Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Heimlich valve in the treatment of pneumothorax

A válvula de Heimlich no tratamento do pneumotórax

Ricardo Beytuti, Letícia Engber Odilon Villiger, José Ribas Milanez de Campos, Rodrigo Afonso Silva, Angelo Fernandez, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(3):115-119

Abstract PDF PT

Objective: Heimlich valve has been described as a substitute for water-sealed drainage systems. The objective of this study by the Thoracic Surgery Service of the "Hospital das Clínicas", University of São Paulo Medical Center, is to assess its effectiveness in the treatment of pneumothorax and its ease of operation, safety, and patient toleration. Methods: From June/97 to August/00, 107 patients with pneumotoraxes of different etiologies were analyzed. The majority (76%) were classified radiologically as suffering from moderate or large pneumothorax, three hypertensive pneumothorax, and one was bilateral. The pleural cavity was drained with teflon or polyurethane plastic pig-tail catheters (10.2F, 14F, straight 11F connected to the Heimlich valve or the valve was connected directly to the thoracic drain in post-thoracotomy patients). Results: The valve remained in place for one to 120 days (mean 4 days). Tolerance to the system was good in 89% of cases. There were no serious complication linked to the system. Associated pleural effusion in 20 patients (18.5%) did not prevent the system from functioning well. Only two patients (1.8%) developed subcutaneous emphysema, and therefore, a 36F Tubular drain under water seal was chosen. Thoracotomy for decortication was indicated in one patient (0.9%). Twenty patients (18.5%) were treated on an outpatient basis. Conclusions: The Heimlich valve confirmed its effectiveness in resolving pneumothorax of different etiologies and in postoperative air leaks. Its operation was simpler than that of conventional systems. The good toleration and safety mentioned by the patients was a determining factor in early hospital discharge and a motive for outpatient treatment.


Keywords: Pneumothorax. Pleura. Postural drainage.


Application of the anthropometric index for the assessment of Pectus excavatum in patients submitted to the Nuss technique: two cases

Aplicação do índice antropométrico para avaliação do Pectus excavatum em pacientes submetidos à técnica de Nuss: relato de 2 casos

Rodrigo Ribeiro Brigato, José Ribas Milanez de Campos, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):347-350

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pectus excavatum (PEX) is the most frequent congenital deformity of the anterior chest wall and is defined as the dislocation of the medial or inferior portion of the sternal region toward the spinal column. There are various ways to measure the deformity. In this study, we present an objective method of assessing such deformity, the anthropometric index for PEX (AI-PEX). The AI-PEX was developed in the Thoracic Surgery Department of the Heart Institute - University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas. The anthropometric measurements are taken during the physical examination. We herein report two cases involving patients with PEX assessed using the AI-PEX and treated with the minimally invasive Nuss technique. The measurements were always taken at the point of greatest deformity. The patients were assessed on the day of the operation and again at 60 days after the surgery. The AI-PEX allowed us to obtain a satisfactory assessment of the defect. In both patients, the post-operative evolution was favorable.


Keywords: Thoracic wall; Thoracic surgery, Video-assisted; Funnel chest.


Lung volume reduction surgery in an experimental rat model of emphysema

Cirurgia de redução do volume pulmonar em modelo experimental de enfisema em ratos

Laerte Brasiliense Fusco, Marcelo Heleno Fonseca, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Rogério Pazetti, Vera Capelozzi, Fabio Biscegli Jatene, Sergio Almeida Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(1):-

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Background: Lung volume reduction surgery may be a viable treatment alternative for emphysema patients suffering from severe respiratory insufficiency. Objectives: To evaluate functional and morphological aspects of emphysematous rat lungs, prior to and following lung volume reduction surgery. Method: Wistar rats were divided into two experimental groups (papain without surgery and papain with surgery) and three control groups (saline without surgery, saline with surgery and papain without mechanical ventilation). After approximately 40 days of endotracheal instillation of papain or saline solution, animals in the papain with surgery and saline with surgery groups were submitted to bilobectomy of the middle lobes by right thoracotomy along the posterior border of the superior vena cava. After 1 week, the same animals were submitted to a mechanical ventilation study, which involved measurement of lung elasticity and airway resistance. For all of the animals studied, lung tissue was analyzed in order to determine alveolar diameter and the elastic fiber quantity. Results: Morphometric analysis revealed higher mean alveolar diameter in the lungs of all animals exposed to papain as compared to those exposed to saline. Elastic fiber counts in the alveolar septa of animals treated with papain were lower than those of animals receiving saline. In the animals submitted to bilobectomy and papain, lung elasticity was greater than in those receiving papain without surgery and was statistically equal to that seen in animals receiving saline (with or without surgery). Conclusion: In the respiratory systems of animals with pulmonary emphysema submitted to lung volume reduction by bilobectomy, the capacity for elastic recoil returned to values equivalent to those of the control group animals.


Keywords: Key words: Pulmonary emphysema. Papain/drugs efects. Case-control studies. Disease models, animal. Respiratory mechanics/drugs efects. Lung/sugery. Lung/anatomy & histology.


Mediastinal cyst as a cause of severe airway compression and dysphonia

Cisto mediastinal como causa de grave compressão da via aérea central e disfonia

Vanessa Costa Menezes, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Hélio Minamoto, Márcia Jacomelli, Paulo Sampaio Gutierrez, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):636-640

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Challenges in lung transplantation

Desafios do transplante pulmonar

Fábio Biscegli Jatene, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(5):249-250

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Diagnosis and treatment of mediastinal tumors by thoracoscopy

Diagnóstico e tratamento dos tumores mediastinais por toracoscopia

José Ribas Milanez de Campos, Luís Marcelo Inaco Cirino, Angelo Fernandez, Marcos Naoyuki Samano, Paulo Pego Fernandez, Luiz Tarcísio Britto Filomeno, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(4):169-174

Abstract PDF PT

Objectives: Thoracoscopic management of mediastinal tumors is still subject to analysis. Seventy-three patients were submitted to thoracoscopy for the treatment of mediastinal masses and were analyzed retrospectively, in order to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of the procedure. Methods: Between 1983 and 1999, 21 conventional thoracoscopies and 52 video-assisted thoracic surgeries were performed (33 for diagnostic purposes and 40 for therapy). Patient ages ranged from two to 81 years (mean 43.8) with a slight predominance of females over males (41 versus 32). All underwent general anesthesia using simple (22) or double lumen (51) intubation. Results: The histological type of tumor was identified in all patients. For therapeutic purposes, conversion to thoracotomy was necessary in nine patients. The reasons were tumor size and invasion of nearby structures, difficulty to continue dissection, to perform an upper lobectomy, and to suture the iatrogenic diaphragm lesion. Four patients died during the first 30 postoperative days as a consequence of their primary pathology. Conclusions: Thoracoscopy was confirmed to be an effective diagnostic and therapeutic alternative for the treatment of mediastinal disorders.


