric, and polysomnographic features.

Apneia obstrutiva do sono relacionada ao sono rapid eye movement ou ao sono non-rapid eye movement: comparação de aspectos demográficos, antropométricos e polissonográficos.

Aysel Sunnetcioglu1, Bunyamin Sertogullarından1, Bulent Ozbay2, Hulya Gunbatar1, Selami Ekin1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):48-54

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether there are significant differences between rapid-eye-movement (REM)-related obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and non-REM (NREM)-related OSA, in terms of the demographic, anthropometric, and polysomnographic characteristics of the subjects. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 110 patients (75 males) with either REM-related OSA (n = 58) or NREM-related OSA (n = 52). To define REM-related and NREM-related OSA, we used a previously established criterion, based on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): AHI-REM/AHI-NREM ratio > 2 and ≤ 2, respectively. Results: The mean age of the patients with REM-related OSA was 49.5 ± 11.9 years, whereas that of the patients with NREM-related OSA was 49.2 ± 12.6 years. The overall mean AHI (all sleep stages combined) was significantly higher in the NREM-related OSA group than in the REM-related OSA group (38.6 ± 28.2 vs. 14.8 ± 9.2; p < 0.05). The mean AHI in the supine position (s-AHI) was also significantly higher in the NREM-related OSA group than in the REM-related OSA group (49.0 ± 34.3 vs. 18.8 ± 14.9; p < 0.0001). In the NREM-related OSA group, the s-AHI was higher among the men. In both groups, oxygen desaturation was more severe among the women. We found that REM-related OSA was more common among the patients with mild-to-moderate OSA, whereas NREM-related OSA was more common among those with severe OSA. Conclusions: We found that the severity of NREM-related OSA was associated mainly with s-AHI. Our findings suggest that the s-AHI has a more significant effect on the severity of OSA than does the AHI-REM. When interpreting OSA severity and choosing among treatment modalities, physicians should take into consideration the sleep stage and the sleep posture.

 


Keywords: Sleep, REM; Sleep stages; Sleep apnea, obstructive; Apnea; Sleep apnea syndromes.

 


Clinical presentation of cow milk allergy symptoms

Apresentação clínica da alergia ao leite de vaca com sintomatologia respiratória

Fábio Ferreira de Carvalho Junior

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(1):17-24

Abstract PDF PT

Cow milk allergens are the first antigens children have contact with. The symptoms, which are frequently multi-systemic, may be related to the gastrointestinal tract, to the skin and, more rarely, to the respiratory tract. Objective: To describe some clinic and epidemiological characteristics of children who have cow milk allergy and present respiratory symptoms. Patients and method: This retrospective study included 17 children who presented respiratory problems immediately after ingesting cow milk, showed no symptoms as cow milk was excluded from their diets for a period of 4 to 6 weeks, and presented recurrent symptoms as cow milk was reintroduced into their diet in a hospital environment. Results: No difference was observed between genders. Family atopic antecedents were present in 14 of the 17 children. Mean exclusive breast-feeding period was 2.9 months and the onset of symptoms occurred at an average of 3.6 months. Eight of the ten tests conducted to evaluate immediate cutaneous hypersensitivity to cow milk were positive. Clinical manifestations observed were: wheezing infants (9), asthma (5), repetition otitis (2), selective IgA deficiency related to wheezing and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (1). Conclusion: Regarding wheezing infants, cow milk allergy should be included as a differential diagnosis and exclusive breast-feeding should be stimulated in cases of atopic family antecedents. However, a precise diagnosis is vital to prevent unnecessary food deprivation.

 


Keywords: Milk hipersensitivity. Milk substitutes. Respiratory signs and symptoms. Respiratory diseases.

 


Acute asthma in adults in the emergency room: clinical management in the first hour

Asma aguda em adultos na sala de emergência: o manejo clínico na primeira hora

Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Alan Castoldi Medeiros, Marcelo Kurz Siqueira, Felipe Mallmann, Mariane Lacerda, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(6):297-306

Abstract PDF PT

Asthma is a disease with high prevalence in our country and around the world. Although new therapeutic approaches have been recently developed, there appears to be a worldwide increase in morbidity and mortality from asthma. In many institutions, asthma exacerbation is still a common medical emergency. Clinical evidence demonstrates that the first hour of management of acute asthma in the emergency room entails crucial decisions that could be determinant in the clinical outcome. In this non-systematic review, the authors focus on the first hour assessment and treatment of patients with acute asthma and outline an appropriate strategy for their management. Diagnosis, severity assessment, pharmacological treatment, complications, and the decision regarding the place where additional treatment will take place will be considered. It is reasonable to expect that these recommendations will help physicians make appropriate decisions about the first hour care of acute asthma in the emergency room.

 


Keywords: Asthma. Emergency medicine. Emergency treatment. Clinical procedures. Emergency medical services.

 


Comparing asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in terms of symptoms of anxiety and depression

Asma e doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica: uma comparação entre variáveis de ansiedade e depressão

Neide Suzane Carvalho, Priscila Robles Ribeiro, Marcos Ribeiro, Maria do Patrocínio Tenório Nunes, Alberto Cukier, Rafael Stelmach

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):1-6

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Objective: To evaluate the presence and severity of symptoms of anxiety and depression in individuals with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: In order to evaluate symptoms of anxiety and depression, specific instruments of quantification (the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory, respectively) were administered to patients at an outpatient clinic for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The population comprised 189 randomly and prospectively selected patients that were divided into three study groups (each with a different therapeutic objective): 40 patients with controlled asthma, 100 patients with uncontrolled asthma, and 49 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Included among the variables studied, as part of the methodology, were symptoms of anxiety and depression. The data obtained were compared taking into consideration demographic and functional aspects, as well as the severity of the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Results: Among the asthma patients, the prevalence of moderate or severe anxiety was significantly higher than that observed among those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p <  0.001). The uncontrolled asthma group presented significantly higher rates of depressive symptoms than did the controlled asthma group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The frequency of symptoms of anxiety and depression is greater among asthma patients than among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which can make clinical control difficult.

 


Keywords: Anxiety; Depression; Asthma; Pulmonary disease; Chronic obstructive

 


Asthma and lung function in a birth cohort at 6-7 years of age in southern Brazil

Asma e função pulmonar aos 6-7 anos de idade em uma coorte de nascimentos no Sul do Brasil

Moema Nudilemon Chatkin, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Silvia Elaine Cardozo Macedo, Edgar Fiss

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(10):-

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Asthma and respiratory symptoms are common in children, and many studies have shown associations between childhood symptoms and impaired lung function in adult life. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of various respiratory symptoms with wheezing patterns (persistent, early, and late-onset) and lung function, as well as to determine whether lung function was associated with atopy or with demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, and gestational factors, in a birth cohort at 6-7 years of age. Methods: The target population consisted of children aged 6-7 years from a birth cohort of 5,304 children born in southern Brazil in 1993. For this follow-up evaluation, 532 of those children were randomly selected, and a sub-sample was submitted to spirometry and skin prick tests. A questionnaire was administered to the parent(s) or legal guardian(s) of each child. Results: Spirometric values were lower in the children with respiratory symptoms or asthma. Mean forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC ratio) was lower in children with any of the following: current wheezing and asthma; asthma ever; four or more episodes of wheezing within the preceding 12 months; sleep disturbance due to wheezing; and exercise-induced wheezing. Persistent wheezing was associated with lower FEV1/FVC ratio. After multiple linear regression, exercise-induced wheezing was also associated with reduced FEV1/FVC ratio. Nonwhite skin color and wheezing severe enough to limit speech were associated with lower FEV1. Conclusions: Children with persistent wheezing and symptoms of severe asthma have impaired lung function at 6-7 years of age.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Respiratory function tests; Respiratory sounds; Signs and symptoms, respiratory.

 


Asthma and Churg-Strauss syndrome

Asma e síndrome de Churg-Strauss

Soloni Afra Pires Levy, Alfeu Tavares França, Denise de La Reza, Solange Oliveira Rodrigues Valle, Ana Helena Pereira Correia

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):367-370

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We report the case of a 25-year-old woman with Churg-Strauss syndrome, the symptoms of which had first appeared soon after she began taking oral contraceptive at the age of sixteen. The clinical profile evolved rapidly to severe persistent asthma, nasal polyposis, perennial obstructive rhinitis, eosinophilia (peripheral/tissue) and mononeuritis. Churg-Strauss syndrome is the type of disease that demands early detection, accurate diagnosis, aggressive treatment and periodic monitoring. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of moderate and severe persistent asthma. The case reported calls attention to possibility that there is a hormonal component and that the disease can present early onset.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Churg-Strauss syndrome; Eosinophilia; Nasal polyps; Vasculitis; Case reports [publication type]

 


Asthma in children under five years of age: problems in diagnosis and in inhaled corticosteroid treatment

Asma em menores de cinco anos: dificuldades no diagnóstico e na prescrição da corticoterapia inalatória

Maria Jussara Fernandes Fontes, Maria Teresa Mohallem Fonseca, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos, Alessandra Gazire Alves Affonso, Geralda Magela Costa Calazans

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(3):244-253

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of this study was to review the literature, focusing on difficulties encountered in asthma diagnosis and in the establishment of initial inhaled corticosteroid treatment in children under five years of age. The search was limited to studies published between 1991 and 2002 in Portuguese, Spanish, or English and included in the LILACS and MEDLINE databases. Symptoms of asthma, the most common chronic childhood disease, typically appear in the first years of life. There are currently no diagnosis means of making a certain diagnosis of asthma in children under the age of five. Clinical manifestations, when present in toddlers and preschoolers, may require treatment such as that given for asthma, assuming that it is preceded by a critical evaluation. We can conclude that diagnosis of asthma in the first years of life is complex and predominantly clinical. Inhaled corticosteroid treatment is an effective tool, although its risks and benefits must be carefully evaluated.

 


Keywords: Asthma. Adrenal cortex hormones. Infant. Preschool.

 


Severe persistent asthma responsive to off-label use of omalizumab despite high and low levels of total serum IgE

Asma persistente grave com resposta ao uso off label de omalizumabe, não obstante a IgE sérica total ser alta ou baixa

Nobuhiro Asai, Yoshihiro Ohkuni, Akina Komatsu, Ryo Matsunuma, Kei Nakashima, Norihiro Kaneko

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):567-570

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Asthma: a great challenge

Asma: um grande desafio

Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(3):277-277

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Asmáticos brasileiros: o tratamento desejado

Márcia Alcântara Holanda

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(3):7-9

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Clinicopathological aspects of and survival in patients with clinical stage I bronchioloalveolar carcinoma

Aspectos clínico-patológicos do carcinoma bronquioloalveolar e sobrevida em pacientes no estágio clínico I

Daniel Sammartino Brandão, Rui Haddad, Giovanni Antonio Marsico, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro Boasquevisque

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(2):167-174

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Objective: To analyze the clinicopathological aspects of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) and the survival in a sample of patients at clinical stage I. Methods: A retrospective study involving 26 patients diagnosed with clinical stage I BAC and undergoing surgery at the Thoracic Diseases Institute of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 1987 and 2007. We analyzed clinicopathological and radiological aspects, as well as mortality and survival. The data, which were collected from the medical charts of the patients, were statistically analyzed. Results: Females predominated (n = 16). The mean age at diagnosis was 68.5 years. Most patients were active smokers (69.2%). The most common forms of presentation of BAC were the asymptomatic form (84.6%) and the nodular form (88.5%). Involvement of the upper lobes predominated (57.7%). Stage IB was the most common pathological stage, followed by stages IA and IIB (46.2%, 38.4% and 15.4%, respectively). There was no in-hospital mortality. Four patients died during the postoperative follow-up, with a mean disease-free survival time of 21.3 months. The overall five-year survival rate was 83%. The probability of survival for the patients diagnosed after 1999 showed a trend toward an increase when compared with that for those diagnosed up through 1999 (three-year survival rate: 92% vs. 68%; p = 0.07). Conclusions: The clinicopathological aspects of this study sample were similar to those of patients with BAC evaluated in previous studies.

 


Keywords: Adenocarcinoma, bronchiolo-alveolar; Carcinoma, non-small-cell lung; Lung; Smoking.

 


Clinical aspects of pulmonary tuberculosis in elderly patients from a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Aspectos clínicos da tuberculose pulmonar em idosos atendidos em hospital universitário do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

João Paulo Cantalice Filho, Clemax Couto Sant`Anna, Márcio Neves Bóia

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):699-706

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Objective: To evaluate clinical aspects and the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PT) in the aged. Methods: We compared 117 patients over 60 years of age (elderly group) and 464 patients aged 15 to 49 years old (nonelderly group) treated at the Thoracic Diseases Institute of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, from 1980 to 1996. Results: Previous history of PT was predominant in the elderly group (OR = 2.09; 95% CI = 1.26-3.45; p = 0.002), whereas household contact with PT was predominant in the nonelderly group (OR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.10-0.66; p = 0.002). Mean time for diagnosis was 90 days in the elderly group and 60 days in the nonelderly group. In the elderly group, dyspnea (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.06-2.53; p = 0.018) and weight loss (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.01-2.82; p = 0.047) were predominant. In the nonelderly group, hemoptysis (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.32-0.81; p = 0.002), chest pain (OR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.40-0.97; p = 0.027) and fever (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.35-0.86; p = 0.006) were more common. The most common radiological abnormalities were infiltrates and cavitations. Bilateral involvement was more common in the elderly patients (OR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.12-2.78; p = 0.009). There were no differences between the two groups regarding positivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis identified through tuberculin skin testing, sputum smear microscopy and culture. Conclusions: There are few clinical and laboratory differences between the age groups. The delayed diagnosis in the elderly group can be explained by the low clinical suspicion in these patients.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Aged; Signs and symptoms, respiratory; Diagnosis.

 


Clinical aspects in patients with pulmonary infection caused by mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex, in the Brazilian Amazon

Aspectos clínicos em pacientes com infecção pulmonar por micobactérias do complexo Mycobacterium abscessus na Amazônia brasileira

José Tadeu Colares Monteiro1, Karla Valéria Batista Lima2, Adriana Rodrigues Barretto3, Ismari Perini Furlaneto1,2, Glenda Moraes Gonçalves3, Ana Roberta Fusco da Costa2, Maria Luiza Lopes2, Margareth Pretti Dalcolmo4,5

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(2):93-98

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Objective: To describe the clinical manifestations of patients with pulmonary infection caused by mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC), and to compare these manifestations with those of patients infected with other nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving 43 patients divided into two groups: the MABSC group, consisting of patients with pulmonary infection caused by MABSC (n = 17); and the NTM group, consisting of patients with pulmonary infection caused by NTM other than MABSC (n = 26). Patients were previously treated with a regimen of rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol before the diagnosis of NTM was confirmed by two culture-positive sputum samples. The nucleotide sequences of the hsp65, 16S rRNA, and/or rpoB genes were analyzed to identify the mycobacteria. Data were collected on demographic, clinical, and radiological characteristics, as well as on treatment responses and outcomes. Results: Loss of appetite was the only clinical manifestation that was significantly more common in the MABSC group than in the NTM group (p = 0.0306). The chance of having to use a second treatment regimen was almost 12 times higher in the MABSC group than in the NTM group. Treatment success was significantly higher in the NTM group than in the MABSC group (83.2% vs. 17.6%; p < 0.0001). The chance of recurrence was approximately 37 times higher in the MABSC group than in the NTM group. Conclusions: In the study sample, treatment response of pulmonary disease caused by MABSC was less favorable than that of pulmonary disease caused by other NTM.

 


Keywords: Nontuberculous mycobacteria/classification; Nontuberculous mycobacteria/drug effects; Lung diseases.

 


Epidemiological aspects of and risk factors for wheezing in the first year of life

Aspectos epidemiológicos e fatores de risco para sibilância no primeiro ano de vida

Hamilton Rosendo Fogaça, Fernando Augusto de Lima Marson, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera Toro, Dirceu Solé, José Dirceu Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):617-625

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Objective: To determine, in a sample of infants, the prevalence of and risk factors for occasional wheezing (OW) and recurrent wheezing-wheezy baby syndrome (WBS). Methods: Parents of infants (12-15 months of age) completed the International Study of Wheezing in Infants questionnaire. Results: We included 1,269 infants residing in the city of Blumenau, Brazil. Of those, 715 (56.34%) had a history of wheezing, which was more common among boys. The prevalences of OW and WBS were 27.03% (n = 343) and 29.31% (n = 372), respectively. On average, the first wheezing episode occurred at 5.55 ± 2.87 months of age. Among the 715 infants with a history of wheezing, the first episode occurred within the first six months of life in 479 (66.99%), and 372 (52.03%) had had three or more episodes. Factors associated with wheezing in general were pneumonia; oral corticosteroid use; a cold; attending daycare; having a parent with asthma or allergies; mother working outside the home; male gender; no breastfeeding; and mold. Factors associated with WBS were a cold; physician-diagnosed asthma; ER visits; corticosteroid use; pneumonia; bronchitis; dyspnea; attending daycare; bronchodilator use; having a parent with asthma; no breastfeeding; mother working outside the home; and a dog in the household. Conclusions: The prevalence of wheezing in the studied population was high (56.34%). The etiology was multifactorial, and the risk factors were intrinsic and extrinsic (respiratory tract infections, allergies, attending daycare, and early wheezing). The high prevalence and the intrinsic risk factors indicate the need and the opportunity for epidemiological and genetic studies in this population. In addition, mothers should be encouraged to prolong breastfeeding and to keep infants under six months of age out of daycare.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Prevalence; Risk factors.

 


Epidemiological aspects, clinical manifestations, and prevention of pediatric tuberculosis from the perspective of the End TB Strategy

Aspectos epidemiológicos, manifestações clínicas e prevenção da tuberculose pediátrica sob a perspectiva da Estratégia End TB

Anna Cristina Calçada Carvalho1,a, Claudete Aparecida Araújo Cardoso2,b, Terezinha Miceli Martire3,c, Giovanni Battista Migliori4,d, Clemax Couto Sant'Anna5,e

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(2):134-144

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Tuberculosis continues to be a public health priority in many countries. In 2015, tuberculosis killed 1.4 million people, including 210,000 children. Despite the recent progress made in the control of tuberculosis in Brazil, it is still one of the countries with the highest tuberculosis burdens. In 2015, there were 69,000 reported cases of tuberculosis in Brazil and tuberculosis was the cause of 4,500 deaths in the country. In 2014, the World Health Organization approved the End TB Strategy, which set a target date of 2035 for meeting its goals of reducing the tuberculosis incidence by 90% and reducing the number of tuberculosis deaths by 95%. However, to achieve those goals in Brazil, there is a need for collaboration among the various sectors involved in tuberculosis control and for the prioritization of activities, including control measures targeting the most vulnerable populations. Children are highly vulnerable to tuberculosis, and there are particularities specific to pediatric patients regarding tuberculosis development (rapid progression from infection to active disease), prevention (low effectiveness of vaccination against the pulmonary forms and limited availability of preventive treatment of latent tuberculosis infection), diagnosis (a low rate of bacteriologically confirmed diagnosis), and treatment (poor availability of child-friendly anti-tuberculosis drugs). In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and prevention of tuberculosis in childhood and adolescence, highlighting the peculiarities of active and latent tuberculosis in those age groups, in order to prompt reflection on new approaches to the management of pediatric tuberculosis within the framework of the End TB Strategy.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary/prevention & control; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Lung diseases/etiology; Child; Adolescent.

 


Intracavitary pulmonary aspergilloma: endoscopic aspects

Aspergiloma pulmonar intracavitário: aspectos endoscópicos

Evelise Lima1, André Louis Lobo Nagy1, Rodrigo Abensur Athanazio2

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(3):285-285

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Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting a glove-finger shadow in radiographic images

Aspergilose broncopulmonar alérgica com imagem radiológica em "dedo de luva"

Marta Elizabeth Kalil, Ana Luiza Godoy Fernandes, Aline Cristinane da Silva Curzel, Márcio Zamuner Cortez, Gláucia Cristina Godinho Alves Lima

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(5):472-475

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Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a lung disease occurring in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis, triggered by a hypersensitivity reaction to the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus in the airways. We report herein the case of a patient presenting a clinical profile suggestive of asthma and meeting the clinical, laboratory testing and radiological criteria for a diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. The importance of such findings is that early diagnosis can reduce the risk of respiratory exacerbations and fibrosis.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Bronchiectasis; Aspergillus fumigatus; Aspergillosis, allergic bronchopulmonary

 


Acute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, shortly after occupational exposure to polluted muddy water, in a previously healthy subject

Aspergilose pulmonar invasiva aguda, logo após exposição ocupacional a água poluída barrenta, em indivíduo previamente saudável

Vikas Pilaniya, Kamal Gera, Rajesh Gothi, Ashok Sha

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):473-477

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Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) predominantly occurs in severely neutropenic immunocompromised subjects. The occurrence of acute IPA after brief but massive exposure to Aspergillus conidia in previously healthy subjects has been documented, although only six such cases have been reported. The diagnosis was delayed in all six of the affected patients, five of whom died. We report the case of a 50-year-old HIV-negative male, a water pipeline maintenance worker, who presented with acute-onset dyspnea and fever one day after working for 2 h in a deep pit containing polluted, muddy water. Over a one-month period, his general condition deteriorated markedly, despite antibiotic therapy. Imaging showed bilateral diffuse nodules with cavitation, some of which were surrounded by ground-glass opacity suggestive of a halo sign (a hallmark of IPA). Cultures (of sputum/bronchial aspirate samples) and serology were positive for Aspergillus fumigatus. After being started on itraconazole, the patient improved. We conclude that massive exposure to Aspergillus conidia can lead to acute IPA in immunocompetent subjects.

 


Keywords: Environmental exposure; Azoles; Water pollution; Immunocompetence; Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

 


Sequelae of foreign body aspiration in the respiratory tract of children

Aspiração de corpo estranho na árvore traqueobrônquica em crianças: avaliação de seqüelas através de exame cintilográfico

João Antônio Bonfadini Lima, Gilberto Bueno Fischer, José Carlos Felicetti, José Antônio Flores, Christina N. Penna, Eduardo Ludwig

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(1):20-24

Abstract PDF PT

Objective: The aim of this study was to detect late sequelae of foreign body aspiration in the respiratory tract of children. Methods: This study included children admitted from 1987 to 1999 to Hospital da Criança Santo Antônio, of Porto Alegre, with clinical symptoms of foreign body aspiration to the respiratory tract confirmed by chest X-ray and bronchoscopy. Thirty days after the extraction of the foreign body a perfusion lung scan with technetium was performed. Results: 77% of the foreign bodies were organic materials. In 65% of children the aspiration event occurred at least 7 days before referral. The main location of foreign body was in the right lower lobe bronchus. Perfusion lung scans were performed in 24 patients. In 67% of them reduction in lung perfusion was detected. A chance of sequelae was 3.8 times greater in those patients who had the foreign body removed after 7 days from the aspiration event. Conclusion: This study showed that children that have had foreign body aspiration may have perfusion sequelae in their lungs even after removal of the foreign body. These sequelae were more frequent if the removal was delayed in 7 days of aspiration. Pediatricians must keep this in mind at the follow-up of children that have had foreign body aspiration.

 


Keywords: foreign bodies; aspiration; bronchi; prognosis

 


Foreign body aspiration in children and adolescents: experience of a Brazilian referral center

Aspiração de corpo estranho por menores de 15 anos: experiência de um centro de referência do Brasil

Sílvia Teresa Evangelista Vidotto de Sousa, Valdinar Sousa Ribeiro, José Mário de Menezes Filho, Alcione Miranda dos Santos, Marco Antonio Barbieri, José Albuquerque de Figueiredo Neto

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(7):653-659

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Objective: To describe the clinical, radiological and endoscopic characteristics of foreign body aspiration among individuals under the age of 15 treated at a referral center in the city of São Luís, Brazil. Methods: This was a descriptive study using data from the medical charts of patients treated for foreign body aspiration at the Hospital Universitário Materno Infantil between 1995 and 2005. We investigated 72 confirmed cases of foreign body aspiration, evaluating the place of residence, as well as biological, clinical, radiological and endoscopic variables. We used the chi-square test to identify statistically significant differences in frequency among the variables studied. Results: The majority of the patients were from outlying areas (55.6%). The following variables presented the highest frequencies: 0-3 year age bracket (81.9%); male gender (63.9%); evolution > 24 h (66.7%); hypotransparency on chest X-ray (57.7%); foreign body in the right lung (41.2%) or in the larynx (20.5%); organic nature of the foreign body (83.3%); complication in the form of localized inflammation (59.4%); glottal edema as an endoscopic complication (47.6%); and seeds (46.6%), fish bone (28.3%) or plastics (25.5%) as the type of foreign body. There were no deaths. Conclusions: Preventive care should be a priority for male children under the age of 3 living in outlying areas. Such children should not be given access to substances that can be aspirated, including certain foodstuffs. Simple and easily accessible radiological tests have been underused, which jeopardizes the quality of the initial treatment.

 


Keywords: Foreign bodies; Inhalation; Bronchoscopy.

 


Patient-ventilator asynchrony

Assincronia paciente-ventilador

Marcelo Alcantara Holanda1,2,a, Renata dos Santos Vasconcelos2,b, Juliana Carvalho Ferreira3,c, Bruno Valle Pinheiro4,d

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(4):321-333

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Patient-ventilator asynchrony (PVA) is a mismatch between the patient, regarding time, flow, volume, or pressure demands of the patient respiratory system, and the ventilator, which supplies such demands, during mechanical ventilation (MV). It is a common phenomenon, with incidence rates ranging from 10% to 85%. PVA might be due to factors related to the patient, to the ventilator, or both. The most common PVA types are those related to triggering, such as ineffective effort, auto-triggering, and double triggering; those related to premature or delayed cycling; and those related to insufficient or excessive flow. Each of these types can be detected by visual inspection of volume, flow, and pressure waveforms on the mechanical ventilator display. Specific ventilatory strategies can be used in combination with clinical management, such as controlling patient pain, anxiety, fever, etc. Deep sedation should be avoided whenever possible. PVA has been associated with unwanted outcomes, such as discomfort, dyspnea, worsening of pulmonary gas exchange, increased work of breathing, diaphragmatic injury, sleep impairment, and increased use of sedation or neuromuscular blockade, as well as increases in the duration of MV, weaning time, and mortality. Proportional assist ventilation and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist are modalities of partial ventilatory support that reduce PVA and have shown promise. This article reviews the literature on the types and causes of PVA, as well as the methods used in its evaluation, its potential implications in the recovery process of critically ill patients, and strategies for its resolution.

 


Keywords: Respiration, artificial; Respiratory insufficiency; Interactive ventilatory support.

 


Patient-ventilator asynchrony. Ahead of print

Assincronia paciente-ventilador. Versão ahead of print

Marcelo Alcantara Holanda1,2,a, Renata dos Santos Vasconcelos2,b, Juliana Carvalho Ferreira3,c, Bruno Valle Pinheiro4,d

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(4):339-339

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Postinfectious bronchiolitis obliterans accompanied by pulmonary hemosiderosis in childhood

Associação de bronquiolite obliterante pós-infecciosa e hemossiderose pulmonar na infância

Leonardo Araújo Pinto, Anick Oliveira, Sintia Collaziol, Paulo Márcio Pitrez, Marcus Jones, João Carlos Prolla, Marisa Dolhnikoff, Renato T. Stein

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):587-591

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In the present report, we describe an unusual presentation of post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans accompanied by pulmonary hemosiderosis in a nine-year-old boy with persistent respiratory symptoms subsequent to an episode of acute bronchiolitis occurring at the age of seven months. After the episode, the persistent respiratory symptoms worsened significantly, and, by the age of seven, the patient began to have difficulty breathing after minimal exertion. Computed tomography of the chest presented findings consistent with bronchiolitis obliterans. Open lung biopsy revealed numerous hemosiderin-laden macrophages, as well as other findings consistent with bronchiolitis obliterans. Pulmonary hemosiderosis can occasionally be accompanied by bronchiolitis obliterans in children with severe sequelae after an episode of viral infection.

 


Keywords: Bronchoalveolar lavage; Bronchiolitis obliterans; Hemosiderosis; Case reports [Publication type]

 


Association of bronchogenic carcinoma with Pancoast's syndrome and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Associação de carcinoma broncogênico com síndrome de Pancoast e síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida

A.C. Frohlich, D. Chiesa, M. Ronsani, L.A. Henn, S.S. Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(5):269-272

Abstract PDF PT

A case of a patient with Pancoast's syndrome associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is reported. This association is rare and Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma are the most recurrent tumors in AIDS. The patient was an IV drug user and was admitted to the hospital for diagnosis of apex lung mass with signs of Pancoast's syndrome. HIV serology was positive and pathology of lung mass showed non-small cell lung cancer.

 


Keywords: Pancoast's syndrome. HIV. Bronchogenic carcinoma. Lung neoplasms. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

 


Silicosis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus

Associação de silicose e lúpus eritematoso sistêmico

Shirley Castro Holanda, Maria do Socorro T.M. Almeida, Antônio de Deus Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(4):221-224

Abstract PDF PT

The hypothesis that exposure to silica might be associated with a wide range of autoimmune diseases including SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus) has been discussed over the last decade, but only few cases of silicosis and SLE were described in the literature. The authors report the case of a male patient in his fifth decade of life, with previous exposure to silica, who worked as a well digger for ten years. The patient's clinical picture started with articular symptoms, sporadic peaks of fever, anemia, positive antinuclear factor, peripheral (1/10) and homogeneous (1/500) standard, and productive cough. Computed tomography of the chest showed a diffuse interstitial process, bilateral nodules, para-aortic and para-tracheal hilar calcifications, compatible with pulmonary and ganglial silicosis. He developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and died.

 


Keywords: Systemic lupus erythematosus. Silicosis. Autoimmune diseases.

 


Association between the display of cigarette packs at the point of sale and smoking susceptibility among adolescents in Brazil

Associação entre a exposição a maços de cigarros em pontos de venda e susceptibilidade ao tabagismo entre adolescentes brasileiros

Ana Luiza Curi Hallal1, Andreza Madeira Macario1, Roberto Hess de Souza2, Antônio Fernando Boing1, Lúcio Botelho1, Joanna Cohen3

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):49-51

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This was a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the association between exposure to tobacco displays at the point of sale and susceptibility to smoking in schoolchildren in the 14- to 17-year age bracket. Of the participating students, 69.0%, 21.3%, and 9.7% were classified as never smokers, experimenters, and smokers, respectively. Of the participants who were classified as being exposed to smoking, 18.9% were susceptible to smoking. Of the participants who were classified as being unexposed to smoking, 12.9% were susceptible to smoking (OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.04 -2.35; p = 0.029). Exposure to point-of-sale tobacco displays is associated with smoking susceptibility in Brazilian adolescents.

 



Association between severe asthma and changes in the stomatognathic system

Associação entre asma grave e alterações do sistema estomatognático

Mayra Carvalho-Oliveira1,2, Cristina Salles3, Regina Terse4, Argemiro D'Oliveira Júnior2,5

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):423-428

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Objective: To describe orofacial muscle function in patients with severe asthma. Methods: This was a descriptive study comparing patients with severe controlled asthma (SCA) and severe uncontrolled asthma (SUA). We selected 160 patients, who completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and the 6-item Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-6), as well as undergoing evaluation of orofacial muscle function. Results: Of the 160 patients evaluated, 126 (78.8%) and 34 (21.2%) presented with SCA and SUA, respectively, as defined by the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria. Regardless of the level of asthma control, the most frequent changes found after evaluation of muscle function were difficulty in chewing, oronasal breathing pattern, below-average or poor dental arch condition, and difficulty in swallowing. When the sample was stratified by FEV1 (% of predicted), was significantly higher proportions of SUA group patients, compared with SCA group patients, showed habitual open-mouth chewing (24.8% vs. 7.7%; p < 0.02), difficulty in swallowing water (33.7% vs. 17.3%; p < 0.04), and voice problems (81.2% vs. 51.9%; p < 0.01). When the sample was stratified by ACQ-6 score, the proportion of patients showing difficulty in swallowing bread was significantly higher in the SUA group than in the SCA group (66.6% vs. 26.6%; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The prevalence of changes in the stomatognathic system appears to be high among adults with severe asthma, regardless of the level of asthma control. We found that some such changes were significantly more common in patients with SUA than in those with SCA.

 


Keywords: Speech/physiology; Stomatognathic system/physiopathology; Asthma/complications; Deglutition disorders; Mastication/physiology.

 


Guided sputum sample collection and culture contamination rates in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB

Associação entre coleta de escarro guiada e taxas de contaminação de culturas para o diagnóstico de TB pulmonar

Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Renata Lyrio Peres, Moises Palaci, John L. Johnson, Reynaldo Dietze

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):460-463

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A comparative study to evaluate contamination in cultures of morning sputum samples, comparing those collected at home under currently recommended conditions and those collected under supervision after patient orientation and education. The home and supervised collection groups produced 43 and 76 sputum samples, respectively. The contamination rate was nearly 3-times higher among samples collected at home than among those collected under supervision (37% vs. 13%, p < 0.05; OR = 0.25). The simple educational and hygiene measures described can decrease the contamination rate among sputum samples collected for diagnostic culture.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Sputum/microbiology; Culture techniques.

 


Relationship between home environmental control and exacerbation of asthma in children and adolescents in the city of Camaragibe in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

Associação entre controle ambiental domiciliar e exacerbação da asma em crianças e adolescentes do município de Camaragibe, Pernambuco*

Rosane M. Barreto de Melo, Luciane S. de Lima, Emanuel S.Cavalcanti Sarinho

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(1):5-15

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Background: Hypersensitivity to dust mites, mold and pet dander found in the home is common among patients with asthma. Home environmental control to reduce exposure to allergens is one of various therapeutic measures that can be taken. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of adequate home environmental control among a study population monitored by the Family Health Program and to identify any possible correlation with the exacerbation of asthma among children between the ages of 5 and 14 in the city of Camaragibe, located in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Method: A transversal study was carried out involving 210 mothers/guardians of children, to whom International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children questionnaires were administered in order to characterize the exacerbation of asthma attacks. The Environment Assessment Guide of Allergic Patients was used to assess the bedrooms and living rooms in the home. Results: Among the 210 asthmatic children and adolescents evaluated in 2001, adequate home environmental control was observed in 141 (67.1%), and no correlation was observed between the degree of environmental control and fewer (< 3) asthma attacks (p = 0.39). Regarding the rooms where the asthmatic patients sleep, inappropriate furnishings were found in the homes of 93 patients (44.3%), including rag curtains in 84 cases (40.2%). Passive smoking was reported in 77 cases (36.7%). Conclusion: The level of home environmental control was satisfactory in the great majority of the residences, which may have contributed to the fact that no correlation was found between home environmental control and lower frequency of acute asthma attacks among the population studied.

 


Keywords: Key Words: Asthma. Environment Control. Frequency of Attacks.

 


Correlation of lung function and respiratory muscle strength with functional exercise capacity in obese individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

Associação entre função pulmonar, força muscular respiratória e capacidade funcional de exercício em indivíduos obesos com síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono

Thays Maria da Conceição Silva Carvalho1,a, Anísio Francisco Soares2,b, Danielle Cristina Silva Climaco3,c, Isaac Vieira Secundo3,d, Anna Myrna Jaguaribe de Lima2,e

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(4):279-284

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Objective: To evaluate lung function and inspiratory muscle strength, correlating them with exercise tolerance, in obese individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Methods: The sample comprised 31 adult subjects with moderate-to-severe OSAS diagnosed by polysomnography. We used spirometry to measure FVC, FEV1, and FVC/FEV1 ratio, using pressure manometry to measure MIP and MEP. The incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) and the six-minute walk test (6MWT) were used in order to determine functional exercise capacity. Results: In this sample, the mean values for FVC (% of predicted), FEV1 (% of predicted): MIP, and MEP were 76.4 ± 12.3%, 80.1 ± 6.3%, 60.0 ± 21.9 cmH2O, and 81.3 ± 22.2 cmH2O, respectively. The mean distances covered on the ISWT and 6MWT were 221 ± 97 m and 480.8 ± 67.3 m, respectively. The ISWT distance showed moderate positive correlations with FVC (r = 0.658; p = 0.001) and FEV1 (r = 0.522; p = 0.003). Conclusions: In this sample of obese subjects with untreated OSAS, lung function, inspiratory muscle strength, and exercise tolerance were all below normal. In addition, we found that a decline in lung function, but not in respiratory muscle strength, was associated with exercise tolerance in these patients.

 


Keywords: Sleep apnea syndromes; Exercise tolerance; Respiratory function tests; Respiratory muscles.

 


Association between nutritional status measurements and pulmonary function in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis

Associação entre medidas do estado nutricional e a função pulmonar de crianças e adolescentes com fibrose cística

Célia Regina Moutinho de Miranda Chaves, José Augusto Alves de Britto, Cristiano Queiroz de Oliveira, Miriam Martins Gomes, Ana Lúcia Pereira da Cunha

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):409-414

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the association between nutritional status measurements and pulmonary function in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Methods: We evaluated the nutritional status of 48 children and adolescents (aged 6-18 years) with cystic fibrosis based on body mass index (BMI) and body composition measurements-mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) and triceps skinfold thickness (TST)-at a referral center in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Pulmonary function was assessed by means of spirometry, using FEV1 to classify the severity of airway obstruction. We used Student's t-tests for comparisons between proportions and linear regression analysis for associations between continuous variables. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: The evaluation of nutritional status based on BMI identified a smaller number of malnourished patients than did that based on MAMC (14 vs. 25 patients, respectively). Most of the patients presented mild pulmonary disease. Mean FEV1 was 82.5% of predicted. Pulmonary function was found to correlate significantly with BMI, MAMC and TST (p = 0.001, p = 0.001 and p = 0.03, respectively). All subjects with moderate or severe pulmonary involvement were considered malnourished based on BMI and body composition parameters. Of the 25 patients considered malnourished based on body composition (MAMC), 19 were considered well-nourished based on their BMI. Conclusions: In the present study, all nutritional status measurements correlated directly with the pulmonary function of children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. However, body composition measurements allowed earlier detection of nutritional deficiencies.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Body composition; Spirometry; Nutrition assessment.

 


Association between nutritional status and dietary intake in patients with cystic fibrosis

Associação entre o estado nutricional e a ingestão dietética em pacientes com fibrose cística

Míriam Isabel Souza dos Santos Simon, Michele Drehmer, Sérgio Saldanha Menna-Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(10):966-972

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the relationship between nutritional status and dietary intake in patients with cystic fibrosis. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 85 cystic fibrosis patients between 6 and 18 years of age. Dietary intake was evaluated by the 3-day diet record (weighing the food consumed). The outcome measures were the following nutritional status indicators: weight/height (W/H%) percentage, body mass index (BMI) percentiles, Z score for weight/age (W/A), Z score for height/age (H/A) and percentage of dietary intake compared with the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). Results: The prevalence of well-nourished patients was 77.7%, using BMI above the 25th percentile as the cut-off value, and the W/H% was above 90% in 83.5%. The mean dietary intake, evaluated in 82 patients, was 124.5% of the RDA. In the univariate logistic regression analyses, we found a significant association between the independent variable calorie intake and the Z score for W/A. The multivariate analysis, based on the Z score for H/A and adjusted for FEV1, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and number of hospitalizations, demonstrated that a 1% increase in the calorie intake decreases the chance of having short stature by 2% (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-1.00). Maternal level of education showed a borderline association (p = 0.054). Conclusions: The prevalence of malnutrition was low in this sample of patients. The study model demonstrated an association between dietary intake and nutritional status. Dietary intake was a predictive factor of statural growth in patients with cystic fibrosis.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Nutritional status; Diet records; Child; Adolescent.

 


Association of MBL2, TGF-&#946;1 and CD14 gene polymorphisms with lung disease severity in cystic fibrosis

Associação entre os polimorfismos dos genes MBL2, TGF-β1 e CD14 com a gravidade da doença pulmonar na fibrose cística

Elisangela Jacinto de Faria, Isabel Cristina Jacinto de Faria, José Dirceu Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando Ribeiro, Gabriel Hessel, Carmen Sílvia Bertuzzo

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(4):334-342

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Objective: To identify associations between genetic polymorphisms (in the MBL2, TGF-β1 and CD14 genes) and the severity of the lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), as well as between the presence of ΔF508 alleles and lung disease severity in such patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional cohort study, based on clinical and laboratory data, involving 105 patients with CF treated at a university hospital in the 2005-2006 period. We included 202 healthy blood donors as controls for the determination of TGF-β1 and CD14 gene polymorphisms. Polymorphisms in the MBL2 and TGF-β1 genes at codon 10, position +869, were genotyped using the allele-specific PCR technique. The C-159T polymorphism in the CD14 gene was genotyped using PCR and enzymatic digestion. Results: Of the 105 CF patients evaluated, 67 presented with severe lung disease according to the Shwachman score. The MBL2 gene polymorphisms were not associated with disease severity in the CF patients. Analysis of the T869C polymorphism in the TGF-β1 gene showed an association only between TC heterozygotes and mild pulmonary disease. Although patients presenting the TT genotype of the C159T polymorphism in the CD14 gene predominated, there was no significant difference regarding lung disease severity. Conclusions: There was an association between the TC genotype of the T869C polymorphism (TGF-β1) and mild pulmonary disease in CF patients. In the CD14 gene, the TT genotype seems to be a risk factor for pulmonary disease but is not a modulator of severity. We found no association between being a ΔF508 homozygote and presenting severe lung disease.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Polymorphism, genetic; Severity of illness index; Mannose-binding lectin; Transforming growth factor beta.

 


Association between paracoccidioidomycosis and tuberculosis: reality and misdiagnosis

Associação entre paracoccidioidomicose e tuberculose: realidade e erro diagnóstico

Reynaldo Quagliato Júnior, Tiago de Araújo Guerra Grangeia, Reinaldo Alexandre de Carvalho Massucio, Eduardo Mello De Capitani, Sílvio de Moraes Rezende, Alípio Barbosa Balthazar

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):295-300

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Objective: To evaluate the frequency of the real association between paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) and tuberculosis (TB) as well as the rate of previous TB misdiagnosis in individuals with PCM among the patients treated in the Pulmonology Division of the State University of Campinas Hospital das Clínicas, Campinas, Brazil. Methods: A retrospective study of 227 adult patients with PCM (chronic form) treated between 1980 and 2005. Results: Of the 227 patients studied, 36 (15.8%) had been previously treated for TB. However, only 18 (7.9%) presented positive sputum smear microscopy results. The remaining 18 (7.9%) neither presented positive sputum smear microscopy nor showed improvement after receiving specific anti-TB treatment. Conclusion: Although the existence of an association between PCM and TB has been documented in the literature, misdiagnosis is common due to the superimposition of and the similarity between their clinical and radiographic presentations, thereby warranting the need for bacteriological diagnosis before initiating specific treatment.

 


Keywords: Paracoccidioidomycosis; Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Diagnosis, differential.

 


Association between serum selenium level and conversion of bacteriological tests during antitu-berculosis treatment

Associações entre níveis de selênio sérico e conversão de testes bacteriológicos durante o tratamento antituberculose

Milena Lima de Moraes, Daniela Maria de Paula Ramalho, Karina Neves Delogo, Pryscila Fernandes Campino Miranda, Eliene Denites Duarte Mesquita, Hedi Marinho de Melo Guedes de Oliveira, Antônio Ruffino-Netto, Paulo César de Almeida, Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis, Reinaldo Calixto Campos, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Martha Maria de Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):269-278

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Objective: To determine whether serum selenium levels are associated with the conversion of bacteriological tests in patients diagnosed with active pulmonary tuberculosis after eight weeks of standard treatment. Methods: We evaluated 35 healthy male controls and 35 male patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, the latter being evaluated at baseline, as well as at 30 and 60 days of antituberculosis treatment. For all participants, we measured anthropometric indices, as well as determining serum levels of albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and selenium. Because there are no reference values for the Brazilian population, we used the median of the serum selenium level of the controls as the cut-off point. At 30 and 60 days of antituberculosis treatment, we repeated the biochemical tests, as well as collecting sputum for smear microscopy and culture from the patients. Results: The mean age of the patients was 38.4  11.4 years. Of the 35 patients, 25 (71%) described themselves as alcoholic; 20 (57.0%) were smokers; and 21 (60.0%) and 32 (91.4%) presented with muscle mass depletion as determined by measuring the triceps skinfold thickness and arm muscle area, respectively. Of 24 patients, 12 (39.2%) were classified as moderately or severely emaciated, and 15 (62.5%) had lost > 10% of their body weight by six months before diagnosis. At baseline, the tuberculosis group had lower serum selenium levels than did the control group. The conversion of bacteriological tests was associated with the CRP/albumin ratio and serum selenium levels 60 days after treatment initiation. Conclusions: Higher serum selenium levels after 60 days of treatment were associated with the conversion of bacteriological tests in pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

 


Keywords: Selenium; Nutritional status; Tuberculosis; Immunity.

