Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2012 - Volume 38  - Number 1  (January/February)

Special Article

3 - Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in severe hypoxemia: time for reappraisal?

Oxigenação extracorpórea por membrana na hipoxemia grave: hora de revermos nossos conceitos?

Luciano Cesar Pontes Azevedo, Marcelo Park, Eduardo Leite Vieira Costa, Edzângela Vasconcelos Santos, Adriana Hirota, Leandro Utino Taniguchi, Guilherme de Paula Pinto Schettino, Marcelo Brito Passos Amato, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):7-12

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In 2009, during the influenza A (H1N1) epidemic, there were many reported cases of pulmonary infection with severe hypoxemia that was refractory to the ventilatory strategies and rescue therapies commonly used to treat patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Many of those cases were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), which renewed international interest in the technique. The Extracorporeal Support Study Group was created in order to practice ECMO and to employ it in the treatment of patients with severe hypoxemia. In this article, we discuss the indications for using ECMO and report the case of a patient with refractory hypoxemia who was successfully treated with ECMO.


Keywords: : Respiratory Insufficiency; Intensive Care Units; Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.


Original Article

4 - Dynamic hyperinflation during treadmill exercise testing in patients with moderate to severe COPD

Comportamento da hiperinsuflação dinâmica em teste em esteira rolante em pacientes com DPOC moderada a grave

Priscila Kessar Cordoni, Danilo Cortozi Berton, Selma Denis Squassoni, Maria Enedina Aquino Scuarcialupi, José Alberto Neder, Elie Fiss

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):13-23

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To characterize the presence, extent, and patterns of dynamic hyperinflation (DH) during treadmill exercise testing in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 30 non-hypoxemic patients (FEV1= 43 ± 14% of predicted) who were submitted to a cardiopulmonary exercise test on a treadmill at a constant speed (70-80% of maximum speed) to the tolerance limit (Tlim). Serial inspiratory capacity (IC) maneuvers were used in order to assess DH. Results: Of the 30 patients studied, 19 (63.3%) presented with DH (DH+ group), having greater pulmonary function impairment at rest than did those without DH (DH− group). None of the variables studied correlated with exercise tolerance in the DH− group, whereas Tlim, IC, and perception of dyspnea during exercise did so correlate in the DH+ group (p < 0.05). In the DH+ group, 7 and 12 patients, respectively, presented with a progressive and a stable pattern of DH (ΔICTlim,2min = −0.28 ± 0.11 L vs. 0.04 ± 0.10 L; p < 0.01). Patients with a progressive pattern of DH presented with higher perception of dyspnea/Tlim rate and lower exercise tolerance than did those with a stable pattern (354 ± 118 s and 465 ± 178 s, respectively; p < 0.05). Conclusions: The presence of DH is not a universal phenomenon during walking in COPD patients, even in those with moderate to severe airflow limitation. In the patients who presented DH, a progressive pattern of DH had a greater impact on exercise tolerance than did a stable pattern of DH.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Exercise; Exercise test; Inspiratory capacity.


5 - Occurrence of asthma symptoms and of airflow obstruction in amateur swimmers between 8 and 17 years of age

Ocorrência de sintomas asmáticos e de distúrbio obstrutivo em nadadores amadores de 8 a 17 anos de idade

Iara Nely Fiks, André Luis Pereira de Albuquerque, Leonardo Dias, Celso Ricardo Fernandes de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):24-32