Keywords: Thoracoscopy, thoracic surgery, mediastinal neoplasms, mediastinal cysts.


Intratracheal stent: prosthesis or orthesis?

Dispositivos intra-traqueais: próteses ou órteses?

Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Helio Minamoto, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):606-607

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Mediastinal lymph node distribution, size and number: definitions based on an anatomical study

Distribuição, tamanho e número dos linfonodos mediastinais: definições por meio de estudo anatômico

Aurelino Fernandes Schmidt Júnior, Olavo Ribeiro Rodrigues, Roberto Storte Matheus, Jorge Du Ub Kim, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):134-140

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Objective: To create a reference map of mediastinal lymph nodes through the analysis of their size, number and distribution in various lymph node stations. Method: A total of 50 cadavers, 38 males and 12 females, were studied. Of those 50, 39 were Caucasian. The mean age was 59.9 ± 14.1 years, the mean height was 173.1 ± 7.6 cm, and the mean weight was 71.0 ± 12.0 kg. A bilateral mediastinal dissection was performed in order to resect and isolate all lymph nodes. The area, as well as the major and minor transverse diameters, of each lymph node was determined by radiographic imaging analysis. Results: In a sample of 485 chains, 1742 lymph nodes were dissected (2.58 ± 1.89 lymph nodes/station), revealing a mean number of 21.2 ± 8.5 lymph nodes on the right and 13.6 ± 6.3 on the left. The lymph node stations 1, 2R, 4R, 5, and 7 were present in more than 90% of the sample. Only the 4R and 7 lymph node stations were always present. The lymph node stations 2L, 3p, and 8 were present in 32, 36, and 54% of the sample, respectively. Mediastinal lymph nodes were present in greater numbers in the 2R, 4R and 7 lymph node stations. In addition, these stations presented the largest mediastinal lymph nodes. Conclusion: Composing a reference map for lymph node sizes was feasible. No alterations were observed in the distribution, number, or size of lymph nodes in the age brackets studied, regardless of gender, race, weight, or height.


Keywords: Lymph nodes; Mediastinum; Cadaver; Anatomy.


Effects of azathioprine on mucociliary clearance after bronchial section and anastomosis in a rat experimental model

Efeitos da azatioprina sobre a depuração mucociliar após secção e anastomose brônquica em um modelo experimental em ratos

Paulo Manuel Pêgo Fernandes, Marcelo Manzano Said, Rogério Pazetti, Luis Felipe Pinho Moreira, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(5):273-279

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Objective: To evaluate the effects of azathioprine on the mucociliary system in a model of bronchial section and anastomosis in rats. Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar-Furth rats were submitted to left bronchial section and anastomosis and divided into two groups to receive either saline solution or azathioprine. After 7, 15 and 30 days of treatment, six animals from each group were killed, after which in situ mucociliary transport velocity, in vitro mucus transportability, and contact angle of mucus in the right (intact) and left (sectioned) bronchi were measured. Results: In situ mucociliary transport velocity was significantly lower in the sectioned bronchi than in the intact bronchi (p < 0.001). In situ mucociliary transport velocity was lower in the intact bronchi of the animals treated with azathioprine for 7 days (p < 0.05), and those bronchi presented full recovery after 30 days of treatment. The contact angle was higher in the mucus samples collected from the sectioned bronchi of the animals treated with saline solution for 30 days (p < 0.001), which is in accordance with the decreased in vitro mucus transportability observed in the same animals (p < 0.001). Conclusions: We conclude that, in the sectioned bronchi of rats, treatment with azathioprine causes only transitory impairment of mucociliary transport, whereas administration of saline solution impairs mucociliary transport for up to 30 days. In addition, azathioprine protects against alterations in mucus surface properties.


Keywords: Mucociliary clearance; Anastomosis, surgical; Immunosuppression; Lung.


Self-expanding stent made of polyester mesh with silicon coating (Polyflex®) in the treatment of inoperable tracheal stenoses

Endoprótese auto-expansível de malha de poliéster revestida por silicone (Polyflex®) no tratamento de estenoses traqueais não-cirúrgicas

Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Helio Minamoto, Miguel Lia Tedde, José Luiz Jesus de Almeida, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):241-247

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the Polyflex® stent in terms of its efficacy, ease of implantation, and complications in patients with tracheobronchial affections. Methods: This was a prospective study, in which sixteen patients with inoperable tracheal stenosis secondary to orotracheal intubation (n = 12), neoplasia (n = 3), or Wegener's granulomatosis (n = 1) were monitored. Of these patients, eleven were women, and five were men. The mean age was 42.8 years (range, 21-72 years). Patients were submitted to implantation of a total of 21 Polyflex® stents. All procedures were carried out in the operating room under general anesthesia, and the stents were implanted via suspension laryngoscopy using the stent applicator. Results: Stents were implanted and symptoms were resolved in all cases. The stents remained in place for a mean period of 7.45 months, ranging from 2 to 18 months. The complications observed in the immediate postoperative period were dysphonia (in two patients, 12.5%) and odynophagia (in two patients, 12.5%). Late complications were cough (in ten patients, 62.5%), migration (in seven patients, 43.75%), granuloma formation (in two patients, 12.5%), and pneumonia (in one patient, 6.25%). Conclusion: The Polyflex® stent is easily implanted, easily removed, well tolerated by patients and effective in resolving symptoms. However, its use is associated with a high rate of migration, especially in patients with post-orotracheal intubation stenosis.