 


Pharmaceutical care for patients with persistent asthma: assessment of treatment compliance and use of inhaled medications

Atenção farmacêutica ao portador de asma persistente: avaliação da aderência ao tratamento e da técnica de utilização dos medicamentos inalatórios

Daiane de Oliveira Santos, Maria Cleusa Martins, Sonia Lucena Cipriano, Regina Maria Carvalho Pinto, Alberto Cukier, Rafael Stelmach

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):14-22

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Objective: To evaluate treatment compliance and use of inhaled medications of patients with asthma receiving complementary pharmaceutical care. Methods: A controlled prospective parallel study involving a study group and a control group. We selected 60 patients with persistent asthma and using metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs) or both. The patients were evaluated three times over 60 days. Instructions were provided to the patients in the study group at all visits but only at the first visit to those in the control group. The patients using < 80% or > 120% of the total number of prescribed doses were classified as noncompliant. The inhalation technique was quantified by a scoring system. A satisfactory technique was defined as a score higher than 7 (maximum, 9) for MDIs and higher than 4 (maximum, 5) for DPIs. Results: The final study sample comprised 28 study group patients and 27 control group patients, of whom 18 (64.3%) and 20 (74.7%), respectively, were considered treatment compliant. From the first to the third visits, there were increases, in the study and control groups, in the median MDI-use score (from 3 [range, 0-5] to 8 [range, 8-9]; p < 0.001; and from 5 [range, 2-6] to 7 [range, 6-8]), as well as in the median DPI-use score (from 3 [range, 2-4] to 5 [range, 4-5] and from 3 [range, 2-4] to 4 [range, 3-5]). Conclusions: The counseling provided by the pharmacist to the patient was important to assist in the implementation of the appropriate inhalation technique, especially for MDI use.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Pharmaceutical services; Administration, inhalation;Metered dose inhalers; Medication adherence.

 


Meeting the assumptions of statistical tests: an important and often forgotten step to reporting valid results

Atender as premissas dos testes estatísticos: um passo importante e muitas vezes negligenciado na comunicação de resultados válidos

Cecilia Maria Patino1,2,a Juliana Carvalho Ferreira1,3,b

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(5):353-353

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Physical therapy in the immediate postoperative period after abdominal surgery

Atendimento fisioterapêutico no pós-operatório imediato de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia abdominal

Luiz Alberto Forgiarini Junior, Alexandra Torres de Carvalho, Tatiane de Souza Ferreira, Mariane Borba Monteiro, Adriane Dal Bosco, Marisa Pereira Gonçalves, Alexandre Simões Dias

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):455-459

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A series of pulmonary complications can occur after abdominal surgery. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce appropriate treatment early in order to minimize postoperative complications. The objective of the present study was to evaluate patients submitted to abdominal surgery in terms of the effect of physical therapy in the immediate postoperative period. This was a randomized clinical trial, in which one group of patients was submitted to physical therapy in the postoperative recovery room and, subsequently, in the infirmary, whereas another group was submitted to physical therapy in the infirmary exclusively. We conclude that physical therapy performed in the immediate postoperative period minimizes losses in lung function and respiratory muscle strength, as well as shortening recovery room stays.

 


Keywords: Physical therapy (specialty); Postoperative period; Surgery/abdomen.

 


Mosaic attenuation.

Atenuação em mosaico.

Edson Marchiori1,a, Bruno Hochhegger2,b, Gláucia Zanetti1,c.

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(6):e20190343-e20190343

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Attitudes of Brazilian pulmonologists toward nicotine dependence: a national survey

Atitudes dos pneumologistas brasileiros em face da dependência de nicotina: inquérito nacional

Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas, Antonio Gabriel Teles Valentim, Jaene Andrade Pacheco Amoras, Euler Junior Moreira Nascimento

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(2):239-242

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Smoking is a medical condition, since there is drug dependence, and health professionals should treat it as a chronic disease. In order to understand the attitudes of Brazilian pulmonologists toward smokers, we conducted a national survey, using a questionnaire posted on the Internet, of 2,800 pulmonologists, 587 (21%) of whom completed and returned the questionnaires. We found that 3.2% of the respondents did not believe that smoking is a medical condition. Only 14.7% treated smokers, and 32.4% stated that they would refer smokers to another professional for treatment. These results suggest that Brazilian pulmonologists have insufficient knowledge of smoking cessation therapies.

 


Keywords: Physicians; Tobacco use cessation; Smoking/therapy.

 


Atividade bactericida precoce: uma metodologia segura e necessária

Moises Palaci, David Jamil Hadad, Valdério do Valle Dettoni, Reynaldo Dietze

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):189-191

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Treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis: update

Atualização do tratamento das vasculites associadas a anticorpo anticitoplasma de neutrófilos

Alfredo Nicodemos Cruz Santana, Viktoria Woronik, Ari Stiel Radu Halpern, Carmen S V Barbas

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):809-816

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In its various forms, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is characterized by a systemic inflammation of the small and medium-sized arteries (especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, as well as in the kidneys). The forms of AAV comprise Wegener's granulomatosis (now called granulomatosis with polyangiitis), microscopic polyangiitis, renal AAV, and Churg-Strauss syndrome. In this paper, we discuss the phases of AAV treatment, including the induction phase (with cyclophosphamide or rituximab) and the maintenance phase (with azathioprine, methotrexate, or rituximab). We also discuss how to handle patients who are refractory to cyclophosphamide.

 


Keywords: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis; Wegener granulomatosis; Antibodies, antineutrophil cytoplasmic.

 


Update on the approach to smoking in patients with respiratory diseases

Atualização na abordagem do tabagismo em pacientes com doenças respiratórias

Maria Penha Uchoa Sales1,a, Alberto José de Araújo2,b, José Miguel Chatkin3,c, Irma de Godoy4,d, Luiz Fernando Ferreira Pereira5,e, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira Castellano6,f, Suzana Erico Tanni4,g, Adriana Ávila de Almeida7,h, Gustavo Chatkin3,i, Luiz Carlos Côrrea da Silva8,j, Cristina Maria Cantarino Gonçalves9,k, Clóvis Botelho12,13,l, Ubiratan Paula Santos14,m, Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas15,n, Maristela Rodrigues Sestelo16,o, Ricardo Henrique Sampaio Meireles10,11,p, Paulo César Rodrigues Pinto Correa17,q, Maria Eunice Moraes de Oliveira18,r, Jonatas Reichert19,s, Mariana Silva Lima6,t, Celso Antonio Rodrigues da Silva20,u

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(3):e20180314-e20180314

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Smoking is the leading cause of respiratory disease (RD). The harmful effects of smoking on the respiratory system begin in utero and influence immune responses throughout childhood and adult life. In comparison with "healthy" smokers, smokers with RD have peculiarities that can impede smoking cessation, such as a higher level of nicotine dependence; nicotine withdrawal; higher levels of exhaled carbon monoxide; low motivation and low self-efficacy; greater concern about weight gain; and a high prevalence of anxiety and depression. In addition, they require more intensive, prolonged treatment. It is always necessary to educate such individuals about the fact that quitting smoking is the only measure that will reduce the progression of RD and improve their quality of life, regardless of the duration and severity of the disease. Physicians should always offer smoking cessation treatment. Outpatient or inpatient smoking cessation treatment should be multidisciplinary, based on behavioral interventions and pharmacotherapy. It will thus be more effective and cost-effective, doubling the chances of success.

 


Keywords: Respiratory tract diseases/therapy; Respiratory tract diseases/drug therapy; Tobacco use disorder/epidemiology; Smoking cessation; Counseling; Lung neoplasms.

 


Control measures to trace &#8804; 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis

Atualização no diagnóstico e tratamento da fibrose pulmonar idiopática

José Baddini-Martinez1, Bruno Guedes Baldi2, Cláudia Henrique da Costa3, Sérgio Jezler4, Mariana Silva Lima5, Rogério Rufino3,6

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):454-466

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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a type of chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia, of unknown etiology, which is associated with a progressive decrease in pulmonary function and with high mortality rates. Interest in and knowledge of this disorder have grown substantially in recent years. In this review article, we broadly discuss distinct aspects related to the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We list the current diagnostic criteria and describe the therapeutic approaches currently available, symptomatic treatments, the action of new drugs that are effective in slowing the decline in pulmonary function, and indications for lung transplantation.

 


Keywords: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/diagnosis; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/therapy; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/rehabilitation.

 


Environmental and epidemiological evaluation of workers of the fertilizer industry of Rio Grande, RS

Avaliação ambiental e epidemiológica do trabalhador da indústria de fertilizantes de Rio Grande, RS

Maura Dumont Hüttner, José da Silva Moreira

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(5):245-253

Abstract PDF PT

Occupational lung diseases represent an important and serious public health problem. In order to contribute to the knowledge of the risks associated with the exposure to fertilizer production an environmental and epidemiological cross-sectional study was performed among workers of this industry in Rio Grande, RS, Brazil. The ATS-DLD-78 questionnaire was applied, a thoracic radiological study was carried out, and the pulmonary function testing was evaluated through spirometry in 413 employees, 305 being the exposed group and 108 the non-exposed group. The exposed workers were all men, 74.1% had attended elementary school (at least some years), mean age was 38 (± 7.6) and mean time of exposure was 11.8 years (± 6.7). As to cigarette smoking, 126 (41.3%) were smokers, 76 (24.9%) former smokers, and 103 (33.8%) non-smokers. The exposed group was divided into four work sections according to the specific risks of their occupational exposure. The environmental evaluation showed the presence of free silica, gaseous fluorides, and gaseous ammonia in concentrations above the tolerance limits. Results of the exposed workers were: 30.5% of them answered positively to cough, 14.7% to chronic cough, 8.5% to chronic bronchitis, 43.3% to rhinitis, and 35.4% to conjunctivitis. The multivariate analysis, after adjustment for smoking, showed statistically significant association between exposure and cough as a whole, rhinitis and conjunctivitis. The thoracic radiological studies did not point to any considerable abnormality of pneumoconiosis in the exposed workers. Most of them presented normal pulmonary function testing, not different from the controls.

 


Keywords: Epidemiology. Lung diseases. Respiratory tract diseases. Occupational diseases. Fertilizer industry. Evaluation. Environment.

 


Clinical, functional, and cytological evaluation of sputum in postinfectious bronchiolitis obliterans: a possible overlap with asthma?

Avaliação clínica, funcional e da citologia de escarro em bronquiolite obliterante pós-infecciosa: é possível a coexistência com asma?

Sarah Angélica Maia1,a, Denise Eli2,b, Roberta Cunha2,c, Elessandra Bitencourt2,d, Carlos Antônio Riedi1,e, Herberto José Chong Neto1,f, Débora Carla Chong e Silva1,g, Nelson Augusto Rosário Filho1,h

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(5):e20190060-e20190060

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Clinical, nutritional and spirometric evaluation of patients with cystic fibrosis after the implementation of multidisciplinary treatment

Avaliação clínica, nutricional e espirométrica de pacientes com fibrose cística após implantação de atendimento multidisciplinar

Lídia Torres, Jenny Libeth Jurado Hernandez, Giseli Barbiero de Almeida, Liana Barbaresco Gomide, Valéria Ambrósio, Maria Inez Machado Fernandes

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):731-737

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Objective: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic multisystemic hereditary disease for which a multidisciplinary approach must be taken. The objective of this study was to show the evolution of a group of patients with CF after the implementation of multidisciplinary treatment. Methods: A retrospective study involving 19 patients (6-29 years of age) under clinical follow-up treatment at the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas, located in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. The patients were divided into two groups: 6-12(6-12 years of age) and 13+ (> 12 years of age). We collected data regarding body mass index (BMI), Zscore, Shwachman score (SS), number of exacerbations/year, chronic colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and spirometric measurements (FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, and FEF25-75%). Data were collected at two different time points (before and after the implementation of the multidisciplinary treatment) and were analyzed with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: The median age at the onset of symptoms was 10 months. In the 6-12 group, only BMI and FVC increased significantly. Although the other spirometric values increased, the differences were not significant. In the 13+ group, there were no significant differences between the two time points. There was a borderline significant decrease in SS and less than significant decreases in the spirometric measurements. However, the number of patients with alterations in volumes and flows decreased in both groups. Conclusions: Although our patient sample was small, the lack of changes in the spirometric parameters might reflect clinical and functional stability. In all of the patients evaluated, clinical, functional, and nutritional parameters remained stable throughout the study period. The implementation of a multidisciplinary approach might have contributed to this result.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Spirometry; Body mass index; Physical therapy modalities.

 


Computer-assisted evaluation of pulmonary emphysema in CT scans: comparison between a locally developed system and a freeware system

Avaliação computacional de enfisema pulmonar em TC: comparação entre um sistema desenvolvido localmente e um sistema de uso livre

John Hebert da Silva Felix, Paulo César Cortez, Rodrigo Carvalho Sousa Costa, Simone Castelo Branco Fortaleza, Eanes Delgado Barros Pereira, Marcelo Alcantara Holanda

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):868-876

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Objective: To present a locally developed system of computer vision for use with HRCT images, designated SIStema para a Detecção e a quantificação de Enfisema Pulmonar (SISDEP, System to Detect and Quantify Pulmonary Emphysema), and to compare this system with a freeware system tool. Methods: Thirty-three HRCT images scanned at the apex, hilum and base of the lungs of 11 patients with COPD were analyzed. The SISDEP was compared with the Osiris Medical Imaging Software Program regarding lung parenchyma segmentation, precision of the measurement of the cross-sectional area of the lungs in mm2, mean lung density (MLD), relative area (RA) of the lung occupied by voxels with attenuation values < −950 Hounsfield units (RA −950), 15th percentile point (Perc15) and visualization of hyperinflated areas using a color mask. Results: Although both computational systems were efficient in segmenting the lungs, the SISDEP performed this task automatically and more rapidly. There were significant correlations between the two systems in terms of the results obtained for lung cross-sectional area, MLD, RA −950 and Perc15 (r2 = 0.99, 0.99, 0.99 and 1.00, respectively). The color mask tool of the SISDEP allowed excellent visualization of hyperinflated areas, discriminating them from normal areas. Conclusions: The SISDEP was efficient in segmenting the lungs and quantifying lung hyperinflation, presenting an excellent correlation with the Osiris system. The SISDEP constitutes a promising computational tool for diagnosing and assessing the progression of emphysema in HRCT images of COPD patients.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Emphysema; Tomography, X-ray computed; Decision making, computer-assisted.

 


Critical appraisal of the literature. Why do we care?

Avaliação crítica da literatura. Por que nos importamos?

Juliana Carvalho Ferreira1,2,a, Cecilia Maria Patino1,3,b

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(6):448-448

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Evaluation of ampicillin-quinolone association in hospital treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia

Avaliação da associação de quinolona e ampicilina no tratamento hospitalar de pneumonias graves adquiridas na comunidade

Dinália Maria Ribeiro, Marísia de Almeida Ritti, Cátia Esmeralda do Carmo, Bruno do Valle Pinheiro, Jorge Baldi, Júlio César Abreu de Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.1997;23(4):174-178

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Objective: Evaluate the efficacy of the ampicillin-quinolone association in the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia. Design: Open, prospective study carried out at the Emergency room of the Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. Patients and methods: From March 1994 to September 1995, the authors studied 23 patients with fever and with at least three of the following symptoms: cough, purulent sputum, pleuritic thoracic pain, leukocytosis or leukopenia, and a chest radiological examination showing infiltrations compatible with pneumonia diagnosis. The patient diagnosis would be severe pneumonia if he met the criteria of severe sepsis as established by the American College of Chest Physicians and by the Society of Critical Care Medicine. Results: 23 patients were studied. One was excluded after having a pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis; 21 patients were considered cured and one died. Adverse drug effects occurred in one patient who presented a mild pharmacodermia. Conclusion: Ampicillin-quinolone is efficient in the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia.

 



Assessment of exercise capacity in pulmonary hypertension

Avaliação da capacidade de exercício na hipertensão pulmonar

Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):401-403

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Functional capacity measurement: reference equations for the Glittre Activities of Daily Living test

Avaliação da capacidade funcional: equações de referência para o teste Glittre Activities of Daily Living

Cardine Martins dos Reis1,2,a, Manuela Karloh1,3,b, Fernanda Rodrigues Fonseca1,2,c, Roberta Rodolfo Mazzali Biscaro1,2,d, Giovana Zarpellon Mazo4,5,e, Anamaria Fleig Mayer1,2,3,5,f

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(5):370-377

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Objective: To develop reference equations for the Glittre Activities of Daily Living test (Glittre ADL-test) on the basis of anthropometric and demographic variables in apparently healthy individuals. A secondary objective was to determine the reliability of the equations in a sample of COPD patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including 190 apparently healthy individuals (95 males; median age, 54.5 years [range, 42-65]; median FEV1 = 97% [range, 91-105.2]; and median FVC = 96% [range, 88.5-102]) recruited from the general community and 74 COPD patients (55 males; mean age, 65 ± 8 years; body mass index [BMI] = 25.9 ± 4.7 kg/m2; FEV1 = 36.1 ± 14.1%; and FVC = 62.7 ± 16.1%) recruited from a pulmonary rehabilitation center. Results: The mean time to complete the Glittre ADL-test was 2.84 ± 0.45 min. In the stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, age and height were selected as Glittre ADL-test performance predictors, explaining 32.1% (p < 0.01) of the total variance. Equation 1 was as follows: Glittre ADL-testpredicted = 3.049 + (0.015 × ageyears) + (−0.006 × heightcm). Equation 2 included age and BMI and explained 32.3% of the variance in the test, the equation being as follows: Glittre ADL-testpredicted = 1.558 + (0.018 × BMI) + (0.016 × ageyears). Conclusions: The reference equations for the time to complete the Glittre ADL-test were based on age, BMI, and height as independent variables and can be useful for predicting the performance of adult individuals. The predicted values appear to be reliable when applied to COPD patients.

 


Keywords: Activities of daily living; Exercise test; Reference values.

 


Determination of alpha 1-antitrypsin levels and of the presence of S and Z alleles in a population of patients with chronic respiratory symptoms

Avaliação da concentração de alfa 1-antitripsina e da presença dos alelos S e Z em uma população de indivíduos sintomáticos respiratórios crônicos

Heliane Guerra Serra, Carmen Sílvia Bertuzzo, Mônica Corso Pereira, Cláudio Lúcio Rossi, Walter Pinto Júnior, Ilma Aparecida Paschoal

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(12):1019-1025

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Abstract Objective: To determine the levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) and the presence of S and Z alleles in patients with chronic respiratory symptoms. Methods: Patients with chronic cough and dyspnea were submitted to clinical evaluation, pulmonary function tests, high-resolution computed tomography, nephelometric determination of AAT and determination of S and Z alleles by polymerase chain reaction. Smoking and AAT levels were considered the dependent variables. Results: Of the 89 patients included in the study, 44 were female. The mean age was 51.3 ± 18.2 years. The S and Z alleles were detected in 33.3% and 5.7%, respectively, and the gene frequency was 0.16 and 0.028, respectively. Two patients were SZ heterozygotes (AAT levels ≤ 89 mg/dL). The patients were divided into groups based on AAT level: ≤ 89 mg/­dL (deficiency, no group); 90-140 mg/dL (intermediate, Group 1, n = 30); and ≥ 141 mg/dL (normal, Group 2, n = 57). The frequency of smokers was the same in both groups, although tobacco intake was greater in Group 2. The S allele was present in 13 and 14 patients in Groups 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the Z allele was present in 2 and 1 patient in the same groups. There was no difference in the results of pulmonary function tests or in the frequency of bronchiectasis or emphysema between the two groups. Spirometric values and AAT levels were similar in smokers and nonsmokers. Bronchiectasis was more common in nonsmokers, and emphysema was more common in smokers. Conclusions: Thirty patients presented AAT levels lower than the mean values found in patients with the MM or MS genotype, and this fact could not be explained by an increased frequency of S and Z alleles.

 


Keywords: Alpha 1-antitrypsin; Emphysema: Lung diseases; Alleles.

 


Evaluation of the exhaled carbon monoxide levels in smokers with COPD

Avaliação da concentração de monóxido de carbono no ar exalado em tabagistas com DPOC

Gustavo Chatkin, José Miguel Chatkin, Gabriel Aued, Guilherme Oliveira Petersen, Edna Thais Jeremias, Flávia Valladão Thiesen

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):-

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Objective: To measure exhaled carbon monoxide (COex) levels in smokers with and without COPD. Methods: Smokers treated at outpatient clinics of São Lucas Hospital in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, between September of 2007 and March of 2009 were invited to participate in this study. The participants completed a questionnaire regarding demographic and epidemiologic characteristics and were submitted to spirometry, as well as to determination of COex and urinary cotinine levels. The participants were divided into two groups: those with COPD and those without COPD. Results: The study involved 294 smokers, of whom 174 (59.18%) had been diagnosed with COPD. All of the participants presented with urinary cotinine levels > 50 ng/mL. Smokers with COPD presented significantly higher median values for age and pack-years than did those without COPD (p < 0.001 and p = 0.026, respectively). No other statistically significant differences were found. When adjusted for gender, age at smoking onset, number of cigarettes/day and urinary cotinine level, the mean values of COex were higher, but not statistically so, in the COPD group than in the non-COPD group (17.8 ± 0.6 ppm and 16.6 ± 0.7 ppm, respectively; p = 0.200). The differences remained nonsignificant when plotted logarithmically. A wide dispersion of COex values was found when the participants were classified by FEV1 level (r = −0.06; p = 0.53) or by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease classification (r = 0.08; p = 0.34). The proportions of false-negative results for smoking were 18.4% and 6.7%, respectively, in the COPD and non-COPD groups (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Since COex values did not differ significantly between smokers with COPD and those without, there seem to be no major contraindications to their use in smokers with COPD.

 


Keywords: Carbon monoxide; Smoking cessation; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.

 


Acceptability, preference, tolerance and clinical efficacy of dipropionate beclomethasone delivered by two inhalation devices in chronic asthma patients: Clenil pulvinal® versus Miflasona Aerolizer®

Avaliação da eficácia clínica, aceitabilidade e preferência de dois sistemas inalatórios de beclometasona no tratamento da asma : Pulvinal versus Aeroliser.

Jussara Fiterman, Waldo Mattos, Alberto Cukier, Márcia Pizzichinni, Rodnei Frare e Silva, Fabiane Kahan, José Roberto Jardim, Armando Brancatelli

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(5):413-418

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Acceptability, preference, tolerance and clinical efficacy of dipropionate beclomethasone delivered by two inhalation devices in chronic asthma patients: Clenil pulvinal versus Miflasona Aerolizer Background: Approximately half of all asthmatic patients adhere to their prescribed treatment regimen, which makes noncompliance with treatment one of the main problems associated with the disease. It is possible that inhalation devices combining technological advances with comfort and simplicity of use could increase treatment compliance. Objective: To compare the acceptability of and preference for two inhalation devices (Pulvinal and Aerolizer), as well as to evaluate the efficacy of and tolerance for beclomethasone dipropionate when delivered by these two systems. Method: A multicenter, randomized, crossover parallel study was carried out involving 83 patients with stable asthma. Patients received 500-1000 g/day of beclomethasone dipropionate. After a 2-week run in, the patients were randomized to begin a 4-week crossover treatment period with equivalent doses of Clenil Pulvinal (CP) or Miflasona Aerolizer (MA). Results: Both groups showed improvement in dyspnea and FEV1, and acceptability was considered good or excellent in both groups. Of the patients studied, 50.6% preferred CP, and 39% preferred MA. In their future treatment regimes, 54.5% would choose the CP and 37.7% the MA. Conclusion: Clinical efficacy and acceptability were comparable between CP and MA.

 


Keywords: Asthma/therapy. Beclomethasone/ administration & dosage. Randomized controlled trials. Treatment Outcome.

 


Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose, single-capsule budesonide-formoterol combination in uncontrolled asthma: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, controlled clinical trial

Avaliação da eficácia e segurança da associação de budesonida e formoterol em dose fixa e cápsula única no tratamento de asma não controlada: ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, multicêntrico e controlado

Roberto Stirbulov, Carlos Cezar Fritscher, Emilio Pizzichini, Márcia Margaret Menezes Pizzichini

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):431-437

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Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose, single-capsule budesonide-formoterol combination, in comparison with budesonide alone, in patients with uncontrolled asthma. Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, phase III, parallel clinical trial, comparing the short-term efficacy and safety of the combination of budesonide (400 μg) and formoterol (12 μg), with those of budesonide alone (400 μg), both delivered via a dry powder inhaler, in 181 patients with uncontrolled asthma. The age of the patients ranged from 18 to 77 years. After a run-in period of 4 weeks, during which all of the patients received budesonide twice a day, they were randomized into one of the treatment groups. The treatment consisted of the administration of the medications twice a day for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures were FEV1, FVC, and morning PEF. We performed an intention-to-treat analysis of the data. Results: In comparison with the budesonide-only group patients, those treated with the budesonide-formoterol combination showed a significant improvement in FEV1 (0.12 L vs. 0.02 L; p  =   0.0129) and morning PEF (30.2 L/min vs. 6.3 L/min; p  = 0.0004). These effects were accompanied by good tolerability and safety, as demonstrated by the low frequency of adverse events, only minor adverse events having occurred. Conclusions: The single-capsule combination of budesonide-formoterol appears to be efficacious and safe. Our results indicate that this formulation is a valid therapeutic option for obtaining and maintaining asthma control. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01676987 [http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/])

 


Keywords: Asthma; Budesonide; Adrenergic beta-2 receptor agonists.

 


Assessment of fatigue using the Identity-Consequence Fatigue Scale in patients with lung cancer

Avaliação da fadiga utilizando a Escala de Identificação e Consequências da Fadiga em pacientes com câncer de pulmão

Ingrid Correia Nogueira1,2, Amanda Souza Araújo1,2, Maria Tereza Morano1,2,3, Antonio George Cavalcante1, Pedro Felipe de Bruin1, Johana Susan Paddison4, Guilherme Pinheiro da Silva1,3, Eanes Delgado Pereira1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):169-175

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: To evaluate the properties of the Identity-Consequence Fatigue Scale (ICFS) in patients with lung cancer (LC), assessing the intensity of fatigue and associated factors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving LC patients, treated at a teaching hospital in Brazil, who completed the ICFS. Patients with chronic heart disease (CHD) and healthy controls, matched for age and gender, also completed the scale. Initially, a Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the ICFS was administered to 50 LC patients by two independent interviewers; to test for reproducibility, it was readministered to those same patients. At baseline, the LC patients were submitted to spirometry and the six-minute walk test, as well as completing the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Inflammatory status was assessed by blood C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. To validate the ICFS, we assessed the correlations of its scores with those variables. Results: The sample comprised 50 patients in each group (LC, CHD, and control). In the LC group, the intraclass correlation coefficients for intra-rater and inter-rater reliability regarding ICFS summary variables ranged from 0.94 to 0.76 and from 0.94 to 0.79, respectively. The ICFS presented excellent internal consistency, and Bland-Altman plots showed good test-retest reliability. The ICFS correlated significantly with FSS, HADS, and SF-36 scores, as well as with CRP levels. Mean ICFS scores in the LC group differed significantly from those in the CHD and control groups. Conclusions: The ICFS is a valid, reliable instrument for evaluating LC patients, in whom depression, quality of life, and CRP levels seem to be significantly associated with fatigue.

 


Keywords: Fatigue; Lung neoplasms; Symptom assessment.

 


Assessing quadriceps muscle strength as a tool to determine the approach to and prognosis in COPD patients

Avaliação da força do quadríceps como ferramenta para se estabelecer a conduta e o prognóstico em pacientes com DPOC

Luciana Dias Chiavegato1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):297-298

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Assessment of pulmonary function and quality of life in patients submitted to pulmonary resection for cancer

Avaliação da função pulmonar e da qualidade de vida em pacientes submetidos à ressecção pulmonar por neoplasia

Luciana Nunes Titton Lima, Rodrigo Afonso da Silva, Jefferson Luiz Gross, Daniel Deheinzelin, Elnara Márcia Negri

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(6):521-528

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Objective: To evaluate the effects that pulmonary resection has on pulmonary function and quality of life (QoL) in patients with primary or metastatic lung cancer. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study involving all patients submitted to pulmonary resection for cancer between September of 2006 and March of 2007 at the A. C. Camargo Hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Patients underwent spirometry in the preoperative period and at six months after the surgical procedure. After a postoperative period of six months, the patients completed an overall QoL questionnaire (the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-form Health Survey) and another one, specific for respiratory symptoms (the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire). The scores obtained in our study were compared with those previously obtained for a general population and for a population of patients with COPD. Results: We included 33 patients (14 males and 19 females), ranging in age from 39 to 79 years. All of the patients, smokers and nonsmokers alike, presented significant worsening of pulmonary function. The mean scores on the overall QoL questionnaire were approximately 5% lower than those obtained for the general population. The scores of various domains of the symptom-specific QoL questionnaire were 50-60% lower than those obtained for the general population and approximately 20% higher than those obtained for the population with COPD. Conclusions: Pulmonary resection has a direct negative impact on pulmonary function and QoL, especially on the QoL related to aspects directly linked to pulmonary function. We highlight the importance of preoperative assessment of pulmonary function in patients undergoing pulmonary resection, in order to predict their postoperative evolution.

 


Keywords: Thoracic surgery; Lung neoplasms/surgery; Spirometry; Quality of life; Questionnaires.

 


Evaluation of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in pyrochlore mine workers

Avaliação da função pulmonar e sintomas respiratórios em trabalhadores da mineração de pirocloro

Ritta de Cássia Canedo Oliveira Borges, José Cerqueira Barros Júnior, Fabrício Borges Oliveira, Marisa Andrade Brunherotti, Paulo Roberto Veiga Quemelo

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(4):279-285

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Objective: To identify respiratory symptoms and evaluate lung function in mine workers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study involving production sector workers of a pyrochlore mining company. The subjects completed the British Medical Research Council questionnaire, which is designed to evaluate respiratory symptoms, occupational exposure factors, and smoking status. In addition, they underwent pulmonary function tests with a portable spirometer. Results: The study involved 147 workers (all male). The mean age was 41.37 ± 8.71 years, and the mean duration of occupational exposure was 12.26 ± 7.09 years. We found that 33 (22.44%) of the workers had respiratory symptoms and that 26 (17.69%) showed abnormalities in the spirometry results. However, we found that the spirometry results did not correlate significantly with the presence of respiratory symptoms or with the duration of occupational exposure. Conclusions: The frequencies of respiratory symptoms and spirometric changes were low when compared with those reported in other studies involving occupational exposure to dust. No significant associations were observed between respiratory symptoms and spirometry results.

 


Keywords: Spirometry; Mining; Niobium; Occupational exposure.

 


Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to hypertonic saline challenge in children and adolescents

Avaliação da hiperresponsividade brônquica à solução salina hipertônica em crianças e adolescentes

Paulo Kussek, Nelson Augusto Rosário Filho, Mônica Cat

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(3):195-201

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Objective: To assess airway hyperresponsiveness to 4.5% hypertonic saline solution in comparison to that obtained through challenge with other bronchoconstriction agents and in relation to patient allergic sensitization. Methods: A cross-sectional, experimental study was conducted, initially involving 85 subjects. After exclusions, the final sample consisted of 62 patients, divided into two groups: a study group of those with asthma (n = 45) and a control group of those with no asthma or allergies (n = 17). Hypertonic saline was nebulized using an ultrasonic nebulizer and administered successively for 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 minutes until a drop in forced expiratory volume in one second of = 15% was achieved in relation to the baseline value. The level of specific immunoglobulin E to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus level was determined by ImmunoCAP assay and was considered positive when > 0.35 kU/L. Results: In the 36 asthma group subjects presenting a response, the mean drop in forced expiratory volume in one second after hypertonic saline nebulization was 27.4%. None of control group subjects (immunoglobulin E < 0.35 kU/L) presented a positive response to hypertonic saline. The mean forced expiratory volume in one second for control group subjects was 9%. The results of a bronchial provocation test were negative in 9 of the asthma group subjects. The frequency of bronchial provocation test positivity was higher in the subjects presenting elevated levels of specific immunoglobulin E, indicating that there is a relationship between bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the level of specific immunoglobulin E. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 80% and 92%, respectively. Conclusion: Bronchial provocation with hypertonic saline presents satisfactory sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, in addition to being a low cost procedure that requires very little equipment, it is a useful means of assessing hyperresponsiveness in children and adolescents.

 


Keywords: Bronchial provocation tests; Bronchial hyperreactivity; Saline solution, hypertonic; Administration, inhalation;

 


Airway inflammation in asthmatic patients after methacholine challenge

Avaliação da inflamação de vias aéreas em asmáticos após o teste de broncoprovocação com metacolina

Fabrício Lino de Matos, João Terra Filho, José Antonio Baddini Martinez, Tatiana Furlan Sala, Elcio Oliveira Vianna

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(4):171-176

Abstract PDF PT

Background: The methacholine challenge test is commonly used to evaluate bronchial responsiveness in diagnosis and follow-up of asthmatic patients. Objective: To investigate late effects of methacholine challenge on induced sputum. Methods: Ten non-smoker patients with mild or moderate stable asthma were recruited. At 12:00 p.m., patients were randomly assigned to inhale either methacholine (challenge) or physiologic saline. At 6:00 p.m., sputum induction was performed. On the second visit, one week apart, patients completed their participation in the study by undergoing another inhalation and sputum induction. Results: After methacholine, 8.6 ± 9 g of sputum were expectorated with 8.6 ± 6 million cells, 78 ± 10% were viable, and 6.8 ± 7% eosinophils. These data were not different from results obtained after saline: sputum amount = 7.6 ± 6 g, total cell count = 12.4 ± 12 million, viability = 82 ± 10%, and eosinophils = 6.6 ± 9%. Expiratory flow (PF) peak fall during sputum induction was not different: 21.4 ± 12% after methacholine and 18.4 ± 15% after saline. The PF fall observed during induction correlated with the amount of expectorated sputum (p = 0.018) and eosinophil relative number (p = 0.003). No other significant correlation between lung function measurements and sputum characteristics was found. Conclusion: A methacholine challenge carried out six hours before sputum induction does not significantly alter the cellular constituents or amount of sputum.

 


Keywords: Asthma. Methacholine chloride. Bronchial provocation tests.

 


Evaluation of the limited participation by university students in a smoking cessation program

Avaliação da participação de pequeno número de estudantes universitários em um programa de tratamento do tabagismo

Wilson Paloschi Spiandorello, Liliana Zugno Filippini, Angélica Dal Pizzol, Fernanda Kreische, Diogo Sandri Soligo, Tiago Spiandorello, Raquel Boff, Mauricio Michele

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):69-75

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Objective: To evaluate the limited participation by university students in a smoking cessation program. Methods: A cross-sectional, comparative study was conducted at the University of Caxias do Sul, located in Caxias do Sul, Brazil, involving students who enrolled in a smoking cessation program, together with those who did not. Results: Of the 108 student who did not enroll in the program, 102 (94.4%) stated that they had no intention to quit smoking (95% confidence interval: 88.29-97.93%. Comparisons between the enrolled and nonenrolled students revealed the following statistical differences: in mean age (35 vs. 23 years, p < 0.01); mean duration of the smoking habit (19.42 vs. 7.36 years, p < 0.01); considering oneself addicted (100% vs. 58.5%, p = 0.047); believing oneself able to stop smoking at any time (7.1% vs. 22.6%, p = 0.02); having no knowledge of any reasons to quit smoking (37.5% vs. 12%, p = 0.03); having suffered discrimination (42.9% vs. 9.3%, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Among the university students evaluated, there was a phase, classified as precontemplative or contemplative, during which they were refractory to smoking cessation. Although all of the students were aware of the diseases caused by smoking, 41.5% did not consider themselves addicted. The concept of substance dependence does not apply to these students. It would seem more appropriate to define nicotine dependence as resulting from the lifetime consumption of at least 100 cigarettes. These students do not perceive that they are passing through the initial phase of the natural history of tobacco use disorder and do not realize that they are increasing their risk of presenting smoking-related diseases in the future.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Students; Smoking cessation

 


Evaluation of quality of life according to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents.

Avaliação da qualidade de vida de acordo com o nível de controle e gravidade da asma em crianças e adolescentes

Natasha Yumi Matsunaga1, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira Ribeiro2, Ivete Alonso Bredda Saad3, André Moreno Morcillo4, José Dirceu Ribeiro2,5, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera Toro2,5

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(6):502-508

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Objective: To evaluate quality of life according to the level of asthma control and degree of asthma severity in children and adolescents. Methods: We selected children and adolescents with asthma (7-17 years of age) from the Pediatric Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Asthma control and asthma severity were assessed by the Asthma Control Test and by the questionnaire based on the Global Initiative for Asthma, respectively. The patients also completed the Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ), validated for use in Brazil, in order to evaluate their quality of life. Results: The mean age of the patients was 11.22 ± 2.91 years, with a median of 11.20 (7.00-17.60) years. We selected 100 patients, of whom 27, 33, and 40 were classified as having controlled asthma (CA), partially controlled asthma (PCA), and uncontrolled asthma (UA), respectively. As for asthma severity, 34, 19, and 47 were classified as having mild asthma (MiA), moderate asthma (MoA), and severe asthma (SA), respectively. The CA and the PCA groups, when compared with the NCA group, showed higher values for the overall PAQLQ score and all PAQLQ domains (activity limitation, symptoms, and emotional function; p < 0.001 for all). The MiA group showed higher scores for all of the PAQLQ components than did the MoA and SA groups. Conclusions: Quality of life appears to be directly related to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents, being better when asthma is well controlled and asthma severity is lower.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Quality of life; Child; Adolescent.

 


Quality of life assessment in patients with cystic fibrosis by means of the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire

Avaliação da qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibrose cística por meio do Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire

Milena Antonelli Cohen, Maria Ângela Gonçalves de Oliveira Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando Ribeiro, José Dirceu Ribeiro, André Moreno Morcillo

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):184-192

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Objective: To assess the quality of life (QoL) of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) followed at a university referral center for CF. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving application of the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ) and Shwachman score in CF patients between April of 2008 and June of 2009. Results: The sample consisted of 75 patients. The mean age was 12.5 ± 5.1 years (range, 6.1-26.4 years). The patients were divided into three groups by age in years: group I (< 12), II (12-14), and III (≥ 14). The highest and lowest CFQ scores were for the nutrition domain in group III (89.3 ± 16.2) and the social domain in group II (59.5 ± 22.3), respectively. Groups I and III differed significantly regarding the treatment domain (p = 0.001). Regarding Shwachman scores, there were significant differences between patients scoring ≤ 70 and those scoring > 70 in the social (group I; p = 0.045), respiratory (group II; p = 0.053), and digestive (p = 0.042) domains. In group III, severity did not correlate with QoL. In groups I and II, patients with an FEV1 < 80% of predicted did not differ from other patients for any CFQ domain. However, in group III, values for the following domains were significantly lower in patients with an FEV1 < 80%: physical (p = 0.012); body image (p = 0.031); respiratory (p = 0.023), emotional (p = 0.041); and social role (p = 0.024). Conclusions: It is important to assess QoL in CF patients, because it can improve treatment compliance.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Quality of life; Questionnaires.

 


Assessment of the quality of life of patients with lung cancer using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey

Avaliação da qualidade de vida em pacientes com câncer de pulmão através da aplicação do questionário Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey

Juliana Franceschini, Alecssandra Aparecida dos Santos, Inás El Mouallem, Sergio Jamnik, César Uehara, Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes, Ilka Lopes Santoro

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(6):387-393

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess the quality of life of patients with lung cancer and to compare it with that of individuals without cancer. Methods: The Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was administered to 57 patients diagnosed with lung cancer, treated at the Lung Cancer Outpatient Clinic of the Hospital São Paulo, and to a control group of 57 individuals recruited from the Extra Penha workout group. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the groups, domain by domain. The first model of logistic regression was adjusted for male gender, nonsurgical treatment, Karnofsky performance status and smoking, which were included as predictors. The second model was adjusted for each SF-36 domain in order to identify increases in the proportions of patients in stage IIIB or IV. Results: The lung cancer group and the control group presented the following mean scores, respectively, for the SF-36 domains: role limitations due to physical health problems, 29.39 ± 36.94 and 82.89 ± 28.80; role limitations due to emotional problems, 42.78 ± 44.78 and 86.55 ± 28.77; physical function, 56.49 ± 28.39 and 89.00 ± 13.80; vitality, 61.61 ± 23.82 and 79.12 ± 17.68; bodily pain, 62.72 ± 28.72 and 81.54 ± 19.07; general health, 62.51 ± 25.57 and 84.47 ± 13.47; emotional well-being, 68.28 ± 23.46 and 82.63 ± 17.44; and social functioning, 72.87 ± 29.20 and 91.67 ± 17.44. The logistic regression model showed that role limitations due to physical health problems, physical function and emotional well-being were predictors of stages IIIB and IV. Conclusions: The patients with lung cancer had a poorer quality of life, especially regarding physical aspects, than did the control subjects.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Quality of life; Health status.

 


Using the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire to evaluate quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: validating a new version for use in Brazil

Avaliação da qualidade de vida pelo Questionário do Hospital Saint George na Doença Respiratória em portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica: validação de uma nova versão para o Brasil

Aquiles Camelier, Fernanda Warken Rosa, Christine Salim, Oliver Augusto Nascimento, Fábio Cardoso, José Roberto Jardim

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(2):114-122

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Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a modified version of the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire. The version evaluated elicits "agree" and "do not agree", rather than "yes" and "no", responses. The intention is to facilitate the comprehension of double-negative questions and to promote better recollection of symptoms by patients by shortening their symptom histories from 12 months to 3 months. Methods: A total of 30 clinically stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were evaluated. The Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire and the modified version of the same were administered 15 days apart. Results: All of the patients presented health-related alterations in their quality of life. Comparing mean scores between the two questionnaires, the greatest difference was seen in the Symptoms domain. No significant differences were found in any of the remaining domains or in the total scores. In a subsequent analysis, significant correlations between the two questionnaires were found in all domains: Symptoms (r = 0.71; p < 0.001); Activity (r = 0.75; p < 0.001); Impact (r = 0.73; p < 0.001) and Total (r = 0.86; p < 0.001). Conclusion: The modified version of the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire is as effective as the original in gauging quality of life. However, various symptoms recollection time frames should be investigated in order to determine which would be the best time frame to employ in the analysis.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Quality of life; Reproducibility of results; Cross-cultural comparison; Questionnaires

 


Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in indigenous and non-indigenous patients

Avaliação da reação em cadeia da polimerase no diagnóstico da tuberculose pulmonar em pacientes indígenas e não indígenas

Rose Mary Corrêa Santos, Mauricio Morishi Ogusku, José de Moraes Miranda, Maria Cristina Dos-Santos, Julia Ignez Salem

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(3):234-240

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Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of bacteriological methods and of polymerase chain reaction (with primers specific for IS6110 of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex) in testing sputum samples from indigenous (Amerindian) and non-indigenous patients. Methods: A total of 214 sputum samples (154 from indigenous patients and 60 from non-indigenous patients) were analyzed in order to determine the accuracy of smear microscopy (direct and concentrated versions) for acid-fast bacilli, culture, and polymerase chain reaction. Results: Both microscopy methods presented low sensitivity in comparison with culture and polymerase chain reaction. Specificity ranged from 91% to 100%, the concentrated acid-fast smear technique being the least specific. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were isolated three times more frequently in samples from indigenous patients than in those from non-indigenous patients. False-positive and false-negative polymerase chain reaction results were more common in the indigenous population. Conclusion: Positivity and isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria in the acid-fast smear in conjunction with polymerase chain reaction positivity raise the following hypotheses: nontuberculous mycobacteria species with DNA regions homologous to, or even still possessing, the M. tuberculosis IS6110 exist in the Amazon; colonization of the oropharynx or of a tuberculous lesion accelerates the growth of the nontuberculous mycobacteria present in the sputum samples, making it impossible to isolate M. tuberculosis; A history of tuberculosis results in positivity for M. tuberculosis DNA. The absence of bacteriological positivity in the presence of polymerase chain reaction positivity raises questions regarding the inherent technical characteristics of the bacteriological methods or regarding patient history of tuberculosis.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary/diagnosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Polymerase chain reaction/methods; Indians, south american

 


Lung ultrasound assessment of response to antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis exacerbations: a study of two cases

Avaliação da resposta à antibioticoterapia durante exacerbação na fibrose cística por ultrassom pulmonar: estudo de dois casos

Andressa Oliveira Peixoto1,2,3,a, Fernando Augusto Lima Marson1,2,4,5,b, Tiago Henrique Souza1,6,c, Andrea de Melo Alexandre Fraga1,3,d, José Dirceu Ribeiro1,3,e

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(6):e20190128-e20190128

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Evaluating bronchodilator response in pediatric patients with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans: use of different criteria for identifying airway reversibility

Avaliação da resposta ao broncodilatador em pacientes pediátricos com bronquiolite obliterante pós-infecciosa: uso de diferentes critérios de identificação de reversibilidade das vias aéreas

Rita Mattiello1, Paula Cristina Vidal2, Edgar Enrique Sarria3, Paulo Márcio Pitrez1, Renato Tetelbom Stein1, Helena Teresinha Mocelin4, Gilberto Bueno Fischer4, Marcus Herbert Jones1, Leonardo Araújo Pinto1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):174-178

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO) is a clinical entity that has been classified as constrictive, fixed obstruction of the lumen by fibrotic tissue. However, recent studies using impulse oscillometry have reported bronchodilator responses in PIBO patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate bronchodilator responses in pediatric PIBO patients, comparing different criteria to define the response. Methods: We evaluated pediatric patients diagnosed with PIBO and treated at one of two pediatric pulmonology outpatient clinics in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Spirometric parameters were measured in accordance with international recommendations. Results: We included a total of 72 pediatric PIBO patients. The mean pre- and post-bronchodilator values were clearly lower than the reference values for all parameters, especially FEF25‑75%. There were post-bronchodilator improvements. When measured as mean percent increases, FEV1 and FEF25-75%, improved by 11% and 20%, respectively. However, when the absolute values were calculated, the mean FEV1 and FEF25-75% both increased by only 0.1 L. We found that age at viral aggression, a family history of asthma, and allergy had no significant effects on bronchodilator responses. Conclusions: Pediatric patients with PIBO have peripheral airway obstruction that is responsive to treatment but is not completely reversible with a bronchodilator. The concept of PIBO as fixed, irreversible obstruction does not seem to apply to this population. Our data suggest that airway obstruction is variable in PIBO patients, a finding that could have major clinical implications.