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of asthma symptoms and of airflow obstruction in amateur swimmers between 8 and 17 years of age, as well as to assess the awareness of asthma and asthma management among these swimmers, their parents, and their coaches. Methods: Our sample comprised 1,116 amateur swimmers who completed a modified version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood written questionnaire, to which questions regarding the reasons to initiate swimming and regarding asthma management had been added. In addition, the participants underwent spirometry prior to a swimming competition. Results:   The prevalence of asthma symptoms in the last 12 months was 11.5%, and 327 (29.4%) of the participants reported "wheezing or whistling" in the past. Of the 223 swimmers who reported "asthma ever" or "bronchitis ever", only 102 (45.7%) reported having ever been treated: the most common "treatment" was swimming (in 37.3%), and only 12.7% used inhaled corticosteroids. Of the 254 participants (22.7%) with airflow obstruction, only 52  (20.5%) reported having asthma symptoms. Conclusions: Asthma symptoms are present in amateur swimmers, and a considerable number of such swimmers have airflow obstruction without symptoms. It is therefore likely that the prevalence of asthma is underestimated in this population. It is worrisome that, in our study sample, the swimmers previously diagnosed with asthma were not using the recommended treatments for asthma. The clinical implications of these findings underscore the importance of implementing educational measures for amateur swimmers, as well as for their parents and coaches, to help them recognize asthma symptoms and the consequent risks in the sports environment, in order to allow prompt diagnosis and early clinical intervention.


Keywords: Asthma/diagnosis; Asthma/prevention & control; Sports.


6 - Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis and staging of mediastinal lymphadenopathy: initial experience in Brazil

Punção aspirativa guiada por ultrassom endobrônquico no diagnóstico e estadiamento de linfadenopatia mediastinal: experiência inicial no Brasil

Miguel Lia Tedde, Viviane Rossi Figueiredo, Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Hélio Minamoto, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):33-40

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a new method for the diagnosis and staging of mediastinal lymph nodes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the preliminary results obtained with EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis of lesions and mediastinal lymph node staging. Methods: We evaluated patients with tumors or mediastinal adenopathy, diagnosed with or suspected of having lung cancer. The procedures were performed with the patients under sedation or under general anesthesia. Material was collected by EBUS-TBNA, after which it was prepared on slides, fixed in either absolute alcohol (for cytology) or formalin (for cell-block analysis). Results: We included 50 patients (30 males). The mean age was 58.3 ± 13.5 years. We performed 201 biopsies of 81 lymph nodes or mediastinal masses (mean of 2.5 punctures/biopsy). The quantity of material was considered sufficient for cytology in 37 patients (74%), 21 (57%) of whom were thus diagnosed with malignancy. Of the remaining 16 patients, 1 was diagnosed with tuberculosis, 6 entered clinical follow-up, and 9  underwent further investigation (2 diagnosed with neoplasm-false-negative results). The yield was higher when the procedure was performed for diagnostic purposes, as well as being higher in patients with lesions in multiple stations and in biopsies involving the subcarinal lymph node station. One patient had endobronchial bleeding, which was resolved with local measures. There were no deaths among the patients evaluated. Conclusions: This preliminary experience shows that EBUS-TBNA is a safe procedure. Our diagnostic yield, although lower than that reported in the literature, was consistent with the learning curve for the method.


Keywords: Ultrasonography, interventional; Biopsy, fine-needle; Neoplasm staging; Lung neoplasms; Bronchoscopy.


7 - High-resolution computed tomography scores in cystic fibrosis patients colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus

Escore tomográfico em pacientes com fibrose cística colonizados por Pseudomonas aeruginosa ou Staphylococcus aureus

Tania Wrobel Folescu, Elizabeth de Andrade Marques, Márcia Cristina Bastos Boechat, Pedro Daltro, Laurinda Yoko Shinzato Higa, Renata Wrobel Folescu Cohen