Keywords: Tracheal stenosis; Intubation, intratracheal; Prostheses and implants; Stents.


Current status and clinical applicability of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration

Estado atual e aplicabilidade clínica da punção aspirativa por agulha guiada por ultrassomendobrônquico

Viviane Rossi Figueiredo, Márcia Jacomelli, Ascédio José Rodrigues, Mauro Canzian,Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):226-237

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Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has played a key role in the diagnosis of mediastinal, paratracheal, and peribronchial lesions, as well as in lymph node staging for lung cancer. Despite its minimally invasive character, EBUS-TBNA has demonstrated a diagnostic yield comparable with that of established surgical methods. It has therefore gained credibility and has become a routine procedure at various referral centers. A successful EBUS-TBNA procedure requires careful planning, which includes a thorough review of the radiological imaging and special care during specimen collection and preparation, as well as technical expertise, experience with the procedure itself, and knowledge of the potential complications inherent to the procedure. The most common indications for EBUS-TBNA include lymph node staging for lung cancer and the diagnostic investigation of mediastinal/hilar masses and lymph node enlargement. Recently, tumor biomarkers in malignant samples collected during the EBUS-TBNA procedure have begun to be identified, and this molecular analysis has proven to be absolutely feasible. The EBUS-TBNA procedure has yet to be included on the Brazilian Medical Association list of medical procedures approved for reimbursement. The EBUS-TBNA procedure has shown to be a safe and accurate tool for lung cancer staging/restaging, as well as for the diagnosis of mediastinal, paratracheal, and peribronchial lesions/lymph node enlargement.


Palavras-chave: Biópsia por agulha fina; Neoplasias pulmonares; Estadiamento de neoplasias.


Subglottic and mediastinal hemangioma in a child:treatment with propranolol

Hemangioma subglótico e mediastinal em criança:tratamento com propranolol

Mauro Tamagno, Benoit Jacques Bibas, Helio Minamoto,Fernanda Sobreiro Alfinito, Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Fabio Biscegli JateneCarta

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):416-418

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Lung hyperinflation after single lung transplantation to treat emphysema

Hiperinsuflação pulmonar após transplante unilateral por enfisema

Marcos Naoyuki Samano, Jader Joel Machado Junqueira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga Teixeira, Marlova Luzzi Caramori, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(2):265-269

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Despite preventive measures, lung hyperinflation is a relatively common complication following single lung transplantation to treat pulmonary emphysema. The progressive compression of the graft can cause mediastinal shift and respiratory failure. In addition to therapeutic strategies such as independent ventilation, the treatment consists of the reduction of native lung volume by means of lobectomy or lung volume reduction surgery. We report two cases of native lung hyperinflation after single lung transplantation. Both cases were treated by means of lobectomy or lung volume reduction surgery.


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Postoperative complications; Pulmonary emphysema; Pneumonectomy.


The incidence of residual pneumothorax after video-assisted sympathectomy with and without pleural drainage and its effect on postoperative pain

Incidência de pneumotórax residual após simpatectomia torácica videotoracoscópica com e sem drenagem pleural e sua possível influência na dor pós-operatória

Alexandre Garcia de Lima, Giancarlo Antonio Marcondes, Ayrton Bentes Teixeira, Ivan Felizardo Contrera Toro, Jose Ribas Milanez de Campos, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(3):136-142

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Objective: To determine the incidence of residual pneumothorax after video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy, with and without postoperative pleural drainage, and to evaluate the possible influence of this type of pneumothorax on postoperative pain within the first 28 postoperative days. Methods: All patients presenting symptoms consistent with primary palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and treated at the Thoracic Surgery Outpatient Clinic of the State Hospital of Sumaré between July and December of 2006 were included. All were submitted to sympathectomy up to the third ganglion using video-assisted thoracoscopy and were randomized to receive or not receive postoperative pleural drainage for 3 h. Chest X-rays and low-dose computed tomography scans of the chest were performed on the first postoperative day in order to determine the incidence of residual pneumothorax. At different time points up to postoperative day 28, patient pain was assessed using a visual numeric scale and by measuring the quantity of opioid analgesics required. Results: This study comprised 56 patients, 27 submitted to bilateral pleural drainage and 29 not submitted to drainage. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of the incidence of post-sympathectomy residual pneumothorax. Residual pneumothorax diagnosed through any of the methods did not influence pain within the first 28 postoperative days. Conclusion: Performing closed pleural drainage for 3 h immediately after video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy did not affect lung re-expansion or the incidence of residual pneumothorax. When residual pneumothorax was present, it did not affect pain within the first 28 postoperative days.


Keywords: Hyperhidrosis; Sympathectomy; Pain, postoperative; Pneumothorax; Drainage; Pleura.


Suspension laryngoscopy for the thoracic surgeon: When and how to use it

Laringoscopia de suspensão para o cirurgião torácico: Quando e como utilizá-la

Antonio Oliveira dos Santos Júnior, Hélio Minamoto, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Tales Rubens de Nadai, Rafael Turano Mota, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):238-241

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Suspension laryngoscopy is one of the most common otolaryngological procedures for the diagnosis and surgical approach to the larynx. However, most thoracic surgeons are not familiar with the procedure and seldom use it. The indications for its use are similar to those for that of rigid bronchoscopy (dilatation, endoprosthesis insertion, and tumor resection). It can be performed in children and adults. Suspension laryngoscopy is an alternative when rigid bronchoscopy is unavailable and is therefore a viable option for use at smaller facilities. In this communication, we describe the technique and the applications of suspension laryngoscopy in thoracic surgery.


Keywords: Trachea; Dilatation; Thoracic Surgery; Laryngoscopy.


Sclerosing mediastinitis in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal tumors

Mediastinite esclerosante no diagnóstico diferencial de tumores mediastinais

Davi Wen Wei Kang, Mauro Canzian, Ricardo Beyruti, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):78-83

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Sclerosing mediastinitis is a rare disorder characterized by an extensive fibrotic reaction involving the mediastinum. Due to the compression or invasion of mediastinal structures, the disorder mimics neoplasia. We present three cases of superior vena cava syndrome in which sclerosing mediastinitis was confirmed. The pathophysiological process is related to enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition. The main causes of sclerosing mediastinitis are histoplasmosis and tuberculosis, both of which are prevalent in Brazil. It is difficult to make an accurate histopathological diagnosis using minimally invasive methods, and there is no effective treatment for this condition. In order to make a definitive diagnosis and resolve the aerodigestive tract obstruction, exploratory surgery is indicated.


