Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Silicosis (still) among us

A silicose (ainda) entre nós

Eduardo Mello De Capitani

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):33-35

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Endotracheal tube cuff pressure alteration after changes in position in patients under mechanical ventilation

Alteração da pressão intra-cuff do tubo endotraqueal após mudança da posição em pacientes sob ventilação mecânica

Armando Carlos Franco de Godoy, Ronan José Vieira, Eduardo Mello De Capitani

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(5):294-297

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate endotracheal tube cuff pressure (Pcuff) alteration in patients under mechanical ventilation after changes in position. Methods: All selected patients were initially placed in the 35° semi-Fowler position, with Pcuff adjusted to 20 mmHg, and randomly divided into two groups. Group A, in which patients were moved to the lateral decubitus position, facing away from the ventilator (measurement designated Pcuff A1), returned to the initial position (measurement designated Pcuff A2), moved to a lateral decubitus position, facing the ventilator (measurement designated Pcuff A3) and then returned to the initial position (measurement designated Pcuff A4); and Group B, in which patients were moved to the lateral decubitus position, facing the ventilator (measurement designated Pcuff B1), returned to the initial position (measurement designated Pcuff B2), moved to the lateral decubitus position; facing away from the ventilator (measurement designated Pcuff B3) and then returned to the initial position (measurement designated Pcuff B4). Results: The study comprised 70 patients, 31 allocated to group A and 39 allocated to group B. Values >22 mmHg were observed in 142(50.7%) of the 280 Pcuff measurements taken, and values <18 mmHg were observed in 14 (5%). When moved from the 35° semi-Fowler position to the lateral decubitus position, facing away from the ventilator, 58 (82.2%) of the patients presented mean Pcuff values in the higher range (>22 mmHg). Conclusions: Changes in body position can cause significant Pcuff variations in patients under mechanical ventilation.

 


Keywords: Pressure; Intubation, intratracheal; Posture; Supine position.

 


Alterations in peak inspiratory pressure and tidal volume delivered by manually operated self-inflating resuscitation bags as a function of the oxygen supply rate

Alterações da pressão de pico inspiratório e do volume corrente fornecidos por reanimadores manuais com balão auto-inflável em função do fluxo de entrada de oxigênio utilizado

Armando Carlos Franco de Godoy, Ronan José Vieira, Eduardo Mello De Capitani

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(10):817-821

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Objective: To assess possible alterations in the tidal volume and peak inspiratory pressure delivered by seven models of manually operated self-inflating resuscitation bags as a function of the oxygen supply rate used. Methods: The resuscitation bags tested were the following: Oxigel, models A and B; CE Reanimadores; ProtecSolutions; Missouri; Axmed; and Narcosul. For the measurements, a wall oxygen flow meter, a flow meter/respirometer, a resuscitation bag, a sensor (Tracer 5 unit), and a test lung were connected. In addition, the Tracer 5 unit was connected to a notebook computer. Oxygen supply rates of 1, 5, 10, and 15 L/min were used. Results: The tidal volume delivered by the Oxigel model A resuscitation bag when receiving oxygen at a rate of 15 L/min was approximately 99% greater than that delivered when receiving oxygen at a rate of 1 L/min. Similarly, peak inspiratory pressure was approximately 155% greater. Under the same conditions, the tidal volume delivered by the Narcosul resuscitation bag was 48% greater, and peak inspiratory pressure was 105% greater. The remaining resuscitation bags tested showed no significant alterations in the tidal volume or peak inspiratory pressure delivered. Conclusions: Under the resistance and compliance conditions used, the resuscitation bags in which the oxygen inflow is directed to the interior of the bag had the patient valve stuck at the inspiratory position when receiving oxygen at a rate ≥ 5 L/min, significantly increasing the tidal volume and peak inspiratory pressure delivered. This did not occur with the resuscitation bags in which the oxygen inflow is directed to the exterior of the bag.

 


Keywords: Oxygen/administration & dosage; Resuscitation; Equipment and supplies; Pulmonary ventilation; Intensive care.

