Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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The patient profile of individuals with Alpha-1 antitrypsine gene mutations at a referral center in Brazil

Perfil dos pacientes com mutação no gene da alfa-1 antitripsina em um centro de referência no Brasil

Manuela Brisot Felisbino1,a, Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes2,b, Maria Cecília Nieves Maiorano de Nucci2,c, Regina Maria de Carvalho Pinto2,d, Emilio Pizzichini1,e, Alberto Cukier2,f

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(5):383-389

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The clinical, functional, radiological and genotypic descriptions of patients with an alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) gene mutation in a referral center for COPD in Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study of patients with an A1AT gene mutation compatible with deficiency. We evaluated the A1AT dosage and genotypic, demographic, clinical, tomographic, and functional characteristics of these patients. Results: Among the 43 patients suspected of A1AT deficiency (A1ATD), the disease was confirmed by genotyping in 27 of them. The A1AT median dosage was 45 mg/dL, and 4 patients (15%) had a normal dosage. Median age was 54, 63% of the patients were male, and the respiratory symptoms started at the age of 40. The median FEV1 was 1.37L (43% predicted). Tomographic emphysema was found in 77.8% of the individuals. The emphysema was panlobular in 76% of them and 48% had lower lobe predominance. The frequency of bronchiectasis was 52% and the frequency of bronchial thickening was 81.5%. The most common genotype was Pi*ZZ in 40.7% of participants. The other genotypes found were: Pi*SZ (18.5%), PiM1Z (14.8%), Pi*M1S (7.4%), Pi*M2Z (3.7%), Pi*M1I (3.7%), Pi*ZMnichinan (3.7%), Pi*M3Plowell (3.7%), and Pi*SF (3.7%). We did not find any significant difference in age, smoking load, FEV1, or the presence of bronchiectasis between the groups with a normal and a reduced A1AT dosage, neither for 1 nor 2-allele mutation for A1ATD. Conclusions: Our patients presented a high frequency of emphysema, bronchiectasis and bronchial thickening, and early-beginning respiratory symptoms. The most frequent genotype was Pi*ZZ. Heterozygous genotypes and normal levels of A1AT also manifested significant lung disease.

 


Keywords: Alpha-1 antitrypsin; Emphysema; Alleles.

 


 

 


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