Keywords: Mediastinitis/physiopathology; Mediastinum; Pulmonary fibrosis; Mediastinal neoplasms; Diagnosis, differential; Case reports [Publication type].


Malignant pleural mesothelioma: multidisciplinary experience in a public tertiary hospital

Mesotelioma pleural maligno: experiência multidisciplinar em hospital público terciário

Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Lisete Ribeiro Teixeira, Ricardo Beyruti, Teresa Yae Takagaki, Francisco Suso Vargas, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(1):12-20

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Objective: To evaluate the experience in diagnosing and treating malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) accumulated over 5 years in a tertiary public hospital. Methods: The medical charts of the patients diagnosed with MPM between January of 2000 and February of 2005 were evaluated retrospectively. Results: Of the 17 patients analyzed, 14 were male and 3 were female. The mean age was 54.1 years (range, 13-75 years). The biopsy specimens for histopathological examination were obtained through thoracoscopy in 9 patients (53%), Cope needle in 5 (29.5%), and open pleural biopsy in 3 (17.5%). The following histological types were identified: epithelial, in 14 patients (82%); sarcomatoid, in 1 (6%); and biphasic, in 2 (12%). The therapeutic approaches used were as follows: multimodal (pleuropneumonectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy) in 6 patients (35%); chemotherapy and radiotherapy in 6 (35%); radiotherapy alone in 3 (17.5%); and chemotherapy alone in 2 (12%). The mean survival was 11 months (range, 1-26 months). Conclusions: In the cases studied, an integrated multidisciplinary approach was used, and a highly complex hospital infrastructure was available for the diagnosis and treatment of MPM, as recommended in the literature. However, the mean survival was only 11 months, reflecting the aggressiveness of the disease.


Keywords: Mesothelioma; Pleura; Surgery; Diagnosis.


Papain-induced experimental pulmonary emphysema model in rats

Modelo experimental de enfisema pulmonar em ratos induzido por papaína

Laerte Brasiliense Fusco, Paulo M. Pêgo-Fernandes, Alexandre Martins Xavier, Rogério Pazetti, Dolores Helena Rodriguez Ferreira Rivero, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(1):1-7

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Objective: The reproduction of an experimental emphysema model in rats by intratracheal instillation of papain was proposed for the evaluation of lung volume reduction surgeries. Method: The study used orotracheal instillation of papain (20 mg/kg) dissolved in 0.9% saline solution. Forty days after instillation, animals underwent mechanical ventilation. Elastance and resistance of the respiratory system were measured, and the rats were sacrificed by having their lungs removed. The pulmonary tissue of the animals was qualitatively analyzed with hematoxylineosin staining and submitted to morphometric analysis for the measurement of the mean alveolar diameter. The pulmonary tissue was also subjected to resorcin-fuchsin staining for the identification of elastic fibers, which were quantified in alveolar septa by digital imaging. Results: In the animals instilled with papain, the histological analysis of the lungs showed pan-acinar emphysema, with rupture of alveolar septa and hyperdistention. Morphometric analysis showed higher mean values for mean alveolar diameter in the lungs of the animals submitted to papain (149.08 μm and 100.56 μm) as compared to the group receiving saline solution (64.08 μm and 75.90 μm). The quantification of elastic fibers of alveolar septa of papain-treated animals was 70% lower than in the animals receiving saline solution. Mechanic ventilation did not show differences in respiratory system resistance of animals receiving papain or saline solution. Respiratory system elastance was lower in the group receiving papain than in the group receiving saline solution, showing a functional status compatible with pulmonary emphysema, with decreased elasticity of the pulmonary tissue. Conclusion: The reproduction of an experimental model of pan-acinar pulmonary emphysema in rats was achieved by papain instillation through the respiratory tree with functional and morphologic evidences.


Keywords: Pulmonary emphysema. Experimental model. Papain. Rats. Drug instillations.


An experimental rat model of ex vivo lung perfusion for the assessment of lungs after prostacyclin administration: inhaled versus parenteral routes

Modelo experimental de perfusão pulmonar ex vivo em ratos: avaliação de desempenho de pulmões submetidos à administração de prostaciclina inalada versus parenteral

Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Rogério Pazetti, Henrique Takachi Moriya, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Francine Maria de Almeida, Aristides Tadeu Correia, Karina Fechini, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):589-597

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Objective: To present a model of prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) administration (inhaled vs. parenteral) and to assess the functional performance of the lungs in an ex vivo lung perfusion system. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were anesthetized and placed on mechanical ventilation followed by median sterno-laparotomy and anticoagulation. The main pulmonary artery was cannulated. All animals were maintained on mechanical ventilation and were randomized into four groups (10 rats/group): inhaled saline (IS); parenteral saline (PS); inhaled PGI2 (IPGI2); and parenteral PGI2 (PPGI2). The dose of PGI2 used in the IPGI2 and PPGI2 groups was 20 and 10 µg/kg, respectively. The heart-lung blocks were submitted to antegrade perfusion with a low potassium and dextran solution via the pulmonary artery, followed by en bloc extraction and storage at 4°C for 6 h. The heart-lung blocks were then ventilated and perfused in an ex vivo lung perfusion system for 50 min. Respiratory mechanics, hemodynamics, and gas exchange were assessed. Results: Mean pulmonary artery pressure following nebulization decreased in all groups (p < 0.001), with no significant differences among the groups. During the ex vivo perfusion, respiratory mechanics did not differ among the groups, although relative oxygenation capacity decreased significantly in the IS and PS groups (p = 0.04), whereas mean pulmonary artery pressure increased significantly in the IS group. Conclusions: The experimental model of inhaled PGI2 administration during lung extraction is feasible and reliable. During reperfusion, hemodynamics and gas exchange trended toward better performance with the use of PGI2 than that with the use of saline.