 


Keywords: Bronchiolitis obliterans; Infection/complications; Airway obstruction; Bronchodilator agents.

 


Evaluation of pantoprazol treatment response of patients with asthma and gastroesophageal reflux: a randomized prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study

Avaliação da resposta de pacientes asmáticos com refluxo gastroesofágico após terapia com pantoprazol: estudo prospectivo, randomizado, duplo cego e placebo-controlado

Leandro Heusi dos Santos, Iana Oliveira e Silva Ribeiro, Pablo Gerardo Sánchez, Jorge Lima Hetzel, José Carlos Felicetti, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):119-127

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Objectives: To determine the effect that the treatment of GERD has on the clinical management, as well as the respiratory function, of patients with asthma and to evaluate the clinical characteristics of this group of patients. Methods: Patients with asthma and concomitant GERD, documented using 24 h pH-metry, were evaluated by means of quality of life questionnaires, as well as questionnaires related to respiratory and digestive symptoms. In addition, esophageal manometry, spirometry and the determination of peak expiratory flow were also performed prior to and after the study. Forty-nine individuals who were diagnosed with GERD by means of 24 h esophageal pH-metry were selected and participated in a clinical randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, involving the administration of 40 mg/day of pantoprazol for 12 consecutive weeks. Results: Forty-four individuals completed the study (n = 22 per group). There was significant improvement in the scores for respiratory symptoms and quality of life only in the group that received pantoprazol (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively). No respiratory function parameters changed in either group. Conclusions: In this study, the effective treatment of GERD improved patient quality of life, and the symptoms of asthma significantly decreased in the group that received the medication. There were no changes in pulmonary function parameters.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Gastroesophageal reflux/treatment; Diagnosis; Antacids.

 


Evaluation of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in asthma patients based on clinical parameters and imaging studies, together with ear, nose and throat examination

Avaliação da rinussinusite bacteriana aguda em pacientes asmáticos com base em parâmetros clínicos, exame otorrinolaringológico e estudo de imagem

Alecsandra Calil Moises Faure, Ilka Lopes Santoro, Luc Louis Maurice Weckx, Henrique Manoel Lederman, Artur da Rocha Correa Fernandes, Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(6):340-346

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Objective: To evaluate paranasal sinuses in patients with stable or acute asthma in order to determine the prevalence of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 30 patients with acute asthma (73% females) treated in the emergency room and 30 patients with stable asthma (80% females) regularly monitored as outpatients. All patients completed a questionnaire on respiratory signs and symptoms and were submitted to ear, nose and throat (ENT) examination, as well as to X-ray and computed tomography (CT) imaging of the sinuses. Results: Based on the clinical diagnosis, the prevalence of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis was 40% in the patients with acute asthma and 3% in those with stable asthma. The ENT examination findings and the imaging findings in isolation were not useful to confirm the diagnosis. Conclusions: In themselves, ENT examination findings, X-ray findings and CT findings were not useful for the diagnosis of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Our results provide further evidence that a clinical diagnosis of bacterial rhinosinusitis should be made with caution.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Sinusitis; Radiography; Tomography, X-ray computed; Endoscopy.

 


Assessment of inhaler techniques employed by patients with respiratory diseases in southern Brazil: a population-based study

Avaliação da técnica de utilização de dispositivos inalatórios no tratamento de doenças respiratórias no sul do Brasil: estudo de base populacional

Paula Duarte de Oliveira, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi, Fernando César Wehrmeister, Silvia Elaine Cardozo Macedo

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):513-520

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Objective: To identify incorrect inhaler techniques employed by patients with respiratory diseases in southern Brazil and to profile the individuals who make such errors. Methods: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study involving subjects ≥ 10 years of age using metered dose inhalers (MDIs) or dry powder inhalers (DPIs) in 1,722 households in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Results: We included 110 subjects, who collectively used 94 MDIs and 49 DPIs. The most common errors in the use of MDIs and DPIs were not exhaling prior to inhalation (66% and 47%, respectively), not performing a breath-hold after inhalation (29% and 25%), and not shaking the MDI prior to use (21%). Individuals ≥ 60 years of age more often made such errors. Among the demonstrations of the use of MDIs and DPIs, at least one error was made in 72% and 51%, respectively. Overall, there were errors made in all steps in 11% of the demonstrations, whereas there were no errors made in 13%.Among the individuals who made at least one error, the proportion of those with a low level of education was significantly greater than was that of those with a higher level of education, for MDIs (85% vs. 60%; p = 0.018) and for DPIs (81% vs. 35%; p = 0.010).Conclusions: In this sample, the most common errors in the use of inhalers were not exhaling prior to inhalation, not performing a breath-hold after inhalation, and not shaking the MDI prior to use. Special attention should be given to education regarding inhaler techniques for patients of lower socioeconomic status and with less formal education, as well as for those of advanced age, because those populations are at a greater risk of committing errors in their use of inhalers.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Dry powder inhalers; Metered dose inhalers.

 


Evaluation of the clinical utility of new diagnostic tests for tuberculosis: the role of pragmatic clinical trials

Avaliação da utilidade clínica de novos testes diagnósticos em tuberculose: o papel dos ensaios clínicos pragmáticos

Gisele Huf, Afrânio Kritski

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):237-245

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Tuberculosis is one of the major infectious diseases in developing countries, and the length of time for which the chain of transmission is maintained has been implicated as a major factor in the perpetuation of the disease. In this context, regulatory agencies in such countries have approved new diagnostic tools, which have been almost immediately incorporated into the national tuberculosis control programs. Health interventions have been increasingly investigated in clinical trials, including explanatory trials (in order to evaluate the beneficial effects of such interventions) and pragmatic trials (in order to aid in the decision-making process). We argue that the evaluation of new diagnostic techniques for the detection of tuberculosis should not escape this same logic of evaluation.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Tuberculosis/prevention & control; Controlled clinical trial as topic.

 


Evaluation of the use of transbronchial biopsy in patients with clinical suspicion of interstitial lung disease

Avaliação da utilização de biópsia transbrônquica em pacientes com suspeita clínica de doença pulmonar intersticial

Cristiano Claudino Oliveira, Alexandre Todorovic Fabro, Sérgio Marrone Ribeiro, Julio Defaveri, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Thais Helena Thomaz Queluz, Hugo Hyung Bok Yoo

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):168-175

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Objective: To study the clinical, radiological, and histopathological patterns of transbronchial biopsy (TBB) used in order to confirm the diagnosis in patients with clinical suspicion of interstitial lung disease (ILD) treated at a tertiary-care university hospital. Methods: We reviewed the medical records, radiology reports, and reports of transbronchial biopsies from all patients with suspected ILD who underwent TBB between January of 1999 and December of 2006 at the Hospital das Clínicas de Botucatu, located in the city of Botucatu, Brazil. Results: The study included 56 patients. Of those, 11 (19.6%) had a definitive diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the rate of which was significantly higher in the patients in which ILD was a possible diagnosis in comparison with those in which ILD was the prime suspect (p = 0.011), demonstrating the contribution of TBB to the diagnostic confirmation of these diseases. The histopathological examination of the biopsies revealed that 27.3% of the patients with IPF showed a pattern of organizing pneumonia, which suggests greater disease severity. The most common histological pattern was the indeterminate pattern, reflecting the peripheral characteristic of IPF. However, the fibrosis pattern showed high specificity and high negative predictive value. For CT scan patterns suggestive of IPF, the ROC curve showed that the best relationship between sensitivity and specificity occurred when five radiological alterations were present. Honeycombing was found to be strongly suggestive of IPF (p = 0.01). Conclusions: For ILDs, chest CT should always be performed, and TBB should be used in specific situations, according to the suspicion and distribution of lesions.

 


Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial; Diagnosis, differential; Bronchoscopy.

 


Assessment of regional lung ventilation by electrical impedance tomography in a patient with unilateral bronchial stenosis and a history of tuberculosis

Avaliação da ventilação pulmonar regional por tomografia de impedância elétrica em paciente com estenose brônquica unilateral pós-tuberculose

Liégina Silveira Marinho, Nathalia Parente de Sousa, Carlos Augusto Barbosa da Silveira Barros, Marcelo Silveira Matias, Luana Torres Monteiro, Marcelo do Amaral Beraldo, Eduardo Leite Vieira Costa, Marcelo Britto Passos Amato, Marcelo Alcantara Holanda

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):742-746

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Bronchial stenosis can impair regional lung ventilation by causing abnormal, asymmetric airflow limitation. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an imaging technique that allows the assessment of regional lung ventilation and therefore complements the functional assessment of the lungs. We report the case of a patient with left unilateral bronchial stenosis and a history of tuberculosis, in whom regional lung ventilation was assessed by EIT. The EIT results were compared with those obtained by ventilation/perfusion radionuclide imaging. The patient was using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Therefore, we studied the effects of postural changes and of the use of nasal CPAP. The EIT revealed heterogeneous distribution of regional lung ventilation, the ventilation being higher in the right lung, and this distribution was influenced by postural changes and CPAP use. The EIT assessment of regional lung ventilation produced results similar to those obtained with the radionuclide imaging technique and had the advantage of providing a dynamic evaluation without radiation exposure.

 


Keywords: Tomography; Electric impedance; Positive-pressure respiration; Pulmonary ventilation; Airway obstruction; Tuberculosis, pulmonary.

 


Evaluation of surveillance of contacts of new tuberculosis cases in the state of Mato Grosso - Brazil

Avaliação da vigilância de contatos de casos novos de tuberculose no Estado de Mato Grosso - Brasil

Shaiana Vilella Hartwig, Eliane Ignotti, Beatriz Fátima Alves de Oliveira, Hellen Caroline de Oliveira Pereira, João Henrique Scatena

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(5):298-303

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Objective: To evaluate surveillance of contacts of new tuberculosis cases in the state of Mato Grosso from 1999 to 2004. Methods: This was a descriptive epidemiological study based on data from the Tuberculosis Case Registry Database. The number of new tuberculosis cases, the number of contacts (estimated, investigated, and uninvestigated), and the tuberculosis incidence rate were analyzed by age bracket. The mean rate of contacts investigated for each case of tuberculosis by age bracket was calculated per year of study. The cases of pulmonary tuberculosis with and without contacts investigated were analyzed by sputum smear microscopy results. Results: In 2004, there were 41.3 cases of tuberculosis per 100,000 inhabitants in the state of Mato Grosso. The south-central region presented the highest incidence rate (57 cases/100,000 inhabitants) and a 15% rate of contacts investigated. Among those younger than 15 years, 63 contacts (60.5%) were investigated, whereas among those aged 15 or older, 389 (8.9%) were investigated. In 1999, the mean rate of contacts investigated statewide was 0.02 (0.5%), and, in 2004, it reached 0.42 (10.5%). The percentage of contacts investigated was 40% higher among the contacts of contagious cases (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.08-1.83). Conclusions: The percentage of contacts investigated is very low, principally among adults. The adoption of the standards for investigation of tuberculosis contacts proposed by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health Department of Health Surveillance has not ensured that this group at highest risk of developing active tuberculosis be given priority at health care facilities in the state of Mato Grosso.

 


Keywords: Contact tracing; Epidemiologic surveillance; Tuberculosis/prevention & control.

 


Evaluation of bone disease in patients with cystic fibrosis and end-stage lung disease

Avaliação de doença óssea em pacientes com fibrose cística e doença pulmonar terminal

Cécile A. Robinson1,a, Markus Hofer2,b, Christian Benden1,c, Christoph Schmid3,d

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(1):e20170280-e20170280

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Objective: Bone disease is a common comorbidity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We sought to determine risk factors and identify potential biochemical markers for CF-related bone disease (CFBD) in a unique cohort of CF patients with end-stage lung disease undergoing lung transplantation (LTx) evaluation. Methods: All of the CF patients who were evaluated for LTx at our center between November of 1992 and December of 2010 were included in the study. Clinical data and biochemical markers of bone turnover, as well as bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, were evaluated. Spearman's rho and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: A total of 102 adult CF patients were evaluated. The mean age was 28.1 years (95% CI: 26.7-29.5), and the mean body mass index was 17.5 kg/m2 (95% CI: 17.2-18.2). Mean T-scores were −2.3 and −1.9 at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, respectively, being lower in males than in females (−2.7 vs. −2.0 at the lumbar spine and −2.2 vs. −1.7 at the femoral neck). Overall, 52% had a T-score of < −2.5 at either skeletal site. The homozygous Phe508del genotype was found in 57% of patients without osteoporosis and in 60% of those with low BMD. Mean T-scores were not particularly low in patients with severe CFTR mutations. Although the BMI correlated with T-scores at the femoral neck and lumbar spine, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels did not. Conclusions: CFBD is common in CF patients with end-stage lung disease, particularly in males and patients with a low BMI. It appears that CF mutation status does not correlate with CFBD. In addition, it appears that low BMD does not correlate with other risk factors or biochemical parameters. The prevalence of CFBD appears to have recently decreased, most likely reflecting increased efforts at earlier diagnosis and treatment.

 


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Cystic fibrosis; Bone density; Osteoporosis.

 


Two-year evaluation of an educational program for adult outpatients with asthma

Avaliação de dois anos de um programa educacional para pacientes ambulatoriais adultos com asma

Luciene Angelini, Priscila Games Robles-Ribeiro, Regina Maria de Carvalho-Pinto, Marcos Ribeiro, Alberto Cukier, Rafael Stelmach

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(7):618-627

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Objective: To evaluate the understanding of asthma and the clinical improvement in patients with moderate or severe persistent asthma prior to and after their participation in an educational program presented during the routine outpatient visits. Methods: This was a prospective pilot study involving 164 patients over a two-year period. The educational program, presented to small groups on outpatient visit days, consisted of lectures divided into three parts: pathophysiology; environmental control; and treatment, including training in the inhalation technique. The program was evaluated using standardized questionnaires on clinical improvement and understanding of the disease. Results: By the end of the first year, 120 patients had completed three visits, and 51 of those patients were revaluated at the end of the second year. The mean age of the patients was 44 years, 70% were female, and 43% had up to eight years of schooling. The educational intervention significantly increased the understanding of the disease (p < 0.001), and allowed greater clinical improvement (p < 0.05) with a decrease in the use of oral corticosteroids, fewer visits to the emergency room and fewer days missed from work or school. Conclusions: The educational program offered during the routine outpatient visits of adult patients with asthma at our clinic resulted in a progressive long-term increase in knowledge, as well as in clinical improvement.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Adult; Patient education as topic.

 


Evaluation of the histological parameters in usual interstitial pneumonia (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis)

Avaliação de parâmetros histológicos na pneumonia intersticial usual (fibrose pulmonar idiopática)

Rimarcs Gomes Ferreira, Ester Nei Aparecida Martins Coletta, Osvaldo Giannotti Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(6):279-285

Abstract PDF PT

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis) is a progressive interstitia pulmonary disease of unknown etiology. Since Hamman's and Rich's (1944) reports, many studies have tried to find a histological marker for the correlation between prognosis and response to therapy. However, there are many doubts regarding pathogenesis. In addition, it is generally accepted that response to therapy is related to the relative degree of cellularity and fibrosis. The purpose of this study is to describe the results of inflammatory/exudative changes, fibrotic/reparative changes, and airway alterations, using a semi-quantitative method by independent evaluation of two pathologists, in 24 open lung biopsies with the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Fourteen histological features were analyzed using the 0 to 5 scale for interstitial alterations and the 0 to 2 scale for the airway changes. There was significant interobserver agreement for all histological features with Kw (Kappa) variations between 0.47 and 0.92. There was significant disagreement only for septal inflammatory intensity analysis, suggesting that these features must be discussed by the pathologists. The semi-quantitative method assessment was effective.

 


Keywords: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Semi-quantitative method assessment.

 


Evaluation of manual resuscitators used in ICUs in Brazil

Avaliação de reanimadores manuais utilizados em UTIs brasileiras

Tatiana de Arruda Ortiz, Germano Forti Junior, Márcia Souza Volpe, Marcelo do Amaral Beraldo, Marcelo Britto Passos Amato, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho, Mauro Roberto Tucci

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):595-603

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Objective: To analyze psychological morbidity as a moderator of the relationship between smoking representations and quality of life in smokers and former smokers, as well as to determine which psychological variables discriminate between smokers with and without the intention to quit smoking. Methods: This was a quantitative, correlational cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 224 smokers and 169 former smokers. Results: In smokers and former smokers, psychological morbidity had a moderating effect on the relationship between mental/physical quality of life and smoking representations (cognitive representations, emotional representations, and comprehensibility). Smokers with the intention to quit smoking more often presented with low comprehensibility, threatening emotional representations, behavioral beliefs, and perceived behavioral control, as well as with normative/control beliefs, than did those without the intention to quit. Conclusions: The results of this study underscore the importance of the moderating effect exerted by psychological morbidity, as well as that of sociocognitive variables, among smokers who have the intention to quit smoking.

 



Evaluation of a prediction model for sleep apnea in patients submitted to polysomnography

Avaliação de um modelo de predição para apneia do sono em pacientes submetidos a polissonografia

Silvio Musman, Valéria Maria de Azeredo Passos, Izabella Barreto Romualdo Silva, Sandhi Maria Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):75-84

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Objective: To test a prediction model for sleep apnea based on clinical and sociodemographic variables in a population suspected of having sleep disorders and submitted to polysomnography. Methods: We included 323 consecutive patients submitted to polysomnography because of the clinical suspicion of having sleep disorders. We used a questionnaire with sociodemographic questions and the Epworth sleepiness scale. Blood pressure, weight, height, and SpO2 were measured. Multiple linear regression was used in order to create a prediction model for sleep apnea, the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) being the dependent variable. Multinomial logistic regression was used in order to identify factors independently associated with the severity of apnea (mild, moderate, or severe) in comparison with the absence of apnea. Results: The prevalence of sleep apnea in the study population was 71.2%. Sleep apnea was more prevalent in men than in women (81.2% vs. 56.8%; p < 0.001). The multiple linear regression model, using log AHI as the dependent variable, was composed of the following independent variables: neck circumference, witnessed apnea, age, BMI, and allergic rhinitis. The best-fit linear regression model explained 39% of the AHI variation. In the multinomial logistic regression, mild apnea was associated with BMI and neck circumference, whereas severe apnea was associated with age, BMI, neck circumference, and witnessed apnea. Conclusions: Although the use of clinical prediction models for sleep apnea does not replace polysomnography as a tool for its diagnosis, they can optimize the process of deciding when polysomnography is indicated and increase the chance of obtaining positive polysomnography findings.

 


Keywords: Sleep apnea syndromes; Polysomnography; Sleep apnea, obstructive; Body mass index.

 


Evaluation of a four-month program of physical training designed for asthmatic children

Avaliação de um programa de treinamento físico por quatro meses para crianças asmáticas

Cristiane Soncino Silva, Lídia Alice Gomes Monteiro Marins Torres, Abel Rahal, João Terra Filho, Elcio Oliveira Vianna

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(4):279-285

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Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate physical conditioning and muscle strength before and after a four-month program of physical training. Methods: Two groups of children, ages 8 to 11 years, with moderate asthma were studied. All subjects were tested before and after a program of physical training, which was conducted in 90-min sessions, twice weekly, for four months and also included exercises performed in the water. Children in both groups received general information about asthma, as well as information about the management and treatment of asthma. Results: In the final evaluation, anthropometric parameters (height and weight) were found to have increased. Children in the exercise group presented significant gains in the distance run in nine minutes (initial 1.333 + 0.03 km vs. final 1.440 + 0.03 km; p < 0.05), number of abdominal crunches (initial 24.3 + 1.4 abdominais vs. final 33.2 + 1.1; p < 0.05), maximal inspiratory pressure (initial 73 + 5 cmH2O vs. final 103 + 5 cmH2O; p < 0.05), maximal expiratory pressure (initial 75 + 4 cmH2O vs. final 102 + 4 cmH2O; p < 0.05) and heart rate at rest (initial 84.3 + 1.6 bpm vs. final 77.1 + 2.7 bpm; p < 0.05). The control group presented no significant changes in any of these parameters. Conclusion: An exercise program involving longer sessions, conducted less frequently, facilitates increased participation by children, thereby leading to better physical conditioning and greater muscle strength.

 



Evaluation of smoking cessation treatment initiated during hospitalization in patients with heart disease or respiratory disease

Avaliação de um tratamento para cessação do tabagismo iniciado durante a hospitalização em pacientes com doença cardíaca ou doença respiratória

Thaís Garcia1,a, Sílvia Aline dos Santos Andrade2, Angélica Teresa Biral1, André Luiz Bertani1,b, Laura Miranda de Oliveira Caram1,c, Talita Jacon Cezare3, Irma Godoy4,d, Suzana Erico Tanni3,e

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):42-48

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Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation program, delivered by trained health care professionals, in patients hospitalized for acute respiratory disease (RD) or heart disease (HD). Methods: Of a total of 393 patients evaluated, we included 227 (146 and 81 active smokers hospitalized for HD and RD, respectively). All participants received smoking cessation treatment during hospitalization and were followed in a cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation program for six months after hospital discharge. Results: There were significant differences between the HD group and the RD group regarding participation in the cognitive-behavioral program after hospital discharge (13.0% vs. 35.8%; p = 0.003); smoking cessation at the end of follow-up (29% vs. 31%; p < 0.001); and the use of nicotine replacement therapy (3.4% vs. 33.3%; p < 0.001). No differences were found between the HD group and the RD group regarding the use of bupropion (11.0% vs. 12.3%; p = 0.92). Varenicline was used by only 0.7% of the patients in the HD group. Conclusions: In our sample, smoking cessation rates at six months after hospital discharge were higher among the patients with RD than among those with HD, as were treatment adherence rates. The implementation of smoking cessation programs for hospitalized patients with different diseases, delivered by the health care teams that treat these patients, is necessary for greater effectiveness in smoking cessation.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Smoking cessation; Hospitalization; Respiratory tract diseases; Heart diseases.

 


Evaluation of the gauge of needles used in the collection of specimens during endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration

Avaliação do calibre das agulhas utilizadas na coleta de espécimes por punção aspirativa por agulha guiada por ultrassom endobrônquico

Goohyeon Hong1,a, Ji Hae Koo2,b

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(1):e20180090-e20180090

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Evaluation of the knowledge of health professionals at a pediatric hospital regarding the use of metered-dose inhalers

Avaliação do conhecimento sobre o uso de inaladores dosimetrados entre profissionais de saúde de um hospital pediátrico

Fábio Pereira Muchão, Sílvia La Regina Rodrigues Perín, Joaquim Carlos Rodrigues, Cláudio Leone, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira Silva Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(1):4-12

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Objective: To evaluate health professionals working at a tertiary pediatric hospital in terms of their knowledge regarding the practical use of metered-dose inhalers. Methods: Practical and written tests on the use of metered-dose inhalers were applied to physicians, physical therapists, nurses and nursing assistants. A score from 0 to 10 was assigned to each evaluation, and median scores were calculated for each professional category. Questions with higher and lower correct values were identified, and a descriptive comparison was made regarding the performance of the various professional categories. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis method for comparison of medians. A sequential logistic multiple regression analysis was also performed. Results: A total of 30 resident physicians or interns in the pediatrics department, 23 attending physicians, 29 physical therapists, 33 nurses and 31 nursing assistants were evaluated. Resident physicians, physical therapists and attending physicians performed significantly better than did nurses and nursing assistants. Only resident physicians had a median score greater than 6. Conclusions: The health professionals evaluated, particularly the nurses and nursing assistants, who are directly involved in the practical use of metered-dose inhalers, possess insufficient knowledge regarding the use of such inhalers.

 


Keywords: Metered dose inhalers; Inhalation spacers; Asthma; Education, public health professional.

 


Evaluation of hospitalized patients in terms of their knowledge related to smoking

Avaliação do conhecimento sobre tabagismo em pacientes internados

Suzana Erico Tanni, Nathalie Izumi Iritsu, Masaki Tani, Paula Angeleli Bueno de Camargo, Marina Gonçalves Elias Sampaio, Ilda Godoy, Irma Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(2):218-223

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Objective: To identify characteristics related to smoking in hospitalized patients and to assess the knowledge that such patients have regarding the relationship between nicotine dependence and smoking-related diseases. Methods: The study included 186 patients (males, 59%; mean age, 51.3 ± 16.8 years) who were evaluated regarding demographic characteristics, diagnosis at admission, smoking history and passive smoke exposure. All of the patients completed a questionnaire regarding their knowledge of the relationship between smoking and disease. Results: Of the 186 patients, 42 (22.6%) were smokers, 64 (34.4%) were former smokers and 80 (43%) stated they were never smokers; 136 (73%) reported passive smoke exposure. In the sample as a whole, 21.5% of the patients were diagnosed with a smoking-related disease at admission, compared with 39% of those who were smokers or former smokers. The proportion of individuals who were unaware of the relationship between smoking and the cause of hospitalization was similar among current smokers and former smokers (56% and 65%, respectively). Only 19% of the current smokers believed that smoking might have affected their health, compared with 32% of the former smokers (p = 0.22). The proportion of individuals who believed that quitting smoking depends on willpower was significantly higher among former smokers and never smokers than among current smokers (64% and 53%, respectively, vs. 24%; p < 0.001 and p = 0.008). Although 96% of the patients believed that smoking causes dependence, only 60% identified smoking as a disease. Conclusions: This study shows the disconnect between the recognition of smoking as a cause of dependence and the recognition of smoking as a disease, as well as the general lack of awareness that former and current smoking constitute a risk factor for the development and progression of disease.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Tobacco use disorder; Smoking cessation.

 


Assessment of theoretical and practical knowledge of asthma among guardians of children treated in primary care

Avaliação do conhecimento teórico e prático sobre asma em responsáveis por crianças atendidas na atenção primária

Cathiana Carmo Dalto Banhos1,a, Cristian Roncada2,b, Leonardo Araújo Pinto3,c, Paulo Márcio Pitrez4,5,d

J Bras Pneumol.2020;46(1):e20190147-e20190147

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Assessment of religious coping in patients with COPD

Avaliação do coping religioso em pacientes com DPOC

Francisco Alessandro Braga do Nascimento1,2,a, Guilherme Pinheiro Ferreira da Silva1,3,b, Geisyani Francisca Gomes Prudente1,c, Rafael Mesquita1,d, Eanes Delgado Barros Pereira1,2,e

J Bras Pneumol.2020;46(1):e20180150-e20180150

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare religious coping (RC) in patients with COPD and healthy individuals, as well as to determine whether RC is associated with demographic characteristics, quality of life, depression, and disease severity in the patients with COPD. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between 2014 and 2016, involving outpatients with moderate to severe COPD seen at one of two hospitals in Fortaleza, Brazil, as well as gender- and age-matched healthy controls. The Brief RCOPE scale assessed RC in all of the participants. We also evaluated the COPD group patients regarding symptoms, quality of life, and depression, as well as submitting them to spirometry and a six-minute walk test. Results: A total of 100 patients were evaluated. The mean age was 67.3 ± 6.8 years, and 54% were men. In the COPD group, the mean positive RC score was significantly higher than was the mean negative RC score (27.17 ± 1.60 vs. 8.21 ± 2.12; p = 0.001). The mean positive RC score was significantly higher in women than in men (27.5 ± 1.1 vs. 26.8 ± 2.8; p = 0.02). Negative RC scores were significantly higher in the COPD group than in the control group (p = 0.01). Negative RC showed an inverse association with six-minute walk distance (6MWD; r = −0.3; p < 0.05) and a direct association with depressive symptoms (r = 0.2; p < 0.03). Positive RC correlated with none of the variables studied. Multiple regression analysis showed that negative RC was associated with 6MWD (coefficient = −0.009; 95% CI: −0.01 to −0.003). 6MWD explained the variance in negative RC in a linear fashion. Conclusions: Patients with COPD employ negative RC more often than do healthy individuals. Exercise capacity and depressive symptoms are associated with negative RC.

 


Keywords: Religion; Spirituality; Adaptation, psychological; Quality of life; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.

 


Detection of cord factor for the presumptive identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

Avaliação do crescimento em cordas na identificação presuntiva do complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Andrea Gobetti Vieira Coelho, Liliana Aparecida Zamarioli, Clemira Martins Pereira Vidal Reis, Bruno Francisco de Lima Duca

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):707-711

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Objective: Virulent strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, under certain appropriate conditions, grow as characteristic ropes, bundles or serpentine cords known as cord factor or growth in cords. The objective of the present study was to evaluate cord factor detection as a method of achieving presumptive identification of the M. tuberculosis complex, comparing it to conventional typing tests. Methods: A total of 743 strains were analyzed from January of 2002 to December of 2005 in the Mycobacteria Sector of the Adolfo Lutz Institute, located in the city of Santos, Brazil. Samples were obtained from clinical specimens collected from patients with respiratory symptoms treated at basic health clinics in the greater metropolitan area of Santos. Ziehl-Neelsen-stained smears were prepared, 301 (40.5%) in MB/BacT broth and 442 (59.5%) on solid media, either Lowenstein-Jensen or Ogawa-Kudoh. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value obtained during the performance comparison of the two methods (cord factor detection and conventional typing) using both isolation media were, respectively, 98.5, 88, 97 and 93%. The method was more sensitive on solid medium (100%), and the difference in sensitivity between the two media types was only 2.7%. Conclusions: Taking into consideration the results obtained, we conclude that, in laboratories with a high incidence of M. tuberculosis complex isolation and limited economic resources, cord factor detection is a fast and valid criterion for identifying these mycobacteria using liquid or solid medium. It also enables subsequent conclusive identification tests, as well as additional sensitivity tests when necessary.

 


Keywords: Laboratory techniques and procedures; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Cord factors

 


Evaluation of the diagnostic performance and cut-off value for the rapid shallow breathing index in predicting extubation failure

Avaliação do desempenho diagnóstico e do valor de corte para o índice de respiração rápida e superficial na predição do insucesso da extubação

Aline Roberta Danaga, Ana Lúcia Gut, Letícia Cláudia de Oliveira Antunes, Ana Lúcia dos Anjos Ferreira, Fábio Akio Yamaguti, José Carlos Christovan, Ubirajara Teixeira, Cristina Aparecida Veloso Guedes, Ana Beatriz Sasseron, Luis Cuadrado Martin

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(6):541-547

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) in predicting extubation failure among adult patients in the intensive care unit and to determine the appropriateness of the classical RSBI cut-off value. Methods: This was a prospective study conducted in the adult intensive care unit of the Botucatu School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas. The RSBI was evaluated in 73 consecutive patients considered clinically ready for extubation. Results: The classical RSBI cut-off value (105 breaths/min/L) presented a sensitivity of 20% and a specificity of 95% (sum = 115%). Analysis of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve revealed a better cut-off value (76.5 breaths/min/L), which presented a sensitivity of 66% and a specificity of 74% (sum = 140%). The area under the ROC curve for the RSBI was 0.78. Conclusions: The classical RSBI cut-off value proved inappropriate, predicting only 20% of the cases of extubation failure in our sample. The new cut-off value provided substantial improvement in sensitivity, with an acceptable loss of specificity. The area under the ROC curve indicated that the discriminative power of the RSBI is satisfactory, which justifies the validation of this index for use.

 


Keywords: Adult; Intensive care; ROC curve; Ventilator weaning; Diagnosis; Respiration, artificial.

 


Evaluation of von Willebrand factor in COPD patients

Avaliação do fator de von Willebrand em pacientes com DPOC

Thiago Prudente Bártholo, Cláudia Henrique da Costa, Rogério Rufino

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):373-379

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare the absolute serum von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels and relative serum vWF activity in patients with clinically stable COPD, smokers without airway obstruction, and healthy never-smokers. Methods: The study included 57 subjects, in three groups: COPD (n = 36); smoker (n = 12); and control (n = 9). During the selection phase, all participants underwent chest X-rays, spirometry, and blood testing. Absolute serum vWF levels and relative serum vWF activity were obtained by turbidimetry and ELISA, respectively. The modified Medical Research Council scale (cut-off score = 2) was used in order to classify COPD patients as symptomatic or mildly symptomatic/asymptomatic. Results: Absolute vWF levels were significantly lower in the control group than in the smoker and COPD groups: 989 ± 436 pg/mL vs. 2,220 ± 746 pg/mL (p < 0.001) and 1,865 ± 592 pg/mL (p < 0.01). Relative serum vWF activity was significantly higher in the COPD group than in the smoker group (136.7 ± 46.0% vs. 92.8 ± 34.0%; p < 0.05), as well as being significantly higher in the symptomatic COPD subgroup than in the mildly symptomatic/asymptomatic COPD subgroup (154 ± 48% vs. 119 ± 8%; p < 0.05). In all three groups, there was a negative correlation between FEV1 (% of predicted) and relative serum vWF activity (r2 = −0.13; p = 0.009). Conclusions: Our results suggest that increases in vWF levels and activity contribute to the persistence of systemic inflammation, as well as increasing cardiovascular risk, in COPD patients.

 


Keywords: von Willebrand factor; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Endothelial cells.

 


Evaluation of the impact that the changes in tuberculosis treatment implemented in Brazil in 2009 have had on disease control in the country

Avaliação do impacto das mudanças do tratamento da tuberculose implantadas em 2009 no controle da tuberculose pulmonar no Brasil

Marcelo Fouad Rabahi, José Laerte Rodrigues da Silva Júnior, Marcus Barreto Conde

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):437-444

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the impact that the 2009 changes in tuberculosis treatment in Brazil had on the rates of cure, tuberculosis recurrence, mortality, treatment abandonment, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Methods: An ordinary least squares regression model was used in order to perform an interrupted time series analysis of secondary data collected from the Brazilian Tuberculosis Case Registry Database for the period between January of 2003 and December of 2014. Results: The 2009 changes in tuberculosis treatment in Brazil were found to have no association with reductions in the total number of cases (β = 2.17; 95% CI: −3.80 to 8.14; p = 0.47) and in the number of new cases (β = −0.97; 95% CI: −5.89 to 3.94; p = 0.70), as well as having no association with treatment abandonment rates (β = 0.40; 95% CI: −1.12 to 1.93; p = 0.60). The changes in tuberculosis treatment also showed a trend toward an association with decreased cure rates (β = −4.14; 95% CI: −8.63 to 0.34; p = 0.07), as well as an association with increased mortality from pulmonary tuberculosis (β = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.16 to 1.38; p = 0.01). Although there was a significant increase in MDR-TB before and after the changes (p < 0.0001), there was no association between the intervention (i.e., the changes in tuberculosis treatment) and the increase in MDR-TB cases. Conclusions: The changes in tuberculosis treatment were unable to contain the decrease in cure rates, the increase in treatment abandonment rates, and the increase in MDR-TB rates, being associated with increased mortality from pulmonary tuberculosis during the study period.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary/epidemiology; Tuberculosis, pulmonary/drug therapy; Tuberculosis, pulmonary/mortality; Interrupted time series analysis; Drug resistance, multiple; Drug compounding.

 


Evaluation of the Asthma Control Questionnaire validated for use in Brazil

Avaliação do Questionário de Controle da Asma validado para uso no Brasil

Mylene Leite, Eduardo Vieira Ponte, Jaqueline Petroni, Argemiro D`Oliveira Júnior, Emílio Pizzichini, Álvaro Augusto Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(10):756-763

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate whether the Portuguese version of the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) is a valid instrument to measure asthma control in adult outpatients in Brazil. Methods: We selected 278 outpatients diagnosed with asthma. All of the patients completed the questionnaire, underwent spirometry and were clinically evaluated by a physician in order to characterize the control of the disease in the first visit. The questionnaire was evaluated in three versions, with 5, 6 and 7 questions, respectively, and scores of 0.75 and 1.50 were used as cut-off points. Results: Of the 278 patients, 77 (27.7%) had intermittent asthma, 39 (14.0%) had mild persistent asthma, 40 (14.4%) had moderate persistent asthma and 122 (43.9%) had severe persistent asthma. The sensitivity of ACQ to identify uncontrolled asthma ranged from 77% to 99%, and the specificity ranged from 36% to 84%. The positive predictive value ranged from 73% to 90%, and the negative predictive value ranged from 67% to 95%. The positive likelihood ratio ranged from 1.55 to 4.81, and the negative likelihood ratio ranged from 0.03 to 0.27. In the 5- and 6-question versions of the ACQ, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.92. These two versions were both responsive to clinical changes in the patients. Conclusions: All three versions of the ACQ satisfactorily discriminated between patients with uncontrolled asthma and those with controlled asthma. The 5- and 6-question versions also presented good reliability and responsiveness. Therefore, the ACQ is a valid tool for evaluating asthma control in adult outpatients in Brazil.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Therapeutics; Diagnosis; Questionnaires; Reproducibility of results.

 


Evaluation of the risk of bacterial contamination in the patient submitted to bronchoscopy, after reprocessing the bronchoscope

Avaliação do risco de contaminação por bactérias, no paciente submetido à broncoscopia, após o reprocessamento do broncoscópio

Nancy Spekla Grande, Romilda Aparecida Nakayama, Antonia Maria de Oliveira Machado, Fábio Akio Yamaguti, Cesar Uehara

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(5):250-260

Abstract PDF PT

Introduction: Bronchoscopic is a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure performed by introducing a flexible tube in the airways that allows for the visualization even of the smallest airways. In order to prevent or reduce the risk of infection, the bronchoscope must be adequately disinfected with at least high level disinfection. Purpose: Check for the risk of bacterial contamination for patients submitted to bronchoscopy at the Hospital São Paulo of Unifesp University, State of São Paulo. Methods: From 1997 to 1998, bronchoscope reprocessing included cleaning, rinsing with sterile or potable water, followed by rinsing with 2% glutaraldehyde for 20 minutes, rinsing again with sterile or potable water, and rinsing with 70% ethyl alcohol, and forced-air drying through the suction channel. Samples of 65 patients were collected for microbiologic tests by instilling sterile saline solution through the suction channel of the bronchoscope. Results: After reprocessing, the following were found in the samples: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter sp, Acinetobacter baumanni, Streptococcus viridans, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus beta hemoliticus A, Staphylococcus coagulase negative, and mycobacterial growth was found in the culture of five samples. Conclusions: Bronchoscope disinfection with 2% glutaraldehyde was not sufficient to assured disinfection of the scope and the presence of Staphylococcus epidermidis shows that there was bronchoscope contamination due to handling after disinfection.

 



Evaluation of the nitrate reductase assay for the rapid detection of resistance to first-line medications in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients in a general hospital

Avaliação do teste de nitrato redutase para a detecção rápida de resistência aos medicamentos de primeira linha em cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis isoladas de pacientes em um hospital geral

Maria de Fátima Filardi Oliveira Mansur, Wânia da Silva Carvalho, Raquel Bandeira da Silva, Rodrigo Gonçalves Cata Preta, Lucas Almeida Fernandes Junior, Silvana Spíndola de Miranda

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):210-213

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We compared the nitrate reductase assay with the proportion method, which is considered the gold standard, in 57 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients treated at the Federal University of Minas Gerais Hospital das Clínicas, located in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. For rifampin and isoniazid, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the nitrate reductase assay were all 100%, whereas they were 100%, 88.9%, and 66.7%, respectively, for streptomycin and 98.0%, 100%, and 98.2%, respectively, for ethambutol. The mean time to results was ten days. In the study sample, the nitrate reductase assay proved highly accurate and showed excellent concordance with the gold standard.

 


Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Microbial sensitivity tests; Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant; Nitrate reductase.

 


Evaluation of diagnostic criteria for severe asthma described in a public health directive regulating the free distribution of medications for the maintenance treatment of asthma

Avaliação dos descritores de asma grave em pacientes incluídos na portaria de saúde pública que regulamenta a distribuição gratuita de medicamentos para o tratamento de manutenção da asma

Maria Amélia Carvalho da Silva Santos, Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes, Mara Marta Amorim, Patrícia Bueno Lima, Sonia Maria Faresin, Ilka Lopes Santoro

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(4):310-317

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the capacity of the criteria described in Complementary Directive SAS/MS 12, issued on November 12, 2002, to identify patients with severe asthma, describing and comparing clinical, functional and treatment data of such patients. Methods: This was a nested case-control study using a structured database for adult asthma outpatients. We defined cases as asthma patients who met the inclusion criteria described in the directive, defining controls as those who did not. We collected and compared data related to the following: demographic characteristics; history of asthma; medications in use; comorbidities; history of tobacco use; number of exacerbations within the last 12 months, asthma-related hospitalizations and intensive care unit admissions within the last 12 months; spirometry; and sputum cytology. Results: The case and control groups consisted of 29 and 31 patients, respectively. The number of asthma exacerbations and emergency room visits within the last 12 months, as well as the number of patients that received at least one pulse of oral corticosteroids, was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group. In addition, prebronchodilator FVC was lower among the cases than among the controls. Furthermore, cytology revealed that eosinophil counts were significantly higher in the induced sputum of cases than in that of controls. Conclusions: The criteria described in the directive are suited to stratifying patients with severe asthma.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Budesonide; Combined modality therapy.

 


Spirometry evolution assessment of cystic fibrosis

Avaliação evolutiva da espirometria na fibrose cística

Elenara da Fonseca Andrade, Deisi Letícia Oliveira da Fonseca, Fernando Antônio de Abreu e Silva, Sérgio Saldanha Menna-Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(3):130-136

Abstract PDF PT

Objectives: To evaluate the evolution pattern of dynamic pulmonary flow and volume in cystic fibrosis patients and analyze the relation between the severity of ventilatory attacks and age, gender, genotype and pulmonary colonization. Methods: At the Pediatric Pulmonary Unit and Pulmonary Service of Hospital de Clínicas of Porto Alegre, 243 spirometries performed between 1987 and 1999 in 52 cystic fibrosis patients older than four years of age were reviewed. From the patients' medical records the following informations were extracted: age at diagnosis, genetic data, bronchial colonization and absolute as well as percent values of the flows and volumes of the best annual spirometry. Results: The age of the patients ranged from four to 26 years (mean = 13.04 ± 4.82). Out of the 52 patients, 49 (94%) had at least one sputum culture with P. aeruginosa, 45 (86%) with S. aureus and 13 (25%) with B. cepacia. At initial evaluation, that included patients four to six years old (n = 40), mean values for FVC and FEV1 were 114.24% and 112.25%, respectively. Mean FVC remained above baseline until 18 years of age, when it abruptly dropped to 67.2% (p = 0.0002). Mean FEV1 values dropped to less than 80% at ten years and was 50% at 18 years (p < 0.00001). The FEV1/FVC% relationship, the most obstruction sensitive index, was observed to be reduced as early as initial evaluation. It was 85% between four and six years and gradually decreased to 63% at 18 years. The mean values of FEF50, FEF75 and FMEF were initially normal (94%, 80% and 90%, respectively), showed a greater and earlier statistically significant decline, and reached to 37%, 12.5% and 19%, respectively, at 18 years. Although a tendency to lower terminal flow was seen in the girls, the differences were not statistically significant. Significant correlations between pulmonary function and the airway colonizator or genotype were not detected statistic. Conclusion: The evolution pattern of pulmonary function alterations found in these patients is consistent with those reported in the literature, where obstructive ventilatory disorders with early terminal flow reduction and late FVC onset predominate.