 


Association between paracoccidioidomycosis and tuberculosis: reality and misdiagnosis

Associação entre paracoccidioidomicose e tuberculose: realidade e erro diagnóstico

Reynaldo Quagliato Júnior, Tiago de Araújo Guerra Grangeia, Reinaldo Alexandre de Carvalho Massucio, Eduardo Mello De Capitani, Sílvio de Moraes Rezende, Alípio Barbosa Balthazar

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):295-300

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Objective: To evaluate the frequency of the real association between paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) and tuberculosis (TB) as well as the rate of previous TB misdiagnosis in individuals with PCM among the patients treated in the Pulmonology Division of the State University of Campinas Hospital das Clínicas, Campinas, Brazil. Methods: A retrospective study of 227 adult patients with PCM (chronic form) treated between 1980 and 2005. Results: Of the 227 patients studied, 36 (15.8%) had been previously treated for TB. However, only 18 (7.9%) presented positive sputum smear microscopy results. The remaining 18 (7.9%) neither presented positive sputum smear microscopy nor showed improvement after receiving specific anti-TB treatment. Conclusion: Although the existence of an association between PCM and TB has been documented in the literature, misdiagnosis is common due to the superimposition of and the similarity between their clinical and radiographic presentations, thereby warranting the need for bacteriological diagnosis before initiating specific treatment.

 


Keywords: Paracoccidioidomycosis; Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Diagnosis, differential.

 


Occupational lung cancer

Câncer de pulmão ocupacional

Eduardo Algranti, José Tarcísio Penteado Buschinelli, Eduardo Mello De Capitani

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):784-794

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Lung cancer is a multifactorial disease. Hereditary, genetic, and environmental factors interact in its genesis. The principal risk factor for lung cancer is smoking. However, the workplace provides an environment in which there is a risk of exposure to carcinogens. The International Agency for Research on Cancer currently lists 19 substances/work situations/occupations that have been proven to be associated with lung cancer (group 1). Thorough occupational history taking is not widely practiced in patients with lung cancer, which has a negative impact on the investigation of causality and, consequently, on the identification of cases of occupational cancer. The objectives of this review were to list the agents that are recognized as causes of lung cancer, to discuss the contribution of occupation to the development of the disease, to cite national studies on the subject, and to propose a list of procedures that are essential to the appropriate investigation of causality between lung cancer and occupation.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Occupational diseases; Occupations; Carcinogens.

 


Highlights of the Brazilian Thoracic Association Guidelines for Interstitial Lung Diseases

Destaques das Diretrizes de Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia

Bruno Guedes Baldi, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira, Adalberto Sperb Rubin, Alfredo Nicodemos da Cruz Santana, André Nathan Costa, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho, Eduardo Algranti, Eduardo Mello de Capitani, Eduardo Pamplona Bethlem, Ester Nei Aparecida Martins Coletta, Jaquelina Sonoe Ota Arakaki, José Antônio Baddini Martinez, Jozélio Freire de Carvalho, Leila John Marques Steidle, Marcelo Jorge Jacó Rocha, Mariana Silva Lima, Maria Raquel Soares, Marlova Luzzi Caramori, Miguel Abidon Aidé, Rimarcs Gomes Ferreira, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla, Rudolf Krawczenko Feitoza de Oliveira, Sérgio Jezler, Sílvia Carla Sousa Rodrigues, Suzana Pinheiro Pimenta

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):282-291

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Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are heterogeneous disorders, involving a large number of conditions, the approach to which continues to pose an enormous challenge for pulmonologists. The 2012 Brazilian Thoracic Association ILD Guidelines were established in order to provide Brazilian pulmonologists with an instrument that can facilitate the management of patients with ILDs, standardizing the criteria used for the diagnosis of different conditions and offering guidance on the best treatment in various situations. The objective of this article was to briefly describe the highlights of those guidelines.

 


Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial; Guidelines as topic; Brazil.

 


Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial isolates among patients with recent HIV infection in Mozambique

Doença pulmonar por Mycobacterium tuberculosis e micobactérias não-tuberculosas entre pacientes recém-diagnosticados como HIV positivos em Moçambique, África

Elizabete Abrantes Nunes, Eduardo Mello De Capitani, Elizabete Coelho, Alessandra Costa Panunto, Orvalho Augusto Joaquim, Marcelo de Carvalho Ramos