Keywords: Prostaglandins; Lung transplantation; Reperfusion; Models, animal; Rats.


An experimental rat model of ex vivo lung perfusion for the assessment of lungs regarding histopathological findings and apoptosis: low-potassium dextran vs. histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate

Modelo experimental de perfusão pulmonar ex vivo em ratos: avaliação histopatológica e de apoptose celular em pulmões preservados com solução de baixo potássio dextrana vs. solução histidina-triptofano-cetoglutarato

Edson Azevedo Simões, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Mauro Canzian, Rogério Pazetti, Karina Andriguetti de Oliveira Braga, Natalia Aparecida Nepomuceno, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):461-469

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Objective: To compare histopathological findings and the degree of apoptosis among rat lungs preserved with low-potassium dextran (LPD) solution, histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution, or normal saline (NS) at two ischemia periods (6 h and 12 h) using an experimental rat model of ex vivo lung perfusion. Methods: Sixty Wistar rats were anesthetized, randomized, and submitted to antegrade perfusion via pulmonary artery with one of the preservation solutions. Following en bloc extraction, the heart-lung blocks were preserved for 6 h or 12 h at 4°C and then reperfused with homologous blood for 60 min in an ex vivo lung perfusion system. At the end of the reperfusion, fragments of the middle lobe were extracted and processed for histopathological examination. The parameters evaluated were congestion, alveolar edema, alveolar hemorrhage, inflammatory infiltrate, and interstitial infiltrate. The degree of apoptosis was assessed using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. Results: The histopathological examination showed that all of the lungs preserved with NS presented alveolar edema after 12 h of ischemia. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups in terms of the degree of apoptosis. Conclusions: In this study, the histopathological and apoptosis findings were similar with the use of either LPD or HTK solutions, whereas the occurrence of edema was significantly more common with the use of NS.


Keywords: : Organ preservation; Organ preservation solutions; Lung transplantation; Reperfusion injury; Apoptosis.


Experimental model of isolated lung perfusion in rats: technique and application in lung preservation studies

Modelo experimental de perfusão pulmonar isolada em ratos: técnica e aplicações em estudos de preservação pulmonar

Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Eduardo de Campos Werebe, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Rogério Pazetti, Karina Andrighetti de Oliveira, Paula Roberta Otaviano Soares, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(4):-

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Small animal models are particularly suitable for lung preservation studies, because they are simple and cost-effective. This brief communication focuses on the technical description of an ex vivo lung perfusion model in rats by means of a commercially available apparatus, which was the first to be installed in a thoracic surgery research laboratory in Brazil. The model and its preparation, together with its applications for lung preservation studies, are described in detail. All technical details can also be seen in a video posted on the website of the Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology.


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Reperfusion injury; Rats; Models, animal.


Ex vivo experimental model: split lung block technique

Modelo experimental ex vivo com bloco pulmonar dividido

Alessandro Wasum Mariani, Israel Lopes de Medeiros, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Flávio Guimarães Fernandes, Fernando do Valle Unterpertinger, Lucas Matos Fernandes, Mauro Canzian, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):791-795

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Since they were first established, ex vivo models of lung reconditioning have been evaluated extensively. When rejected donor lungs are used, the great variability among the cases can hinder the progress of such studies. In order to avoid this problem, we developed a technique that consists of separating the lung block into right and left blocks and subsequently reconnecting those two blocks. This technique allows us to have one study lung and one control lung.


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Transplantation conditioning; Organ preservation; Organ preservation solutions.


Does methylene blue attenuate inflammation in nonischemic lungs after lung transplantation?

O azul de metileno atenua a inflamação em pulmões não isquêmicos após transplante pulmonar?

Marcus da Matta Abreu1,a, Francine Maria de Almeida1,b, Kelli Borges dos Santos2,c, Emílio Augusto Campos Pereira de Assis3,d, Rafael Kenji Fonseca Hamada4,e, Fabio Biscegli Jatene1,f, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes1,g, Rogerio Pazetti1,h

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(5):378-382

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Objective: To evaluate whether methylene blue (MB) could minimize the effects of ischemia-reperfusion injury in the nonischemic lung on a lung transplantation rodent model. Methods: Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 20 donors and 20 recipients. The 20 recipient rats were divided into two groups (n = 10) according to the treatment (0.9% saline vs. 1% MB solutions). All animals underwent unilateral lung transplantation. Recipients received 2 mL of saline or MB intraperitoneally prior to transplantation. After 2 h of reperfusion, the animals were euthanized and histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed in the nonischemic lung. Results: There was a significant decrease in inflammation-neutrophil count and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in lung parenchyma were higher in the saline group in comparison with the MB group-and in apoptosis-caspase-3 expression was higher in the saline group and Bcl-2 expression was higher in MB group. Conclusions: MB is an effective drug for the protection of nonischemic lungs against inflammation and apoptosis following unilateral lung transplantation in rats.


Keywords: Reperfusion injury; Methylene blue; Lung transplantation; Apoptosis; Inflammation.


Lung donor profile in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2006

Perfil do doador de pulmão disponibilizado no estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em 2006

Paulo Manuel Pêgo Fernandes, Marcos Naoyuki Samano, Jader Joel Machado Junqueira, Daniel Reis Waisberg, Gustavo Sousa Noleto, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(7):497-505

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Objective: To analyze the rate at which lungs available for transplantation in the state of São Paulo in 2006 were utilized and to determine the lung donor profile in the same period. Methods: A retrospective study of 497 clinical charts of lung tissue donors from January to December of 2006. Results: According to the clinical charts, lungs were not offered for transplant in 149 cases (30%), which were therefore excluded from the study. Among the 348 lung donors eligible for inclusion in the study, the mean age was 37.4 ± 16.1 years, and 56.9% were males. The main causes of brain death among the donors were stroke (in 40.5%), skull-brain trauma (in 34.2%) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (in 10.9%). The great majority of these lung donors (90.5%) received vasoactive agents, and 13.5% presented cardiopulmonary arrest. The mean donor leukocyte count was 15,008 ± 6,467 cells/mm3, 67.8% of the donors received anti-bacterial agents, and 26.1% presented lung infection. Nearly 40% of the lung donors presented chest X-ray abnormalities. Only 4.9% of the lung donors were accepted, representing 28 lungs (allograft utilization rate of 4%). The causes for donor exclusion were gas exchange alterations (in 30.1%), infection (in 23.7%) and distance (in 10.9%). Conclusions: The lung utilization rate in the state of São Paulo is low when compared to mean rates worldwide. In addition, more than half of the donor pool was excluded due to altered gas exchange or pulmonary infection. The combination of better care of the potential donor and more flexible selection criteria could increase allograft utilization.