 


Keywords: Spirometry. Cystic fibrosis. Pulmonary ventilatory.

 


Pulmonary function tests in asthmatic children and adolescents: Comparison between a microspirometer and a conventional spirometer

Avaliação funcional pulmonar em crianças e adolescentes asmáticos: comparação entre a micro espirometria e a espirometria convencional

Lúcia Bartmann Wild, Alexandre Simões Dias, Gilberto Bueno Fischer, Daniele Ruzzante Rech

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):97-102

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Background: Spirometry is widely used in the diagnosis and quantification of respiratory disorders such as asthma. A microspirometer is a portable and easily used apparatus that can substitute for a regular spirometer, although there is little evidence of its accuracy. Objective: To compare the microspirometer to a regular spirometer for use in asthmatic children and adolescents. Methods: The instruments used were a Micro Spirometer, manufactured by Micro Medical, and a conventional Cosmed Pony Graphic 3.5 spirometer, both with turbinometers (flow sensors). The study sample consisted of 62 children and adolescents, of both genders, clinically diagnosed with asthma and under treatment at a pulmonology clinic. Ages ranged from 5 and 16 years. All spirometric tests were carried out according to the guidelines established by the American Thoracic Society and by the Associacão Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (Brazilian Technical Standards Association). For each patient, microspirometry was performed first, followed by conventional spirometry. The parameters analyzed in both devices were forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second and peak expiratory flow. Data were analyzed using the Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation test. Results: Strong correlations were found between the two devices in the parameters analyzed: forced expiratory volume in one second: r = 0.97; forced vital capacity: r = 0.97; and peak expiratory flow: r = 0.91. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the microspirometer is a useful diagnostic tool that can be used when a conventional spirometer is unavailable.

 


Keywords: Key words: Asthma. Spirometry. Micro spirometer. Puomonary ventilation.

 


Mediastinal evaluation in lung cancer staging

Avaliação mediastinal no estadiamento do câncer do pulmão

Angelo Fernandez, Aldo Rodrigues Junqueira Jr., Ricardo H. Bammann, Ricardo Beyruti, Fábio B. Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.1998;24(1):17-22

Abstract PDF PT

The presence of mediastinal lymph node metastasis in lung cancer has a great influence on treatment selection and prognosis, and the diagnosis of lymphatic metastasis must be accurate. CT chest scans and mediastinoscopy are the diagnostic tools available to detect mediastinal lymph node metastases and to establish preoperative staging. Lymph node size evaluated by CT scans is not an acceptable criterion in the patients studied here. The aim of this study was to find out a representative pattern of size to indicate the possibility of neoplastic invasion in the population studied. Fifty consecutive patients were operated on and were submitted to pulmonary resection and mediastinal dissection to treat lung cancer. Seventy-four percent of the lymph nodes with transverse section of more than 3 cm had no neoplastic invasion. CT scans and mediastinoscopy have similar sensitivity (close to 65%), but mediastinoscopy has higher specificity (100%). This means that the authors must have histologic confirmation of any suspected lymph node to achieve a correct staging.

 


Keywords: Carcinoma, non-small cell. Lung neoplasias. Lymph nodes. Lymphatic metastasis. Mediatinoscopy. Neoplasm, staging. CT scanning.

 


Respiratory muscle evaluation in elective thoracotomies and laparotomies of the upper abdomen

Avaliação muscular respiratória nas toracotomias e laparotomias superiores eletivas

Laryssa Milenkovich Bellinetti, João Carlos Thomson

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(2):99-105

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Objective: To identify any possible relation between lower than predicted preoperative respiratory muscle function and the incidence of postoperative respiratory complications and death in elective thoracotomies and laparotomies of the upper abdomen. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted, in which 70 patients over the age of 18 were monitored in two similar hospitals. In the preoperative evaluation performed at admission, patients were classified as presenting respiratory muscle function (as determined by measurement of maximal respiratory pressures) > 75% of the predicted value (n = 50) or < 75% of the predicted value (n = 20). Patients were monitored until discharge. In both groups, the incidence of pneumonia was determined, as was that of acute respiratory failure, bronchospasm, prolonged mechanical ventilation, atelectasis, pleural effusion, pneumothorax and death. A comparative analysis was made between the groups, and relative risk was calculated. Results: In the study sample, the overall incidence of postoperative complications was 22.86% (16/70): 55% (11/20) in the group of patients presenting < 75% of the predicted value; and 10% (5/50) in the group of patients presenting > 75% of the predicted value. Patients in the < 75% of the predicted value group presented a relative risk of 5.5 (95% confidence interval between 2.19 and 13.82). Conclusion: Respiratory muscle function below the predicted value was found to be related with higher relative risk of postoperative complications in the surgical procedures studied.

 


Keywords: Postoperative complications; Thoracotomy; Laparotomy; Respiratory muscles; Respiratory insufficiency

 


Nutritional evaluation in patients with lung cancer

Avaliação nutricional em pacientes portadores de câncer de pulmão

Sérgio Jamnik, Cesar Uehara, Ilka Lopes Santoro

J Bras Pneumol.1998;24(6):347-353

Abstract PDF PT

The authors analyze the nutritional status of patients with lung cancer. 131 patients, 96 (73.3%) male and 35 (26.7%) female, were classified into three groups: I - malnourished patients; II - eutrophic patients and III - obese patients. Most of the malnourished had anorexia (59.7%), which was not seen in the eutrophic (25%) and obese patients (26.1%). More than 70% of patients reported some degree of previous weight loss at the initial evaluation, weight loss being higher among malnourished patients. Weight loss was observed in more than 60% of the patients during the follow-up period of 3 months after the first evaluation. Patients with squamous carcinoma neoplasms prevailed in the malnourished group whereas adenocarcinoma was more prevalent in the other two groups. Most patients had advanced stages of the disease.

 


Keywords: Lung cancer. Nutritional status.

 


Objective evaluation of clubbing on shadow images of index fingers. A study of patients with pulmonary disease and of normal individuals

Avaliação objetiva do hipocratismo digital em imagens de sombra de dedo indicador; estudo em pacientes pneumopatas e em indivíduos normais

José da Silva Moreira, Nelson da Silva Porto, Ana Luiza Schneider Moreira

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):126-133

Abstract PDF PT

Background: Normal diagnosis of clubbing is clinical; however use of objective criteria may improve the accuracy of findings Objective: To present a simple method of obtaining finger images for the purpose of studying clubbing. Method: Shadow images of the index fingers obtained by projection through a transparent glass plate virtually without distortion and displayed on a common sheet of paper yielded the profile (PA) and hyponychial (HA) angles; as well as the ratio between distal phalangean and interphalangean depths (DPD/IPD). Upon physical examination of 306 adult bearers of pulmonary disease, 116 disclosed presence of clubbing (YES); 126 absence (NO); and 64 were doubtful cases (DBT). Also studied were 452 normal adult individuals. Among these 71.0% of the bearers and 33.4% of the controls were smokers. Results: Values found in normal individuals and in patients bearers of clubbing (YES) were, respectively, 172.8±5.9º vs. 183.4±5.9º for PA, 181.5±5.0º vs. 201.4±6.5º for HA, and 0.904±0.029 vs. 1.014±0.062 for DPD/IPD (significant differences, p<0.001). In the doubtful) cases (DBT) the three values were also higher than in normal controls (p<0.001). Furthermore, it was shown that among controls PA, HA and the DPD/IPD ratios were significantly larger in male smokers (p<0.005) while only the DPD/IPD ratio was larger in female smokers (p<0.05). Conclusions: This is a simple method of obtaining clear index finger images. The hyponychial angle determined on the images was the most useful measurement to discriminate digits clinically with and without clubbing (sensitivity of 76.7%, specificity of 83.2%, predictive positive value of 95.5% and predictive negative value of 96.9%).

 


Keywords: Clubbing, profile angle, hyponychial angle, relation DPD/IPD.

 


Early prognosis of acute asthma in the emergency room

Avaliação prognóstica precoce da asma aguda na sala de emergência

Deise Marcela Piovesan, Diego Milan Menegotto, Suzie Kang, Eduardo Franciscatto, Thaís Millan, Cristine Hoffmann, Lílian Rech Pasin, Josiane Fischer, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):1-9

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate clinical and pulmonary function measurements taken in the first fifteen minutes of the assessment of acute asthma in the emergency room and used for prognostic purposes. Methods: A prospective cohort study involving consecutive patients with acute asthma. Only patients who were between the ages of 12 and 55 and presented peak expiratory flow rates < or = 50% of predicted were included. Evaluations were performed upon admission, then again at 15 minutes and 4 hours after the initiation of treatment. Treatment included albuterol and ipratropium delivered by metered-dose inhaler with a spacer, together with 100 mg of intravenous hydrocortisone. Favorable outcomes were defined as peak expiratory flow > or = 50% of predicted after 4 hours of treatment, and unfavorable outcomes were defined as peak expiratory flow < 50% after 4 hours of treatment. Results: Favorable outcomes were seen in 27 patients, and unfavorable outcomes were seen in 24 patients. In the multivariate analysis, peak expiratory flow as percentage of predicted was identified as the variable with the highest predictive value. A peak expiratory flow > or = 40% after 15 minutes of treatment showed significant power in predicting a favorable outcome (sensitivity = 0.74, specificity = 1.00, and positive predictive value = 1.00). A peak expiratory flow < 30% after 15 minutes of treatment was predictive of a poor outcome (sensitivity = 0.54, specificity = 0.93, and positive predictive value = 0.87). Conclusion: Our results suggest that measuring peak expiratory flow after 15 minutes of management in the emergency room is a useful tool for predicting outcomes in cases of acute asthma.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Acute disease; Respiratory mechanics; Prognosis; Emergency Service, Hospital; Cohort studies

 


Quantitative assessment of the intensity of palmar and plantar sweating in patients with primary palmoplantar hyperhidrosis

Avaliação quantitativa da intensidade da transpiração palmar e plantar em pacientes portadores de hiperidrose palmoplantar primária

Bruno Yoshihiro Parlato Sakiyama, Thaís Vera Monteiro, Augusto Ishy, José Ribas Milanez de Campos, Paulo Kauffman, Nelson Wolosker

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):573-578

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare individuals with and without hyperhidrosis in terms of the intensity of palmar and plantar sweating. Methods: We selected 50 patients clinically diagnosed with palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and 25 normal individuals as controls. We quantified sweating using a portable noninvasive electronic device that has relative humidity and temperature sensors to measure transepidermal water loss. All of the individuals had a body mass index of 20-25 kg/cm2. Subjects remained at rest for 20-30 min before the measurements in order to reduce external interference. The measurements were carried out in a climate-controlled environment (21-24°C). Measurements were carried out on the hypothenar region on both hands and on the medial plantar region on both feet. Results: In the palmoplantar hyperhidrosis group, the mean transepidermal water loss on the hands and feet was 133.6 ± 51.0 g/m2/h and 71.8 ± 40.3 g/m2/h, respectively, compared with 37.9 ± 18.4 g/m2/h and 27.6 ± 14.3 g/m2/h, respectively, in the control group. The differences between the groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001 for hands and feet). Conclusions: This method proved to be an accurate and reliable tool to quantify palmar and plantar sweating when performed by a trained and qualified professional.

 


Keywords: Hyperhidrosis; Sweat; Dermatology/instrumentation.

 


Quantitative assessment of elastic fibers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Avaliação quantitativa das fibras elásticas na doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Rogerio Rufino, Kalil Madi, Heitor Siffert Pereira de Souza, Cláudia Henrique da Costa, Eduardo Haruo Saito, José Roberto Lapa e Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):502-509

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To quantify elastic fibers (EFs) and smooth muscle (SM) cells, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Surgical specimens were obtained from 15 COPD patients, 18 smokers without airflow limitation, and 14 nonsmokers. Histological and immunohistochemical methods were employed in order to quantify EFs, SM cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells. Results: There was no significant difference in EF numbers among the three groups (p > 0.05). The number of EFs per unit area of lung tissue (mm2) and the percentage of EFs in the lung tissue were similar among the three groups. The numbers of SM cells were found to be higher in the COPD patients than in the smokers (p = 0.003) or in the nonsmokers (p = 0.009). There was a tendency toward an increase in CD8+ T-cell counts in the COPD patients. In specimens collected from the COPD patients, CD4+ T-cell counts were lower than in those collected from the smokers (p = 0.015) or from the nonsmokers (p = 0.003). There was a weak correlation between CD4+ T-cell count and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (r2 = 0.003). Conclusions: The EF counts were similar among the three groups. Hypertrophy/hyperplasia of airway wall SM cells was found in the COPD patients and in the smokers, indicating that airway remodeling occurs in smokers. The CD4/CD8 ratio was lower in the COPD patients.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; CD4 Lymphocyte Count; Elastic tissue; Muscle, smooth.

 


Semiquantitative echocardiographic evaluation of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations: correlation with evaluation of shunt levels and pulmonary function parameters

Avaliação semiquantitativa ecocardiográfica de dilatações vasculares intrapulmonares em candidatos a transplante hepático: correlação com avaliação de shunt e parâmetros funcionais pulmonares

Maria Angélica Pires Ferreira, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Marli Maria Knorst, Mario Reis Álvares da Silva, Antonio Furlan Pinotti

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(2):106-113

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To correlate semiquantitative evaluation of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations (IPVD) with quantitative evaluation of shunt levels, as well as to describe clinical and pulmonary function findings in a sample of liver disease patients with IPVD. Methods: Patients presenting transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) positivity for IPVD underwent clinical evaluation, pulmonary function tests and pulmonary shunt quantification (scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin and blood gas analysis after pure oxygen breathing). Results: A total of 28 liver cirrhosis patients were studied (mean age, 47.5 years; 60.7% were Child-Pugh class B). A 4-point, ascending scale was used as a measure of IPVD intensity, which was scored as 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, in 13 (46.4%), 9 (32.1%), 2 (7.1%) and 4 (14.3%) of the patients. Patients were divided into a low-intensity group (scores 1 and 2) and a high-intensity group (scores 3 and 4). The mean shunt assessed using scintigraphy was 14.9% in the sample as a whole and was lower in the low-intensity group (11.7% vs. 26.3%; p = 0.01). The mean shunt by blood gas analysis was higher in the high-intensity group (8.3% vs. 16.3%; p < 0.001). Mean PaO2 was lower in the high-intensity group. There was a negative correlation between DLCO and IPVD severity (r = −0.406, p = 0.01). Conclusions: TTE is a safe, useful tool for assessing IPVD severity in liver disease patients. The IPVD intensity assessed using TTE correlated with the intrapulmonary shunt values obtained through the quantitative methods evaluated, as well as with pulmonary gas exchange abnormalities.

 


Keywords: Anoxia; Liver cirrhosis; Hepatopulmonary syndrome; Echocardiography.

 


Ultrasound evaluation of diaphragmatic mobility in different postures in healthy subjects

Avaliação ultra-sonográfica da mobilidade do diafragma em diferentes posturas em sujeitos saudáveis

Wellington Pereira dos Santos Yamaguti, Elaine Paulin, Simone Shibao, Sérgio Kodaira, Maria Cristina Chammas, Celso Ricardo Fernandes Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):407-413

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess, using ultrasound, the effects that changes in body position have on diaphragmatic mobility in healthy subjects during spontaneous breathing. Methods: The study involved seven healthy female volunteers, all of whom were nonsmokers, well nourished, and free of any cardiopulmonary disease. They were submitted to pulmonary function testing and ultrasound evaluation of the mobility of the right diaphragm by the craniocaudal displacement of the left branch of the portal vein using an ultrasound device in mode B. The mobility of the right diaphragm was evaluated in right decubitus and in left decubitus. The order of evaluation was previously determined in a random drawing. Results: The average mobility of the right diaphragm in right decubitus (51.30 ± 9.69 mm) was significantly higher (p = 0.03) than that observed in left decubitus (45.93 ± 10.37 mm). Conclusion: The results suggest that, during spontaneous ventilation, the dependent portion of the diaphragm presents greater mobility than does the nondependent portion, and that the technique used was sufficiently sensitive to detect variations in diaphragmatic mobility related to changes in posture.

 


Keywords: Diaphragm; Ultrasonography; Respiratory function tests; Posture.

 


Advances in the radiological diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

Avanços no diagnóstico radiológico dos nódulos pulmonares

Edson Marchiori, Klaus Loureiro Irion

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(1):2-3

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Low income as a protective factor against asthma in children and adolescents treated via the Brazilian Unified Health System

Baixa renda como fator de proteção contra asma em crianças e adolescentes usuários do Sistema Único de Saúde

Murilo Carlos Amorim de Britto, Emilses Fernandes de Carvalho Freire, Patrícia Gomes de Matos Bezerra, Rita de Cássia Coelho Moraes de Brito, Joakim da Cunha Rego

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(5):251-255

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the role that low income plays in the development of asthma in children and adolescents. Methods: A case-control study using a questionnaire. Results: A total of 687 participants were studied at a tertiary hospital via the Brazilian Unified Health System. Ages ranged from 5 to 15 years, and 54.7% of the participants were male. Nearly half of the individuals (49.1%) lived in the metropolitan area of the city of Recife, and the remainder lived in the countryside. Most (98.1%) lived in concrete houses or apartments, with a mean of 5.7 rooms and 4.8 occupants per residence. Mean maternal level of education was 6.8 years of schooling. The median monthly per capita income was R$ 103.75 (Brazilian reals). The sample was stratified according to cut-off points related to the national minimum wage (R$ 350.00): <25% of minimum wage = very low income (39% of the sample); <50% of minimum wage = low income (37.3% of the sample); and ≥50% of minimum wage = satisfactory income (23.7% of the sample). There was no association between poverty and development of asthma. Conclusions: Poverty is not protective against asthma in children and adolescents treated via the Brazilian Unified Health System, as we might suppose based on the hygiene hypothesis. However, cohort studies are needed in order to confirm these findings.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Poverty; National health programs/Brazil; Child; Adolescent; Case-control studies.

 


Incremental low doses of amrubicin for the treatment of bone marrow metastasis in small cell lung cancer

Baixas doses incrementais de amrubicina para o tratamento de metástase de medula óssea em câncer de pulmão de pequenas células

Nobuhiro Asai, Yoshihiro Ohkuni, Masanori Matsuda, Makoto Narita, Norihiro Kaneko

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):108-109

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Poor perception of dyspnea following methacholine challenge test in patients with asthma

Baixo grau de percepção da dispneia após teste de broncoprovocação induzida por metacolina em pacientes com asma

Cláudia Loss Reck, Daniel Fiterman-Molinari, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Jussara Fiterman

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):539-544

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the proportion of asthma patients with a poor perception of dyspnea, correlating the level of that perception with the severity of acute bronchoconstriction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, use of maintenance medication, and asthma control. Methods: Uncontrolled clinical trial involving asthma patients treated at the Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Methacholine challenge testing was performed using a five-breath dosimeter protocol. The perception of dyspnea after each breath was determined using the Borg scale. Data concerning asthma control, medication in use, and use of rescue short-acting bronchodilators were recorded. Results: Of the 65 patients included in the study, 53 completed the evaluation. Of those, 32 (60.5%) showed adequate perception of dyspnea after the methacholine challenge test, whereas 21 (39.5%) did not perceive any changes in the degree of dyspnea even after a 20% fall in FEV1. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding baseline FEV1, percentage fall in FEV1, and the dose of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1. The perception of dyspnea was not significantly associated with age (p = 0.247); gender (p = 0.329); use of maintenance medication (p = 0.152); asthma control (p = 0.562), bronchial hyperresponsiveness (p = 0.082); or severity of acute bronchoconstriction (p = 0.749). Conclusions: A significant proportion of asthma patients have a poor perception of dyspnea. The factors related to the inability of these patients to identify changes in pulmonary function have not yet been well defined. In order to reduce asthma-related morbidity and mortality, it is essential that this group of patients be identified and counseled.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Dyspnea; Airway obstruction.

 


Barriers associated with reduced physical activity in COPD patients

Barreiras associadas à menor atividade física em portadores de DPOC

Priscila Batista Amorim, Rafael Stelmach, Celso Ricardo Fernandes Carvalho, Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes, Regina Maria Carvalho-Pinto, Alberto Cukier

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):504-512

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the ability of COPD patients to perform activities of daily living (ADL); to identify barriers that prevent these individuals from performing ADL; and to correlate those barriers with dyspnea severity, six-minute walk test (6MWT), and an ADL limitation score. Methods: In COPD patients and healthy, age-matched controls, the number of steps, the distance walked, and walking time were recorded with a triaxial accelerometer, for seven consecutive days. A questionnaire regarding perceived barriers and the London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL) scale were used in order to identify the factors that prevent the performance of ADL. The severity of dyspnea was assessed with two scales, whereas submaximal exercise capacity was determined on the basis of the 6MWT. Results: We evaluated 40 COPD patients and 40 controls. In comparison with the control values, the mean walk time was significantly shorter for COPD patients (68.5  25.8 min/day vs. 105.2  49.4 min/day; p < 0.001), as was the distance walked (3.9  1.9 km/day vs. 6.4  3.2 km/day; p < 0.001). The COPD patients also walked fewer steps/day. The most common self-reported barriers to performing ADL were lack of infrastructure, social influences, and lack of willpower. The 6MWT distance correlated with the results obtained with the accelerometer but not with the LCADL scale results. Conclusions: Patients with COPD are less active than are healthy adults of a comparable age. Physical inactivity and the barriers to performing ADL have immediate implications for clinical practice, calling for early intervention measures.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Activities of daily living; Exercise tolerance.

 


BCGitis: A rare complication after intravesical BCG therapy

BCGite: Uma complicação rara da terapia intravesical com BCG

Maria João Oliveira, Daniel Vaz, Aurora Carvalho, Rosário Braga, Raquel Duarte

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):480-481

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Biomarkers in community-acquired pneumonia: can we do better by using them correctly?

Biomarcadores na pneumonia adquirida na comunidade: podemos fazer melhor utilizando-os corretamente?

Otavio Tavares Ranzani1,a, Luis Coelho2,3,b, Antoni Torres4,c

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(4):e20190189-e20190189

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Results and complications of CT-guided transthoracic fine-needle aspiration biopsy of pulmonary lesions

Biópsia aspirativa transtorácica por agulha fina guiada por TC de lesões pulmonares: resultados e complicações

Cristiano Dias de Lima, Rodolfo Acatauassu Nunes, Eduardo Haruo Saito, Cláudio Higa, Zanier José Fernando Cardona, Denise Barbosa dos Santos

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):209-216

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the cytological findings of CT-guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsies of the lung, to demonstrate the diagnostic feasibility of the method in the investigation of pulmonary lesions, and to determine the complications of the procedure, evaluating its safety. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 89 patients with various types of pulmonary lesions who underwent 97 procedures over a period of five years. The patients were divided into groups regarding the indication for the procedure: suspicion of primary lung cancer (stages IIIB or IV); suspicion of lung cancer (stages I, II, or IIIA) and clinical contraindications for surgery; suspicion of pulmonary metastasis from other organs; and pulmonary lesions with benign radiological aspect. All of the procedures were performed with 25-gauge needles and were guided by spiral CT. The final diagnosis was confirmed by surgical biopsy and clinical/oncological follow-up. For the analysis of complications, the total number of procedures was considered. Results: The main indication for the procedure was suspicion of advanced-stage primary lung cancer. The accuracy of the method for malignant lesions was 91.5%. The lesion was confirmed as cancer in 73% of the patients. The major complication was pneumothorax (27.8%), which required chest tube drainage in 12.4% of the procedures. Conclusions: The principal indication for CT-guided fine-needle biopsy was suspicion of primary lung cancer in patients who were not surgical candidates. The procedure has high diagnostic feasibility for malignant pulmonary diseases. The most prevalent complication was pneumothorax. However, in most cases, chest tube drainage was unnecessary. No deaths were related to the procedure.

 


Keywords: Biopsy, fine-needle; Tomography, spiral computed; Lung neoplasms; Pneumothorax.

 


CT-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy of pulmonary nodules smaller than 2 cm: technical aspects and factors influencing accuracy

Biópsia percutânea com agulha grossa, guiada por TC, de nódulos pulmonares menores que 2 cm: aspectos técnicos e fatores que influenciam a precisão

Juliano Ribeiro de Andrade1,a, Rafael Dahmer Rocha1,b, Priscila Mina Falsarella1,c, Antonio Rahal Junior1,d, Ricardo Sales dos Santos2,e, Juliana Pereira Franceschini3,f, Hiran Chrishantha Fernando4,g, Rodrigo Gobbo Garcia1,h

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(4):307-314

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CT-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy (CT-CNB) of pulmonary nodules ≤ 2 cm, as well as to identify factors influencing the accuracy of the procedure and its morbidity. Methods: This was a retrospective, single-center study of 170 consecutive patients undergoing CT-CNB of small pulmonary nodules (of ≤ 2 cm) between January of 2010 and August of 2015. Results: A total of 156 CT-CNBs yielded a definitive diagnosis, the overall diagnostic accuracy being 92.3%. Larger lesions were associated with a higher overall accuracy (OR = 1.30; p = 0.007). Parenchymal hemorrhage occurring during the procedure led to lower accuracy rates (OR = 0.13; p = 0.022). Pneumothorax was the most common complication. A pleura-to-lesion distance > 3 cm was identified as a risk factor for pneumothorax (OR = 16.94), whereas performing a blood patch after biopsy was a protective factor for pneumothorax (OR = 0.18). Conclusions: Small nodules (of < 2 cm) represent a technical challenge for diagnosis. CT-CNB is an excellent diagnostic tool, its accuracy being high.

 


Keywords: Image-guided biopsy; Neoplasms; Lung.

 


Open lung biopsy in patients on mechanical ventilation and presenting diffuse pulmonary infiltrate

Biópsia pulmonar a céu aberto em pacientes sob ventilação mecânica e com infiltrado pulmonar difuso

Andreia Salarini Monteiro, Gabriela Addor, David Henrique Nigri, Carlos Alberto de Barros Franco

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(3):212-218

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Background: Open lung biopsy is regarded as the gold standard for the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. Objective: To determine the diagnostic yield, therapeutic changes, complications and mortality attributed to open lung biopsy in patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and on mechanical ventilation. Method: We reviewed, retrospectively, the charts of 24 patients, ranging from 26 to 89 years of age, admitted to the intensive care units of two private hospitals and submitted to open lung biopsy. Results: Diagnostic positivity was found in 100% of patients, resulting in an alteration in the treatment regimen in 75%. Postoperative complications occurred in five patients (20.8%). There were no biopsy-related deaths, although global mortality was 45.8%. Conclusion: Open lung biopsy is a safe and high yield procedure for diagnosing diffuse pulmonary infiltrate in patients on mechanical ventilation. Despite the fact that no mortality impact factor has been assigned to such patients, data in the literature regarding prognosis must be taken into consideration.

 


Keywords: Biopsy. Respiratory insufficiency. Respiration artificial.

 


Pulmonary blastoma: treatment through sleeve resection of the right upper lobe

Blastoma pulmonar: tratamento cirúrgico por lobectomia superior direita e broncoplastia

Eduardo Sperb Pilla, Pablo G. Sánchez, Gabriel Ribeiro Madke, Spencer Camargo, José de Jesus Peixoto Camargo

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):75-77

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pulmonary blastoma is a rare lung tumor that is composed of malignant epithelial and mesenchymal cells. It presents a pattern of rapid growth. Herein, we report the case of a patient with hemoptysis and a mass in the right upper lobe. The patient presented limited pulmonary function, and fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed invasion of the intermediate bronchus. The patient underwent sleeve resection of right upper lobe, a technique never before described. After 36 months of follow-up, the patient remained asymptomatic. We also review the literature regarding treatment, clinical aspects and pathology.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary blastoma/surgery; Pneumonectomy; Case reports [Publication type]

 


Intrathoracic goiter and invasive thymoma: rare concomitant presentation

Bócio de tireóide intratorácico e timoma invasivo: apresentação simultânea incomum

Rodrigo Silva, Jefferson Gross, Fábio Haddad, Riad Younes

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):371-374

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We present a rare situation in which two mediastinal tumors of different topology and histology were found during the resection of an extensive mediastinal tumor in an asymptomatic patient. Different histologies within the same mass have been reported, although, to our knowledge, there have been no reports of different tumors at distinct locations. Thymomas and intrathoracic goiters account for a large proportion of the tumors found in the mediastinum. When feasible, surgical resection plays a fundamental role in effecting a cure. In order to identify concomitant lesions and perform a complete resection, detailed surgical exploration is required.

 


Keywords: Thymoma/complications; Mediastinal neoplasms/complications; Goite, substernal; Mediastinum/pathology; Case reports [publication type]

 


Aspergillus fumigatus fungus ball in the pleural cavity

Bola fúngica por Aspergillus fumigatus em cavidade pleural

Luciana Silva Guazzelli, Cecília Bittencourt Severo, Leonardo Santos Hoff, Geison Leonardo Fernandes Pinto, José Jesus Camargo, Luiz Carlos Severo

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):125-132

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To report the cases of 6 patients with fungus ball caused by Aspergillus fumigatus (aspergilloma) in the pleural cavity. Methods: Between 1980 and 2009, 391 patients were diagnosed with aspergilloma at the Santa Casa Hospital Complex in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The diagnosis of aspergilloma in the pleural cavity was made through imaging tests revealing effusion and pleural thickening with air-fluid level; direct mycological examination revealing septate hyphae, consistent with Aspergillus sp.; and positive culture for A. fumigatus in the surgical specimen from the pleural cavity. Results: Of the 391 patients studied, 6 (2%) met the established diagnostic criteria. The mean age of those 6 patients was 48 years (range, 29-66 years), and 5 (83%) were male. The most common complaints were cough, expectoration, and hemoptysis. Four patients (67%) had a history of tuberculosis that had been clinically cured. All of the patients were submitted to surgical removal of the aspergilloma, followed by intrapleural instillation of amphotericin B, in 4; and 2 received systemic antifungal treatment p.o. There was clinical improvement in 5 patients, and 1 died after the surgery. Conclusions: In adult patients with a history of cavitary lung disease or pleural fistula, a careful investigation should be carried out and fungal infection, especially aspergilloma, should be taken into consideration. In such cases, laboratory testing represents the most efficient use of the resources available to elucidate the diagnosis.

 


Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus; Tuberculosis; Empyema, pleural; Pleural effusion.

 


Aspergillus fumigatus fungus ball in the native lung after single lung transplantation

Bola fúngica por Aspergillus fumigatus no pulmão nativo após transplante unilateral de pulmão

Fernando Ferreira Gazzoni, Bruno Hochhegger, Luiz Carlos Severo, José Jesus Camargo

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):-

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Infectious giant bulla associated with lung cancer

Bolha gigante infecciosa associada a câncer de pulmão

Nobuhiro Asai, Yoshihiro Ohkuni, Ryo Matsunuma, Kei Nakashima, Takuya Iwasaki, Norihiro Kaneko

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):404-408

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

A 79 year-old man sought treatment in the emergency room complaining of persistent fever, chest pain, and general fatigue. A chest X-ray showed a giant infectious bulla (24 cm in diameter) in the left lung. The patient had no history of abnormalities on X-rays, and his latest medical check-up, conducted in the preceding year, had produced no abnormal findings. Diagnostic procedures, including bronchoscopy, revealed lung cancer (large cell carcinoma) in the left lower bronchus. The tumor obstructed the airway. Although there have been various reports of giant bullae, their etiology remains unknown. We suggest that an obstruction, such as that caused by the tumor in this case, can lead to air trapping, resulting in the formation of a bulla. In the case of a giant bulla that rapidly increases in size, lung cancer should be included in the differential diagnosis.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms/complications; Infection; Drainage.

 


Bom para alguns, ótimo para outros

Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(5):251-

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Exercise-induced bronchospasm in children and adolescents with a diagnosis of asthma

Broncoespasmo induzido pelo exercício em crianças e adolescentes com diagnóstico de asma

Vitor E. Cassol, Maria E. Trevisna, Eliane Z. C. de Moraes, Luiz O. C. Portela, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):102-108

Abstract PDF PT

Introduction: In asthmatic children and adolescents a high incidence of temporary bronchospasm is perceived after physical exertion. Objective: To investigate incidence and severity of exercise-induced bronchospasm in children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of mild, moderate or severe asthma. Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional, not controlled study was carried out. The sample encompassed follow-up of 40 asthmatic patients of both genders, between 7 and 18 years of age who were not regularly using anti-inflammatory medication. A standardized exercise provocation test that consisted of steady running on a treadmill with a 10% inclination was administered Pulmonary function was tested with forced spirometry using six expiratory maneuvers repeated at approximately 1, 5 ,10,15, 20 and 30 minutes after the exercise. The highest of six FEV1 readings was used for analysis. The FEV1 was employed to evaluate the presence and to classify the severity of positive exercise induced bronchospasm (EIB). The asthmatic patients presented adequate clinical and spirometric conditions for testing (FEV1 at least 70 % of the predicted value). A drop of ³ 10% in relation to FEV1 before exercise was adopted as a criterion for (EIB). Results: 26 (65 %) patients developed EIB. The proportion by category was: mild asthma 44%, moderate and severe asthma 100%. There was a significant association between proportion of EIB and severity of asthma (p<0.05), and a significant difference between severity of EIB (confirmed by a recorded decrease in the 1 second forced expiratory volume) and asthma severity (p<0.05). Conclusion: The proportion and severity of EIB were clearly related to the clinical severity of asthma.

 


Keywords: Asthma, exercise-induced/diagnosis. Children. Adolescent. Spirometry/methods.

 


Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite long-distance runners in Brazil

Broncoespasmo induzido por exercício em corredores brasileiros de longa distância de elite

Renata Nakata Teixeira, Luzimar Raimundo Teixeira, Luiz Augusto Riani Costa, Milton Arruda Martins, Timothy Derick Mickleborough, Celso Ricardo Fernandes Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):292-298

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction among elite long-distance runners in Brazil and whether there is a difference in the training loads among athletes with and without exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving elite long-distance runners with neither current asthma symptoms nor a diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. All of the participants underwent eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea challenge and maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests, as well as completing questionnaires regarding asthma symptoms and physical activity, in order to monitor their weekly training load. Results: Among the 86 male athletes recruited, participation in the study was agreed to by 20, of whom 5 (25%) were subsequently diagnosed with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. There were no differences between the athletes with and without exercise-induced bronchoconstriction regarding anthropometric characteristics, peak oxygen consumption, baseline pulmonary function values, or reported asthma symptoms. The weekly training load was significantly lower among those with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction than among those without. Conclusions: In this sample of long-distance runners in Brazil, the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction was high.

 


Keywords: Athletes; Asthma, exercise-induced; Exercise test.

 


Bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of tuberculosis: their role of transbronchial biopsy in HIV-infected and in immunocompetent patients

Broncoscopia no diagnóstico de tuberculose: papel da biópsia transbrônquica em imunocompetentes e em HIV-positivos

Ricardo H. Bammann, Angelo Fernandez, Carla M.P. Vázquez, Maria Rita E. Araújo, Kátia R.M. Leite

J Bras Pneumol.1999;25(4):207-212

Abstract PDF PT

Introduction: Bronchoscopy is useful in the diagnosis of tuberculosis suspects with a "negative" sputum smear. The objectives of this study were: to assess yield of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and of transbronchial biopsy (TBB) both in HIV-positive patients (group 1) and immunocompetent individuals (group 2), based on simple and most available laboratory techniques in clinical practice. Patients and methods: The authors performed 319 bronchoscopies in 302 patients. BAL and TBB were sequentially performed in the same lung in all cases. Tuberculosis was diagnosed based on the results of acid-fast stains (AFS) from the lavage (ZN), culture for mycobacteria (LJ), and histological examination of biopsies (HE and ZN). Results: Tuberculosis was the final diagnosis in 28 exams of group 1 (n = 214) and in 35 of group 2 (n = 105). There were abnormal endoscopic findings respectively in 3 and 10 patients. In group 1, AFS were positive in 7 cases, culture of BAL in 14, and TBB in 19. In group 2, AFS were positive in 13 cases, culture in 17, and biopsies in 31. TBB results compared to BAL were in concordance for group 1 (p = 0.823) and different for group 2 (p = 0.022). Immediate results (AFS and TBB) compared to later positive results of culture were similar for group 1 (p = 0.066) but not for group 2 (p = 0.001). There were eight episodes of pneumothorax (2.5%) and one death (0.36%). Conclusions: Both BAL and TBB should be performed whenever possible, aiming towards a higher yield of bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Both methods complement each other in immunocompetent patients, whereas TBB establishes a faster diagnosis for HIV-infected patients if associated to AFS.

 


Keywords: Bronchoscopy/methods. Smear-negative tuberculosis/diagnosis. Opportunistic infections related to AIDS/diagnosis.

 


Bronchoscopy for foreign body removal: where is the delay?

Broncoscopia para remoção de corpo estranho: onde está o atraso?

Alexandre Garcia de Lima, Nelson Alves dos Santos, Elen Renate Figueira Rocha, Ivan Felizardo Contrera Toro

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(11):956-958

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This was a retrospective analysis of the medical charts of 145 patients treated at the Bronchoscopy and Thoracic Surgery Clinic of the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (HC-Unicamp, State University of Campinas Hospital das Clínicas) over a period of 10 years. There was a significant difference related to the site of first medical visit (HC-Unicamp versus other institutions) in terms of the time elapsed between the suspicion of bronchial aspiration and the actual respiratory endoscopic examination. However, no significant difference was found in the rate of positive results. The low number of referral centers that provide emergency respiratory endoscopy can negatively influence the treatment of patients under suspicion of bronchial aspiration, jeopardizing the overall recovery in the mid- and long-term.

 


Keywords: Airway obstruction; Respiratory aspiration; Bronchoscopy.

 


Bronchiectasis caused by common variable immunodeficiency

Bronquiectasia por imunodeficiência comum variável

Paulo Henrique do Amor Divino, José Henrique de Carvalho Basilio, Renato Moraes Alves Fabbri, Igor Polônio Bastos, Wilma Carvalho Neves Forte

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):482-483

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Bronchiectasis caused by common variable immunodeficiency

Bronquiectasia por imunodeficiência comum variável.

Paulo Henrique do Amor Divino1, José Henrique de Carvalho Basilio1, Renato Moraes Alves Fabbri1, Igor Bastos Polonio1, Wilma Carvalho Neves Forte2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):80-80

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Bronchiectasis associated to Sjögren syndrome: case report

Bronquiectasias associadas à síndrome de Sjögren

Simone Aparecida Câmara Tecchio, José Antônio Baddini Martinez, Adriana Inácio de Pádua, João Terra Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(4):214-217

Abstract PDF PT

Different kinds of pulmonary impairment have been described in Sjögren syndrome, including rare cases of bronchiectasis. The authors report a female patient with a history of episodes of respiratory infections and progressive breathlessness whose high resolution computerized tomography revealed bronchiectasis. A former open lung biopsy showed bronchiolar inflammatory and fibrotic changes. The diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome was made only late in the evolution, although sicca syndrome symptoms had been present for years. The authors discuss the potential pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of the bronchiectasis and the need for a high degree of clinical medical skill for the early diagnosis of such conditions.

 


Keywords: Sjögren syndrome; bronchiectasis; bronchiolitis

 


Bronchiectasis: diagnostic and therapeutic features A study of 170 patients

Bronquiectasias: aspectos diagnósticos e terapêuticos Estudo de 170 pacientes

José da Silva Moreira, Nelson da Silva Porto, José de Jesus Peixoto Camargo, José Carlos Felicetti, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Ana Luiza Schneider Moreira, Cristiano Feijó Andrade

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(5):258-263

Abstract PDF PT

Background: Bronchiectasis is a frequently found disease in medical practice in Brazil leading to significant morbidity and decrease in quality of life of the affected individuals. Objectives: To study diagnostic and therapeutic aspects in a series of hospitalized patients with bronchiectasis in a department of pulmonary diseases. Methods: Signs, symptoms, microbiological and radiographic data, and therapeutic results were studied in 170 hospitalized patients between 1978 and 2001 - females 62.4%, males 37.6%, and aged from 12 to 88 years (mean age 36.8 yrs). Previous history of pneumonia in childhood was detected in 52.5% of the patients, tuberculosis in 19.8%; 8.8% had bronchial asthma, and 2 had Kartagener's syndrome. Results: The most common symptoms were cough (100.0%), expectoration (96.0%) and pulmonary rales (66.0%). The pulmonary lesions were unilateral in 46.5% of the cases. Pneumococcus, H. influenzae or mixed flora were found in 85.0% of the examined sputa. All 170 patients received antibiotics and postural drainage, and 88 of them (younger and with a higher functional reserve) were also submitted to pulmonary resections (82 unilateral and 6 bilateral). Two deaths occurred, and repetitive hospitalizations were more frequent among the clinically treated patients. The follow up showed that most of the surgically treated patients had significant symptoms improvement and rarely needed to be re-hospitalized. Conclusions: In the majority of the patients, lung resection surgery improved permanently the prolonged bronchopulmonary symptoms of patients with bronchiectasis, differently from the patients who received only clinical treatment.

 


Keywords: Bronchiectasis/diagnosis. Bronchiectasis/therapy. Bronchiectasis/surgery. Bronchiectasis/complications. Tomography X-ray computed/methods. Inpatients. Retrospective studies.

 


Bronchiectasis: a study of 314 cases tuberculosis x non-tuberculosis

Bronquiectasias: estudo de 314 casos tuberculose x não-tuberculose

Miguel Bogossian, Ilka Lopes Santoro, Sérgio Jamnik, Hélio Ramaldini

J Bras Pneumol.1998;24(1):11-16

Abstract PDF PT

The authors studied 314 patients with bronchiectasis. An elevated percentage of sequelae of tuberculosis (42.7%) was found, and other causes of bronchiectasis represented 57.3%. Mean age was similar in both groups, around 50 years old, with predominance of females (65.0%). As to symptoms and signs, hemoptysis was sharply predominant in the tuberculosis group (37.3% x 22.8%; p < 0.05). Association between asthma and infections during childhood was similar in both groups, but sinusitis was more frequent in the non-tuberculosis group (45.0% x 23.9%; p < 0.05). The most frequent site for bronchiectasis secondary tuberculosis was the right upper lobe; in the other group, the most frequent sites were lower left lobe and lingula. The most frequent morphologic type in greater groups was cylindrical (more than 50% of patients). Lung function tests were abnormal, with reduction in both FEV 1 and FVC in the tuberculosis group. Forty-four percent of the patients in the first group and 37.2% in the second one were smokers. The authors make comments about the high number of patients with tuberculosis scars that have secondary bronchiectasis and the greater impairment of lung function in this group of patients.

 



Bronchiolitis associated with exposure to artificial butter flavoring in workers at a cookie factory in Brazil

Bronquiolite associada à exposição a aroma artificial de manteiga em trabalhadores de uma fábrica de biscoitos no Brasil

Zaida do Rego Cavalcanti, Alfredo Pereira Leite de Albuquerque Filho, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira, Ester Nei Aparecida Martins Coletta

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):395-399

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To report the cases of four patients with bronchiolitis caused by exposure to artificial butter flavoring at a cookie factory in Brazil. Methods: We described the clinical, tomographic, and spirometric findings in the four patients, as well as the lung biopsy findings in one of the patients. Results: All four patients were young male nonsmokers and developed persistent airflow obstruction (reduced FEV1/FVC ratio and FEV1 at 25-44% of predicted) after 1-3 years of exposure to diacetyl, without the use of personal protective equipment, at a cookie factory. The HRCT findings were indicative of bronchiolitis. In one patient, the surgical lung biopsy revealed bronchiolitis obliterans accompanied by giant cells. Conclusions: Bronchiolitis resulting from exposure to artificial flavoring agents should be included in the differential diagnosis of airflow obstruction in workers in Brazil.

 


Keywords: Diacetyl; Flavoring agents; Bronchiolitis.

 


Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia

Bronquiolite obliterante com pneumonia em organização

Gabriela Addor, Andréia Salarini Monteiro, David Henrique Nigri, Wilhermo Torres, Carlos Alberto de Barros Franco

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):154-157

Abstract PDF PT

48 years-old woman, asymptomatic, presented with radiographic findings of patchy airspace consolidation with nodular opacities in the upper right lobe, middle lobe and lingula. The differential diagnoses of neoplasms, sarcoidosis, granulomatous diseases and tuberculosis were considered. Diagnosis of Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia was made by means of videothoracoscopy whereupon treatment with corticosteroids was begun. The patient had a positive evolution with resolution of the radiographic finding.