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(10):822-828

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Objective: Mycobacteriosis is frequently diagnosed among HIV-infected patients. In Mozambique, where few patients are under antiretroviral therapy and the prevalence of tuberculosis is high, there is need for better characterization of mycobacteria at the species level, as well as for the identification of patterns of resistance to antituberculous drugs. Methods: We studied a sample of 503 HIV-infected individuals suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis. Of those 503, 320 tested positive for mycobacteria through sputum smear microscopy or culture of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Results: Acid-fast bacilli were observed in the sputum of 73% of the individuals presenting positive cultures. Of 277 isolates tested, only 3 were nontuberculous mycobacteria: 2 were identified as Mycobacterium avium and one was identified as M. simiae. Strains initially characterized as M. tuberculosis complex through polymerase chain reaction restriction analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene were later confirmed as such through PRA of the gyrB gene. Among the M. tuberculosis isolates, resistance patterns were as follows: to isoniazid, 14%; to rifampin, 6%; and multidrug resistance, 5%. Previously treated cases showed significantly higher rates of resistance to first-line antituberculous drugs. The most common radiological pattern was interstitial infiltrate (in 67%), followed by mediastinal lymph node enlargement (in 30%), bronchiectasis (in 28%), miliary nodules (in 18%) and cavitation (in 12%). Patients infected with nontuberculous mycobacteria presented clinical profiles indistinguishable from those of other patients. The median CD4 lymphocyte count in this group was 134 cells/mm3. Conclusions: There is a strong association between tuberculosis and AIDS in Mozambique, as expected in a country with a high prevalence of tuberculosis. Although drug resistance rates are high, the isoniazid-rifampin regimen continues to be the appropriate choice for initial therapy.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mycobacteria, atypical; HIV; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; Drug Resistance, Multiple; Mozambique.

 


Alveolar hemorrhage after parenteral injection of industrial silicone

Hemorragia alveolar após injeção parenteral de silicone industrial

Ronaldo Ferreira Macedo, Ricardo Ananias Lobão, Eduardo Mello De Capitani, Maira Eliza Petrucci Zanovello, Paula Catarina Caruso, Maurício Souza de Toledo Leme, Elza Maria Figueiras Pedreira de Cerqueira, Lair Zambon

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):387-389

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Polymorphism of the CYP1A1*2A gene and susceptibility to lung cancer in a Brazilian population

O polimorfismo do gene CYP1A1*2A e a suscetibilidade ao câncer de pulmão na população brasileira

Helen Naemi Honma, Eduardo Mello De Capitani, Aristóteles de Souza Barbeiro, Daniel Botelho Costa, André Morcillo, Lair Zambon

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(8):767-772

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Objective: To estimate and compare the frequency of CYP1A1*2A gene polymorphisms in a Brazilian population and determine the possible contribution of these genetic variations to lung cancer risk. Methods: The study population included 200 patients with lung cancer, and the control group consisted of 264 blood donors. Genomic DNA was obtained from peripheral blood samples. The PCR-RFLP method was used for analysis of the CYP1A1*2A gene. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the lung cancer patients and the controls in terms of the distribution of CYP1A1*2A polymorphisms (p = 0.49). A multivariate logistic regression model analysis by ethnic group revealed that, within the lung cancer group, the CYP1A1*2A genotype CC plus TC was more common among the African-Brazilian patients than among the White patients (adjusted OR = 3.19; 95% CI: 1.53‑6.65). Conclusions: The CYP1A1*2A gene cannot be linked with lung cancer risk in Brazilian patients at this time. Larger epidemiologic studies are needed in order to establish whether the CC plus TC polymorphism increases the risk of lung cancer in African-Brazilians.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Polymorphism, genetic; Metabolism.

 


Rheumatoid pneumoconiosis (Caplan's syndrome) with a classical presentation

Pneumoconiose reumatoide (síndrome de Caplan) com apresentação clássica

Eduardo Mello De Capitani, Marcelo Schweller, Cristiane Mendes da Silva, Konradin Metze, Elza Maria Figueiras Pedreira de Cerqueira, Manoel Barros Bértol

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):942-946

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Although rare, rheumatoid pneumoconiosis, also known as Caplan's syndrome, can occur in workers exposed to silica, as well as in patients with silicosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis or asbestosis. Prevalence is higher among patients with silicosis, despite the fact that it was originally described in coal workers with pneumoconiosis. The classical finding that defines this syndrome is that of rheumatoid nodules in the lungs, regardless of whether there are small rounded opacities suggestive of pneumoconiosis or large opacities consistent with massive pulmonary fibrosis, with or without clinical rheumatoid arthritis. We describe the case of a female patient with rheumatoid arthritis, diagnosed 34 years after 7 years of occupational exposure to silica at a porcelain plant. A chest X-ray showed circular opacities of 1-5 cm in diameter, bilaterally distributed at the periphery of the lungs. A CT-guided thoracic punch biopsy of one of those nodules revealed that it was rheumatoid nodule surrounded by a palisade of macrophages, which is typical of Caplan's syndrome. Aspects of diagnosis, classification and occurrence of this syndrome are discussed, emphasizing the importance of the occupational anamnesis of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and lung opacities on chest X-rays.

 


Keywords: Pneumoconiosis; Arthritis, rheumatoid; Caplan's syndrome; Silicosis.

 


 

 


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