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Donor selection; Tissue donors.


Ex vivo lung perfusion: initial Brazilian experience

Perfusão pulmonar ex vivo: experiência nacional inicial

Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Israel Lopes de Medeiros, Alessandro Wasum Mariani, Flávio Guimarães Fernandes, Fernando do Valle Unterpertinger, Marcos Naoyuki Samano, Eduardo de Campos Werebe, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1107-1111

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In the last 20 years, lung transplantation has become the standard treatment for patients with end-stage lung disease. However, less than 20% of the donor lungs available for transplant are actually usable. This disparity between the growing number of recipients and the small number of donors has resulted in increased mortality among lung transplant candidates on waiting lists. Strategies such as the utilization of organs from marginal donors have proven ineffective in increasing the number of transplants. In 2000, a new method for reconditioning human lungs that had been previously rejected for transplantation was developed in Sweden. We describe our initial experience with ex vivo lung perfusion.


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Organ preservation; Organ preservation solutions; Thoracic surgery.


Recurrent pneumothorax secondary to agenesis of the diaphragm

Pneumotórax recidivante secundário à agenesia do diafragma

Camila Baracat Mendina, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(1):48-50

Abstract PDF PT

The authors report a case of recurrent pneumothorax secondary to agenesis of the diaphragm in a 36-year old female. The diagnosis was established by means of clinical history and chest X-ray examination. Surgical correction was carried out. Diaphragmatic agenesis was detected during the procedure and pleural abrasion was performed. Two months following surgery another pneumothorax episode occurred. Fallopian tube ligature was then performed in order to prevent the entrance of air into the abdomen during ovulation, and thus avoid further recurrences of pneumothorax.


Keywords: Diaphragm. Agenesis. Pneumothorax. Recurrence.


Miguel Lia Tedde, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(6):593-594

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Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis and staging of mediastinal lymphadenopathy: initial experience in Brazil

Punção aspirativa guiada por ultrassom endobrônquico no diagnóstico e estadiamento de linfadenopatia mediastinal: experiência inicial no Brasil

Miguel Lia Tedde, Viviane Rossi Figueiredo, Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Hélio Minamoto, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):33-40

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Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a new method for the diagnosis and staging of mediastinal lymph nodes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the preliminary results obtained with EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis of lesions and mediastinal lymph node staging. Methods: We evaluated patients with tumors or mediastinal adenopathy, diagnosed with or suspected of having lung cancer. The procedures were performed with the patients under sedation or under general anesthesia. Material was collected by EBUS-TBNA, after which it was prepared on slides, fixed in either absolute alcohol (for cytology) or formalin (for cell-block analysis). Results: We included 50 patients (30 males). The mean age was 58.3 ± 13.5 years. We performed 201 biopsies of 81 lymph nodes or mediastinal masses (mean of 2.5 punctures/biopsy). The quantity of material was considered sufficient for cytology in 37 patients (74%), 21 (57%) of whom were thus diagnosed with malignancy. Of the remaining 16 patients, 1 was diagnosed with tuberculosis, 6 entered clinical follow-up, and 9  underwent further investigation (2 diagnosed with neoplasm-false-negative results). The yield was higher when the procedure was performed for diagnostic purposes, as well as being higher in patients with lesions in multiple stations and in biopsies involving the subcarinal lymph node station. One patient had endobronchial bleeding, which was resolved with local measures. There were no deaths among the patients evaluated. Conclusions: This preliminary experience shows that EBUS-TBNA is a safe procedure. Our diagnostic yield, although lower than that reported in the literature, was consistent with the learning curve for the method.


Keywords: Ultrasonography, interventional; Biopsy, fine-needle; Neoplasm staging; Lung neoplasms; Bronchoscopy.


Quality of life before and after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy: Preliminary results

Qualidade de vida antes e após tromboendarterectomia pulmonar. Resultados preliminares

Pedro Rodrigues Genta, Fábio Biscegli Jatene, Mário Terra-Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(1):-

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Background: Pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic thromboembolism is a severe and debilitating disease and has been associated with high mortality. Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy is the treatment of choice. Objective: To evaluate the impact of pulmonary thromboendarterectomy on the quality of life of patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic thromboembolism using the SF-36 Health Survey. Method: The SF-36 Health Survey questionnaire was administered to 13 patients prior to and at least 3 months following thromboendarterectomy. Results: Of the 13 patients studied, 7 were female and 6 were male. Mean age was 45.7 ± 18.3. All were submitted to thromboendarterectomy. After surgery, all SF-36 domains, with the exception of the "mental health" domain, improved. Conclusion: Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy provides significant improvement in patient quality of life.


Keywords: Key words: Hypertension pulmonary. Pulmonary embolism. Endarterectomy/methods. Quality of life.


Questionnaire of quality of life in patients with primary hyperhidrosis

Questionário de qualidade de vida em pacientes com hiperidrose primária

José Ribas Milanez de Campos, Paulo Kauffman, Eduardo de Campos Werebe, Laert Oliveira Andrade Filho, Sergio Kuzniek, Nelson Wolosker, Fábio Biscegli Jatene, Mariane Amir

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(4):178-181

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Background: Hyperhidrosis or excessive sudoresis is a chronic disease associated with important subjective distress. Objective: To propose a specific questionnaire to evaluate the quality of life of patients with hyperhidrosis. Methods: From October 1995 to March 2002, 378 patients (234 females), with a mean age of 26.8 years, were evaluated before and after video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy. Results: Therapeutic success was obtained in 90% of the procedures. The recurrence rate was 10% for palmar and 11% for axillary hyperhidrosis; 27% of the patients who had recurrence were re-operated successfully. No serious complications were reported. Of the total number of patients, 91% answered to the quality of life questionnaire, and 86% of them reported improvement after the procedure. Conclusions: Thoracic sympathectomy is a therapeutic method capable of changing the quality of life of patients with hyperhidrosis. The questionnaire applied has shown these changes.