 


Keywords: bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, bronchiolitis obliterans

 


Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia and aspergilloma in patient with T cell leukemia-lymphoma

Bronquiolite obliterante com pneumonia em organização e aspergiloma em paciente com linfoma-leucemia de células T

Teresa S. Jhayya, Domingo B. Perez, Celia Mallart Llarges, Rimarcs G. Ferreira

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(1):52-54

Abstract PDF PT

There are few reports in the medical literature about association between bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP) and aspergilloma. This report shows the presence of both BOOP and pulmonary aspergilloma in a patient with adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma. It is suggested that these findings represent a random association rather than the expression of a nosologic unity.

 


Keywords: bronchiolitis obliterans; aspergillosis; T cell lymphoma; pneumonia

 


Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing migratory pneumonia (BOOP) after unilateral radiotherapy for breast carcinoma treatment

Bronquiolite obliterante com pneumonia organizante (BOOP) migratória após radioterapia unilateral para tratamento de carcinoma de mama

Renata Tristão Rodrigues, Ricardo Togashi, Hugo H Bok Yoo, Júlio Defaveri, Irma de Godoy, Thais Helena A. Thomaz Queluz

J Bras Pneumol.1998;24(1):47-50

Abstract PDF PT

The authors describe a case of a woman submitted to radiation therapy for breast carcinoma who presented, 40 days after the end of the treatment, fever, dry cough, dyspnea on exertion, and weight loss. Chest imaging revealed migratory opacities. The histopathological examination of transbronchial biopsy specimens showed characteristic findings of BOOP. Corticosteroid therapy resulted in dramatic clinical improvement, together with complete clearing of the pulmonary opacities on chest imaging. The authors present a brief review of the literature concerning radiation-induced lung injury, emphasizing the importance of including BOOP in the differential diagnosis in these complications. The present case, as well as the two other reports from the literature, provide further evidence for the role of irradiation injury as a cause of clinicopathological syndrome identical to idiopathic BOOP, i.e., radiation-induced BOOP.

 


Keywords: Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. BOOP. Radiation pneumonitis. Radiotherapy. Breast carcinoma.

 


Bilateral bullectomy through uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery combined with contralateral access to the anterior mediastinum

Bulectomia bilateral por cirurgia torácica vídeo-assistida uniportal combinada com acesso contralateral ao mediastino anterior

Nan Song, Gening Jiang, Dong Xie, Peng Zhang, Ming Liu, Wenxin He

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):32-38

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN

Objective: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been a surgical intervention of choice for the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) with lung bulla. Our objective was to introduce a uniportal VATS approach for simultaneous bilateral bullectomy and to evaluate its therapeutic efficacy. Methods: Between May of 2011 and January of 2012, five patients underwent bilateral bullectomy conducted using this approach. All of the patients presented with bilateral SP. Preoperative HRCT revealed that all of the patients had bilateral apical bullae. We reviewed the surgical indications, surgical procedures, and outcomes. Results: All of the patients were successfully submitted to this approach for bilateral bullectomy, and there were no intraoperative complications. The median time to chest tube removal was 4.2 days, and the median length of the postoperative hospital stay was 5.2 days. The median postoperative follow-up period was 11.2 months. One patient experienced recurrence of left SP three weeks after the surgery and underwent pleural abrasion. Conclusions: Bilateral bullectomy through uniportal VATS combined with contralateral access to the anterior mediastinum is technically reliable and provides favorable surgical outcomes for patients with bilateral SP who develop bilateral apical bullae. However, among other requirements, this surgical procedure demands that surgeons be experienced in VATS and that the appropriate thoracoscopic instruments are available.

 


Keywords: Pneumothorax; Thoracic surgery, video-assisted; Pleural cavity; Mediastinum.

 


Lymph node calcifications

Calcificações linfonodais

Edson Marchiori1,a, Bruno Hochhegger2,b, Gláucia Zanetti1,c

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(2):83-83

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Pleural calcifications

Calcificações pleurais

Edson Marchiori1,a, Bruno Hochhegger2,b, Gláucia Zanetti1,c

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(6):-

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Thoracic calcifications on magnetic resonance imaging: correlations with computed tomography

Calcificações torácicas na ressonância magnética: correlações com a tomografia computadorizada

Juliana Fischman Zampieri1,a, Gabriel Sartori Pacini1,b, Matheus Zanon1,c, Stephan Philip Leonhardt Altmayer1,2,d, Guilherme Watte1,2,e, Marcelo Barros1,2,f Evandra Durayski2,g, Gustavo de Souza Portes Meirelles3,h, Marcos Duarte Guimarães4,5,i, Edson Marchiori6,j, Arthur Soares Souza Junior7,k, Bruno Hochhegger1,2,l

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(4):e20180168-e20180168

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify the characteristics of thoracic calcifications on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, as well as correlations between MR imaging and CT findings. Methods: This was a retrospective study including data on 62 patients undergoing CT scans and MR imaging of the chest at any of seven hospitals in the Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro between March of 2014 and June of 2016 and presenting with calcifications on CT scans. T1- and T2-weighted MR images (T1- and T2-WIs) were semiquantitatively analyzed, and the lesion-to-muscle signal intensity ratio (LMSIR) was estimated. Differences between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions were analyzed. Results: Eighty-four calcified lesions were analyzed. Mean lesion density on CT was 367 ± 435 HU. Median LMSIRs on T1- and T2-WIs were 0.4 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.1-0.7) and 0.2 (IQR, 0.0-0.7), respectively. Most of the lesions were hypointense on T1- and T2-WIs (n = 52 [61.9%] and n = 39 [46.4%], respectively). In addition, 19 (22.6%) were undetectable on T1-WIs (LMSIR = 0) and 36 (42.9%) were undetectable on T2-WIs (LMSIR = 0). Finally, 15.5% were hyperintense on T1-WIs and 9.5% were hyperintense on T2-WIs. Median LMSIR was significantly higher for neoplastic lesions than for non-neoplastic lesions. There was a very weak and statistically insignificant negative correlation between lesion density on CT and the following variables: signal intensity on T1-WIs, LMSIR on T1-WIs, and signal intensity on T2-WIs (r = −0.13, p = 0.24; r = −0.18, p = 0.10; and r = −0.16, p = 0.16, respectively). Lesion density on CT was weakly but significantly correlated with LMSIR on T2-WIs (r = −0.29, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Thoracic calcifications have variable signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted MR images, sometimes appearing hyperintense. Lesion density on CT appears to correlate negatively with lesion signal intensity on MR images.

 


Keywords: Calcification, physiologic; Thorax/diagnostic imaging; Tomography, X-ray computed; Magnetic resonance imaging.

 


Lung cancer and parenchymal lung disease in a patient with neurofibromatosis type

Câncer de pulmão e doença pulmonar parenquimatosa em um paciente com neurofibromatose tipo 1

Alessandro Severo Alves de Melo1,a, Sérgio Ferreira Alves Jr2,b, Paulo de Moraes Antunes1,c, Gláucia Zanetti2,d, Edson Marchiori2,e

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(3):e20180285-e20180285

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Lung cancer and schwannoma - the pitfalls of positron emission tomography

Câncer de pulmão e schwannoma - as armadilhas da tomografia por emissão de prótons

Fernando Luiz Westphal, Luiz Carlos de Lima, José Correa Lima-Netto, Michel de Araújo Tavares, Felipe de Siqueira Moreira Gil

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):319-321

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Lung cancer in workers exposed to silica

Câncer de pulmão em trabalhadores expostos à sílica

Ana Paula Scalia Carneiro, Max Anderson Morales dos Santos, Plínio Vasconcelos Maia, Sandhi Maria Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):233-236

Abstract PDF PT

Silica is one of the main occupational agents associated with lung cancer. It is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 substance, i.e., carcinogenic for humans, since 1996. The objective of this paper is to report two cases of workers previously exposed to silica who developed lung cancer, seen in an out-patient clinic, focusing on important points of the current literature on the subject.

 



Lung cancer in Brazil

Câncer de pulmão no Brasil

Luiz Henrique Araujo1,2,a, Clarissa Baldotto1,2,b, Gilberto de Castro Jr3,4,c, Artur Katz4,d, Carlos Gil Ferreira5,6,e, Clarissa Mathias7,f, Eldsamira Mascarenhas7,g, Gilberto de Lima Lopes8,9,h, Heloisa Carvalho4,10,i, Jaques Tabacof8, Jeovany Martínez-Mesa11,j, Luciano de Souza Viana12,k, Marcelo de Souza Cruz13,l, Mauro Zukin1,2,m, Pedro De Marchi12,n, Ricardo Mingarini Terra3,o, Ronaldo Albuquerque Ribeiro14, Vladmir Cláudio Cordeiro de Lima15,p, Gustavo Werutsky16,q, Carlos Henrique Barrios17,r; Grupo Brasileiro de Oncologia Torácica

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):55-64

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Lung cancer is one of the most incident types of cancer and a leading cause of cancer mortality in Brazil. We reviewed the current status of lung cancer by searching relevant data on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in the country. This review highlights several issues that need to be addressed, including smoking control, patient lack of awareness, late diagnosis, and disparities in the access to cancer health care facilities in Brazil. We propose strategies to help overcome these limitations and challenge health care providers, as well as the society and governmental representatives, to work together and to take a step forward in fighting lung cancer.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms/epidemiology; Lung neoplasms/therapy; Lung neoplasms/diagnosis; Biomarkers; Brazil.

 


Occupational lung cancer

Câncer de pulmão ocupacional

Eduardo Algranti, José Tarcísio Penteado Buschinelli, Eduardo Mello De Capitani

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):784-794

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Lung cancer is a multifactorial disease. Hereditary, genetic, and environmental factors interact in its genesis. The principal risk factor for lung cancer is smoking. However, the workplace provides an environment in which there is a risk of exposure to carcinogens. The International Agency for Research on Cancer currently lists 19 substances/work situations/occupations that have been proven to be associated with lung cancer (group 1). Thorough occupational history taking is not widely practiced in patients with lung cancer, which has a negative impact on the investigation of causality and, consequently, on the identification of cases of occupational cancer. The objectives of this review were to list the agents that are recognized as causes of lung cancer, to discuss the contribution of occupation to the development of the disease, to cite national studies on the subject, and to propose a list of procedures that are essential to the appropriate investigation of causality between lung cancer and occupation.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Occupational diseases; Occupations; Carcinogens.

 


Lung cancer: histology, staging, treatment and survival

Câncer de pulmão: histologia, estádio, tratamento e sobrevida

Fabiola Trocoli Novaes, Daniele Cristina Cataneo, Raul Lopes Ruiz Junior, Júlio Defaveri, Odair Carlito Michelin, Antonio José Maria Cataneo

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(8):595-600

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze principal histological types of lung cancer, as well as the staging, treatment and survival of lung cancer patients. Methods: This was a retrospective study based on the analysis of medical charts of patients treated at the Botucatu School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas over a six-year period. Results: From January of 2000 to January of 2006, 240 patients with lung cancer, most (64%) of whom were male, were treated. The most common histological type was squamous cell carcinoma (37.5%), followed by adenocarcinoma (30%), neuroendocrine carcinoma (19.6%) and large cell carcinoma (6.6%). Only 131 patients (54.6%) were treated. Of those, 52 patients (39.7%) received only chemotherapy, 32 (24.4%) were treated with chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy, and 47 (35.9%) were submitted to surgery alone or surgery accompanied by chemotherapy, with or without radiotherapy. Only 27 patients (20.6%) were submitted to surgery alone. Concerning staging, 34.4% presented stage IV at the time of diagnosis, 20.6% presented stage IIIB, 16.8% presented stage IIIA, and the remaining 28.2% were classified as stage I or II. Five-year survival was 65% for those in stage I and 25% for those in the remaining stages. Conclusions: Of the various histological types, the most common was squamous cell carcinoma and the least common was large cell carcinoma. Most cases presented advanced stages at the moment of diagnosis, and less than 30% of the cases presented early stages. This accounts for the low survival rate and the small number of patients submitted to surgical treatment alone, the majority being submitted to chemotherapy alone.

 


Keywords: Carcinoma, bronchogenic; Lung neoplasms/histology; Lung neoplasms/drug therapy; Lung neoplasms/radiotherapy; Surgery; Survival.

 


Lung cancer: changes in histology, gender, and age over the last 30 years in Brazil

Câncer de pulmão: mudanças na histologia, sexo e idade nos últimos 30 anos no Brasil

Maria Teresa Ruiz Tsukazan1,2, Álvaro Vigo2, Vinícius Duval da Silva3, Carlos Henrique Barrios4, Jayme de Oliveira Rios1, José Antônio de Figueiredo Pinto1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(5):363-367

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the trends in tumor histology, gender and age among patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with lung resection. The histology of lung cancer has changed in developed countries, and there is still little information available on the topic for developing countries. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 1,030 patients with NSCLC treated with lung resection between 1986 and 2015 at a university hospital in southern Brazil. Differences in histology, stage, and type of surgery were analyzed by gender and for three periods (1986-1995, 1996-2005, and 2006-2015). Results: Most (64.5%) of the patients were males, and the main histological types were squamous cell carcinoma (in 40.6%) and adenocarcinoma (in 44.5%). The mean age at surgery during the first period was 56.4 years for women and 58.9 years for men, compared with 62.2 for women and 64.6 for men in the third period (p < 0.001). The proportion of females increased from 26.6% in the first period to 44.1% in the third. From the first to the third period, the proportion of patients with squamous cell carcinoma decreased from 49.6% to 34.8% overall (p < 0.001), decreasing to an even greater degree (from 38.9% to 23.2%) among men. Among the NSCLC patients in our sample, females with adenocarcinoma accounted for 11.9% in the first period and 24.0% in the third period (p < 0.001). Conclusions: As has been seen in developed countries, the rates of lung cancer in females in southern Brazil have been rising over the last three decades, although they have yet to surpass those observed for males in the region. The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma has decreased in males, approaching adenocarcinoma rates, whereas adenocarcinoma has significantly increased among women.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Epidemiology; Histology; Adenocarcinoma; Carcinoma, non-small-cell lung; Carcinoma, squamous cell.

 


Submaximal exercise capacity in adolescent and adult patients with cystic fibrosis

Capacidade submáxima de exercício em pacientes adolescentes e adultos com fibrose cística

Bruna Ziegler, Paula Maria Eidt Rovedder, Janice Luisa Lukrafka, Claudine Lacerda Oliveira, Sérgio Saldanha Menna-Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):263-269

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the submaximal exercise capacity of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by means of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), correlating the results with clinical score, nutritional status, radiographic score, and pulmonary function tests. Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study involving patients aged 16 or older enrolled in a program for adults with CF. The patients were submitted to clinical evaluation, determination of maximal respiratory pressures, 6MWT, spirometry, and chest X-ray. Results: The study comprised 41 patients. The mean age was 23.7 ± 6.5 years, and the mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was 55.1 ± 27.8%. On the 6MWT, 30 (73.2%) of the patients covered a distance (mean, 556.7 ± 76.5 m) that was less than the predicted normal value. The distance walked did not correlate significantly with body mass index, clinical score, radiographic score, maximal respiratory pressures, peripheral oxygen saturation at rest, desaturation during the 6MWT, sensation of dyspnea, or fatigue, although it did so with age at diagnosis, FEV1 in liters, and forced vital capacity in liters. Worsening of pulmonary function was associated with greater desaturation during the 6MWT. Conclusion: This study showed that most patients attending an adult CF program had reduced submaximal exercise capacity. The 6MWT can be valuable for identifying patients who might experience oxygen desaturation and physical impairment in daily activities.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Respiratory function tests; Exercise tolerance.

 


Chapter 1 - Laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary mycoses

Capítulo 1 - Diagnóstico laboratorial das micoses pulmonares

Melissa Orzechowski Xavier, Flávio de Mattos Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Severo

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):907-919

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In this era of immunosuppression and transplantation, it is imperative that laboratory scientists remain in close communication with physicians. In patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, the diagnosis of mycoses must be rapid, which is complicated, requiring the cooperation and collaboration of a number of professionals from various fields of expertise. In this paper, the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary fungal infection is reviewed. The following topics are included: host factors such as immunological response and predisposing anatomical features; collection, transport and storage of specimens; laboratory processing of samples; direct microscopy; staining techniques, culture and identification of fungi; laboratory biosafety; tissue tropism and reactions; serology; and antigen detection.

 


Keywords: Mycology; Laboratories, hospital; Diagnostic techniques and procedures; Lung diseases, fungal.

 


Chapter 2 - Coccidioidomycosis

Capítulo 2 - Coccidioidomicose

Antônio de Deus Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):920-930

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Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Infection is acquired by inhalation of infective arthroconidia that live in the soil. In 60% of cases, the infection is benign and resolves spontaneously. In the northern hemisphere, coccidioidomycosis is endemic to arid and semi-arid regions at latitudes between 40°N and 40°S, particularly in the southwestern United States and in northern Mexico. In the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil, cases of coccidioidomycosis have recently been reported in four states: Piauí (100 cases); Ceará (20 cases); Maranhão (6 cases); and Bahia (2 cases). The illness manifests in one of three clinical forms: the primary pulmonary form; the progressive pulmonary form; or the disseminated form. On average, the symptoms of respiratory infection appear 10 days after exposure. The diagnosis is made by the isolation of Coccidioides sp. in culture or by positive results from smear microscopy (10% potassium hydroxide test), periodic acid-Schiff staining or silver staining of any suspect material (sputum, cerebrospinal fluid, skin exudate, lymph node aspirate, etc.) Agar gel immunodiffusion is the diagnostic test most widely used. The most common finding on X-rays and CT scans is diffuse distribution of multiple pulmonary nodules, most of which are cavitated. The recommended treatment is fluconazole or itraconazole, the mean dose ranging from 200 to 400 mg/day, although as much as 1,200 mg/day is used in certain cases. In severe cases, amphotericin B can be the drug of choice. In cases of neurological involvement, the recommended treatment is administration of fluconazole, at a minimum dose of 400 mg/day.

 


Keywords: Mycoses/immunology; Coccidioidomycosis; Lung diseases, fungal.

 


Chapter 5 - Aspergillosis: from diagnosis to treatment

Capítulo 5 - Aspergilose: do diagnóstico ao tratamento

Maria da Penha Uchoa Sales

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(12):-

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Aspergillosis is a multifaceted disease whose clinical manifestations (allergic, saprophytic and invasive forms) are determined by the host immune response. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is characterized by corticosteroid-dependent asthma, fever, hemoptysis and destruction of the airways, which can evolve to fibrosis with honeycombing. The treatment consists of the combined use of a corticosteroid and itraconazole. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, which has a worse prognosis, is diagnosed based on histopathological documentation and positive culture of a sterile specimen. The treatment response obtained with voriconazole is better, in terms of survival and safety, than that obtained with amphotericin B. In patients with chronic pulmonary disease who are mildly immunocompromised, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis causes progressive destruction of the lung. Such patients are treated with oral itraconazole. Chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis causes multiple cavities, with or without aspergilloma, accompanied by pulmonary and systemic symptoms. In patients with chronic pulmonary disease, the aspergilloma is characterized by chronic productive cough and hemoptysis, together with a cavity containing a rounded, sometimes mobile, mass separated from the cavity wall by airspace. Surgical resection is the definitive treatment for both types of aspergillosis. Triazole fungicides provide long-term treatment benefits with minimal risk.

 


Keywords: Aspergillosis; Pulmonary aspergillosis; Lung diseases, fungal.

 


Volumetric capnography as a noninvasive diagnostic procedure in acute pulmonary thromboembolism

Capnografia volumétrica como auxílio diagnóstico não-invasivo no tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo

Marcos Mello Moreira, Renato Giuseppe Giovanni Terzi, Mônica Corso Pereira, Tiago de Araújo Guerra Grangeia4, Ilma Aparecida Paschoal

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(5):328-332

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pulmonary thromboembolism is a common condition. Its diagnosis usually requires pulmonary scintigraphy, computed angiotomography, pulmonary arteriography and, in order to rule out other diagnoses, the measurement of D-dimer levels. Due to the fact that these diagnostic methods are not available in most Brazilian hospitals, the validation of other diagnostic techniques is of fundamental importance. We describe a case of a woman with chronic pulmonary hypertension who experienced a pulmonary thromboembolism event. Pulmonary scintigraphy, computed angiotomography and pulmonary arteriography were used in the diagnosis. The D-dimer test result was positive. Volumetric capnography was performed at admission and after treatment. The values obtained were compared with the imaging test results.

 


Keywords: Thromboembolism; Hypertension, pulmonary; Capnography; Schistosomiasis.

 


Characteristics associated with complete surgical resection of primary malignant mediastinal tumors

Características associadas à ressecção cirúrgica completa de tumores malignos primários do mediastino

Jefferson Luiz Gross, Ulisses Augusto Correia Rosalino, Riad Naim Younes, Fábio José Haddad, Rodrigo Afonso da Silva, Antonio Bomfim Marçal Avertano Rocha

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):832-838

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Objective: To identify preoperative characteristics associated with complete surgical resection of primary malignant mediastinal tumors. Methods: Between 1996 and 2006, 42 patients with primary malignant mediastinal tumors were submitted to surgery with curative intent at a single facility. Patient charts were reviewed in order to collect data related to demographics, clinical manifestation, characteristics of mediastinal tumors and imaging aspects of invasiveness. Results: The surgical resection was considered complete in 69.1% of the patients. Cases of incomplete resection were attributed to invasion of the following structures: large blood vessels (4 cases); the superior vena cava (3 cases); the heart (2 cases); the lung and chest wall (3cases); and the trachea (1 case). Overall survival was significantly better among the patients submitted to complete surgical resection than among those submitted to incomplete resection. The frequency of incomplete resection was significantly higher in cases in which the tumor had invaded organs other than the lung (as identified through imaging studies) than in those in which it was restricted to the lung (47.6% vs. 14.3%; p = 0.04). None of the other preoperative characteristics analyzed were found to be associated with complete resection. Conclusions: Preoperative radiological evidence of invasion of organs other than the lung is associated with the incomplete surgical resection of primary malignant mediastinal tumors.

 


Keywords: Thoracic surgery; Survival rate; Mediastinal neoplasms; Diagnostic imaging.

 


Clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with severe therapy-resistant asthma in Brazil

Características clínicas de crianças e adolescentes brasileiros com asma grave resistente a terapia

Andrea Mendonça Rodrigues1, Cristian Roncada1, Giovana Santos2, João Paulo Heinzmann-Filho1, Rodrigo Godinho de Souza2, Mauro Henrique Moraes Vargas1, Leonardo Araújo Pinto3, Marcus Herbert Jones3, Renato Tetelbom Stein3, Paulo Márcio Pitrez3

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):343-350

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether simple diagnostic methods can yield relevant disease information in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Patients with RA were randomly selected for inclusion in a cross-sectional study involving clinical evaluation of pulmonary function, including pulse oximetry (determination of SpO2, at rest), chest X-ray, and spirometry. Results: A total of 246 RA patients underwent complete assessments. Half of the patients in our sample reported a history of smoking. Spirometry was abnormal in 30% of the patients; the chest X-ray was abnormal in 45%; and the SpO2 was abnormal in 13%. Normal chest X-ray, spirometry, and SpO2 were observed simultaneously in only 41% of the RA patients. A history of smoking was associated with abnormal spirometry findings, including evidence of obstructive or restrictive lung disease, and with abnormal chest X-ray findings, as well as with an interstitial pattern on the chest X-ray. Comparing the patients in whom all test results were normal (n = 101) with those in whom abnormal test results were obtained (n = 145), we found a statistically significant difference between the two groups, in terms of age and smoking status. Notably, there were signs of airway disease in nearly half of the patients with minimal or no history of tobacco smoke exposure. Conclusions: Pulmonary involvement in RA can be identified through the use of a combination of diagnostic methods that are simple, safe, and inexpensive. Our results lead us to suggest that RA patients with signs of lung involvement should be screened for lung abnormalities, even if presenting with no respiratory symptoms.

 


Keywords: Arthritis, rheumatoid; Lung diseases, interstitial; Spirometry; Radiography, thoracic; Airway ob-struction.

 


Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of contagious adult of tuberculosis in children

Características clínicas e epidemiológicas do adulto contagiante da criança com tuberculose

João Ab Lima, Edgar Enrique Sarria Icaza, Beatriz G. Menegotto, Gilberto Bueno Fischer, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(3):243-252

Abstract PDF PT

Background: Tuberculosis in children generally occurs as a direct result of cohabitation with a contagious adult. Objective: To create a profile of a typical adult with contagious tuberculosis (as identified through the public health system) living with a child who has been diagnosed with tuberculosis. Method: Case study. Children younger than 14 years of age who were diagnosed with tuberculosis were included. Parents were interviewed using structured questionnaires. Means and standard deviations were analyzed using the Student's t-test. Fisher's exact test or the Dz test was used for comparisons. Results: Fifty children, representing 96% of those diagnosed with tuberculosis in the Porto Alegre health care system between July 20, 2001 and August 10, 2002, were included. The mean age was 76 months, and 60% were girls. The classic forms of pulmonary presentation (consolidation or cavitation) were seen in 38%. The majority of the children were diagnosed in the hospital and came from homes in which there were (a mean of) 6 cohabitants and a total family income less than 2 times the local minimum wage. Using ELISA, HIV co-infection was identified in 25% (although not all were tested). The children regularly visited places other than their homes. In 78% of cases, the contagious adult was identified. These contagious adults were mostly males (56%), and the mean age was 32. In most cases (79%), the contagious adult was a relative, usually a parent. Within this group of adults with contagious tuberculosis, HIV co-infection was identified in 43% of those tested. Conclusions: Adults with contagious tuberculosis living in the home continue to be the most likely source of tuberculosis infection in children. Co-infection with HIV in these pediatric patients, as well as in the cohabiting adults with contagious tuberculosis, is a significant finding. It must be emphasized that the possibility of contact with contagious individuals in the home should be explored in every diagnosed case of pediatric tuberculosis.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology. Children. Communicable diseases/etiology.

 


Clinical characteristics and evolution of non-HIV-infected immunocompromised patients with an in-hospital diagnosis of tuberculosis

Características clínicas e evolução de pacientes imunocomprometidos não HIV com diagnóstico intra-hospitalar de tuberculose

Denise Rossato Silva, Diego Millán Menegotto, Luis Fernando Schulz, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(4):-

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Objective: To investigate the characteristics of and risk factors for mortality among non-HIV-infected immunocompromised patients with an in-hospital diagnosis of tuberculosis. Methods: This was a two-year, retrospective cohort study of patients with an in-hospital diagnosis of tuberculosis. The predictive factors for mortality were evaluated. Results: During the study period, 337 hospitalized patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis, and 61 of those patients presented with immunosuppression that was unrelated to HIV infection. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis was found in 47.5% of cases. In the latter group, the in-hospital mortality rate was 21.3%, and the mortality rate after discharge was 18.8%. One-year survival was significantly higher among the immunocompetent patients than among the HIV patients (p = 0.008) and the non-HIV-infected immunocompromised patients (p = 0.015), although there was no such difference between the two latter groups (p = 0.848). Among the non-HIV-infected immunocompromised patients, the only factor statistically associated with mortality was the need for mechanical ventilation. Among the patients over 60 years of age, fibrosis/atelectasis on chest X-rays and dyspnea were more common, whereas fever and consolidations were less common. Fever was also less common among the patients with neoplasms. The time from admission to the initiation of treatment was significant longer in patients over 60 years of age, as well as in those with diabetes and those with end-stage renal disease. Weight loss was least common in patients with diabetes and in those using corticosteroids. Conclusions: The lower prevalence of classic symptoms, the occurrence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, the delayed initiation of treatment, and the high mortality rate reflect the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of tuberculosis in non-HIV-infected immunocompromised patients.

 


Keywords: Hospitalization; Immunosuppression; Risk factors; Tuberculosis/mortality; Immunocompromised host.

 


Clinical characteristics and prognosis in near-fatal asthma patients in Salvador, Brazil

Características clínicas e prognóstico em pacientes com asma quase fatal em Salvador, Bahia

Eduardo Vieira Ponte, Adelmir Souza-Machado, Carolina Souza-Machado, Rosana Franco, Álvaro Augusto Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):431-437

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Objective: To determine the frequency of near-fatal asthma in a group of severe asthma patients, as well as the clinical characteristics and prognosis of these patients within a one-year follow-up period. Methods: A prospective study involving 731 low-income patients with severe asthma treated at a referral outpatient clinic located in the city of Salvador, Brazil. The patients were submitted to spirometry at admission, received medications for asthma, and were monitored regarding the frequency of asthma exacerbations during the follow-up period. A subsample of 511 patients also completed questionnaires regarding asthma symptoms and asthma-related quality of life. Results: Of the 731 patients studied, 563 (77%) were female. The median age was 47 years, and 12% were illiterate. Most of the patients had rhinitis, and 70 patients (10%) reported near-fatal asthma prior to admission. Of these 70 patients, 41 (59%) reported having been intubated previously. The patients reporting a history of near-fatal asthma at admission were more likely to have asthma exacerbations during the follow-up period and to respond poorly to therapy than were those not reporting such a history. At the end of the follow-up period, the scores on the two questionnaires were similar between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: The frequency of near-fatal asthma was high in this group of low-income patients with severe asthma. The patients with a history of near-fatal asthma had a worse prognosis than did those without such a history, although both groups had received the same kind of treatment. Curiously, the intensity of symptoms and the quality of life at the end of the study were similar between the two groups.

 


Keywords: Asthma/prevention and control; Asthma/complications; Quality of life; Prognosis.

 


Clinical characteristics and quality of life of smokers at a referral center for smoking cessation

Características clínicas e qualidade de vida de fumantes em um centro de referência de abordagem e tratamento do tabagismo

Márcia Regina Pizzo de Castro, Tiemi Matsuo, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):67-74

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Objective: To compare smokers and never smokers in terms of the following: quality of life; BMI; hospitalizations; functionality; family history of mental disorder; tobacco-related diseases; depression; and psychoactive substance use. Methods: We evaluated 167 smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation program at the Londrina State University Referral Center for Understanding and Treating Smoking, together with 272 never-smoking blood donors. We employed the following instruments, all validated for use in Brazil: a structured questionnaire for the collection of sociodemographic data; the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test; the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, brief version (WHOQoL-BREF); and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. We also applied diagnostic criteria for the investigation of depressive disorders. Results: The mean age of the smokers and never smokers was, respectively, 45 and 44 years. Females predominated in both groups. Smokers more often presented with impaired work/domestic functionality, hospitalizations, depressive disorders, smoking in the household, sedative use and a family history of mental disorders, as well as scoring lower in all domains of the WHOQoL-BREF. The mean age at smoking onset was lower for smokers with depression or using psychoactive substances than for smokers without such comorbidities. Diabetes, arterial hypertension, heart disease, respiratory disease and peptic ulcer were more common in smokers than in never smokers. The mean BMI was lower in the smokers than in the never smokers. Conclusions: This study suggests that, for smoking cessation programs, subgroups of smokers with specific characteristics (early age at smoking onset, tobacco-related diseases, depressive disorders and use of psychoactive substances) should be identified.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Depressive disorder; Smoking cessation; Tobacco use disorder.

 


Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients hospitalized with tuberculosis in Brasil between 1994 and 2004

Características clínico-demográficas de pacientes hospitalizados com tuberculose no Brasil, no período de 1994 a 2004

Norma Pinheiro Franco Severo, Clarice Queico Fujimura Leite, Marisa Veiga Capela, Maria Jacira da Silva Simões

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):565-571

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Objective: To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with tuberculosis hospitalized in the Nestor Goulart Reis Hospital, located in the city of Américo Brasiliense, Brazil. Methods: Epidemiological investigation by means of an observational, retrospective, descriptive study based on the medical charts of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and hospitalized between 1994 and 2004. Results: There were 1787 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis during the period evaluated. Of those, 117 (7%) were females, 1670 (93%) were males; 1215 (68%) were single, separated or widowed. Most of the patients (74%) had not completed middle school, and most (63%) were between 30 and 50 years of age. In addition, 61% suffered from alcoholism. The most common occupation was farm worker (25% of the patients), and 70% of the patients were unemployed. The most common clinical form of the disease was the pulmonary form (in 92%). The rate of medical discharge was 60%. The treatment regimen differed from the standard (rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide) in 34% of the cases. Conclusions: The profile of the patients with tuberculosis hospitalized in the hospital studied showed that they had special requirements: they were unable to take care of themselves (social cases) and required alternative treatment regimens, which justified their hospitalization. This hospital played an important social role in the treatment and guidance of these patients.

 


Keywords: Hospitalization; Tuberculosis; Demography.

 


Characteristics of tuberculosis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: 2002-2009

Características da tuberculose no estado de Minas Gerais entre 2002 e 2009

Cláudio José Augusto, Wânia da Silva Carvalho, Alan Douglas Gonçalves, Maria das Graças Braga Ceccato, Silvana Spindola de Miranda

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):357-364

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Objective: To analyze the profile of tuberculosis cases reported between 2002 and 2009 in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, according to sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics, as well as to comorbidities and mortality. Methods: This was a descriptive, epidemiological study based on data obtained from the Brazilian Case Registry Database and the Brazilian Mortality Database for the 2002-2009 period. Results: There were 47,285 reported cases of tuberculosis, corresponding to a mean incidence of 22.3/100,000 population. The individuals diagnosed with tuberculosis were predominantly in the 20- to 49-year age bracket and male (62.4% and 67.0%, respectively). Individuals with a low level of education accounted for 18.5% of the cases. New cases, cases of recurrence, and cases of retreatment accounted for 83.7%, 5.7%, 5.7%, respectively. The rates of cure and treatment noncompliance were 66.2% and 11.2%, respectively; multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was identified in 0.2% of the cases; and the mortality rate was 12.9%. The directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) strategy was applied in 21.8% of the cases. Sputum smear microscopy and culture were performed in only 73.9% and 12.9% of the cases, respectively. Chest X-rays were performed in 90.5% of the cases. Pulmonary tuberculosis was the predominant form (in 83.9%). Comorbidity with alcoholism, HIV infection, and diabetes mellitus were identified in 17.2%, 8.3%, and 3.8%, respectively. Conclusions: During the study period, the numbers of new cases, cases of treatment noncompliance, and deaths were high, comorbidities were common, and there was a failure to perform adequately basic tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Multidisciplinary approaches, expanded use of the DOTS strategy, better knowledge of the distribution of tuberculosis, and improvements in the databases are needed in order to achieve better control of the disease in the state of Minas Gerais.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; Tuberculosis/mortality; Information systems.

 


Characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis in a hyperendemic area-the city of Santos, Brazil

Características da tuberculose pulmonar em área hiperendêmica - município de Santos (SP)

Andrea Gobetti Vieira Coelho, Liliana Aparecida Zamarioli, Carmen Argüello Perandones, Ivonete Cuntiere, Eliseu Alves Waldman

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(10):998-1007

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Objective: To characterize the profile of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the city of Santos, Brazil, according to biological, environmental and institutional factors. Methods: Descriptive study, using the TB surveillance database, including patients with PTB, aged 15 years or older, residing in the city of Santos and whose treatment was initiated between 2000 and 2004. Results: We identified 2,176 cases, of which 481 presented a history of TB. Of those 481 patients, 29.3% were cured, and 70.7% abandoned treatment. In 61.6% of the cases, the diagnosis was confirmed by sputum smear microscopy, whereas it was confirmed based on clinical and radiological criteria in 33.8%; 69.0% were male; and 69.5% were between 20 and 49 years of age. There were 732 hospitalizations, and the mean length of hospital stay was 32 days (first hospitalization). The prevalence of alcoholism, diabetes and TB/HIV coinfection was, respectively, 11.7%, 8.2% and 16.2%. The prevalence of TB/HIV coinfection decreased from 20.7% to 12.9% during the study period. The treatment outcome was cure, abandonment, death from TB and death attributed to TB/HIV coinfection in 71.0%, 12.1%, 3.9% and 2.5%, respectively. The directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) was adopted in 63.4% of cases, and there were no significant differences between DOTS and the conventional treatment approach in terms of outcomes (p > 0.05). The mean annual incidence of PTB was 127.9/100,000 population (range: 72.8-272.92/100,000 population, varying by region). The mean annual mortality rate for PTB was 6.9/100,000 population. Conclusions: In areas hyperendemic for TB, DOTS should be prioritized for groups at greater risk of treatment abandonment or death, and the investigation of TB contacts should be intensified.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Epidemiology, descriptive; Control.

 


Characteristics of patients with lung cancer in the city of Manaus, Brazil

Características de pacientes com câncer de pulmão na cidade de Manaus

Fernando Luiz Westphal, Luis Carlos de Lima, Edson Oliveira Andrade, José Corrêa Lima Netto, Andrei Salvioni da Silva, Bruna Cecília Neves de Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(2):157-163

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Objective: To analyze the characteristics of patients with lung cancer. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study of patients receiving a histopathological diagnosis of lung cancer between 1995 and 2002 in the city of Manaus, Brazil. Data were collected from the medical archives of three hospitals. Statistical analyses were carried out, and survival curves were generated by means of an actuarial estimator. Results: Of the 352 patients selected, 262 (74.4%) were male and 90 (25.6%) were female. The mean age was 62 years. The following histological types were identified: squamous cell carcinoma, 62.8%; adenocarcinoma, 24.7%; small cell carcinoma, 9.1%; and large cell carcinoma, 3.4%. The most common stages were stages IIIB and IV, in 45% and 21.5%, respectively. Of the total sample, 73.4% were submitted to treatment. Of these, 51.4% underwent radiotherapy; 16.6%, surgery; 15.8%, chemotherapy; and 16.2%, radiotherapy in association with chemotherapy. Cumulative survival rates were low: three-year survival was 6.5%, and five-year survival was 3.5%. Conclusions: In this group of patients with lung cancer, survival rates were considerably lower than those reported in the literature. This might be attributable to the limited access to the specialized health care system and the advanced stage of the disease at diagnosis.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Neoplasm staging; Survival.

 


Characteristics of COPD patients admitted to the ICU of a referral hospital for respiratory diseases in Brazil

Características de pacientes com DPOC internados em UTI de um hospital de referência para doenças respiratórias no Brasil

Mariângela Pimentel Pincelli, Ana Cristina Burigo Grumann, Camilo Fernandes, André G C Cavalheiro, Daiane A P Haussen, Israel Silva Maia

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):217-222

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Objective: To report data regarding COPD patients admitted to the ICU of a referral hospital for respiratory diseases, including outcomes and treatment evaluation. Methods: Study of a series of patients with respiratory failure and COPD admitted to the ICU of Nereu Ramos Hospital, located in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil, between October of 2006 and October of 2007. Data related to demographics, causes of hospitalization, pharmacological treatment, ventilatory support, length of hospital stay, in-hospital complications, ICU mortality, and 28-day mortality were obtained from the medical charts of the patients. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores were calculated. Mortality at 18 months was assessed by subsequent telephone calls. Results: During the study period, 192 patients were admitted to the ICU, 24 (12.5%) of whom were diagnosed with respiratory failure and COPD. The mean length of ICU stay was 12.0 ± 11.1 days. Noninvasive ventilation was used in 10 of the 24 patients (41.66%) and failed in 5 of those 10. Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) was used in a total of 15 patients (62.5%). Overall ICU mortality and 28-day mortality were 20.83% and 33.33%, respectively. However, 18-month mortality was 62.5%. Conclusions: Respiratory failure associated with COPD was responsible for 12.5% of the ICU admissions. Orotracheal intubation and IMV were necessary in 62.5% of the cases. The ICU mortality rate was in accordance with that predicted by the APACHE II scores. However, late mortality was high.

 


Keywords: Epidemiology; Respiration, artificial; Respiratory insufficiency; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Intensive care units; Mortality.

 


Psychological profile and nicotine dependence in smoking undergraduate students of UFMT

Características de personalidade e dependência nicotínica em universitários fumantes da UFMT

Regina de Cássia Rondina, Clovis Botelho, Ageo Mário Cândido da Silva, Ricardo Gorayeb

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(1):21-27

Abstract PDF PT

Introduction: Data on the relationship between personality profile and nicotine addiction may help health professionals in the design and improvement of programs for the treatment and prevention of addiction. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the personality profile and nicotine addiction in a group of smoking undergraduate students. Methods: A total of 1,245 undergraduate students were randomly selected among 10,500 students enrolled at the UFMT - Cuiabá campus in 2001. A standard questionnaire was applied for social characterization and to determine the pattern of cigarette consumption, with 80 students being considered smokers. These students were then submitted to the Fagerström Test (1978) of nicotine addiction and to the reduced version of the Comrey Personality Scale (CPS) which determines personality dimensions. Results: Analysis of the mean scores (Student t-test) revealed a marginal or inversely proportional borderline association between addiction and the Order x Lack of Compulsion scale (p = 0.06), and a negative or inversely proportional association between the CPS Extroversion x Introversion (p = 0.002) and Control of Validity scales (p = 0.04). Linear regression of the Fagerström Test points confirmed the inversely proportional borderline association between addiction and the Order x Lack of Compulsion (p = 0.06) and CPS Extroversion x Introversion scales (p = 0.02). However, controlling for interference of daily cigarette consumption, only the Extroversion x Introversion scale remained associated with addiction (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Smoker and nicotine dependent students are less extrovert than non-dependent smokers.

 



Sleep characteristics in an adult with sleep complaints in three cities at different altitudes

Características do sono em um adulto com queixas de sono em três cidades a diferentes altitudes

Julio Cesar Castellanos-Ramírez1,a, Alvaro J Ruíz2,3,b, Patricia Hidalgo-Martínez1,2,c, Liliana Otero-Mendoza4,d

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):65-68

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Sleep studies conducted at an altitude that is different from the home altitude can yield misleading results regarding the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The objective of the present study was to determine the sleep characteristics of a patient undergoing polysomnography (PSG) in three Colombian cities at different altitudes (Bogotá, at 2,640 m above sea level [ASL]; Bucaramanga, at 959 m ASL; and Santa Marta, at 15 m ASL). The patient was an obese man with diabetes and suspected OSA. All PSG recordings were scored and interpreted in accordance with American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria. In Bogotá, PSG revealed moderate OSA (an apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] of 21 events/h); in Bucaramanga, PSG revealed increased upper airway resistance (an AHI of 2 events/h); in Santa Marta, PSG revealed mild OSA (an AHI of 7 events/h). The reduction in the AHI was predominantly a reduction in hypopneas and obstructive apneas. The respiratory events were shorter in duration in the city at an intermediate altitude. Given that the AHI varied widely across cities, we can assume that the patient is normal or has moderate OSA depending on the city where he is. Central apneas were found to have no influence on the AHI.

 


Keywords: Sleep apnea, obstructive; Polysomnography; Altitude.

 


Epidemiological characteristics of sarcoidosis patients in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Características epidemiológicas de pacientes com sarcoidose na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

Vinicius Lemos-Silva, Paula Barroso Araújo, Christiane Lopes, Rogério Rufino, Cláudia Henrique da Costa

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):438-445

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Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of sarcoidosis patients in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: A descriptive, case-control study involving 100 sarcoidosis patients under outpatient treatment between 2008 and 2010 at the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis was based on clinical, radiological, biochemical, and histopathological criteria. Results: There was a predominance of females in the 35-40 year age bracket (range, 7-69 years), who accounted for 65% of the sample, although there was a second peak at approximately 55 years of age. The most common symptom was dyspnea (in 47%), and the most common radiological findings were pulmonary and lymph node involvement (stage II; in 43%), followed by stage III (in 20%), stage I (in 19%), stage 0 (in 15%), and stage IV (in 3%). No pleural effusion or digital clubbing was observed at diagnosis. The tuberculin skin test was negative in 94 patients. Spirometric findings at diagnosis were normal in 61 patients; indicative of obstructive lung disease in 21; and indicative of restrictive lung disease in 18. The most common biopsy sites were the lungs (principally by bronchoscopy) and the skin, the diagnosis being confirmed by biopsy in 56% and 29% of the cases, respectively. Treatment with prednisone was initiated in 75% of the patients and maintained for more than 2 years in 19.7%. Conclusions: This study corroborates the findings of previous studies regarding the epidemiological characteristics of sarcoidosis patients.

 


Keywords: Sarcoidosis/epidemiology; Sarcoidosis/diagnosis; Sarcoidosis/therapy.