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):41-49

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare HRCT findings in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients chronically colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus using the modified Bhalla CT scoring system, as well as to evaluate intraobserver and interobserver reliability of the method. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study involving 41 CF patients, 26 of whom were chronically colonized with P. aeruginosa (Pa group), and 15 of whom were colonized with S. aureus (Sa group).Two independent radiologists evaluated the HRCT scans of these patients using the modified Bhalla CT scoring system in two different moments. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: There was good intraobserver and interobserver agreement (ICC > 0.8). Scores were higher in the Pa group than in the Sa group for observer 1 (mean, 13.50 ± 3.90; median, 13.5 vs. mean, 5.00 ± 5.28; median, 3.0) and for observer 2 (mean, 11.96 ± 5.07; median, 12.0 vs. mean, 5.07 ± 5.65; median, 5.0). In addition, HRCT findings, such as bronchiectasis, bronchial wall thickening, mucus plugging, generation of bronchial divisions, and mosaic attenuation/perfusion pattern, were more prevalent in the Pa group. Conclusions: The modified Bhalla CT scoring system was reproducible and reliable for use in the evaluation of HRCT scans, allowing distinctions to be drawn between the two groups of patients under study. The higher scores in the Pa group provided evidence of greater pulmonary impairment in that group.


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Tomography; Staphylococcus aureus; Pseudomonas aeruginosa.


8 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene mutations and glutathione S-transferase null genotypes in cystic fibrosis patients in Brazil

Mutações do gene cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator e deleções dos genes glutationa S-transferase em pacientes com fibrose cística no Brasil

Carmen Silvia Passos Lima, Manoela Marques Ortega, Fernando Augusto Lima Marson, Roberto Zulli, Antônio Fernando Ribeiro, Carmen Silvia Bertuzzo

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):50-56

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the effects that mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene and deletion of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes mu-1 (GSTM1) and theta-1 (GSTT1) have on the clinical course of cystic fibrosis (CF) in patients residing in the southeastern region of Brazil. Methods: The study sample consisted of all consecutive CF patients treated at the Hospital de Clínicas School of Medical Sciences of the State University at Campinas between March of 2002 and March of 2005. We included 66 CF patients. Genomic DNA was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease digestion for the identification of the genotypes. Results: The F508 mutation of the CFTR gene was found in 44 patients (66.7%). The null genotypes GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTM1/GSTT1 were found in 40.9%, 15.2%, and 3.0% of the patients, respectively. The F508 CFTR mutation was more common in patients diagnosed with CF before 2.5 years of age than in those diagnosed later (75.5% vs. 41.2%; p = 0.008). The frequency of the F508 CFTR mutation, as well as of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes, was not found to be associated with gender, ethnicity, pulmonary disease status, or pancreatic disease status. Conclusions: When the patients were stratified by clinical and epidemiological features, the frequencies of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes were similar, suggesting that the inherited absence of these enzymatic pathways does not alter the course of CF. However, the high frequency of the F508 CFTR mutation found in younger children suggests that it influences the age at diagnosis of CF in this region of Brazil.


Keywords: : Cystic fibrosis; Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; Glutathione transferase.


9 - Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009: risk factors for hospitalization

Influenza pandêmica A (H1N1) 2009: fatores de risco para o internamento

Luana Lenzi, Ângela Maron de Mello, Lineu Roberto da Silva, Mônica Holtz Cavichiolo Grochocki, Roberto Pontarolo

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):57-65

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in hospitalized patients in order to identify risk factors for hospitalization and, consequently, for the worsening of the disease. Methods: This retrospective observational study was conducted between March and December of 2010. The data were collected from the Brazilian Ministry of Health National Case Registry Database. We included only patients (inpatients and outpatients) in whom H1N1 infection was confirmed (via laboratory testing) during the study period. The variables regarding demographic and clinical characteristics were statistically evaluated in order to compare the hospitalization rates in the presence or absence of these factors. Risk factors were identified by logistic regression analysis. Results: We included 4,740 patients with laboratory confirmation of H1N1 infection. Of these, 1,911 individuals were hospitalized, and 258 (13.5%) died. The risk factors for hospitalization were age (20-29 years), African or Indigenous ethnicity, presence of specific comorbidities (heart disease, lung disease, kidney disease, hemoglobinopathy, immunosuppression, diabetes, obesity, puerperium, and smoking), a high number of comorbidities, and specific symptoms (dyspnea, diarrhea, vomiting, chest pain, hemoptysis, pneumonia, and wheezing). Higher levels of education and early use of oseltamivir were found to be protective factors. Hospitalization contributed to an increase in survival. Conclusions: Knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics that can be associated with hospitalization, disease severity, and mortality can be helpful in the adoption of preventive measures, as well as in the early diagnosis and treatment of disease, which might contribute to the reduction in the numbers of hospitalizations and deaths.