Keywords: Thoracic sympathectomy. Quality of life.


Ex vivo lung reconditioning: a new era for lung transplantation

Recondicionamento pulmonar ex vivo: uma nova era para o transplante pulmonar

Alessandro Wasum Mariani, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Luis Gustavo Abdalla, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):776-785

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Lung transplantation has come to be viewed as the best treatment option for various end-stage lung diseases. The low number of viable donors continues to be a major obstacle to increasing the number of lung transplants, resulting in high mortality among patients on the waiting list. Unlike transplantation of other solid organs, lung transplantation is primarily limited not by the absolute number of donors but by the viability of the donor lungs, which can be damaged by brain death and by treatments given in the ICU. There are various proposals of ways to increase the number of lung donors: intensification of donation campaigns, use of non-heart-beating donors, living lobar lung transplantation, and adoption of more flexible criteria for donors. However, the proposal that has attracted the most attention from lung transplant groups is ex vivo lung perfusion, especially due to the prospect of reconditioning previously discarded lungs. This system consists of perfusion and ventilation of the isolated heart-lung block using a modified cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. Various authors have been studying this technique due to the satisfactory results obtained and the prospect of an increase in the number of organs suitable for transplantation. Researchers in Sweden, Canada, Austria, England, Spain, and Brazil have extensive experience with the method and have introduced modifications to it. The objective of this article was to review the development of, state of the art in, and future prospects for the ex vivo model of lung perfusion and reconditioning.


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Transplantation conditioning; Perfusion; Organ preservation.


Pulmonary sequestration: a series of nine cases operated on

Seqüestro pulmonar: uma série de nove casos operados

Paulo M. Pêgo-Fernandes, Cibele Hasmann Freire, Fabio Biscegli Jatene, Ricardo Beyruti, Francisco Vargas Suso, Sérgio Almeida de Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):175-179

Abstract PDF PT

Background: Pulmonary sequestration is a congenital anomaly involving the pulmonary parenchyma and its vascularization, and it presents as extralobar or intralobar. Aim: Describe the cases treated at the Institute of Heart (InCor) and Clinical Hospital of the Medical School of the University of São Paulo (FMUSP). Method: Retrospective analyses of the files of the patients treated over the 10-year period taking demographic, clinical and laboratorial data. Results: The patients were recurrent pulmonary infection and hemoptysis were frequent clinical findings in these patients. All cases were intralobar. The main localization was the left lower lobe (66%). Only one diagnosis was made intra-operatively. In the other eight cases, diagnosis was suggested on chest radiographs (100%) and confirmed by angiography (77%) and computed tomography (66%). Lobectomy (77%) was the most common surgical treatment, with low post-operative morbidity, and no mortality. Anatomic and histologic examination was performed in seven cases and confirmed the pathology. Conclusion: Pulmonary sequestration is an uncommon entity, in which the computed tomography and the angiography are the radiological investigations that provide the most information to a definitive and secure diagnosis. Resection of the involved tissue leads to excellent results.


Thymoma: discussion about treatment and diagnosis

Timoma: discussão sobre tratamento e prognóstico

Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Gustavo Xavier Ebaid, Maurício Stanzione Galizia, Paulo Marchiori, Francisco Vargas Suso, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(6):289-294

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Objectives: To describe a group of patients with thymoma who were submitted to surgica treatment associated or not with therapy, and evaluate their prognosis. Methods: Of the 104 patients with thymic tumors who were operated at Hospital das Clínicas - São Paulo University Medical School between 1965 and 1998, (66.3%) were males. Mean age at diagnosis, was 47.9% ± 16.3 years (ranging from 13 to 76 years). Results: Of the 104 patients, 89 (85.6%) underwent complete thymoma resection, 6 (5.8%) underwent partial resection and, in 9 (8.6%) of them, biopsy was performed. Anatomopathologic diagnosis (thymoma vs malignant thymoma) and the type of surgery (biopsy vs complete resection vs partial resection) were significant predictors of survival mean time (p < 0.02). Conclusions: Complete resection is the treatment of choice for thymomas. These tumors, when not invasive and completely resected, have good immediate and late prognosis.


Keywords: Thymoma.


Surgical treatment of congenital tracheal stenoses

Tratamento cirúrgico das estenoses traqueais congênitas

Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Helio Minamoto, Lívia Caroline Barbosa Mariano, Angelo Fernandez, José Pinhata Otoch, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(6):515-520

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the outcomes of patients undergoing repair of congenital tracheal stenosis. Methods: This was a retrospective review of congenital tracheal stenosis patients treated between 2001 and 2007 at the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas in São Paulo, Brazil. Results: Six boys and one girl (age at diagnosis ranging from 28 days to 3 years) were included. Five of the patients also had cardiac or major vessel malformations. The stenosis length was short in three patients, medium in one and long in three. The techniques used were pericardial patch tracheoplasty in three patients, resection and anastomosis in two, slide tracheoplasty in one and vascular ring correction in one. One patient died during surgery due to hypoxia and hemodynamic instability, and one died from septic shock on postoperative day 11. Other complications included pneumonia, arrhythmia, stenosis at the anastomosis level, residual stenosis, granuloma formation and malacia. The mean follow-up period was 31 months; four patients were cured, and one required the use of a T-tube to maintain airway patency. Conclusions: Congenital tracheal stenosis is a curable disease. However, its repair is complex and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality.


Keywords: Tracheal stenosis/congenital; Tracheal diseases; Surgical procedures, operative.