 


Pulmonary function parameters and use of bronchodilators in patients with cystic fibrosis

Características funcionais pulmonares e uso de broncodilatador em pacientes com fibrose cística

Lucia Harumi Muramatu, Roberto Stirbulov, Wilma Carvalho Neves Forte

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):48-55

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Resumo

Objetivo: Analisar as características funcionais pulmonares, a resposta farmacodinâmica a um broncodilatador e sua prescrição em pacientes com diagnóstico de fibrose cística (FC). Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo de pacientes (6-18 anos) com diagnóstico de FC acompanhados em um centro de referência, capazes de realizar testes de função pulmonar (TFP) entre 2008 e 2010. Foram analisados CVF, VEF1 e FEF25-75%, em percentual do previsto, antes e após prova broncodilatadora (pré-BD e pós-BD, respectivamente) de 312 TFP. Foram realizadas ANOVA para medidas repetidas e comparações múltiplas. Resultados: Foram incluídos no estudo 56 pacientes. Desses, 37 e 19, respectivamente, tinham resultados de TFP entre 2008 e 2010 e apenas em 2009-2010, formando dois grupos. No grupo com TFP nos três anos estudados, houve redução significativa em VEF1 pós-BD em 2008-2010 (p = 0,028) e 2009-2010 (p = 0,036) e em FEF25-75% pré-BD e pós-BD em todas as comparações múltiplas (2008 vs. 2009; 2008 vs. 2010; e 2009 vs. 2010). No grupo com TFP apenas em 2009-2010, não houve diferenças significativas em nenhuma das comparações das variáveis estudadas. Dos 312 TFP, somente 24 (7,7%) apresentaram resposta significativa ao broncodilatador e pertenciam a pacientes sem prescrição de broncodilatador durante o período estudado. Conclusões: Houve perda funcional, com indicação de doença pulmonar progressiva, nos pacientes com FC estudados. Houve maiores alterações no FEF25-75%, sugerindo o comprometimento inicial de vias aéreas menores.

 


Palavras-chave: Fibrose cística; Testes de função respiratória; Broncodilatadores.

 


Genetic and phenotypic traits of children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis in Southern Brazil

Características genéticas e fenotípicas de crianças e adolescentes com fibrose cística no Sul do Brasil

Katiana Murieli da Rosa1,a, Eliandra da Silveira de Lima2,b, Camila Correia Machado3,c, Thaiane Rispoli4,d, Victória d'Azevedo Silveira3,e, Renata Ongaratto2,f, Talitha Comaru2,g, Leonardo Araújo Pinto5,h

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(6):498-504

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Objectives: To characterize the main identified mutations on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in a group of children and adolescents at a cystic fibrosis center and its association with the clinical and laboratorial characteristics. Method: Descriptive cross-sectional study including patients with cystic fibrosis who had two alleles identified with CFTR mutation. Clinical, anthropometrical, laboratorial and pulmonary function (spirometry) data were collected from patients' records in charts and described with the results of the sample genotyping. Results: 42 patients with cystic fibrosis were included in the study. The most frequent mutation was F508del, covering 60 alleles (71.4%). The second most common mutation was G542X (six alleles, 7.1%), followed by N1303K and R1162X mutations (both with four alleles each). Three patients (7.14%) presented type III and IV mutations, and 22 patients (52.38%) presented homozygous mutation for F508del. Thirty three patients (78.6%) suffered of pancreatic insufficiency, 26.2% presented meconium ileus, and 16.7%, nutritional deficit. Of the patients in the study, 59.52% would be potential candidates for the use of CFTR-modulating drugs. Conclusions: The mutations of CFTR identified more frequently were F508del and G542X. These are type II and I mutations, respectively. Along with type III, they present a more severe cystic fibrosis phenotype. More than half of the sample (52.38%) presented homozygous mutation for F508del, that is, patients who could be treated with Lumacaftor/Ivacaftor. Approximately 7% of the patients (7.14%) presented type III and IV mutations, therefore becoming candidates for the treatment with Ivacaftor.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Mutations; Genetics; Phenotype; Child

 


Psychological characteristics associated with tobacco smoking behavior

Características psicológicas associadas ao comportamento de fumar tabaco

Regina de Cássia Rondina, Ricardo Gorayeb, Clóvis Botelho

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):592-601

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This article is a literature review of the psychological aspects of smoking behavior, highlighting personality characteristics of the smoker as an obstacle to smoking cessation. It describes the relation between smoking behavior and personality, and between smoking and the principal psychiatric disorders. Studies reveal that smokers tend to be more extroverted, anxious, tense, and impulsive, and show more traits of neuroticism and psychoticism than do ex-smokers or nonsmokers. The literature also reveals a strong association between smoking and mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and depression. Understanding the psychological factors associated with tobacco smoking and dependence can further the development and improvement of therapeutic strategies to be used in smoking-cessation programs, as well as of programs aimed at prevention and education.

 


Keywords: Personality; Mental disorders; Smoking.

 


Phenotypic characterization of lymphocyte subsets in bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with silicosis

Caracterização imunofenotípica das subpopulações de linfócitos do lavado broncoalveolar de pacientes com silicose

Ângela Ferreira, Jose da Silva Moreira, Regina Caetano, José Manoel Gabetto, Thereza Quirico-Santos

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(3):107-112

Abstract PDF PT

Bronchoalveolar lavage is a safe and simple technique to evaluate lung disease related to exposure to mineral dusts. The aim of this study was to characterize the lymphocyte subsets in bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with silicosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage was carried out in 26 workers with different forms of silicosis: simple form (n = 12), complicated (n = 13) and 1 patient with acute form of the disease. As a control group, 7 healthy individuals were included. Compared to the control group, silicotic patients showed intense pleocytosis constituted mainly by alveolar macrophages with slight lymphocytosis. Lymphocyte subsets present in the bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL) of normal individuals were mature lymphocytes with phenotype CD2+TCRab (87.3%) and only 2.9% were CD2+TCRgd. CD4/CD8 ratio was 1.8 with few (16%) immature double negative T cells subsets (CD4-CD8-). In contrast, silicotic patients showed reduction of the more mature lymphocyte subset CD2+CD4+, CD2+CD8+ and a great increase (47%) of immature (CD4-CD8-) T cell subsets. No increase in the NK (CD56+) cell population was observed. Biochemical analysis of protein contents and determination of the Ig/albumin ratio characterized local immunoglobulin production within the pulmonary microenvironment. Furthermore, lack of increase of plasma cells, as well as the maintenance of the percentage of B lymphocyte population (CD19+) in the BAL of silicotic patients, favors the hypothesis that the cells responsible for Ig production are possibly located in the interstitial space. Altogether the results suggest development of lymphopoiesis and tertiary lymphoid tissue within the pulmonary microenvironment during the clinical course of silicosis.

 


Keywords: bronchoalveolar lavage, lymphocyte subsets, silicosis, immunophenotyping

 


Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea: treatment by removing the larynx, trachea, and esophagus, and mediastinal tracheostomy

Carcinoma adenóide cístico de traquéia: tratamento pela laringotráqueo-esofagectomia e traqueostomia mediastinal

Manoel Ximenes Netto, Gutemberg F. Rego, André L.a. Carvalho, Hélcio L. Miziara

J Bras Pneumol.1999;25(6):343-346

Abstract PDF PT

The authors describe the case of a 54 year-old female with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea at the cricoid level upon whom extensive surgical resection was performed, including the larynx, part of the trachea and esophagus. Reconstruction of the digestive tract was done by means of a gastric tube and the airway with a mediastinal tracheostomy. Five years after the original procedure there was a local cutaneous recurrence which was removed. Seven years later the disease recurred in the mediastinum, which responded to irradiation. The patient is alive and well eight years and five months after the operation.

 


Keywords: Trachea. Neoplasm. Carcinoma, adenoid cystic. Tracheostomy.

 


Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung with brain metastases

Carcinoma sarcomatoide de pulmão com metástases cerebrais

Matheus Fernandes de Oliveira, Sílvia Conde Watanabe, Mara Patrícia Guilhermina de Andrade, José Marcus Rotta, Fernando Campos Gomes Pinto

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):753-756

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Takotsubo cardiomyopathy triggered by &#61538;2 adrenergic agonist

Cardiomiopatia de takotsubo desencadeada pelo uso de agonista β2-adrenérgico

Vera Maria Cury Salemi, Edmar Atik, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla, Eduardo Lira Queiroz, Leonardo Vieira da Rosa, Roberto Kalil Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):560-562

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Brazilian political proposal for asthma programs on primary health care

Carta aberta em favor da criação de programas de asma no Brasil (CAPA)

Alcindo Cerci Neto, Mauro Musa Zamboni, Márcia Alcântara Holanda

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):9-10

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A rare case of co-infection with pulmonary tuberculosis and oronasal actinomycosis

Caso raro de coinfecção tuberculose pulmonar e actinomicose oronasal

Vitor Alexandre Oliveira Fonseca, Gustavo Reis, Carlos Alves, Maria José Simões, Elvira Camacho, António Pinto Saraiva

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1152-1155

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Oronasal actinomycosis is an infection seldom described in the literature, especially in the form of a co-infection with pulmonary tuberculosis. We report the case of a 48-year-old male admitted to the isolation ward due to active pulmonary tuberculosis, with a history of diabetes and alcohol abuse. While hospitalized, the patient complained of dysphagia and nasal regurgitation of food. The examination of the oral cavity revealed an oronasal fistula. The infecting agent was identified, and the treatment was successful. We also present a brief review of the literature, as well as a full description and discussion of the process of investigating this rare clinical case.

 


Keywords: Actinomycosis, cervicofacial; Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Oral fistula.

 


An unusual cause of pleural effusion in a patient with heart failure

Causa incomum de derrame pleural em paciente com insuficiência cardíaca

Daniel Bruno Takizawa1,a, Philippe de Figueiredo Braga Colares1,b, Olívia Meira Dias1,c

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(5):e20180343-e20180343

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Causes of death in asthma patients enrolled in the Bahia State Program for the Control of Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis

Causas de óbitos entre asmáticos graves admitidos no Programa de Controle da Asma e da Rinite Alérgica na Bahia

Adelmir Souza-Machado, Carolina Souza-Machado, Daisy Freitas Silva, Eduardo Vieira Ponte, Alvaro A. Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):372-379

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To report demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with asthma who evolved to death, as well as to describe the conditions related to this outcome in a subgroup of patients admitted to the Program for the Control of Asthma and Rhinitis in Bahia (ProAR). Methods: A descriptive, retrospective, observational study. Data from clinical charts and death certificates of 16 patients of 930 subjects with severe asthma monitored at the ProAR Central Reference Center from December 2003 to June 2006 were reviewed. Results: Of the 930 patients participating in the program, 16 (1.72%) died. Of these, there were 10 males and 6 females, ranging in age from 39 to 74 years (median, 55 years); 12 (75%) of the patients were black. Time since diagnosis ranged from 1 to 68 years (median, 30 years). In 43.8 and 53.8%, respectively, there was a personal or family history of atopy. Ex-smokers (<10 pack-years) accounted for 37.5% of the cases. Causes of death listed on the death certificates were as follows: asthma or asthma exacerbations in 8 (50%); respiratory failure in 3 (18.75%); acute heart infarction in 2 (12.5%); hepatitis in 1 (6.25%); hypovolemic shock in 1 (6.25%); and cardiorespiratory arrest in 1 (6.25%). Of the 16 deaths, 13 (81.25%) occurred inside hospitals. Conclusion: Asphyxia and cardiovascular diseases were the most common atributed causes of mortality in this subgroup of patients with severe asthma. Hospital-based mortality, male gender, advanced age, long-term disease and fixed airflow obstruction were the aspects most frequently observed in the cases studied.

 


Keywords: Mortality; Rhinitis/treatment; Asthma/treatment; Cardiovascular diseases.

 


Deaths attributed to multiple causes and involving tuberculosis in the state of Rio de Janeiro Brazil between 1999 and 2001

Causas múltiplas de morte relacionadas à tuberculose no Estado do Rio de Janeiro entre 1999 e 2001

Augusto Hasiak Santo

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):544-552

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate deaths attributed to multiple causes in which tuberculosis was one of the causes listed. Methods: All deaths among residents of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, occurring between 1999 and 2001 and for which the death certificate mentioned tuberculosis, were investigated. The World Health Organization guidelines were used in characterizing the underlying and associated (non-underlying) causes of death. Results: In deaths from tuberculosis, conditions related to its natural history were the principal associated causes, together with alcoholism and diabetes. In approximately three-fifths of all deaths for which tuberculosis was listed as an associated cause, the underlying cause of death was acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. High proportion of ill-defined causes of death, low values found for the number of causes informed per death certificate and for TB as an associated cause point towards a certain degree of underestimation of the actual number of TB-related deaths in Rio de Janeiro State. Conclusion: The study shows that the rates of tuberculosis-related mortality in the state of Rio de Janeiro, calculated based on the number of times tuberculosis was listed as a cause of death (underlying or associated), are the highest in the country. Epidemiological studies of mortality are recommended as a means of guiding the activities of the tuberculosis control program.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/mortality; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; Multipe cause of death; Brazil

 


Celebrating World Asthma Day in Brazil: is the glass half full or half empty?

Celebrando o Dia Mundial da Asma no Brasil: o copo está meio cheio ou meio vazio?

Marcia Margaret Menezes Pizzichini1,a, Álvaro Augusto Cruz2,3,b

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(3):e20190130-e20190130

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Cell profile of BAL fluid in children and adolescents with and without lung disease

Celularidade do líquido de LBA em crianças e adolescentes saudáveis e com doenças pulmonares

Isabela Furtado de Mendonça Picinin, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos, Christophe Marguet

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):-

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of this study was to review the literature on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell profiles in healthy children and adolescents, as well as on the use of BAL as a diagnostic and follow-up tool for lung disease patients in this age bracket. To that end, we used the Medline database, compiling studies published between 1989 and 2009 employing the following MeSH descriptors (with Boolean operators) as search terms: bronchoalveolar lavage AND cytology OR cell AND child. In healthy children, the cell profile includes alveolar macrophages (> 80%), lymphocytes (approximately 10%), neutrophils (approximately 2%) and eosinophils (< 1%). The profile varies depending on the disease under study. The number of neutrophils is greater in wheezing children, especially in non-atopic children, as well as in those with pulmonary infectious and inflammatory profiles, including cystic fibrosis and interstitial lung disease. Eosinophil counts are elevated in children/adolescents with asthma and can reach high levels in those with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or eosinophilic syndromes. In a heterogenous group of diseases, the number of lymphocytes can increase. Evaluation of the BAL fluid cell profile, when used in conjunction with clinical and imaging findings, has proven to be an essential tool in the investigation of various lung diseases. Less invasive than transbronchial and open lung biopsies, BAL has great clinical value. Further studies adopting standard international protocols should be carried out. Such studies should involve various age groups and settings in order to obtain reference values for BAL fluid cell profiles, which are necessary for a more accurate interpretation of findings in children and adolescents with lung diseases.

 


Keywords: Bronchoalveolar lavage; Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid/cytology; Child; Adolescent.

 


Smoking cessation among patients at a university hospital in Curitiba, Brazil

Cessação de tabagismo em pacientes de um hospital universitário em Curitiba

Rodney Luiz Frare e Silva, Eliane Ribeiro Carmes, Alain Felipe Schwartz, Denise de Souza Blaszkowski, Raphael Henrique Déa Cirino, Renata Dal-Prá Ducci

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):480-487

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of smoking and the frequency of smoking cessation counseling among patients at a university hospital, as well as to compare smokers and former smokers in terms of smoking history. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 629 patients at the Federal University of Paraná Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Results: Of the 629 patients, 206 (32.7%) were male, 76 (12.1%) were smokers, 179 (28.5%) were former smokers, and 374 (59.5%) were nonsmokers. The mean age of the patients was 49.9 ± 15.0 years (range, 18-84 years). Of the 76 smokers and 179 former smokers, 72 (94.7%) and 166 (92.7%), respectively, were questioned about tobacco use. Smoking history and degree of nicotine dependence were higher among the former smokers (p = 0.0292 and p = 0.0125, respectively). Gender, age at smoking initiation, physician inquiry about tobacco use, and smoking cessation counseling were comparable between the two groups. The smoking cessation rate was 0.70. The prevalence of heavy smoking varied by gender and by age bracket, being higher in males and in the 41-70 year age bracket. Conclusions: The smoking prevalence in this group of patients was lower than that reported for patients at another university hospital, for adults in Curitiba, and for adults in Brazil. The smoking cessation rate was higher in these patients than in the general population of Curitiba. Smokers and former smokers differed regarding age, smoking history, and degree of nicotine dependence. Heavy smoking and a moderate or high degree of nicotine dependence were not obstacles to smoking cessation.

 


Keywords: Smoking/prevention & control; Smoking cessation; Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data.

 


Smoking cessation before initiation of chemotherapy in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: influence on prognosis

Cessação tabágica antes do início da quimioterapia no câncer de pulmão de células não pequenas metastático: influência sobre o prognóstico

Ana Rita Diegues Linhas1,a, Margarida Carmo Pinho Dias1,2,b, Ana Maria Paixão Barroso1,2,c

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(5):436-438

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The electronic cigarette: the new cigarette of the 21st century?

Cigarro eletrônico: o novo cigarro do século 21?

Marli Maria Knorst, Igor Gorski Benedetto, Mariana Costa Hoffmeister, Marcelo Basso Gazzana

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):564-573

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The electronic nicotine delivery system, also known as the electronic cigarette, is generating considerable controversy, not only in the general population but also among health professionals. Smokers the world over have been increasingly using electronic cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation and as a substitute for conventional cigarettes. There are few available data regarding the safety of electronic cigarettes. There is as yet no evidence that electronic cigarettes are effective in treating nicotine addiction. Some smokers have reported using electronic cigarettes for over a year, often combined with conventional cigarettes, thus prolonging nicotine addiction. In addition, the increasing use of electronic cigarettes by adolescents is a cause for concern. The objective of this study was to describe electronic cigarettes and their components, as well as to review the literature regarding their safety; their impact on smoking initiation and smoking cessation; and regulatory issues related to their use.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Tobacco Products; Nicotine.

 


Lung volume reduction surgery in an experimental rat model of emphysema

Cirurgia de redução do volume pulmonar em modelo experimental de enfisema em ratos

Laerte Brasiliense Fusco, Marcelo Heleno Fonseca, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Rogério Pazetti, Vera Capelozzi, Fabio Biscegli Jatene, Sergio Almeida Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(1):-

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Background: Lung volume reduction surgery may be a viable treatment alternative for emphysema patients suffering from severe respiratory insufficiency. Objectives: To evaluate functional and morphological aspects of emphysematous rat lungs, prior to and following lung volume reduction surgery. Method: Wistar rats were divided into two experimental groups (papain without surgery and papain with surgery) and three control groups (saline without surgery, saline with surgery and papain without mechanical ventilation). After approximately 40 days of endotracheal instillation of papain or saline solution, animals in the papain with surgery and saline with surgery groups were submitted to bilobectomy of the middle lobes by right thoracotomy along the posterior border of the superior vena cava. After 1 week, the same animals were submitted to a mechanical ventilation study, which involved measurement of lung elasticity and airway resistance. For all of the animals studied, lung tissue was analyzed in order to determine alveolar diameter and the elastic fiber quantity. Results: Morphometric analysis revealed higher mean alveolar diameter in the lungs of all animals exposed to papain as compared to those exposed to saline. Elastic fiber counts in the alveolar septa of animals treated with papain were lower than those of animals receiving saline. In the animals submitted to bilobectomy and papain, lung elasticity was greater than in those receiving papain without surgery and was statistically equal to that seen in animals receiving saline (with or without surgery). Conclusion: In the respiratory systems of animals with pulmonary emphysema submitted to lung volume reduction by bilobectomy, the capacity for elastic recoil returned to values equivalent to those of the control group animals.

 


Keywords: Key words: Pulmonary emphysema. Papain/drugs efects. Case-control studies. Disease models, animal. Respiratory mechanics/drugs efects. Lung/sugery. Lung/anatomy & histology.

 


Lung reduction surgery

Cirurgia redutora de enfisema

Marco Aurélio Scarpinella-Bueno, Hélio Romaldini

J Bras Pneumol.1997;23(5):252-260

Abstract PDF PT

Lung volume reduction surgery is intended to improve pulmonary function in selected patients with severe emphysema by improving diaphragmatic and chest wall mechanisms. An increasing body of scientific evidence demonstrates that lung volume reduction surgery provides significant palliation, with long-run benefits for at least two years. Measurements of pulmonary function have also confirmed significant improvement in objective physiologic parameters such as airway obstruction, elastic recoil, and gas exchange. However, some questions concerning these issues have not been answered yet: long-term efficacy, patient's outcome predictors, cost-benefit analyses, and clarification of the indication for different surgical approaches.

 


Keywords: Emphysema. Lung reduction surgery.

 


Robotic thoracic surgery for non-small cell lung cancer: initial experience in Brazil

Cirurgia torácica robótica no tratamento do câncer de pulmão de células não pequenas: experiência inicial no Brasil

Ricardo Mingarini Terra1,2,3,4,a, Benoit Jacques Bibas1,3,4,b, Rui Haddad5,6,c, José Ribas Milanez-de-Campos1,3,d, Pedro Henrique Xavier Nabuco-de-Araujo1,2,4,e, Carlos Eduardo Teixeira-Lima5,6,f, Felipe Braga dos Santos5,6,g, Leticia Leone Lauricella1,2,4,h, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes1,2,3,i

J Bras Pneumol.2020;46(1):e20190003-e20190003

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the morbidity, mortality, and rate of complete resection associated with robotic surgery for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer in Brazil, as well as to report the rates of overall survival and disease-free survival in patients so treated. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung carcinoma and undergoing resection by robotic surgery at one of six hospitals in Brazil between February of 2015 and July of 2018. Data were collected retrospectively from the electronic medical records. Results: A total of 154 patients were included. The mean age was 65 ± 9.5 years (range, 30-85 years). The main histological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma, which was identified in 128 patients (81.5%), followed by epidermoid carcinoma, identified in 14 (9.0%). Lobectomy was performed in 133 patients (86.3%), and segmentectomy was performed in 21 (13.7%). The mean operative time was 209 ± 80 min. Postoperative complications occurred in 32 patients (20.4%). The main complication was air leak, which occurred in 15 patients (9.5%). The median (interquartile range) values for hospital stay and drainage time were 4 days (3-6 days) and 2 days (2-4 days), respectively. There was one death in the immediate postoperative period (30-day mortality rate, 0.5%). The mean follow-up period was 326 ± 274 days (range, 3-1,110 days). Complete resection was achieved in 97.4% of the cases. Overall mortality was 1.5% (3 deaths), and overall survival was 97.5%. Conclusions: Robotic pulmonary resection proved to be a safe treatment for lung cancer. Longer follow-up periods are required in order to assess long-term survival.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms/surgery; Lung neoplasms/mortality; Robotic surgical procedures.

 


Robotic thoracic surgery for resection of thymoma and tumors of the thymus: technical development and initial experience

Cirurgia torácica robótica para ressecção de timoma e tumores tímicos: desenvolvimento técnico e experiência inicial

Ricardo Mingarini Terra1,a, José Ribas Milanez-de-Campos1,b, Rui Haddad2,c, Juliana Rocha Mol Trindade3,d, Leticia Leone Lauricella3,e, Benoit Jacques Bibas3,f, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes1,g

J Bras Pneumol.2020;46(1):e20180315-e20180315

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the results of resection of tumors of the thymus by robotic thoracic surgery, analyzing the extent of resection, postoperative complications, time of surgery, and length of stay. Methods: Retrospective study from a database involving patients diagnosed with a tumor of the thymus and undergoing robotic thoracic surgery at one of seven hospitals in Brazil between October of 2015 and June of 2018. Results: During the study period, there were 18 cases of resection of tumors of the thymus: thymoma, in 12; carcinoma, in 2; and carcinoid tumor, in 1; high-grade sarcoma, in 1; teratoma, in 1; and thymolipoma, in 1. The mean lesion size was 60.1 ± 32.0 mm. Tumors of the thymus were resected with tumor-free margins in 17 cases. The median (interquartile range) for pleural drain time and hospital stay, in days, was 1 (1-3) and 2 (2-4), respectively. There was no need for surgical conversion, and there were no major complications. Conclusions: Robotic thoracic surgery for resection of tumors of the thymus has been shown to be feasible and safe, with a low risk of complications and with postoperativeymoma; Thymus neoplasms; Thymectomy; Thoracic surgery; R outcomes comparable to those of other techniques.

 


Keywords: Thymoma; Thymus neoplasms; Thymectomy; Thoracic surgery; Robotic surgical procedures.

 


Nodular fissure

Cissura nodular

Edson Marchiori1,a, Bruno Hochhegger2,b, Gláucia Zanetti1,c

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(4):259-259

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Bronchogenic cyst with videothoracoscopic approach

Cisto broncogênico com abordagem videotoracoscópica

Nelson Perelman Rosenberg, Celso Schuler, Fernando Delgiovo, José Augusto Ferreira Bittencourt

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(6):339-341

Abstract PDF PT

Bronchogenic cysts are the most common cause of mediastinal cystic mass and surgical resection is the treatment of choice. The authors report a case of bronchogenic cyst with successful treatment by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). They emphasize the benefits of VATS in the management of this pathology and compare this technique to conventional thoracotomy.

 



Mediastinal cyst as a cause of severe airway compression and dysphonia

Cisto mediastinal como causa de grave compressão da via aérea central e disfonia

Vanessa Costa Menezes, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Hélio Minamoto, Márcia Jacomelli, Paulo Sampaio Gutierrez, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):636-640

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Subglottic cyst: a rare cause of laryngeal stridor

Cisto subglótico: uma causa rara de estridor laríngeo

Ascedio José Rodrigues, Silvia Regina Cardoso, Diamari Caramelo Ricci Cereda, Manoel Ernesto Peçanha Gonçalves

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):138-139

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Pulmonary cysts associated with calcified nodules

Cistos pulmonares associados a nódulos calcificados

Edson Marchiori1,a, Bruno Hochhegger2,b, Gláucia Zanetti1,c

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(3):e20190099-e20190099

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Diffuse lung cysts

Cistos pulmonares difusos

Edson Marchiori, Gláucia Zanetti, Bruno Hochhegger

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):484-484

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Lung cysts in chronic paracoccidioidomycosis

Cistos pulmonares na paracoccidioidomicose crônica

André Nathan Costa, Edson Marchiori, Gil Benard, Mariana Sponholz Araújo, Bruno Guedes Baldi, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):368-372

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

On HRCT scans, lung cysts are characterized by rounded areas of low attenuation in the lung parenchyma and a well-defined interface with the normal adjacent lung. The most common cystic lung diseases are lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. In a retrospective analysis of the HRCT findings in 50 patients diagnosed with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis, we found lung cysts in 5 cases (10%), indicating that patients with paracoccidioidomycosis can present with lung cysts on HRCT scans. Therefore, paracoccidioidomycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic lung diseases.

 


Keywords: Paracoccidioidomycosis; Cysts; Multidetector computed tomography.

 


Cytokines and acute phase serum proteins as markers of inflammatory regression during the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis

Citocinas e proteínas de fase aguda do soro como marcadores de regressão da resposta inflamatória ao tratamento da tuberculose pulmonar

Eliana Peresi, Sônia Maria Usó Ruiz Silva, Sueli Aparecida Calvi, Jussara Marcondes-Machado

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(11):942-949

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the pattern of pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines and the acute phase response (APR) as markers of the response to treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: Twenty-eight patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were evaluated at three time points: pretreatment (T0), treatment month 3 (T3) and treatment month 6 (T6). Levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukine-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) were determined using ELISA in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cell and monocyte culture. Levels of total protein, albumin, globulins, C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were also determined. All of these parameters were also evaluated, only once, in a group of healthy controls. Results: In relation to controls, patients presented cytokine levels and APR that were higher at T0, lower at T3 and either lower (TNF-α, IL-10, TGF-β, AAG and ESR) or normal (IFN-γ and CRP) at T6. Conclusions: For individuals with negative smear sputum microscopy, CRP, AAG and ESR are potential markers of pulmonary tuberculosis and of the need for treatment; CRP (T0 > T3 > T6 = reference) can also be a marker of treatment response. In the patients, the Th0 profile (IFN-γ, IL-10, TNF-α and TGF-β), inducer of and protector against inflammation, predominated at T0, whereas the Th2 profile (IL-10, TNF-α and TGF-β), protecting against the harmful pro-inflammatory effect of the remaining TNF-α, predominated at T6. The behavior of IFN-γ (T0 > T3 > T6 = controls) suggests its use as a marker of treatment response.

 


Keywords: Acute-phase proteins; Cytokines; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Tuberculosis/therapy.

 


Cytokine levels in pleural fluid as markers of acute rejection after lung transplantation

Citocinas no líquido pleural após transplante pulmonar como marcadores de rejeição aguda

Priscila Cilene León Bueno de Camargo, José Eduardo Afonso Jr, Marcos Naoyuki Samano, Milena Marques Pagliarelli Acencio, Leila Antonangelo, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga Teixeira

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):425-428

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Our objective was to determine the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF, as well as the total and differential cell counts, in the pleural fluid of lung transplant recipients, correlating those levels with the occurrence and severity of rejection. We analyzed pleural fluid samples collected from 18 patients at various time points (up to postoperative day 4). The levels of IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF tended to elevate in parallel with increases in the severity of rejection. Our results suggest that these levels are markers of acute graft rejection in lung transplant recipients.

 


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Pleural effusion; Cytokines; Graft rejection.

 


Cytoskeleton and mechanotransduction in the pathophysiology of ventilator-induced lung injury

Citoesqueleto e mecanotransdução na fisiopatologia da lesão pulmonar induzida por ventilador

Leandro Utino Taniguchi, Elia Garcia Caldini, Irineu Tadeu Velasco, Elnara Márcia Negri

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):-

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Although mechanical ventilation is an important therapy, it can result in complications. One major complication is ventilator-induced lung injury, which is caused by alveolar hyperdistension, leading to an inflammatory process, with neutrophilic infiltration, hyaline membrane formation, fibrogenesis and impaired gas exchange. In this process, cellular mechanotransduction of the overstretching stimulus is mediated by means of the cytoskeleton and its cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions, in such a way that the mechanical stimulus of ventilation is translated into an intracellular biochemical signal, inducing endothelial activation, pulmonary vascular permeability, leukocyte chemotaxis, cytokine production and, possibly, distal organ failure. Clinical studies have shown the relationship between pulmonary distension and mortality in patients with ventilator-induced lung injury. However, although the cytoskeleton plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of ventilator-induced lung injury, there have been few in vivo studies of alterations in the cytoskeleton and in cytoskeleton-associated proteins during this pathological process.

 


Keywords: Respiration, artificial; Cytoskeleton; Cell adhesion molecules; Focal adhesions; Mechanotransduction, cellular

 


Theoretical pneumococcal vaccine coverage: analysis of serotypes isolated from inpatients at a tertiary care hospital

Cobertura vacinal pneumocócica teórica: análise de sorotipos isolados de pacientes internados em hospital terciário

Cynthia Rocha Dullius1,a, Luciana Zani2,b, José Miguel Chatkin2,c

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(5):361-366

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Objective: To evaluate Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes isolated from an inpatient population at a tertiary care hospital, in order to determine the theoretical coverage of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 118 inpatients at the Hospital São Lucas, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, whose cultures of blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or other sterile body fluid specimens, collected between January 2005 and December 2016, yielded pneumococcal isolates. The theoretical vaccine coverage was studied in relation to the serotypes identified in the sample and their relationship with those contained in the pneumococcal vaccines available in Brazil. Results: The majority of the population was male (n = 66; 55.9%), with a median age of 57 years (interquartile range: 33-72 years). The most common manifestation was pneumonia, and the pneumococcus was most commonly isolated from blood cultures. More than one fourth of the study population had some degree of immunosuppression (n = 34; 28.8%). Of the total sample, 39 patients (33.1%) died. There were no significant associations between mortality and comorbidity type, ICU admission, or need for mechanical ventilation. The theoretical vaccine coverage of PPV23 alone and PCV13 plus PPV23 was 31.4% and 50.8%, respectively. Conclusions: If the patients in this sample had been previously vaccinated with PCV13 plus PPV23, theoretically, 50.8% of the cases of invasive pneumococcal disease that required hospital admission could potentially have been prevented. Invasive pneumococcal disease should be prevented by vaccination not only of children and the elderly but also of adults in their economically productive years, so as to reduce the socioeconomic costs, morbidity, and mortality still associated with the disease, especially in underdeveloped countries.

 


Keywords: Keywords: Pneumococcal infections; Serotyping; Tertiary care centers.

 


Pulmonary and extrapulmonary coccidioidomycosis: three cases in an endemic area in the state of Ceará, Brazil

Coccidioidomicose pulmonar e extrapulmonar: três casos em zona endêmica no interior do Ceará

Ricardo Hideo Togashi, Fernando Moreira Batista Aguiar, Dalton Barros Ferreira, Camille Matos de Moura, Monique Teixeira Montezuma Sales, Nikaelle Ximenes Rios

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(3):275-279

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Coccidioidomycosis, a fungal illness acquired by the inhalation of arthroconidia of Coccidioides sp., was first described in 1894. Coccidioidomycosis is mainly restricted to areas with arid climate, alkaline soil and low rainfall. Consequently, most of the reported cases in Brazil have occurred in the northeastern region. We report three cases of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis occurring between 2005 and 2006 in an endemic area in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The three patients were immunocompetent adult males, hunters of armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), with complaints of cough, fever, dyspnea and pleuritic pain. All three patients presented pulmonary involvement, and one also presented cutaneous lesions. Chest X-rays and CT scans of the patients revealed characteristic coccidioidomycosis lesions. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological testing. All of the patients evolved to cure after antifungal treatment.

 


Keywords: Coccidioidomycosis; Lung diseases, fungal; Coccidioides.

 


Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in a armadillo hunter

Coccidioidomicose pulmonar em caçador de tatus

Fabrício André Martins da Costa, Ricardo Coelho Reis, Fábio Benevides, Geraldo de Sousa Tomé, Marcelo Alcântara Holanda

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(5):275-278

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Coccidioidomycosis is a disease caused by inhalation of arthrospores of the fungus Coccidioides immitis. It has been recognized as a clinical entity since 1892. It is related to activities that involves dust exposure. It is found in many regions of the western hemisphere with dry and alkaline soil. In Brazil it has been described almost exclusively in the Northeast region where drought periods may favor its growth in its soil. We report a case of fatal coccidioidomycosis, in an immunocompetent host, associated to the activity of armadillo hunting (Dasypus novemcynctus) in a rural area of Ceará state.

 


Keywords: Coccidioidomycosis. Occupational exposure. Armadillos.

 


Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus: an epidemiological analysis in the city of Taubaté, Brazil

Co-infecção por Mycobacterium tuberculosis e vírus da imunodeficiência humana: uma análise epidemiológica em Taubaté (SP)

Luiz Gustavo Miranda de Carvalho, Anabelli Zanchetta Buani, Maria Stella Amorim da Costa Zöllner, Alexandre Prado Scherma

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(5):424-429

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Objective: To discuss the main aspects of co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus in the city of Taubaté (located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil) in 2001 and 2002. Methods: This study presents epidemiological data on tuberculosis cases occurring in Taubaté in 2001 and 2002. Results: Of the 250 cases of tuberculosis analyzed, 70 (28%) presented human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity, 95 (38%) presented human immunodeficiency virus seronegativity, and 85 (34%) were patients who had not been submitted to serological testing. In the first group (tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity), males from 30 to 40 years of age predominated, the most common clinical presentation of tuberculosis was pulmonary (65.71%), and the cure rate was 59.38%. In the group of tuberculosis patients presenting human immunodeficiency virus seronegativity, males from 30 to 40 years of age also predominated, the most common clinical presentation of tuberculosis was also pulmonary (70.55%), and the cure rate was 81.63%. Conclusion: We conclude that the human immunodeficiency virus plays an important role in the epidemiology of tuberculosis. Therefore, serological testing for human immunodeficiency virus should be carried out when a diagnosis of tuberculosis is made.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; HIV infections; HIV; Prevalence

 


Lung-dominant connective tissue disease among patients with inter-stitial lung disease: prevalence, functional stability, and common extrathoracic features

Colagenose pulmão dominante em pacientes com doença pulmonar intersticial: prevalência, estabilidade funcional e manifestações extratorácicas comuns

Daniel Antunes Silva Pereira, Olívia Meira Dias, Guilherme Eler de Almeida, Mariana Sponholz Araujo, Letícia Barbosa Kawano-Dourado, Bruno Guedes Baldi, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):151-160

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Objective: To describe the characteristics of a cohort of patients with lung-dominant connective tissue disease (LD-CTD). Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD), positive antinuclear antibody (ANA) results (≥ 1/320), with or without specific autoantibodies, and at least one clinical feature suggestive of connective tissue disease (CTD). Results: Of the 1,998 patients screened, 52 initially met the criteria for a diagnosis of LD-CTD: 37% were male; the mean age at diagnosis was 56 years; and the median follow-up period was 48 months. During follow-up, 8 patients met the criteria for a definitive diagnosis of a CTD. The remaining 44 patients comprised the LD-CTD group, in which the most prevalent extrathoracic features were arthralgia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The most prevalent autoantibodies in this group were ANA (89%) and anti-SSA (anti-Ro, 27%). The mean baseline and final FVC was 69.5% and 74.0% of the predicted values, respectively (p > 0.05). Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia patterns were found in 45% and 9% of HRCT scans, respectively; 36% of the scans were unclassifiable. A similar prevalence was noted in histological samples. Diffuse esophageal dilatation was identified in 52% of HRCT scans. Nailfold capillaroscopy was performed in 22 patients; 17 showed a scleroderma pattern. Conclusions: In our LD-CTD group, there was predominance of females and the patients showed mild spirometric abnormalities at diagnosis, with differing underlying ILD patterns that were mostly unclassifiable on HRCT and by histology. We found functional stability on follow-up. Esophageal dilatation on HRCT and scleroderma pattern on nailfold capillaroscopy were frequent findings and might come to serve as diagnostic criteria.

 


Keywords: Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias; Autoantibodies; Connective tissue diseases; Autoimmunity.

 


Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in the upper and lower airways of a child with cystic fibrosis: a father's meticulous approach to successful eradication

Colonização por Pseudomonas aeruginosa nas vias aéreas superiores e inferiores de uma criança com fibrose cística: abordagem meticulosa do pai para a erradicação bem-sucedida

Jochen Georg Mainz1,2,a, Michael Baier3,b, Anke Jaudszus1,2,c, Harold Tabori2,d, José Dirceu Ribeiro4,e, Michael Lorenz1,f

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(6):e20190191-e20190191

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Fighting respiratory diseases: divided efforts lead to weakness

Combate a doenças respiratórias: esforços divididos levam ao enfraquecimento

Rogelio Pérez-Padilla, Rafael Stelmach, Manuel Soto-Quiroz, Álvaro Augusto Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):207-210

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Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: an increasingly recognized condition

Combinação de fibrose pulmonar e enfisema: uma doença cada vez mais reconhecida

Olívia Meira Dias, Bruno Guedes Baldi, André Nathan Costa, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):304-312

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Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) has been increasingly recognized in the literature. Patients with CPFE are usually heavy smokers or former smokers with concomitant lower lobe fibrosis and upper lobe emphysema on chest HRCT scans. They commonly present with severe breathlessness and low DLCO, despite spirometry showing relatively preserved lung volumes. Moderate to severe pulmonary arterial hypertension is common in such patients, who are also at an increased risk of developing lung cancer. Unfortunately, there is currently no effective treatment for CPFE. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and prognostic factors of CPFE. Given that most of the published data on CPFE are based on retrospective analysis, more studies are needed in order to address the role of emphysema and its subtypes; the progression of fibrosis/emphysema and its correlation with inflammation; treatment options; and prognosis.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary fibrosis; Emphysema; Hypertension, pulmonary; Lung diseases, interstitial.

 


How can anemia negatively influence gas exchange?

Como a anemia pode influenciar negativamente as trocas gasosas?

Roberta Pulcheri Ramos1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):1-2

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Writing an effective response to reviewers: the goal is to improve the study and get it published!

Como escrever uma resposta eficaz aos revisores: o objetivo é melhorar o estudo e publicá-lo!

Cecilia Maria Patino1,2,a, Juliana Carvalho Ferreira1,3,b

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(1):e20190020-e20190020

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How to prepare and present a poster at a conference and communicate your research findings effectively

Como preparar e apresentar um pôster em uma conferência e comunicar resultados de pesquisa de forma eficaz

Juliana Carvalho Ferreira1,2,a, Cecilia Maria Patino1,3,b

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(3):e20190167-e20190167

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Comparison of diaphragmatic mobility between COPD patients with and without thoracic hyperkyphosis: a cross-sectional study

Comparação da mobilidade diafragmática em pacientes com DPOC com e sem hipercifose torácica: um estudo transversal

Márcia Aparecida Gonçalves1, Bruna Estima Leal1, Liseane Gonçalves Lisboa2, Michelle Gonçalves de Souza Tavares3, Wellington Pereira Yamaguti4, Elaine Paulin1

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):5-11

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Objective: To compare diaphragmatic mobility, lung function, and respiratory muscle strength between COPD patients with and without thoracic hyperkyphosis; to determine the relationship of thoracic kyphosis angle with diaphragmatic mobility, lung function, and respiratory muscle strength in COPD patients; and to compare diaphragmatic mobility and thoracic kyphosis between male and female patients with COPD. Methods: Participants underwent anthropometry, spirometry, thoracic kyphosis measurement, and evaluation of diaphragmatic mobility. Results: A total of 34 patients with COPD participated in the study. Diaphragmatic mobility was significantly lower in the group of COPD patients with thoracic hyperkyphosis than in that of those without it (p = 0.002). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups of COPD patients regarding lung function or respiratory muscle strength variables. There was a significant negative correlation between thoracic kyphosis angle and diaphragmatic mobility (r = −0.47; p = 0.005). In the sample as a whole, there were statistically significant differences between males and females regarding body weight (p = 0.011), height (p < 0.001), and thoracic kyphosis angle (p = 0.036); however, there were no significant differences in diaphragmatic mobility between males and females (p = 0.210). Conclusions: Diaphragmatic mobility is lower in COPD patients with thoracic hyperkyphosis than in those without it. There is a negative correlation between thoracic kyphosis angle and diaphragmatic mobility. In comparison with male patients with COPD, female patients with COPD have a significantly increased thoracic kyphosis angle.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Kyphosis; Diaphragm.

 


Performance comparison between the mycobacteria growth indicator tube system and Löwenstein-Jensen medium in the routine detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at public health care facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: preliminary results of a pragmatic clinical trial

Comparação do desempenho do sistema mycobacteria growth indicator tube e meio Löwenstein-Jensen na detecção de rotina de Mycobacterium tuberculosis em unidades do sistema único de saúde no Rio de Janeiro: resultados preliminares de um ensaio clínico pragmático

Adriana da Silva Rezende Moreira, Gisele Huf, Maria Armanda Vieira, Leila Fonseca, Monica Ricks, Afrânio Lineu Kritski

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):365-367

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In view of the fact that the World Health Organization has recommended the use of the mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 system for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and that there is as yet no evidence regarding the clinical impact of its use in health care systems, we conducted a pragmatic clinical trial to evaluate the clinical performance and cost-effectiveness of the use of MGIT 960 at two health care facilities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where the incidence of tuberculosis is high. Here, we summarize the methodology and preliminary results of the trial. (ISRCTN.org Identifier: ISRCTN79888843 [http://isrctn.org/])

 


Keywords: Controlled clinical trial; Tuberculosis; Diagnostic tests, routine.

 


Comparison between azithromycin and amoxicillin in the treatment of infectious exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Comparação entre a azitromicina e a amoxicilina no tratamento da exacerbação infecciosa da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Mara Rúbia Andre-Alves, José Roberto Jardim, Rodney Frare e Silva, Elie Fiss, Denison Noronha Freire, Paulo José Zimermann Teixeira

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):43-50

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Objective: To compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of azithromycin and amoxicillin in the treatment of patients with infectious exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: This study was conducted at six medical centers across Brazil and included 109 patients from 33 to 82 years of age. Of those, 102 were randomized to receive either azithromycin (500 mg/day for three days, n = 49) or amoxicillin (500 mg every eight hours for ten days, n = 53). The patients were evaluated at the study outset, on day ten, and at one month. Based on the clinical evaluation of the signs and symptoms present on day ten and at one month, the outcomes were classified as cure, improvement, or treatment failure. The microbiological evaluation was made through the culture of sputum samples that were considered appropriate samples only after leukocyte counts and Gram staining. Secondary efficacy evaluations were made in order to analyze symptoms (cough, dyspnea, and expectoration) and pulmonary function. Results: There were no differences between the groups treated with azithromycin or amoxicillin in terms of the percentages of cases in which the outcomes were classified as cure or improvement: 85% vs. 78% (p = 0.368) on day ten; and 83% vs. 78% (p = 0.571) at one month. Similarly, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the secondary efficacy variables or the incidence of adverse effects. Conclusion: Azithromycin and amoxicillin present similar efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

 


Keywords: Amoxicillin/therapeutic use; Azithromycin/therapeutic use; Bronchitis, chronic/drug therapy;

 


Comparison between two methods of asthma control evaluation based on individual perception

Comparação entre dois métodos de avaliação do controle da asma baseados na percepção individual

Paula Cristina Andrade Almeida, Adelmir Souza-Machado, Mylene dos Santos Leite, Lourdes Alzimar Mendes de Castro, Ana Carla Carvalho Coelho, Constança Sampaio Cruz, Álvaro Augusto Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):299-307

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Objective: To compare the subjective perception of asthma control reported by the patient with that measured by the score obtained on the Asthma Control Questionnaire 6-item version (ACQ-6) in patients with severe asthma and to determine whether asthma control is associated with the number of emergency room visits in the previous month. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 528 patients treated at the Bahia State Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Control Program Central Referral Clinic between August of 2008 and March of 2010, in the city of Salvador, Brazil. The patients completed the ACQ-6 and answered a specific additional question in order to evaluate their own perception of asthma control in the previous week. Results: We evaluated 423 patients who met the inclusion criteria. The sample was predominantly female (81.3%), and 64.3% had an income lower than two times the national minimum wage. The mean age was 49.85 ± 13.71 years, and the duration of asthma symptoms was 32.11 ± 16.35 years. The patients had been regularly treated via the program for 36.65 ± 18.10 months. Based on the subjective perception of asthma control, only 8% of the patients considered their asthma to be uncontrolled, whereas 38.8% had an ACQ-6 score  1.5, which indicates poor control. The kappa statistic revealed poor concordance between the two methods. There was a direct association between uncontrolled asthma and the number of emergency room visits in the previous month (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In this sample of patients, the subjective perception of asthma control differed from that measured by the ACQ-6 score, and the patients overestimated their own level of asthma control, which puts them at risk of being undertreated.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Health services; Questionnaires.

 


Comparison between two thoracotomy closure techniques: postoperative pain and pulmonary function

Comparação entre duas técnicas de fechamento de toracotomia: dor pós-operatória e função pulmonar

Juliana Duarte Leandro, Olavo Ribeiro Rodrigues, Annie France Frere Slaets, Aurelino F. Schmidt Jr, Milton L. Yaekashi

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):389-396

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Objective: To compare two thoracotomy closure techniques (pericostal and transcostal suture) in terms of postoperative pain and pulmonary function. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study carried out in the Department of Thoracic Surgery of the Luzia de Pinho Melo Hospital das Clínicas and at the University of Mogi das Cruzes, both located in the city of Mogi das Cruzes, Brazil. We included 30 patients (18-75 years of age) undergoing posterolateral or anterolateral thoracotomy. The patients were randomized into two groups by the type of thoracotomy closure: pericostal suture (PS; n = 16) and transcostal suture (TS; n = 14). Pain intensity during the immediate and late postoperative periods was assessed by a visual analogic scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Spirometry variables (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and PEF) were determined in the preoperative period and on postoperative days 21 and 60. Results: Pain intensity was significantly greater in the PS group than in the TS group. Between the preoperative and postoperative periods, there were decreases in the spirometry variables studied. Those decreases were significant in the PS group but not in the TS group. Conclusions: The patients in the TS group experienced less immediate and late post-thoracotomy pain than did those in the PS group, as well as showing smaller reductions in the spirometry parameters. Therefore, transcostal suture is recommended over pericostal suture as the thoracotomy closure technique of choice.

 


Keywords: Thoracic surgery; Suture techniques; Acute pain.

 


Comparison between objective measures of smoking and self-reported smoking status in patients with asthma or COPD: are our patients telling us the truth?

Comparação entre medidas objetivas do tabagismo e tabagismo autodeclarado em pacientes com asma ou DPOC: será que nossos pacientes dizem a verdade?

Rafael Stelmach, Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes, Regina Maria Carvalho-Pinto, Rodrigo Abensur Athanazio, Samia Zahi Rached, Gustavo Faibischew Prado, Alberto Cukier

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):124-132

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Objective: Smoking prevalence is frequently estimated on the basis of self-reported smoking status. That can lead to an underestimation of smoking rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference between self-reported smoking status and that determined through the use of objective measures of smoking at a pulmonary outpatient clinic. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 144 individuals: 51 asthma patients, 53 COPD patients, 20 current smokers, and 20 never-smokers. Smoking status was determined on the basis of self-reports obtained in interviews, as well as through tests of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) and urinary cotinine. Results: All of the asthma patients and COPD patients declared they were not current smokers. In the COPD and asthma patients, the median urinary cotinine concentration was 167 ng/mL (range, 2-5,348 ng/mL) and 47 ng/mL (range, 5-2,735 ng/mL), respectively (p < 0.0001), whereas the median eCO level was 8 ppm (range, 0-31 ppm) and 5 ppm (range, 2-45 ppm), respectively (p < 0.05). In 40 (38%) of the patients with asthma or COPD (n = 104), there was disagreement between the self-reported smoking status and that determined on the basis of the urinary cotinine concentration, a concentration > 200 ng/mL being considered indicative of current smoking. In 48 (46%) of those 104 patients, the self-reported non-smoking status was refuted by an eCO level > 6 ppm, which is also considered indicative of current smoking. In 30 (29%) of the patients with asthma or COPD, the urinary cotinine concentration and the eCO level both belied the patient claims of not being current smokers. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that high proportions of smoking pulmonary patients with lung disease falsely declare themselves to be nonsmokers. The accurate classification of smoking status is pivotal to the treatment of lung diseases. Objective measures of smoking could be helpful in improving clinical management and counseling.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Cotinine; Carbon monoxide; Smoking.

 


Comparison between the drug treatment used in children up to five years of age treated in an emergency room and the guidelines established in the III Brazilian Consensus on Asthma Management

Comparação entre o tratamento farmacológico aplicado em crianças de zero a cinco anos atendidas em uma unidade de emergência e as diretrizes do III Consenso Brasileiro no Manejo da Asma

Ana Paula Ochoa Santos, Luciane Soares de Lima, Almir Gonçalves Wanderley

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):7-14

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Objective: To evaluate the management of asthma attacks in children up to five years of age treated in the pediatric emergency room of a hospital in the metropolitan area of the city of Recife, Brazil, as well as to determine whether the way in which asthma attacks are managed can influence the duration of emergency room visits for such children. Methods: A descriptive, exploratory study employing a quantitative, cross-sectional approach. The study sample comprised 246 children treated for asthma attacks in an emergency room. The approach used was evaluated in comparison with the approach recommended in the III Brazilian Consensus on Asthma Management, as was the length of time each child spent in the emergency room. Results: In 69 (28.1%) of the cases, the medications were used in accordance with the Consensus guidelines. In 34 (13.8%) of the cases, the doses used were those recommended in the Consensus guidelines, and the guidelines regarding nebulization procedures were followed in 33 cases (13.4%). No correlation was found between the approach taken and the length of the emergency room visit. In the logistic regression analysis, we observed that the adjusted risk of being released from the emergency room sooner than recommended in the Consensus guidelines (a length of time sufficient to allow the response to the treatment to be analyzed) was four times and fifteen times greater, respectively, for children with mild persistent asthma and for those with intermittent asthma. Conclusion: Although there are obstacles to using the asthma management approach recommended in the Consensus guidelines (such obstacles including the lack of familiarity with the guidelines on the part of the multidisciplinary team, as well as the lack of recommended material and therapeutic resources), the duration of emergency room visits was found to be related to the degree of asthma severity.

 


Keywords: Emergency medicine; Pediatrics; Asthma; Status asthmaticus

 


Comparison between the theoretical values for spirometric data in children determined by Mallozi's and Polgar's equations

Comparação entre os valores teóricos para alguns dados espirométricos em crianças determinados pelas equações de Mallozi e de Polgar

Waldemar Ladosky, Rogerson T. Andrade, Noel Guedes Loureiro, Marcos Alberto Machado Botelho

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(3):125-130

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Objective: This paper is a continuation of the study on the validity of equations of predicted value (PV) for the Brazilian population. A comparison was made between the equations proposed by Mallozi and by Polgar for the Brazilian population, which are mainly used in the United States and Europe. Methods: PVs of 185 patients of both sexes (89 boys and 96 girls), ages between 6 and 17 years, were analyzed. For each subject, the PVs for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at 1 sec. (FEV1), and the medium expiratory flow (MEF) were calculated according to the equations proposed by Mallozi and Polgar. Results were compared. Diagnoses were made according to the Brazilian Consensus of Spirometry. Results: The PV-M for FVC is 0.38% higher for boys and 2.19% higher for girls than that determined by Polgar. The PV-P for FEV1 is 6.67% (p < 0.05) lower for girls, suggesting an underassessment of the obstructive impairment. For boys, a mean lower value of 7.26% as compared to the VT-M is at the limit of significance (0.05 < p < 0.01). No significant difference between the two equations analyzed was found for MEF. Conclusions: The PVs for CVF and VEF1 for Brazilian children, according to Mallozzi, are significantly different when compared to those published by authors like Polgar. As a result, the authors found that Mallozzi's equations are more likely to detect obstructive impairment and less likely to diagnose restrictive ventilatory insufficiency.

 


Keywords: Spirometry. Vital capacity. Forced expiratory volume. Maximal medium expiratory flow rate. Case-control studies

 


Comparisons among parameters of maximal respiratory pressures in healthy subjects

Comparação entre parâmetros de pressões respiratórias máximas em indivíduos saudáveis

Cristina Martins Coelho, Rosa Maria de Carvalho, David Sérgio Adães Gouvêa, José Marques Novo Júnior

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):605-613

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Objective: To investigate four parameters defining maximal respiratory pressures and to evaluate their correlations and agreements among those parameters for the determination of MIP and MEP. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 49 healthy, well-nourished males and females. The mean age was 23.08 ± 2.5 years. Measurements were carried out using a pressure transducer, and the estimated values for the parameters peak pressure (Ppeak), plateau pressure (Pplateau), mean maximal pressure (Pmean), and pressure according to the area (Parea) were determined with an algorithm developed for the study. To characterize the study sample, we used descriptive statistics, followed by repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test or by the Friedman test and the Wilcoxon post hoc test, as well as by Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficients, depending on the normality of the data. The agreement between the variables was assessed with Bland  Altman plots. Results: There were significant differences among all of the parameters studied for MIP (Ppeak = 95.69 ± 27.89 cmH2O; Parea = 88.53 ± 26.45 cmH2O; Pplateau = 82.48 ± 25.11 cmH2O; Pmean = 89.01 ± 26.41 cmH2O; p < 0.05 for all) and for MEP (Ppeak = 109.98 ± 40.67 cmH2O; Parea = 103.85 ± 36.63 cmH2O; Pplateau = 98.93 ± 32.10 cmH2O; Pmean = 104.43 ± 36.74 cmH2O; p < 0.0083 for all). Poor agreement was found among almost all of the parameters. Higher pressure values resulted in larger differences between the variables. Conclusions: The maximal respiratory pressure parameters evaluated do not seem to be interchangeable, and higher pressure values result in larger differences among the parameters.

 


Keywords: Respiratory system; Muscle strength; Respiratory function tests.

 


Comparison of three sets of reference equations for spirometry in children and adolescents with distinct body mass indices

Comparação entre três equações de referência para a espirometria em crianças e adolescentes com diferentes índices de massa corpórea

Sarah Costa Drumond, Maria Jussara Fernandes Fontes, Irmgard de Assis, Marco Antônio Duarte, Joel Alves Lamounier, Luciana de Carvalho Lopes Orlandi, Maria da Glória Rodrigues Machado

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):415-422

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Objective: To compare FEV1 and FVC, calculated using three sets of reference equations (devised by Polgar & Promadhat, Hsu et al. and Mallozi in 1971, 1979 and 1995, respectively), and to determine whether the three are similar in predicting lung function in children and adolescents with distinct body mass indices (BMIs). Methods: The individuals were separated into four groups in accordance with the reference standards of the National Center for Health Statistics: underweight (UW), normal weight (NW), overweight (OW), and obese (OB). All were then submitted to spirometry. Results: We evaluated 122 healthy children and adolescents, aged 7-14 years. The FVC values predicted for NW females and UW males through the use of the Hsu et al. equation were significantly higher than the measured values, as were the FEV1 values for UW females and males predicted via the Polgar & Promadhat and Hsu et al. equations. In NW females, the FEV1 values predicted via the Polgar & Promadhat equation were significantly higher than were the measured values. Conclusions: In individuals with distinct BMIs, the measured FVC and FEV1 values were not equivalent to those predicted via the Polgar & Promadhat and Hsu et al. equations. The same was not true for the Mallozi equations. The BMI was not a relevant factor for the predictive index of these equations; therefore, the Mallozi equations can be used without alteration for children and adolescents with distinct BMIs.

 


Keywords: Spirometry; Reference values; Body mass index; Child; Adolescent.

 


Comparison among three cold staining methods in the primary diagnosis of tuberculosis: a pilot study

Comparação entre três métodos de coloração a frio no diagnóstico primário de tuberculose: um estudo piloto

Soham Gupta, Vishnu Prasad Shenoy, Indira Bairy, Sethumadhavan Muralidharan

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):612-616

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: In developing countries, sputum smear microscopy is the main tool for pulmonary tuberculosis case finding. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of Gabbett's staining (GS) and modified cold staining (MCS), both of which are two-step methods, in comparison with that of fluorescent staining (FS), which is a three-step method, for the detection of AFB in sputum smears. Methods: Our sample comprised 260 sputum samples collected from individuals suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis at Kasturba Hospital, in Manipal, India. Smears were prepared in triplicate: one each for FS, MCS, and GS. The smears were randomly numbered so that the examiner was blinded to the sample identities. Results: Of the 260 samples, 16 (6.15%), 15 (5.77%), and 13 (5.00%) showed positive AFB results with FS, MCS, and GS, respectively. The sensitivity of GS and MCS, in comparison with that of FS, was 81.25% and 93.75%, respectively. The concordance of GS and MCS with FS was good (0.988 and 0.996, respectively), and no statistically significant differences were found. Conclusions: Although MCS and GS were found to be less sensitive than was FS, which is evaluated under fluorescence microscopy, the first two are promising methods for the diagnosis of tuberculosis.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Diagnostic techniques and procedures; Microscopy, fluorescence; Sputum.

 


Comparing reference spirometric values obtained from Knudson and Pereira equations - Adults

Comparação entre valores espirométricos de referência obtidos a partir das equações de Knudson e de Pereira - Adultos

Waldemar Ladosky, Rogerson T. Andrade, Noel Guedes Loureiro, Jesus M.B. Gandar, Marcos M. Botelho

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(6):315-320

Abstract PDF PT

In its 1991revision, the American Thorax Society (ATS) recommended that each region should define its own equations to determine the theoretical, or predicted values of the spirometric parameters that best represent the pulmonary functional reality of the local population. At that time, the United States already had various equations of its own as well as the European Community, specially Poland. In 1992, Pereira et al., analysing 4,200 spirograms on healthy Brazilians, found predicted values (PV) of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and middle expiratory flow (MEF) different from those reported by American and European authors. The purpose of the present study was to compare the equations developed by Pereira et al., using a Brazilian sample population, with those determined by Knudson et al. for American populations, that are the most used by Brazilian specialists. This study included 1,070 spirograms performed in patients of both genders (389 males and 681 females) who came to our service for routine functional assessment. No pathology was excluded and the smoking status of the patients was not taken into account. For each patient the PV of FVC, FEV1 and MEF were calculated accordingly to the equations of Pereira et al. (PV-P) and Knudsen et al. (PV-K). Subsequently, the means, standard deviations and reports obtained by both methods were compared. Among females, the PV-K of FVC were 4,01% (p < 0.005) greater, leading to a higher rate of restrictive impairment whereas among males there was no significant difference. Regarding FEV1, PV-P were higher in both males (4.76%; p < 0.005) and females (5.04%; p < 0.05) resulting in a greater sensitivity in the identification of respiratory obstructions. No significant difference was observed between PV-P and PV-K as to FEF25-75 regardless of gender.

 


Keywords: Spirometry. Reference values. Forced expiratory flow rates.

 


Prevalences of asthma and rhinitis among adolescents in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil: temporal changes

Comparação temporal das prevalências de asma e rinite em adolescentes em Fortaleza, Brasil

Maria de Fátima Gomes de Luna, Gilberto Bueno Fischer, João Rafael Gomes de Luna, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos da Silva, Paulo César de Almeida, Daniela Chiesa

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):128-137

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Objective: To describe the prevalences of asthma and rhinitis in adolescents (13-14 years of age) in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil, in 2010, comparing the results with those obtained in a prevalence survey conducted in 2006-2007. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving probabilistic samples of 3,015 and 3,020 adolescents in surveys conducted in 2006-2007 and 2010, respectively. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol was used on both occasions. Results: Comparing the two periods, there were no significant differences regarding cumulative wheezing, active asthma, four or more wheezing attacks within the last year, sleep disturbed by wheezing more than one night per week, and speech-limiting wheezing. The prevalences of exercise-induced wheezing, dry cough at night, and physician-diagnosed asthma were significantly higher in 2010 than in the 2006-2007 period (p < 0.01 for all). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed rhinitis was significantly lower in 2010 (p = 0.01), whereas there were no significant differences between the two periods regarding cumulative rhinitis, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis. In both periods, dry cough at night, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis were significantly more prevalent in females than in males (p < 0.01 for all). Also in both periods, active asthma, current rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis were more prevalent in private school students than in public school students (p < 0.01 for all). Conclusions: Our data show that the prevalences of asthma and rhinitis symptoms remain high among 13- and 14-year-olds in Fortaleza, predominantly among females and private school students.

 


Keywords: Asthma/epidemiology; Rhinitis/epidemiology; Adolescent.

 


Competence of senior medical students in diagnosing tuberculosis based on chest X-rays

Competência de estudantes de medicina seniores na interpretação de radiografias de tórax para o diagnóstico de tuberculose

Vania Maria Carneiro da Silva, Ronir Raggio Luiz, Míriam Menna Barreto, Rosana Souza Rodrigues, Edson Marchiori

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(2):190-196

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the competence of senior medical students in diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) based on their reading of chest X-rays, as well as to identify the factors associated with high scores for the overall interpretation of chest X-rays. Methods: In October 2008, a convenience sample of senior medical students who had undergone formal training in radiology at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro School of Medicine, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. Six chest X-rays (three of TB patients and three of patients without TB) were selected. Participants were asked to choose one of the three probable radiological interpretations, and one of the four subsequent suitable clinical approaches. They also completed a questionnaire designed to collect data related to demographics, career of interest, time spent in emergency rooms and year of study. The sensitivity and specificity related to competence in the radiological diagnosis of TB, as well as a score for the overall interpretation of chest X-rays, were calculated. Results: The sensitivity of the probable radiological diagnosis of pulmonary TB, based on the three chest X-rays of patients with TB (minimal, moderate and extensive) was 86.5%, 90.4% and 94.2%, respectively, and the specificity was 90%, 82% and 42%. The only factor associated with a high score for the overall radiological interpretation was the year of study. Conclusions: In this sample of medical students, who had received formal training in radiology early in their medical school course, the competence in interpreting the chest X-rays of TB patients was good. The year of study seems to influence overall chest X-ray reading skill.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Radiology; Education, medical.

 


Completeness of tuberculosis control program records in the case registry database of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil: analysis of the 2001-2005 period

Completude dos dados do Programa de Controle da Tuberculose no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação no Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil: uma análise do período de 2001 a 2005

Cláudia Maria Marques Moreira, Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(4):225-229

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate the completeness of tuberculosis control program records for the 2001-2005 period in the case registry database of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Methods: A descriptive study using secondary data analysis. The following variables were studied: race/color; educational level, supervised treatment, sputum culture at treatment outcome, HIV status, smear sputum microscopy at the sixth month of treatment and treatment outcome. Results: Using technical parameters of the case registry database of the Brazilian National Ministry of Health regarding the percentage of completeness of data on the reporting forms, the tuberculosis database of the state of Espírito Santo can be classified as fair to excellent. The state of Espírito Santo has 78 cities, 8 of which are considered priorities for tuberculosis control. For the variables studied, the cities not considered priorities presented better completeness of records than did those considered priorities, the exception being the variable treatment outcome, for which the percentage of completeness was comparable among all of the cities. Conclusions: Since the cities that are considered priorities accounted for 70.2% of the total number of reports, the responsible officials in those cities should improve the quality of those reports in terms of the completeness of forms and the updating of data, which are fundamental to the reliability of epidemiological analyses. That will make it possible to plan activities aimed at the prevention and control of tuberculosis in the state.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Disease notification; Information systems; Databases as topic.

 


Complexity of autonomic nervous system function in individuals with COPD

Complexidade do sistema nervoso autônomo em indivíduos com DPOC

Laís Manata Vanzella1,f, Aline Fernanda Barbosa Bernardo1,d, Tatiana Dias de Carvalho3,e, Franciele Marques Vanderlei2,a, Anne Kastelianne França da Silva1,c, Luiz Carlos Marques Vanderlei2,b

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):24-30

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate autonomic modulation in individuals with COPD, compared with healthy controls, via recurrence plots (RPs) and linear heart rate variability (HRV) indices. Methods: We analyzed data on 74 volunteers, who were divided into two groups: COPD (n = 43) and control (n = 31). For calculation of HRV indices, heart rate was measured beat-by-beat during 30 min of supine rest using a heart-rate meter. We analyzed linear indices in the time and frequency domains, as well as indices derived from the RPs. Results: In comparison with the control group, the COPD group showed significant increases in the indices derived from the RPs, as well as significant reductions in the linear indices in the time and frequency domains. No significant differences were observed in the linear indices in the frequency domains expressed in normalized units or in the low frequency/high frequency ratio. Conclusions: Individuals with COPD show a reduction in both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, associated with decreased complexity of autonomic nervous system function, as identified by RPs, which provide important complementary information in the detection of autonomic changes in this population.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Autonomic nervous system; Nonlinear dynamics; Recurrence; Heart rate; Sympathetic nervous system.

 


Pleuropulmonary complications related to pulmonary instillation of activated charcoal

Complicações pleuropulmonares relacionadas à instilação pulmonar de carvão ativado

Luiz Felipe Nobre, Edson Marchiori, Daniel Yared Forte, Gláucia Zanetti

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):-

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Pulmonary complications of crack cocaine use: high-resolution computed tomography of the chest

Complicações pulmonares após uso de crack: achados na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax

Alexandre Mançano, Edson Marchiori, Gláucia Zanetti, Dante Luiz Escuissato, Beatriz Cunha Duarte, Lourenço de Araujo Apolinário

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(5):256-263

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Here, we report high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in a patient who developed sudden hemoptysis, dyspnea and chest pain after smoking crack cocaine. Chest X-rays showed consolidations, primarily in the upper lobes, and HRCT scans showed ground glass attenuation opacities, consolidations and air-space nodules. A follow-up CT, after drug use discontinuation and administration of corticosteroids, showed partial resolution of pulmonary lesions and the appearance of cavitations. Clinical, imaging and laboratory findings led to a diagnosis of 'crack lung'.

 


Keywords: Crack cocaine/adverse effects; Cocaine-related disorders; Tomography, X-ray computed; Street drugs/adverse effects;

 


Complications related to lobectomy in living lobar lung transplant donors

Complicações relacionadas à lobectomia em doadores de transplante pulmonar intervivos

Spencer Marcantônio Camargo, José de Jesus Peixoto Camargo, Sadi Marcelo Schio, Leticia Beatriz Sánchez, José Carlos Felicetti, José da Silva Moreira, Cristiano Feijó Andrade

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(5):256-263

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate post-operative complications in living lobar lung transplant donors. Methods: Between September of 1999 and May of 2005, lobectomies were performed in 32 healthy lung transplant donors for 16 recipients. The medical charts of these donors were retrospectively analyzed in order to determine the incidence of post-operative complications and alterations in pulmonary function after lobectomy. Results: Twenty-two donors (68.75%) presented no complications. Among the 10 donors presenting complications, the most frequently observed complication was pleural effusion, which occurred in 5 donors (15.6% of the sample). Red blood cell transfusion was necessary in 3 donors (9.3%), and 2 donors underwent a second surgical procedure due to hemothorax. One donor presented pneumothorax after chest tube removal, and one developed respiratory infection. There were two intra-operative complications (6.25%): one donor required bronchoplasty of the middle lobe; and another required lingular resection. No intra-operative mortality was observed. Post-operative pulmonary function tests demonstrated an average reduction of 20% in forced expiratory volume in one second (p < 000.1) compared to pre-operative values. Conclusions: Lobectomy in living lung transplant donors presents high risk of post-operative complications and irreversible impairment of pulmonary function. Careful pre-operative evaluation is necessary in order to reduce the incidence of complications in living lobar lung transplant donors.

 


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Living donors; Pneumonectomy; Postoperative complications.

 


Postoperative respiratory complications from elective and urgent/emergency surgery performed at a university hospital

Complicações respiratórias no pós-operatório de cirurgias eletivas e de urgência e emergência em um Hospital Universitário

Luiz Joia Neto, João Carlos Thomson, Jefferson Rosa Cardoso

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(1):-

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Background: Respiratory complications have been the focus of studies aiming to identify methods of reducing postoperative morbidity/mortality and controlling the cost of treatment. Objectives: To estimate the incidence of the respiratory complications in patients submitted to elective or urgent/emergency surgical procedures and determine any correlations between respiratory complications and potential risk factors. Method: A retrospective cohort study of patients submitted to elective or urgent/emergency surgery at a university hospital during 2001. The sample was restricted to patients hospitalized for at least 24 hours following surgery. Data were collected from patient charts and according to protocol. Results: Of the 5075 patients submitted to elective or urgent/emergency surgery during the year 2001, 1345 (25.5%) were included in the study. There was no statistically significant difference between elective surgery and urgent/emergency surgery in terms of respiratory complications. The incidence of respiratory complications was 11.7%. The most frequent complication (at 52.5%) was pneumonia. Overall mortality was 7.2% and 27.8% of deaths were related to respiratory complications. Conclusion: The incidence of postoperative respiratory complications was 11.7% (11.3% in elective surgery and 12.3% in urgent/emergency surgery). Pneumonia was the most frequent complication. The risk factors that correlated with respiratory complications were previous lung disease, use of a nasogastric tube, admission to the intensive care unit, endotracheal intubation and tracheostomy.

 


Keywords: Key words: Postoperative complications. Lung diseases/complications. Risk factors. Cohort studies 

 


Cellular composition of induced sputum in healthy adults

Composição celular do escarro induzido em adultos saudáveis

Tiago Neves Veras, Emilio Pizzichini, Leila John Marques Steidle, Cristiane Cinara Rocha, Pablo Moritz, Márcia Margarete Menezes Pizzichini

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):348-353

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To establish reference values for cellularity in induced sputum samples collected from healthy adults. Methods: Induced sputum samples were obtained from 88 healthy adult never-smokers (39 males). The mean age was 36 years (range, 18-68 years). The participants had been residing in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil (a medium-sized non-industrial city) for at least two years. After the samples had been processed, we obtained total and differential cell counts. Results: The mean total cell count was 4.8 ± 4.2 × 106 cells/g. There was a predominance of macrophages (mean, 77.5 ± 14.7%) and neutrophils (mean, 23.4 ± 14.3%). Eosinophils were virtually absent (mean, 0.1 ± 0.3%). Lymphocytes and bronchial epithelial cells were scarce. Neither age nor atopy had any effect on the total or differential cell counts. Conclusions: In the induced sputum of this healthy adult population, macrophages and neutrophils predominated. However, the proportion of neutrophils was lower than that reported in previous studies, which suggests that reference values might vary depending on geographic location.

 


Keywords: Sputum; Reference values; Brazil.

 


Left main coronary artery compression in a patient with portopulmonary hypertension

Compressão de tronco de artéria coronária esquerda em paciente com hipertensão portopulmonar

Iara Teixeira de Araújo1,a, Pammela Jacomeli Lembi1,b, Eduardo Belisario Falchetto2,c, Ricardo de Amorim Corrêa3,4,d

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(4):337-338

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Cognitive impairment in COPD: a systematic review

Comprometimento cognitivo em pacientes com DPOC: uma revisão sistemática

Irene Torres-Sánchez, Elisabeth Rodríguez-Alzueta, Irene Cabrera-Martos, Isabel López-Torres, Maria Paz Moreno-Ramírez, Marie Carmen Valenza

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):182-190

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The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findings of the articles showed a significant relationship between COPD and cognitive impairment. The most widely studied cognitive domains are memory and attention. Verbal memory and learning constitute the second most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with COPD. The prevalence of impairment in visuospatial memory and intermediate visual memory is 26.9% and 19.2%, respectively. We found that cognitive impairment is associated with the profile of COPD severity and its comorbidities. The articles reviewed demonstrated that there is considerable impairment of the cognitive domains memory and attention in patients with COPD. Future studies should address impairments in different cognitive domains according to the disease stage in patients with COPD.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Mild cognitive impairment; Hypoxia, brain.

 


Impaired pulmonary function after treatment for tuberculosis: the end of the disease?

Comprometimento da função pulmonar após tratamento para tuberculose: o resultado final da doença?

Mikhail Ivanovich Chushkin1,2, Oleg Nikolayevich Ots1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):38-43

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of pulmonary function abnormalities and to investigate the factors affecting lung function in patients treated for pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: A total of 214 consecutive patients (132 men and 82 women; 20-82 years of age), treated for pulmonary tuberculosis and followed at a local dispensary, underwent spirometry and plethysmography at least one year after treatment. Results: Pulmonary impairment was present in 102 (47.7%) of the 214 patients evaluated. The most common functional alteration was obstructive lung disease (seen in 34.6%). Of the 214 patients, 60 (28.0%) showed reduced pulmonary function (FEV1 below the lower limit of normal). Risk factors for reduced pulmonary function were having had culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in the past, being over 50 years of age, having recurrent tuberculosis, and having a lower level of education. Conclusions: Nearly half of all tuberculosis patients evolve to impaired pulmonary function. That underscores the need for pulmonary function testing after the end of treatment.

 


Keywords: Respiratory function tests; Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Spirometry; Lung diseases, obstructive.

 


Interstitial lung disease in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis. A study of 58 cases

Comprometimento do interstício pulmonar em portadores de esclerose sistêmica progressiva. Estudo de uma série de 58 casos

Sergio Fernandes de Oliveira Jezler, Mittermayer Barreto Santiago, Thamine Lessa Andrade, César Araujo Neto, Helio Braga, Álvaro Augusto Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(4):300-306

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Objective: To estimate the frequency of interstitial lung disease in a group of patients with progressive systemic sclerosis, and to describe the clinical, functional and radiological characteristics of the patients studied. Methods: Fifty-eight patients diagnosed with progressive systemic sclerosis were submitted to high-resolution computed tomography of the chest, pulmonary function tests and a blood test for anti-Scl 70 antibodies. Comparisons were drawn between patients with interstitial lung disease and those without. Logistic regression with multivariate analysis was used to identify factors predictive of interstitial lung disease. Results: Of the 58 patients evaluated, 51.7% presented interstitial lung disease on high-resolution computerized tomography scans. Dyspnea and cough were the most common symptoms (seen in 65.5% and 39.7%, respectively). Bronchiolectasis and honeycombing were the most common tomographic abnormalities (observed in 83.3% and 80%, respectively). When compared to individuals without interstitial lung disease, patients with the condition had a comparable frequency of pulmonary and extrapulmonary symptoms but presented progressive systemic sclerosis of longer duration, a higher frequency of crackling rales, higher rates of anti-Scl 70 positivity, lower vital capacity and reduced total lung capacity. Only forced vital capacity < 80% was found to be a predictor of interstitial lung disease. Conclusion: Interstitial lung disease was common in this group of patients with progressive systemic sclerosis. No correlation with symptoms was found, although interstitial lung disease was found to correlate with crackling rales and with anti-Scl 70 positivity. Nevertheless, only reduced forced vital capacity was found to be predictive of interstitial lung disease.

 



Pulmonary involvement in Crohn's disease

Comprometimento pulmonar na doença de Crohn

Rodolfo Augusto Bacelar de Athayde1,a, Felipe Marques da Costa1,b, Ellen Caroline Toledo do Nascimento2,c, Roberta Karla Barbosa de Sales1,d, Andre Nathan Costa1,e

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(6):519-521

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Juvenile household contacts aged 15 or younger of patients with pulmonary TB in the greater metropolitan area of Vitória, Brazil: a cohort study

Comunicantes domiciliares jovens de pacientes com TB pulmonar na região da grande Vitória (ES): um estudo de coorte

Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel, Luiza Werner Heringer Vieira, Lucília Pereira Dutra Molina, Rosana Alves, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Reynaldo Dietze

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(4):359-366

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Objective: To compare clinical, radiological and laboratory aspects of household contacts, aged 15 or younger, of patients presenting a positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods: This was a cohort study comparing children and adolescents (≤ 15 years of age) who were household contacts of TB cases presenting positive sputum smear and positive culture results (exposed group, n = 100) or negative sputum smear and positive culture results (unexposed group, n = 55). All of the contacts were evaluated via the TB control program of a university hospital in the city of Vitória, Brazil, between July of 2003 and December of 2006. Results: Of the 155 minors evaluated, 87 (56.1%) were female and 68 (43.9%) were male. Of those 155, 28 (18%) were aged 5 or younger, 62 (40%) were aged 5-9, and 65 (42%) were aged 10-15. Symptoms of the disease were found in 17 (17%) of the 100 contacts in the exposed group and in 9 (16%) of the 55 in the unexposed group (p = 0.86). Chest X-rays showed alterations in 20 (21%) and 2 (4%) of the contacts in the exposed and unexposed groups, respectively (RR = 6.9; p = 0.004). In the exposed and unexposed groups, respectively, 35 (38%) and 10 (18%) of the contacts presented positive results on the tuberculin skin test (RR = 2.8; p = 0.01). Of the 100 contacts in the exposed group, 5 (5%) were diagnosed with TB, which was not diagnosed in any of those in the unexposed group (p = 0.08). Conclusions: Although no significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the incidence of TB, it is of note that there is a greater risk of becoming infected with M. tuberculosis if the bacterial load of the index case is high.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Child; Adolescent.

 


Concordance between clinical and pathological staging in patients with stages I or II non-small cell lung cancer subjected to surgical treatment

Concordância entre os estadiamentos clínico e patológico em pacientes com câncer de pulmão não-pequenas células, estádios I e II, submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico

Pedro Augusto Reck dos Santos, Rodrigo Sponchiado da Rocha, Maurício Pipkin, Marner Lopes da Silveira, Marcelo Cypel, Jayme Oliveira Rios, José Antonio Lopes de Figueiredo Pinto

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):647-654

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Objective: To compare clinical and pathological staging in patients with non-small cell lung cancer submitted to surgical treatment, as well as to identify the causes of discordance. Methods: Data related to patients treated at the Department of Thoracic Surgery of the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul São Lucas Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were calculated for clinical stages IA, IB, and IIB. The kappa index was used to determine the concordance between clinical and pathological staging. Results: Of the 92 patients studied, 33.7% were classified as clinical stage IA, 50% as IB, and 16.3% as IIB. The concordance between clinical and pathological staging was 67.5% for stage IA, 54.3% for IB, and 66.6% for IIB. The accuracy of the clinical staging was greater for stage IA, and a kappa of 0.74, in this case, confirmed a substantial association with pathological staging. The difficulty in evaluating nodal metastatic disease is responsible for the low concordance in patients with clinical stage IB. Conclusions: The concordance between clinical and pathological staging is low, and patients are frequently understaged (in the present study, only one case was overstaged). Strategies are necessary to improve clinical staging and, consequently, the treatment and prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

 


Keywords: Neoplasm staging; Lung neoplasms/diagnosis; Lung neoplasms/surgery; Prognosis.

 


Sternal chondrosarcoma

Condrossarcoma de esterno

Nelson Perelman Rosenberg, Ivo Leuck Jr., Celso Schuler, Fernando Delgiovo, Eduardo Spadari de Araújo, Paula Vasconcelos Martini

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(1):43-44

Abstract PDF PT

Sternal neoplasms are very uncommon. The lack of consistent reports in the literature renders it difficult to make prospective evaluations. The authors report the case of a seventy-year old woman who presented with a chondrosarcoma of the sternum, treated at their service.

 



Reliability of a rapid hematology stain for sputum cytology

Confiabilidade da coloração hematológica rápida para citologia de escarro

Jéssica Gonçalves, Emilio Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes Pizzichini, Leila John Marques Steidle, Cristiane Cinara Rocha, Samira Cardoso Ferreira, Célia Tânia Zimmermann

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):250-258

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Objective: To determine the reliability of a rapid hematology stain for the cytological analysis of induced sputum samples. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comparing the standard technique (May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain) with a rapid hematology stain (Diff-Quik). Of the 50 subjects included in the study, 21 had asthma, 19 had COPD, and 10 were healthy (controls). From the induced sputum samples collected, we prepared four slides: two were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, and two were stained with Diff-Quik. The slides were read independently by two trained researchers blinded to the identification of the slides. The reliability for cell counting using the two techniques was evaluated by determining the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for intraobserver and interobserver agreement. Agreement in the identification of neutrophilic and eosinophilic sputum between the observers and between the stains was evaluated with kappa statistics. Results: In our comparison of the two staining techniques, the ICCs indicated almost perfect interobserver agreement for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.98-1.00), as well as substantial agreement for lymphocyte counts (ICC: 0.76-0.83). Intraobserver agreement was almost perfect for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.96-0.99), whereas it was moderate to substantial for lymphocyte counts (ICC = 0.65 and 0.75 for the two observers, respectively). Interobserver agreement for the identification of eosinophilic and neutrophilic sputum using the two techniques ranged from substantial to almost perfect (kappa range: 0.91-1.00). Conclusions: The use of Diff-Quik can be considered a reliable alternative for the processing of sputum samples.

 


Keywords: Sputum\analysis; Sputum\cytology; Azure stains.

 


Availability and use of noninvasive ventilation in the intensive care units of public, private and teaching hospitals in the greater metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil

Conhecimento da disponibilidade e sobre o uso da ventilação não invasiva em unidades de terapia intensiva de hospitais públicos, privados e de ensino da região metropolitana de São Paulo

Lara Maris Nápolis, Leila Mara Jeronimo, Danila Vieira Baldini, Michelle Pinheiro Machado, Virgínia Aparecida de Souza, Pedro Caruso

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):29-34

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Objective: To determine the availability of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation equipment, as well as the level of expertise and familiarity of physicians, nurses and physiotherapists with noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in the intensive care units of public, private and teaching hospitals in the greater metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: On-site administration of questionnaires. Results: Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation equipment was widely available and was more commonly found in private hospitals than in teaching hospitals. Such equipment was least available in public hospitals, in which the predominant method was the use of mechanical ventilators designed for invasive ventilation and adapted to noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. In private hospitals, continuous flow ventilators were more common, whereas, in teaching hospitals, ventilators specifically designed for noninvasive ventilation were typically employed. All physiotherapists felt themselves capable of initiating noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, compared with 72.6% of physicians and 33.3% of nurses. Physicians and physiotherapists presented high percentages of correct answers when asked about the indications and contraindications for the use of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. Over a one year period, more physiotherapists read articles about noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation and participated in related classes than did physicians, who in turn did so more than did nurses. Conclusion: Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation equipment is widely available in the greater metropolitan area of São Paulo, although differences exist among public, private and teaching hospitals in terms of the type of equipment used. Physicians and physiotherapists exhibited considerable knowledge regarding the indications and contraindications for the use of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. More physiotherapists felt themselves able to initiate noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation, and their knowledge of the subject was more current than was that of physicians or nurses.

 


Keywords: Ventilators, mechanical; Positive-pressure respiration/methods; Respiratory insuficiency; Intensive care units; Hospitals

 


Knowledge and perceptions of tuberculosis transmission and prevention among physicians and nurses in three Brazilian capitals with high incidence of tuberculosis

Conhecimento e percepção de médicos e enfermeiros em três capitais brasileiras com alta incidência de tuberculose a respeito da transmissão e prevenção da doença

Jonas Ramos1,a, Maria F Wakoff-Pereira1,b, Marcelo Cordeiro-Santos2,3,c, Maria de Fátima Militão de Albuquerque4,d, Philip C Hill5,e, Dick Menzies6,f, Anete Trajman,6,7,g

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(2):168-170

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Knowledge of and practices related to smoking cessation among physicians in Nigeria

Conhecimento e práticas para a cessação do tabagismo entre médicos nigerianos

Olufemi Olumuyiwa Desalu, Adebowale Olayinka Adekoya, Adetokunbo Olujimi Elegbede, Adeolu Dosunmu, Tolutope Fasanmi Kolawole, Kelechukwu Chukwudi Nwogu

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(12):-

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the knowledge and practices of smoking cessation among physicians in Nigeria. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Lagos and three geopolitical zones of Nigeria. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on tobacco use and its health effects, as well as on the knowledge and practices of smoking cessation, from 436 physicians. Results: Of the 436 physicians, 292 (67.0%) were aware of smoking cessation, but only 132 (30.3%) showed good knowledge on this topic. The prevalence of smoking among the physicians was 17.7%. In addition, 308 physicians (70.6%) reported that tobacco education in the medical school curriculum was inadequate. Of the 436 physicians, 372 (86.2%) asked their patients whether they smoked, and 172 (39.4%) asked their patients the reasons for using tobacco. As a means of smoking cessation intervention, 268 (61.5%) used brief advice/counseling (2-5 min), 12 (3.7%) prescribed antidepressants, 16 (2.8%) prescribed nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and 76 (17.4%) arranged follow-up visits. When the physicians were questioned regarding the obstacles to smoking cessation interventions, 289 (66.3%) cited poor knowledge of the issue, 55 (12.6%) cited a lack of time, and 20 (4.6%) cited unavailability of NRT. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight the lack of knowledge among physicians in Nigeria in terms of smoking cessation, as well as their failure to apply appropriate practices. The results of this study can further the evaluation and formulation of guidelines on smoking cessation and smoking education programs for physicians. Our findings also underscore the need to offer smoking cessation programs in all treatment facilities.

 


Keywords: Smoking cessation; Tobacco; Physicians; Nigeria; Health knowledge, attitudes, practice.

 


Electronic cigarette awareness and use among students at the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil

Conhecimento e uso do cigarro eletrônico entre estudantes da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso

Wemerson José Corrêa de Oliveira1,a, Alexandre Figueiredo Zobiole1,b, Claudia Bonadiman de Lima1,c, Rebeca Melo Zurita1,d, Pedro Eduarto Muniz Flores1,e, Luís Guilherme Val Rodrigues1,f, Raissa Carolina de Assis Pinheiro1,g, Victor Francisco Figueiredo Rocha Soares e Silva1,h

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(5):367-369

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) awareness and experimentation among university students, as well as the characteristics associated with that awareness. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in 2015, in which 489 university students at the Federal University of Mato Grosso (Cuiabá campus), Brazil, were interviewed with the use of a specific questionnaire. We estimated the prevalence of e-cigarette awareness and use, as well as analyzing the major characteristics associated with that awareness and use. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette awareness was 37%, and the rate of e-cigarette experimentation was 2.7%. Awareness of e-cigarettes was found to be associated with marital status, work status, the level of parental education, and the presence or absence of smokers in the family. Conclusions: A high proportion of university students were aware of e-cigarettes. Although the prevalence of those who had experimented with e-cigarettes was low, there is concern that there could be an increase in the use of these types of device. There is a need for measures targeting university students, in order to build awareness of and prevent e-cigarette use.

 


Keywords: Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems; Young adult; Smoking.

 


Illustrated Brazilian consensus of terms and fundamental patternsin chest CT scans

Consenso brasileiro ilustrado sobre a terminologia dos descritores e padrões fundamentais da TC de tórax

C. Isabela S. Silva, Edson Marchiori, Arthur Soares Souza Júnior, Nestor L. Müller, Comissão de Imagem da Sociedade Brasileirade Pneumologia e Tisiologia

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):99-123

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The objective of this new Brazilian consensus is to update and to continue the standardization of the principal terms and fundamental patterns in chest CT scans in Portuguese. There is a succinct definition of the principal terms used to describe chest CT findings, as well as illustrations of classic examples. The group of authors comprised radiologists specializing in chest radiology and holding membership in the Brazilian College of ­Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, as well as pulmonologists having a special interest in diagnostic imaging and holding membership in the Brazilian Thoracic Association.

 


Keywords: Lung; Consensus; Tomography.