Endoscopic treatment of tracheobronchial tree fistulas using atrial septal defect occluders: preliminary results

Tratamento endoscópico de fístulas da árvore traqueobrônquica com dispositivos para a correção de defeitos do septo interatrial: resultados preliminares

Paulo Rogério Scordamaglio, Miguel Lia Tedde, Hélio Minamoto, Carlos Augusto Cardoso Pedra, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1156-1160

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Fistulas in the tracheobronchial tree (bronchopleural and tracheoesophageal fistulas) have a multifactorial etiology and present a variable incidence in the literature. In general, the related morbidity and mortality are high. Once such a fistula has been diagnosed, surgical closure is formally indicated. However, the clinical status of affected patients is usually unfavorable, which precludes the use of additional, extensive surgical interventions. In addition, attempts at endoscopic closure of these fistulas have seldom been successful, especially when the fistula is large in diameter. We report the cases of three patients submitted to endoscopic closure of fistulas, two of which were larger than 10 mm in diameter, by means of the insertion of atrial septal defect occluders. The procedure was minimally invasive, and the initial results were positive. The results indicate that this is a promising technique for the resolution of tracheobronchial tree fistulas.


Keywords: Bronchial fistula; Tracheoesophageal fistula; Bronchoscopy; Respiratory therapy.


80 year old man thromboendarterectomy Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy in an 80-year-old patient

Tromboendarterectomia pulmonar em paciente com 80 anos de idade

Mário Terra-Filho, Sabrina Correia da Costa Ribeiro, Rogério de Souza, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(5):485-487

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN

Pulmonary hypertension secondary to thromboembolism is a serious and debilitating disease. It occurs in approximately 0.5-1.0% of patients who survive an episode of acute thromboembolism. This is the first reported case of successful thromboendarterectomy performed in an elderly patient in Brazil. The patient, an 80-year-old man, presented favorable postoperative evolution. The authors believe this surgical procedure is a viable option for treatment of this type of pulmonary hypertension even in patients of advanced age, providing that there are no comorbidities.


Keywords: Thromboendarterectomy/methods. Hypertension pulmonary/surgery. Clinical evolution.


Treatment of bronchial stenosis after lung transplantation using a self-expanding metal endobronchial stent

Utilização de endoprótese metálica no tratamento de estenose brônquica após transplante pulmonar

Marcos Naoyuki Samano, Marlova Luzzi Caramori, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga Teixeira, Helio Minamoto, Paulo Manuel Pêgo Fernandes, Fabio Biscegli Jatene, Sérgio Almeida de Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(3):269-272

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Although the incidence of bronchial anastomosis as a complication of lung transplantation has decreased in recent years, it remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Treatment options include balloon dilatation, laser photocoagulation, placement of a stent (silicone or metal), and performing a second operation. We report the case of a patient who presented bronchial stenosis after left lung transplantation and was treated with a self-expanding metal alloy (nitinol) stent (UltraflexÒ). Despite the fact that this was the first case of stenosis treated in this fashion in Brazil, the positive clinical response, in agreement with results reported in the literature, indicates that this treatment is a viable alternative in such cases.


Keywords: Lung transplantation. Tracheal stenosis. Prosthesis and implants. Stents. Postoperative complications.


Electric Ventilation: indications for and technical aspects of diaphragm pacing stimulation surgical implantation

Ventilação elétrica: indicações e aspectos técnicos do implante cirúrgico do marca-passo de estimulação diafragmática

Miguel Lia Tedde, Raymond P Onders, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Silvia Gelas Lage, Gerson Ballester, Mario Wilson Iersolino Brotto, Erica Mie Okumura, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):566-572

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Objective: Patients with high cervical spinal cord injury are usually dependent on mechanical ventilation support, which, albeit life saving, is associated with complications and decreased life expectancy because of respiratory infections. Diaphragm pacing stimulation (DPS), sometimes referred to as electric ventilation, induces inhalation by stimulating the inspiratory muscles. Our objective was to highlight the indications for and some aspects of the surgical technique employed in the laparoscopic insertion of the DPS electrodes, as well as to describe five cases of tetraplegic patients submitted to the technique. Methods: Patient selection involved transcutaneous phrenic nerve studies in order to determine whether the phrenic nerves were preserved. The surgical approach was traditional laparoscopy, with four ports. The initial step was electrical mapping in order to locate the "motor points" (the points at which stimulation would cause maximal contraction of the diaphragm). If the diaphragm mapping was successful, four electrodes were implanted into the abdominal surface of the diaphragm, two on each side, to stimulate the branches of the phrenic nerve. Results: Of the five patients, three could breathe using DPS alone for more than 24 h, one could do so for more than 6 h, and one could not do so at all. Conclusions: Although a longer follow-up period is needed in order to reach definitive conclusions, the initial results have been promising. At this writing, most of our patients have been able to remain ventilator-free for long periods of time.


Keywords: Spinal cord injuries; Quadriplegia; Respiration, artificial; Pacemaker, artificial; Diaphragm.


Video-assisted thoracoscopy as an option in the surgical treatment of chylothorax after cardiac surgery in children

Videotoracoscopia como uma opção no tratamento cirúrgico do quilotórax após cirurgia cardíaca pediátrica

Paulo Manuel Pego-Fernandes, Mauro Boldrini Nascimbem, Otávio T. Ranzani, Mônica Satsuki Shimoda, Rosângela Monteiro, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):28-35

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the use of video-assisted thoracoscopy in the surgical treatment of chylothorax developed after the surgical correction of congenital heart disease in children. Methods: We reviewed the medical charts of 3,092 children who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease between February of 2002 and February of 2007 at the Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas, in São Paulo, Brazil. Results: Of the 3,092 children, 64 (2.2%) presented with chylothorax as a postoperative complication. In 50 (78.1%) of those patients, the clinical management was successful, whereas it failed in 14 (21.9%), all of whom were then submitted to thoracic duct ligation by video-assisted thoracoscopy. The thoracic duct ligation was successful in 12 patients (86%) but failed in 2. In the postoperative period, additional clinical measures, such as a low-fat diet and parenteral nutrition, were required in order to resolve those 2 cases. There was no surgical morbidity or mortality. Of the 14 patients who underwent thoracic duct ligation, 5 (35%) died due to cardiac or infectious complications. Conclusions: Video-assisted thoracic duct ligation can be safely performed in patients with severe heart disease, and the outcomes are favorable.


Keywords: Chylothorax; Heart defects, congenital; Thoracic duct.




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