 


Brazilian Consensus on Terminology Used to Describe Computed Tomography of the Chest

Consenso Brasileiro sobre a Terminologia dos Descritores de Tomografia Computadorizada do Tórax

Brazilian Society Of Pulmonology and Phthisiology, Department of Diagnostic Imaging 2002-2004 Biennium

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):149-156

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Brazilian consensus on non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

Consenso brasileiro sobre bronquiectasias não fibrocísticas

Mônica Corso Pereira1,a, Rodrigo Abensur Athanazio2,b, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin3,4,c, Mara Rúbia Fernandes de Figueiredo5,d, Mauro Gomes6,7,e, Clarice Guimarães de Freitas8,f, Fernando Ludgren9,g, Ilma Aparecida Paschoal1,h, Samia Zahi Rached2,i, Rosemeri Maurici10,j

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(4):e20190122-e20190122

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Bronchiectasis is a condition that has been increasingly diagnosed by chest HRCT. In the literature, bronchiectasis is divided into bronchiectasis secondary to cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis not associated with cystic fibrosis, which is termed non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Many causes can lead to the development of bronchiectasis, and patients usually have chronic airway symptoms, recurrent infections, and CT abnormalities consistent with the condition. The first international guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis was published in 2010. In Brazil, this is the first review document aimed at systematizing the knowledge that has been accumulated on the subject to date. Because there is insufficient evidence on which to base recommendations for various treatment topics, here the decision was made to prepare an expert consensus document. The Brazilian Thoracic Association Committee on Respiratory Infections summoned 10 pulmonologists with expertise in bronchiectasis in Brazil to conduct a critical assessment of the available scientific evidence and international guidelines, as well as to identify aspects that are relevant to the understanding of the heterogeneity of bronchiectasis and to its diagnostic and therapeutic management. Five broad topics were established (pathophysiology, diagnosis, monitoring of stable patients, treatment of stable patients, and management of exacerbations). After this subdivision, the topics were distributed among the authors, who conducted a nonsystematic review of the literature, giving priority to major publications in the specific areas, including original articles, review articles, and systematic reviews. The authors reviewed and commented on all topics, producing a single final document that was approved by consensus.

 


Keywords: Bronchiectasis; Tomography, X-ray; Radiography, thoracic.

 


Dense consolidation

Consolidação densa

Edson Marchiori1,2, Gláucia Zanetti2,3, Bruno Hochhegger4,5

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):388-388

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Peripheral consolidation/ground-glass opacities

Consolidações/opacidades em vidro fosco periféricas

Edson Marchiori1, Bruno Hochhegger2, Gláucia Zanetti1

J Bras Pneumol.2020;46(1):e20190384-e20190384

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Microbiological contamination of nebulizers used by cystic fibrosis patients: an underestimated problem

Contaminação microbiológica de nebulizadores usados por pacientes com fibrose cística: um problema subestimado

Barbara Riquena1,a, Luciana de Freitas Velloso Monte2,b, Agnaldo José Lopes3,c, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira da Silva-Filho4,5,d, Neiva Damaceno6,e, Evanirso da Silva Aquino7,f, Paulo Jose Cauduro Marostica8,9,g, José Dirceu Ribeiro10,h

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(3):e20170351-e20170351

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Objective: Home nebulizers are routinely used in the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This study aims to evaluate the contamination of nebulizers used for CF patients, that are chronically colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the association of nebulizer contamination with cleaning, decontamination and drying practices. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational, multicenter study was conducted in seven CF reference centers in Brazil to obtain data from medical records, structured interviews with patients/caregivers were performed, and nebulizer's parts (interface and cup) were collected for microbiological culture. Results: overall, 77 CF patients were included. The frequency of nebulizer contamination was 71.6%. Candida spp. (52.9%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (11.9%), non-mucoid P. aeruginosa (4.8%), Staphylococcus aureus (4.8%) and Burkholderia cepacia complex (2.4%) were the most common isolated pathogens. The frequency of nebulizers' hygiene was 97.4%, and 70.3% of patients reported cleaning, disinfection and drying the nebulizers. The use of tap water in cleaning method and outdoor drying of the parts significantly increased (9.10 times) the chance of nebulizers' contamination. Conclusion: Despite the high frequency hygiene of the nebulizers reported, the cleaning and disinfection methods used were often inadequate. A significant proportion of nebulizers was contaminated with potentially pathogenic microorganisms for CF patients. These findings support the need to include patients/caregivers in educational programs and / or new strategies for delivering inhaled antibiotics.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Nebulizers and vaporizers; Equipment contamination; Decontamination.

 


Diagnostic contribution of molecular analysis of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductanceregulator gene in patients suspected of having mild or atypical cystic fibrosis

Contribuição da análise molecular do gene regulador da condutância transmembrana nafibrose cística na investigação diagnóstica de pacientes com suspeita de fibrose cística leveou doença atípica

Vinícius Buaes Dal'Maso, Lucas Mallmann, Marina Siebert, Laura Simon,Maria Luiza Saraiva-Pereira, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):181-189

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Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic contribution of molecular analysis of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene in patients suspected of having mild or atypical cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving adolescents and adults aged ≥ 14 years. Volunteers underwent clinical, laboratory, and radiological evaluation, as well as spirometry, sputum microbiology, liver ultrasound, sweat tests, and molecular analysis of the CFTR gene. We then divided the patients into three groups by the number of mutations identified (none, one, and two or more) and compared those groups in terms of their characteristics. Results: We evaluated 37 patients with phenotypic findings of CF, with or without sweat test confirmation. The mean age of the patients was 32.5 ± 13.6 years, and females predominated (75.7%). The molecular analysis contributed to the definitive diagnosis of CF in 3 patients (8.1%), all of whom had at least two mutations. There were 7 patients (18.9%) with only one mutation and 26 patients (70.3%) with no mutations. None of the clinical characteristics evaluated was found to be associated with the genetic diagnosis. The most common mutation was p.F508del, which was found in 5 patients. The combination of p.V232D and p.F508del was found in 2 patients. Other mutations identified were p.A559T, p.D1152H, p.T1057A, p.I148T, p.V754M, p.P1290P, p.R1066H, and p.T351S. Conclusions: The molecular analysis of the CFTR gene coding region showed a limited contribution to the diagnostic investigation of patients suspected of having mild or atypical CF. In addition, there were no associations between the clinical characteristics and the genetic diagnosis.

 


Palavras-chave: Fibrose cística/diagnóstico; Fibrose cística/genética; Regulador de condutância transmembrana em fibrose cística.

 


Role of the open lung biopsy in the evaluation of undiagnosed acute lung disease in a pediatric intensive care unit

Contribuição da biópsia pulmonar a céu aberto na avaliação de pneumopatias difusas e agudas em unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica

Albert Bousso, Evandro Roberto Baldacci, José Carlos Fernandes, Iracema de Cássia Oliveira Fernandes, Andréa Maria Gomes Cordeiro, José Pinhata Otoch, Bernardo Ejzenberg, Yassuhiko Okay

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(1):30-40

Abstract PDF PT

Introduction: The diagnosis of diffuse lung disease is still a challenge for the pediatric intensive care physician. Routine clinical examinations and laboratory tests are frequently negative. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential, the impact on therapy and the rate of complications of open lung biopsy in children with undiagnosed diffuse lung disease, respiratory failure and inappropriate response to initial therapy. Methods: From January 1987 to January 1997, 29 children with diffuse pulmonary disease of unknown etiology, respiratory failure (PaO2 /FiO2 < 300) and no response to previous treatments were considered for open lung biopsy. Newborns, children with known chronic pulmonary disease and children with untreatable shock or coagulopathy were excluded. All biopsies were performed by a thoracic surgeon by a microthoracotomy in the lung shown to be the most affected by X-ray examination. Tissue samples were analyzed in terms of cultures, light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy, according to the pathologist's decision. Results: All biopsies (100%) resulted in at least one histological diagnosis and in 20 patients (68.9%) it was obtained a specific diagnosis. The most frequent histological patterns found were: non-specific interstitial pneumonitis with variable degrees of fibrosis in 18 cases; bronchiolitis in eight cases and pulmonary hypertension in three cases. Regarding the most frequent specific diagnosis, six children were found with cytomegalovirus infection, three with Pneumocystis carinii, three with adenovirus and three with respiratory syncytial virus infection. These data induced a change in therapy in 20 children (68.9%). The most frequent changes in therapy were the use of corticosteroids in 14 children and a review of the antibiotic regimen in six patients. Seven patients (24.1%) presented with complications that were easily resolved. There were 13 deaths, probably due to the critical conditions of these patients, all unrelated to the procedure. Conclusions: Open lung biopsy, though an invasive procedure, should be considered in the evaluation of selected children with undiagnosed diffuse lung disease, respiratory failure and with no satisfactory response to previous therapies.

 



Contribution of flow-volume curves to the detection of central airway obstruction

Contribuição da curva de fluxo-volume na detecção de obstrução da via aérea central

Liliana Bárbara Perestrelo de Andrade e Raposo, António Bugalho, Maria João Marques Gomes

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):-

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Vídeo

Objective: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of flow-volume curves in detecting central airway obstruction (CAO), and to determine whether their quantitative and qualitative criteria are associated with the location, type and degree of obstruction. Methods: Over a four-month period, we consecutively evaluated patients with bronchoscopy indicated. Over a one-week period, all patients underwent clinical evaluation, flow-volume curve, bronchoscopy, and completed a dyspnea scale. Four reviewers, blinded to quantitative and clinical data, and bronchoscopy results, classified the morphology of the curves. A fifth reviewer determined the morphological criteria, as well as the quantitative criteria. Results: We studied 82 patients, 36 (44%) of whom had CAO. The sensitivity and specificity of the flow-volume curves in detecting CAO were, respectively, 88.9% and 91.3% (quantitative criteria) and 30.6% and 93.5% (qualitative criteria). The most prevalent quantitative criteria in our sample were FEF50%/FIF50% ≥ 1, in 83% of patients, and FEV1/PEF ≥ 8 mL . L−1 . min−1, in 36%, both being associated with the type, location, and degree of obstruction (p < 0.05). There was concordance among the reviewers as to the presence of CAO. There is a relationship between the degree of obstruction and dyspnea. Conclusions: The quantitative criteria should always be calculated for flow-volume curves in order to detect CAO, because of the low sensitivity of the qualitative criteria. Both FEF50%/FIF50% ≥ 1 and FEV1/PEF ≥ 8 mL . L−1 . min−1 were associated with the location, type and degree of obstruction.

 


Keywords: Bronchoscopy; Maximal expiratory flow-volume curves; Sensitivity and specificity; Lung neoplasms.

 


Asthma control and quality of life in patients with moderate or severe asthma

Controle da asma e qualidade de vida em pacientes com asma moderada ou grave

Eanes Delgado Barros Pereira, Antonio George de Matos Cavalcante, Eduardo Nolla Silva Pereira, Pedro Lucas, Marcelo Alcântara Holanda

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):704-711

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Objective: To evaluate the association between degree of asthma control and health-related quality of life in patients with moderate or severe asthma. Methods: This was a descriptive observational study involving 59 outpatients with moderate or severe asthma under treatment at the Asthma Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of Ceará Walter Cantídio University Hospital, in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. The patients were evaluated regarding sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as spirometric parameters. The asthma control status was assessed using the asthma control test (ACT), and quality of life was assessed using the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Results: The mean age of the patients was 55.0 ± 12.4 years, and 76.3% were female. The ACT score showed statistically significant negative correlations with all SGRQ scores: total (r = −0.72); symptoms (r = −0.78); activity (r = −0.67); and impact (r = −0.68). Multiple regression analysis showed that the most robust predictive variables for SGRQ total score were ACT score (coefficient = −3.18; 95% CI: −4.14 to −2.23) and duration of disease (coefficient = −0.29; 95% CI: −0.54 to −0.03). The ACT score also explained the linear variation of the SGRQ domains: symptoms (coefficient = −3.41; 95% CI: −4.45 to −2.37); activity (coefficient = −3.07; 95% CI: −4.57 to −1.57); and impact (coefficient = −2.68; 95% CI: −3.71 to −1.65). Conclusions: The degree of asthma control appears to have a significant impact on health-related quality of life.

 


Keywords: Asthma/prevention and control; Quality of life; Questionnaires.

 


Asthma control, lung function, nutritional status, and health-related quality of life: differences between adult males and females with asthma

Controle da asma, função pulmonar, estado nutricional e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde: diferenças entre homens e mulheres adultos com asma

Gabriele Carra Forte1,a, Maria Luiza Hennemann2,b, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin1,3,c

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(4):273-278

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Objective: To evaluate health-related quality of life in asthma patients treated at a referral center in southern Brazil, identifying differences between male and female patients, as well as to evaluate differences between the males and females in terms of asthma control, lung function, and nutritional status. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving patients ≥ 18 years of age treated at an asthma outpatient clinic. We evaluated clinical parameters, lung function, nutritional status, and quality of life. Results: A total of 198 patients completed the study. The mean age was 56.2 ± 14.8 years, and 81.8% were female. The proportion of patients with uncontrolled asthma was higher among females than among males (63.0% vs. 44.4%; p = 0.041). The body mass index (BMI) and percentage of body fat were higher in females than in males (30.2 ± 5.8 kg/m2 vs. 26.9 ± 4.5 kg/m2 and 37.4 ± 6.4% vs. 26.5 ± 7.4%; p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively). Quality of life was lower in females than in males in the following domains: symptoms (3.8 ± 1.5 vs. 4.6 ± 1.7; p = 0.006); activity limitation (3.6 ± 1.3 vs. 4.4 ± 1.5; p = 0.001); emotional function (3.6 ± 1.9 vs. 4.5 ± 1.7; p = 0.014); and environmental stimuli (3.2 ± 1.6 vs. 4.3 ± 1.9; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Male asthma patients appear to fare better than do female asthma patients in terms of health-related quality of life, asthma control, BMI, percentage of body fat, and comorbidities.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Nutritional status; Quality of life; Adult.

 


Smoking control: challenges and achievements

Controle do tabagismo: desafios e conquistas

Luiz Carlos Corrêa da Silva, Alberto José de Araújo, Ângela Maria Dias de Queiroz, Maria da Penha Uchoa Sales, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira Castellano; Comissão de Tabagismo da SBPT

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(4):290-298

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Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases.

 


Keywords: Tobacco products; Smoking; Health policy; Smoking cessation; Health personnel.

 


Core biopsy; tru-cut biopsy, lance biopsy or punch biopsy with a tissue-cutting needle (punch cutting - PCut)?

Core biópsia; Tru-cut biópsia, punção lancetante ou biópsia por punção com agulha fragmentante tecidual (punção fragmentante - PFrag)?

Klaus Loureiro Irion, Bruno Hochhegger, Luciane Dreher Irion

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(5):488-

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Clinical and functional correlations of the difference between slow vital capacity and FVC

Correlação clínica e funcional da diferença entre capacidade vital lenta e CVF

Jonathan Jerias Fernandez1,2, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira Castellano3, Flavia de Almeida Filardo Vianna3, Sérgio Roberto Nacif1, Roberto Rodrigues Junior4, Sílvia Carla Sousa Rodrigues1,5

J Bras Pneumol.2020;46(1):e20180328-e20180328

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Objective: To evaluate the relationship that the difference between slow vital capacity (SVC) and FVC (ΔSVC-FVC) has with demographic, clinical, and pulmonary function data. Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional study in which participants completed a respiratory health questionnaire, as well as undergoing spirometry and plethysmography. The sample was divided into two groups: ΔSVC-FVC ≥ 200 mL and ΔSVC-FVC < 200 mL. The intergroup correlations were analyzed, and binomial logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: The sample comprised 187 individuals. In the sample as a whole, the mean ΔSVC-FVC was 0.17 ± 0.14 L, and 61 individuals (32.62%) had a ΔSVC-FVC ≥ 200 mL. The use of an SVC maneuver reduced the prevalence of nonspecific lung disease and of normal spirometry results by revealing obstructive lung disease (OLD). In the final logistic regression model (adjusted for weight and body mass index > 30 kg/m2), OLD and findings of air trapping (high functional residual capacity and a low inspiratory capacity/TLC ratio) were predictors of a ΔSVC-FVC ≥ 200 mL. The chance of a bronchodilator response was found to be greater in the ΔSVC-FVC ≥ 200 mL group: for FEV1 (OR = 4.38; 95% CI: 1.45-13.26); and for FVC (OR = 3.83; 95% CI: 1.26-11.71). Conclusions: The use of an SVC maneuver appears to decrease the prevalence of nonspecific lung disease and of normal spirometry results. Individuals with a ΔSVC-FVC ≥ 200 mL, which is probably the result of OLD and air trapping, are apparently more likely to respond to bronchodilator administration.

 


Keywords: Vital capacity; Plethysmography; Airway obstruction.

 


Correlation of tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in nonsmoking patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Correlação dos achados tomográficos com parâmetros de função pulmonar na fibrose pulmonar idiopática em não fumantes

Agnaldo José Lopes, Domenico Capone, Roberto Mogami, Daniel Leme da Cunha, Pedro Lopes de Melo, José Manoel Jansen

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):671-678

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Objective: To correlate tomographic findings with pulmonary function parameters in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out, in which 30 nonsmoking patients with IPF were evaluated. Using a semiquantitative scoring system, the following high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) findings were quantified: total interstitial disease (TID), reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and ground-glass opacity (GGO). The functional variables were measured by spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT), helium dilution method, as well as the single-breath method of measuring diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Results: Of the 30 patients studied, 18 were female, and 12 were male, with a mean age of 70.9 years. We found that TID and reticular abnormality and honeycombing correlated significantly (negative correlations) with the measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), DLCO, and dynamic respiratory compliance were found, as well as that GGO correlated significantly (and positively) with residual volume/TLC. The ratio of forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC to FVC (FEF25-75%/FVC) correlated positively with TID, reticular abnormality/honeycombing, and GGO. Conclusion: In IPF patients, the measurements of volume, diffusion, and dynamic compliance are the physiological variables which best reflect the extent of the interstitial disease on HRCT scans.

 


Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial; Pulmonary fibrosis; Tomography, X-ray computed; Respiratory function tests.

 


Correlation between the severity of critically ill patients and clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration

Correlação entre a gravidade de pacientes críticos e preditores clínicos de risco para a broncoaspiração

Gisele Chagas de Medeiros1, Fernanda Chiarion Sassi2, Lucas Santos Zambom3, Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):114-120

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether the severity of non-neurological critically ill patients correlates with clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration. Methods: We evaluated adults undergoing prolonged orotracheal intubation (> 48 h) and bedside swallowing assessment within the first 48 h after extubation. We collected data regarding the risk of bronchial aspiration performed by a speech-language pathologist, whereas data regarding the functional level of swallowing were collected with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System (ASHA NOMS) scale and those regarding health status were collected with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). Results: The study sample comprised 150 patients. For statistical analyses, the patients were grouped by ASHA NOMS score: ASHA1 (levels 1 and 2), ASHA2 (levels 3 to 5); and ASHA3 (levels 6 and 7). In comparison with the other patients, those in the ASHA3 group were significantly younger, remained intubated for fewer days, and less severe overall clinical health status (SOFA score). The clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration that best characterized the groups were abnormal cervical auscultation findings and cough after swallowing. None of the patients in the ASHA 3 group presented with either of those signs. Conclusions: Critically ill patients 55 years of age or older who undergo prolonged orotracheal intubation (≥ 6 days), have a SOFA score ≥ 5, have a Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 14, and present with abnormal cervical auscultation findings or cough after swallowing should be prioritized for a full speech pathology assessment.

 


Keywords: Deglutition; Deglutition disorders; Intubation, intratracheal; Pneumonia, aspiration; Intensive care units.

 


Correlation between resistance to pyrazinamide and resistance to other antituberculosis drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated at a referral hospital

Correlação entre a resistência a pirazinamida e a resistência a outros fármacos antituberculose em cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis isoladas em um hospital de referência

Leila de Souza Fonseca, Anna Grazia Marsico, Gisele Betzler de Oliveira Vieira, Rafael da Silva Duarte, Maria Helena Féres Saad, Fernanda de Carvalho Queiroz Mello

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):630-633

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The correlation between resistance to pyrazinamide (PZA) and resistance to other first-line antituberculosis drugs was investigated in 395 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from clinical specimens, representing 14% of the overall number of M. tuberculosis isolates obtained between 2003 and 2008 at the laboratory of a referral university hospital for tuberculosis. A high correlation was found between resistance to PZA and multidrug resistance, as well as between PZA resistance and resistance to rifampin, isoniazid, and ethambutol (p < 0.01 for all). These results highlight the importance of performing PZA susceptibility testing prior to the prescription of this drug in order to treat drug-resistant and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/drug therapy; Tuberculosis/microbiology; Antibiotics, antitubercular.

 


Correlation between inflammatory mediators in the nasopharyngeal secretion and in the serum of children with lower respiratory tract infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus and disease severity

Correlação entre mediadores inflamatórios na secreção nasofaríngea e no soro de crianças com infecção do trato respiratório inferior por vírus sincicial respiratórioe a gravidade da doença

Renata Amato Vieira, Edna Maria de Albuquerque Diniz,Maria Esther Jurfest Rivero Ceccon

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):59-66

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Objective: To determine whether the concentrations of inflammatory mediators (CCL5, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 [sICAM-1], TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10) in the nasopharyngeal secretion and in the serum of children with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) correlate with the clinical markers of disease severity. Methods: Between July of 2004 and December of 2005, 30 children less than three months of age, diagnosed with LRTI caused by RSV and admitted to a neonatal ICU, were included in this study. Results: The severity of disease at hospital admission, as determined with a modified clinical scoring system, presented a significant positive correlation with sICAM-1 and IL-10 concentrations in the nasopharyngeal secretion, as well as with IL-6 concentrations in the serum, of the patients. In addition, serum IL-6 concentrations presented a significant positive correlation with the duration of oxygen therapy and with the length of hospital stay. Conclusions: At hospital admission, the concentrations of sICAM-1 and IL-10 in the nasopharyngeal secretion, as well as the concentration of IL-6 in the serum, could be used as markers of severity in patients with LRTI caused by RSV. The serum levels of IL-6 determined at admission could also be used to predict prolonged oxygen supplementation and hospital stay.

 


Keywords: Respiratory syncytial virus, human; Chemokine CCL5; Intercellular adhesion molecule-1; Interleukin-6; Interleukin-10; Tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

 


Correlation between clinical parameters and health-related quality of life in women with COPD

Correlação entre parâmetros clínicos e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde em mulheres com DPOC

Nilton Maciel Mangueira, Isabel Lucena Viega, Melissa de Almeida Melo Maciel Mangueira, Alcimar Nunes Pinheiro, Maria do Rosário da Silva Ramos Costa

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(3):248-255

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Objective: To correlate health-related quality of life (HRQL) of women with COPD with clinical parameters and with the six-minute walk distance (6MWD; six-minute walk test). Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 30 female patients diagnosed with mild or moderate COPD treated at the Respiratory Outpatient Clinic of the Presidente Dutra University Hospital. Patients completed the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and were evaluated in terms of respiratory pressures, spirometry parameters and 6MWD. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out, as were Student's t-tests for dependent variables, together with Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients for numerical and ordinal variables, respectively. Results: According to the SGRQ total scores, HRQL was impaired, to some extent, in most of the participants. Most SGRQ total scores were between the second and the third quartiles, reflecting poor HRQL. The participants also presented poor functional capacity. Mean 6MWD (317.7 m), inspiratory muscle strength (−53.48 cmH2O) and expiratory muscle strength (69.5 cmH2O) were all below reference values. We found that HRQL was not correlated with body mass index or pulmonary function. However, HRQL presented a negative linear correlation with age, MIP and 6MWD, as well as a positive correlation with the sensation of dyspnea and fatigue. Conclusions: In this study, HRQL, determined using the SGRQ, was severely impaired in COPD patients, who presented severe limitations in functional capacity, breath control and personal life.

 


Keywords: Quality of life; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Women.

 


Correlates of experimentation with smoking and current cigarette consumption among adolescents

Correlatos de experimentação e consumo atual de cigarros entre adolescentes

Amanda Gimenes Bonilha, Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Mayara Piani Sicchieri, Jorge Alberto Achcar, Antonio Luiz Rodrigues-Júnior, José Baddini-Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):634-642

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Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze social characteristics and stress as correlates of cigarette smoking in adolescence. The main intent was to identify elements that distinguish adolescents who had experimented with smoking and did not progress to regular smoking from those who became current smokers. Methods: Students at 10 high schools in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, completed a questionnaire based on an instrument employed in a similar large-scale study. The students were classified as never-smokers or experimenters. The experimenters were subcategorized as having become current smokers or nonprogressors. Analyses were performed using adjusted logistic models. Results: A total of 2,014 students (mean age, 16.2  1.1 years; females, 53%) completed the questionnaire. We categorized 1,283 students (63.7%) as never-smokers, 244 (12.1%) as current smokers, and 487 (24.2%) as nonprogressors. We found that experimentation with smoking was associated with being held back a grade in school (OR = 1.80), alcohol intake (low/occasional, OR = 8.92; high/regular, OR = 2.64), illicit drug use (OR = 9.32), having a sibling or cousin who smokes (OR = 1.39), having a friend who smokes (OR = 2.08), and high levels of stress (in females only, OR = 1.32). Factors associated with an increased risk of transitioning from experimenter to current smoker were alcohol intake (low/occasional, OR = 3.28; high/regular, OR = 2.16), illicit drug use (OR = 3.61), and having a friend who smokes (OR = 7.20). Conclusions: Current smoking was associated with a profile of socioeconomic correlates different from that associated with experimentation only. Our data (showing that current smoking was associated with having a friend who smokes, alcohol intake, and illicit drug use) suggest the need for comprehensive approaches to discourage substance use during adolescence.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Tobacco use; Adolescent behavior; Stress, psychological.

 


Correspondence about the article - Radial-probe EBUS for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions

Correspondência sobre o artigo - Ecobroncoscopia radial para o diagnóstico de lesões pulmonares periféricas

Juliana Guarize1, Stefano Donghi1, Maurício Guidi Saueressig1,2,3

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):76-76

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Inhaled corticosteroids: effects on growth and adrenal suppression

Corticóide inalatório: efeitos no crescimento e na supressão adrenal

Elisete E. Arend, Gilberto Bueno Fischer, Helena Mocelin, Lídia Medeiros

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(4):341-349

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

This is a review of the medical literature regarding inhaled corticosteroids and their effects on growth and adrenal suppression in children and adolescents. A review of the literature, principally that published over the last five years, was conducted using Medline and searching indexes of articles published in national and international scientific journals. There is considerable controversy regarding the side effects of inhaled corticosteroids. In 21 studies evaluating the effect that inhaled corticosteroids have on growth, a statistically significant reduction (growth retarded by 1-1.5 cm) was observed within the first year of treatment with Beclomethasone or Budesonide inhalers. However, in studies of longer duration, no significant difference was found between final adult height and adult height of the parents. However, in ten studies of the use of inhaled corticosteroids and their effect on adrenal suppression, hypoglycemia and arrested development (no height or weight gains), as well as changes in morning serum levels and 24-h urinary levels of cortisol, were reported, especially when high doses of inhaled corticosteroids were used. Inhaled corticosteroids can reduce growth during the first year of use but do not affect adult height. However, further long-term studies are needed in order to determine the full impact of inhaled corticosteroids on final adult height. Height measures are a means of evaluating the safety and efficacy of the use of inhaled corticosteroids in children. Tests that evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and adrenal insufficiency should be correlated with clinical symptoms and side effects.

 



Systemic corticosteroids as first-line treatment in pulmonary hypertension associated with POEMS syndrome

Corticoide sistêmico como tratamento de primeira linha da hipertensão pulmonar secundária a síndrome POEMS

Samia Rached, Rodrigo Abensur Athanazio, Sérvulo Azevedo Dias Júnior, Carlos Jardim, Rogério Souza

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(8):804-808

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Resumo

A síndrome POEMS é uma rara doença de plasmócitos. A ocorrência de hipertensão pulmonar como complicação respiratória da síndrome é pouco frequente e pode estar ligada ao aumento de várias citocinas, quimiocinas e fatores de crescimento como parte dos fenômenos inflamatórios que cercam a fisiopatologia da síndrome POEMS. Descrevemos o caso de uma mulher de 54 anos com síndrome POEMS e hipertensão pulmonar, que foi tratada com corticoide como terapia de primeira linha. Tratava-se de uma paciente com clássicos sintomas dessa síndrome: polineuropatia (confirmada por eletroneuromiografia), organomegalia, hipotireoidismo subclínico, gamopatia monoclonal em dosagem urinária e alterações cutâneas. A cateterização cardíaca direita revelou pressão arterial pulmonar média de 48 mmHg, débito cardíaco de 4,1 L/min e resistência vascular pulmonar de 8,05 Woods. O nível sérico de brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) foi de 150 pg/mL. Nenhuma outra doença foi encontrada durante investigação. Prednisona (1 mg/kg por três meses) foi iniciada, com dramática melhora clínica e funcional, além de normalização dos níveis dos hormônios tireoidianos e de proteína em urina por eletroforese. A pressão arterial pulmonar média caiu para 26 mmHg, o débito cardíaco para 3,8 L/min e a resistência vascular pulmonar para 2,89 Woods. O nível sérico de BNP caiu para 8pg/mL. Nossos achados indicam o potencial papel da corticoterapia como primeira linha de tratamento na hipertensão pulmonar associada à síndrome POEMS. Diante da raridade dessa apresentação, um registro multicêntrico deveria ser desenvolvido para permitir a aquisição de mais dados que suportem essa conduta.

 


Palavras-chave: Síndrome POEMS; Hipertensão pulmonar; Glucocorticoides.

 


Corticosteroids for the prevention of ventilator-induced lung injury?

Corticosteroides para prevenir lesão pulmonar induzida por ventilação mecânica?

Marcelo Alcantara Holanda1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):163-163

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Growth, lung function, and physical activity in schoolchildren who were very-low-birth-weight preterm infants

Crescimento, função pulmonar e atividade física em escolares nascidos prematuros e com muito baixo peso

Aline Dill Winck1,2, João Paulo Heinzmann-Filho3, Deise Schumann4, Helen Zatti4, Rita Mattiello3,5, Marcus Herbert Jones3,5, Renato Tetelbom Stein3,

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(4):254-260

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Objective: To compare somatic growth, lung function, and level of physical activity in schoolchildren who had been very-low-birth-weight preterm infants (VLBWPIs) or normal-birth-weight full-term infants. Methods: We recruited two groups of schoolchildren between 8 and 11 years of age residing in the study catchment area: those who had been VLBWPIs (birth weight < 1,500 g); and those who had been normal-birth-weight full-term infants (controls, birth weight ≥ 2,500 g). Anthropometric and spirometric data were collected from the schoolchildren, who also completed a questionnaire regarding their physical activity. In addition, data regarding the perinatal and neonatal period were collected from the medical records of the VLBWPIs. Results: Of the 93 schoolchildren screened, 48 and 45 were in the VLBWPI and control groups, respectively. No significant differences were found between the groups regarding anthropometric characteristics, nutritional status, or pulmonary function. No associations were found between perinatal/neonatal variables and lung function parameters in the VLBWPI group. Although the difference was not significant, the level of physical activity was slightly higher in the VLBWPI group than in the control group. Conclusions: Among the schoolchildren evaluated here, neither growth nor lung function appear to have been affected by prematurity birth weight, or level of physical activity.

 


Keywords: Premature birth; Birth weight; Respiratory function tests; Motor activity; Pediatrics.

 


Modified crichothyroidotomy: an alternative for tracheobronchial secretions removal

Cricotireoidotomia modificada: opção para remoção das secreções traqueobrônquicas

Wilson Paloschi Spiandorello, Darcy Ribeiro Pinto Filho, Gisele Bassani, Franca Stedile Angeli Spiandorello

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(2):61-64

Abstract PDF PT

Introduction: Inhalations, postural drainage and respiratory physiotherapy are not always effective in removing tracheobronchial secretions. Objectives: To evaluate an alternative surgical technique, modified crichothyroidotomy, to aspirate tracheobronchial secretions. Method: Modified crichothyroidotomy is the introduction of a catheter number 8, 10 or 12 into the crichothyroid membrane in order to stimulate coughing and the aspiration of secretions. This is a descriptive study of the benefits as well as immediate and late complications caused by the use of this technique in 45 patients with excessive tracheobronchial secretions inadequately removed by usual methods. Results: Immediate surgical complications were bleeding (10 patients), oropharynx deviation (3), subcutaneous emphysema (1) and difficult introduction (1). Mean catheter permanence was 14 ± 16 days and, in all cases, the catheter provoked coughing and allowed the easy aspiration of secretions. The most frequent occurrence (17 patients) was the expulsion of the catheter by coughing, inadequate catheter handling during aspiration and moving of the patients. Conclusion: This is a simple technique with a low morbidity rate and represents constitutes an effective alternative to be used in the aspiration of tracheobronchial secretions.

 


Keywords: Postural drainage. Aspiration.

 


Pulmonary cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients, an underdiagnosed disease

Criptosporidiose pulmonar em pacientes com AIDS, uma doença subdiagnosticada

Yvana Maria Maia de Albuquerque, Márcia Cristina Fraga Silva, Ana Luiza Magalhães de Andrade Lima, Vera Magalhães

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):530-532

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Inclusion and exclusion criteria in research studies: definitions and why they matter

Critérios de inclusão e exclusão em estudos de pesquisa: definições e por que eles importam

Cecilia Maria Patino1,2,a, Juliana Carvalho Ferreira1,3,b

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(2):84-84

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Diagnostic criteria and follow-up in neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy: a case series

Critérios diagnósticos e seguimento em hiperplasia de células neuroendócrinas do lactente: uma série de casos

Vivianne Calheiros Chaves Gomes, Mara Cristina Coelho Silva, José Holanda Maia Filho, Pedro Daltro, Simone Gusmão Ramos, Alan S. Brody, Edson Marchiori

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):569-578

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Objective: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) is a form of childhood interstitial lung disease characterized by tachypnea, retractions, crackles, and hypoxia. The aim of this study was to report and discuss the clinical, imaging, and histopathological findings in a series of NEHI cases at a tertiary pediatric hospital, with an emphasis on diagnostic criteria and clinical outcomes. Methods: Between 2003 and 2011, 12 full-term infants were diagnosed with NEHI, based on clinical and tomographic findings. Those infants were followed for 1-91 months. Four infants were biopsied, and the histopathological specimens were stained with bombesin antibody. Results: In this case series, symptoms appeared at birth in 6 infants and by 3 months of age in the remaining 6. In all of the cases, NEHI was associated with acute respiratory infection. The most common initial chest HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities that were in the middle lobe/lingula in 12 patients and in other medullary areas in 10. Air trapping was the second most common finding, being observed in 7 patients. Follow-up HRCT scans (performed in 10 patients) revealed normal results in 1 patient and improvement in 9. The biopsy findings were nonspecific, and the staining was positive for bombesin in all samples. Confirmation of NEHI was primarily based on clinical and tomographic findings. Symptoms improved during the follow-up period (mean, 41 months). A clinical cure was achieved in 4 patients. Conclusions: In this sample of patients, the diagnosis of NEHI was made on the basis of the clinical and tomographic findings, independent of the lung biopsy results. Most of the patients showed clinical improvement and persistent tomographic changes during the follow-up period, regardless of the initial severity of the disease or type of treatment.

 


Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial/diagnosis; Lung diseases, interstitial/treatment; Tomography, X-ray computed.

 


Psychological criteria for contraindication in lung transplant candidates: a five-year study

Critérios psicológicos para contraindicação em candidatos a transplante pulmonar: um estudo de cinco anos

Elaine Marques Hojaij1, Bellkiss Wilma Romano1, André Nathan Costa2, Jose Eduardo Afonso Junior3, Priscila Cilene Leon Bueno de Camargo3, Rafael Medeiros Carraro3, Silvia Vidal Campos4, Marcos Naoyuki Samano5, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga Teixeira6

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(3):246-249

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Lung transplantation presents a wide range of challenges for multidisciplinary teams that manage the care of the recipients. Transplant teams should perform a thorough evaluation of transplant candidates, in order to ensure the best possible post-transplant outcomes. That is especially true for the psychologist, because psychological issues can arise at any point during the perioperative period. The objective of our study was to evaluate the psychological causes of contraindication to waiting list inclusion in a referral program for lung transplantation. We retrospectively analyzed data on psychological issues presented by lung transplant candidates, in order to understand these matters in our population and to reflect upon ways to improve the selection process.

 


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Interview, psychological; Psychological tests; Preoperative care.

 


Quantitative culture of endotracheal aspirate and BAL fluid samples in the management of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia: a randomized clinical trial

Cultura quantitativa de amostras de aspirado endotraqueal e lavado broncoalveolar no manejo de pacientes com pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica: um ensaio clínico randomizado

Ricardo de Amorim Corrêa, Carlos Michel Luna, José Carlos Fernandez Versiani dos Anjos, Eurípedes Alvarenga Barbosa, Cláudia Juliana de Rezende, Adriano Pereira Rezende, Fernando Henrique Pereira, Manoel Otávio da Costa Rocha

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):643-651

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Objective: To compare 28-day mortality rates and clinical outcomes in ICU patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia according to the diagnostic strategy used. Methods: This was a prospective randomized clinical trial. Of the 73 patients included in the study, 36 and 37 were randomized to undergo BAL or endotracheal aspiration (EA), respectively. Antibiotic therapy was based on guidelines and was adjusted according to the results of quantitative cultures. Results: The 28-day mortality rate was similar in the BAL and EA groups (25.0% and 37.8%, respectively; p = 0.353). There were no differences between the groups regarding the duration of mechanical ventilation, antibiotic therapy, secondary complications, VAP recurrence, or length of ICU and hospital stay. Initial antibiotic therapy was deemed appropriate in 28 (77.8%) and 30 (83.3%) of the patients in the BAL and EA groups, respectively (p = 0.551). The 28-day mortality rate was not associated with the appropriateness of initial therapy in the BAL and EA groups (appropriate therapy: 35.7% vs. 43.3%; p = 0.553; and inappropriate therapy: 62.5% vs. 50.0%; p = 1.000). Previous use of antibiotics did not affect the culture yield in the EA or BAL group (p = 0.130 and p = 0.484, respectively). Conclusions: In the context of this study, the management of VAP patients, based on the results of quantitative endotracheal aspirate cultures, led to similar clinical outcomes to those obtained with the results of quantitative BAL fluid cultures. (Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials - ReBEC; identification number RBR-86DCDX [http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br])

 


Keywords: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid/diagnosis; Respiratory aspiration; Pneumonia, ventilator-associated.

 


Curso de diagnóstico por imagem do tórax

Arthur Soares Souza Junior

J Bras Pneumol.1999;25(1):35-49

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Curso de diagnóstico por imagem do tórax - Capítulo V - Imagem da embolia pulmonar

Arthur Soares de Souza Júnior

J Bras Pneumol.1999;25(5):287-293

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Curso de diagnóstico por imagem do tórax - Capítulo II - Imagenologia da pleura

Arthur Soares de Souza Junior

J Bras Pneumol.1999;25(2):102-113

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Oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke exposure in mice: impact on lung tissue and dia-phragm muscle

Dano oxidativo induzido por exposição a fumaça de cigarro em camundongos: impacto sobre o pulmão e o músculo diafragma

Samanta Portão de Carlos, Alexandre Simões Dias, Luiz Alberto Forgiarini Júnior, Patrícia Damiani Patricio, Thaise Graciano, Renata Tiscoski Nesi, Samuel Valença, Adriana Meira Guntzel Chiappa, Gerson Cipriano Jr, Claudio Teodoro de Souza, Gaspar Rogério da Silva Chiappa

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):411-420

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Objetivo: Avaliar o dano oxidativo (oxidação lipídica, oxidação proteica, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS, substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico], e carbonilação) e inflamação (expressão de phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase e de phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-AMPK e p-mTOR, respectivamente) em tecido pulmonar e músculos do diafragma em camundongos C57BL/6 machos expostos à fumaça de cigarro (FC) por 7, 15, 30, 45 ou 60 dias. Métodos: Trinta e seis camundongos machos da espécie C57BL/6 foram divididos em seis grupos (n = 6/grupo): grupo controle e 5 grupos expostos a FC por 7, 15, 30, 45 e 60 dias, respectivamente. Resultados: Comparados aos camundongos controle, os camundongos expostos à FC apresentaram menor peso corporal em 30 dias. Nos camundongos expostos à FC (comparados aos controle) as maiores diferenças (aumentos) nos níveis de TBARS foram observados no dia 7 no músculo diafragma, comparado ao dia 45 em tecido pulmonar; as maiores diferenças (aumentos) nos níveis de carbonilas foram observados no dia 7 em ambos os tipos de tecido; e os níveis de sulfidrilas foram menores, nos dois tipos de tecidos, em todos os tempos. No tecido pulmonar e no músculo diafragma, a expressão de p-AMPK exibiu um comportamento semelhante ao dos níveis de TBARS. A expressão de p-mTOR foi maior que o valor controle nos dias 7 e 15 no tecido pulmonar, assim como no dia 45 no músculo diafragma. Conclusões: Nossos dados demonstram que a exposição à FC produz dano oxidativo tanto no tecido pulmonar quanto (primariamente) no tecido muscular, tendo um efeito adicional no músculo respiratório, como é frequentemente observado em fumantes com DPOC.

 


Keywords: Oxidative stress; Mice; Respiratory system; Smoking; Inflammation.

 


Back to the future: a case series of minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum with regular instruments

De volta para o futuro: série de casos de reparo minimamente invasivo do pectus excavatum com instrumentos comuns

Miguel Lia Tedde1,a, Silvia Yukari Togoro1,b, Robert Stephen Eisinger2,c, Erica Mie Okumura1,d, Angelo Fernandes1,e, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes1,f, Jose Ribas Milanez de Campos1,g

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(1):e20170373-e20170373

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Objective: Minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum (MIRPE) is a surgical treatment for PE. During the procedure, a specialized introducer is used to tunnel across the mediastinum for thoracoscopic insertion of a metal bar. There have been reported cases of cardiac perforation during this risky step. The large introducer can be a dangerous lever in unskilled hands. We set out to determine the safety and feasibility of using regular instruments (i.e., not relying on special devices or tools) to create the retrosternal tunnel during MIRPE. Methods: This was a preliminary study of MIRPE with regular instruments (MIRPERI), involving 28 patients with PE. We recorded basic patient demographics, chest measurements, and surgical details, as well as intraoperative and postoperative complications. Results: Patients undergoing MIRPERI had Haller index values ranging from 2.58 to 5.56. No intraoperative complications occurred. Postoperative complications included nausea/vomiting in 8 patients, pruritus in 2, and dizziness in 2, as well as atelectasis, pneumothorax with thoracic drainage, pleural effusion, and dyspnea in 1 patient each. Conclusions: In this preliminary study, the rate of complications associated with MIRPERI was comparable to that reported in the literature for MIRPE. The MIRPERI approach has the potential to improve the safety of PE repair, particularly for surgeons that do not have access to certain special instruments or have not been trained in their use.

 


Keywords: Funnel chest; Heart injuries; Thoracic wall; Intraoperative complications; Minimally invasive surgical procedures.

 


Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: diagnosis and treatment

Deficiência de alfa-1 antitripsina: diagnóstico e tratamento

Aquiles A Camelier, Daniel Hugo Winter, José Roberto Jardim, Carlos Eduardo Galvão Barboza, Alberto Cukier, Marc Miravitlles

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(7):514-527

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Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a recently identified genetic disease that occurs almost as frequently as cystic fibrosis. It is caused by various mutations in the SERPINA1 gene, and has numerous clinical implications. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is mainly produced in the liver and acts as an antiprotease. Its principal function is to inactivate neutrophil elastase, preventing tissue damage. The mutation most commonly associated with the clinical disease is the Z allele, which causes polymerization and accumulation within hepatocytes. The accumulation of and the consequent reduction in the serum levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin cause, respectively, liver and lung disease, the latter occurring mainly as early emphysema, predominantly in the lung bases. Diagnosis involves detection of low serum levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin as well as phenotypic confirmation. In addition to the standard treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, specific therapy consisting of infusion of purified alpha-1 antitrypsin is currently available. The clinical efficacy of this therapy, which appears to be safe, has yet to be definitively established, and its cost-effectiveness is also a controversial issue that is rarely addressed. Despite its importance, in Brazil, there are no epidemiological data on the prevalence of the disease or the frequency of occurrence of deficiency alleles. Underdiagnosis has also been a significant limitation to the study of the disease as well as to appropriate treatment of patients. It is hoped that the creation of the Alpha One International Registry will resolve these and other important issues.

 


Keywords: alpha 1-antitrypsin; Emphysema; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.

 


Disability and its clinical correlates in pulmonary hypertension measured through the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0: a prospective, observational study

Deficiência e seus correlatos clínicos na hipertensão pulmonar medidos pelo World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0: um estudo prospectivo e observacional

Abílio Reis1,a, Mário Santos1,2,3,b, Inês Furtado4,c, Célia Cruz4,d, Pedro Sa-Couto5,e, Alexandra Queirós6,7,f, Luís Almeida8,g, Nelson Rocha7,9,h

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(4):e20170355-e20170355

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