Keywords: Influenza A virus, H1N1 subtype; Hospitalization; Risk factors; Oseltamivir.


10 - Streptococcus pneumoniae: susceptibility to penicillin and moxifloxacin

Streptococcus pneumoniae: sensibilidade a penicilina e moxifloxacina

Flávia Rossi, Maria Renata Gomes Franco, Heleni Mota de Pina Rodrigues, Denise Andreazzi

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):66-71

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated at a hospital center. Methods: In-vitro, prospective study involving 100 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients who had been treated, between October of 2008 and July of 2010, at the Hospital das Clínicas complex of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolates were obtained from respiratory tract cultures or blood samples unrelated to meningeal infections, and they were tested for penicillin and moxifloxacin susceptibility by E-test. The MIC category interpretations were based on updated standards. Results: All isolates were fully susceptible to parenteral penicillin (MIC ≤ 2 µg/mL), and, consequently, they were also susceptible to amoxicillin, ampicillin, third/fourth generation cephalosporins, and ertapenem. Of the S. pneumoniae strains, 99% were also susceptible to moxifloxacin, and only one strain showed an MIC = 1.5 µg/mL (intermediate). Conclusions: Our results showed high susceptibility rates to parenteral penicillin and moxifloxacin among S. pneumoniae isolates unrelated to meningitis, which differs from international reports. Reports on penicillin resistance should be based on updated breakpoints for non-meningitis isolates in order to guide the selection of an antimicrobial therapy and to improve the prediction of the clinical outcomes.


Keywords: Drug resistance; Penicillin G; Pneumococcal infections; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Respiratory tract infections. Drug resistance; Penicillin G; Pneumococcal infections; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Respiratory tract infections.


11 - Smoking among patients hospitalized at a university hospital in the south of Brazil: prevalence, degree of nicotine dependence, and motivational stage of change

Tabagismo entre pacientes internados em um hospital universitário no sul do Brasil: prevalência, grau de dependência e estágio motivacional

Rafael Balsini Barreto, Mariângela Pimental Pincelli, Rafael Steinwandter, André Pacheco Silva, Jóice Manes, Leila John Marques Steidle

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):72-80

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence and profile of smoking among hospitalized patients at a university hospital in the south of Brazil. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving patients over 18 years of age hospitalized for over 24 h at the Federal University of Santa Catarina University Hospital, located in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil. The patients were interviewed on two distinct occasions. We collected demographic data, socioeconomic data, and data regarding smoking. Results: We interviewed 235 patients: 44 (18.7%) were smokers; 77 (32.8%) were former smokers; 114 (48.5%) were nonsmokers; and 109 (46.7%) were passive smokers. The mean age of the smokers was 45.7 ± 15.2 years, and 29 (65.9%) were male. Among the smokers, the median age at smoking initiation was 15 years; the mean smoking history was 32 ± 30.2 pack-years; 36 (81.9%) smoked up to 20 cigarettes/day; 20 (45.4%) had a high or very high degree of nicotine dependence; 32 (72.7%) had already tried to quit smoking; 39 (88.7%) would like to quit smoking; 32 (72.7%) would accept smoking cessation treatment; 13 (29.5%) smoked during hospitalization; and 13 (29.5%) suffered withdrawal syndrome. Regarding the motivation to quit smoking, the number of patients in the "preparation" and "action" stages of change increased from admission to discharge (from 31.8% to 54.8%). Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking in this study was similar to that reported in other studies conducted in Brazil. The results suggest that our sample was significant regarding the population of hospitalized smokers, who are motivated to quit smoking during hospitalization and require a systematized approach for doing so.


Keywords: Smoking/epidemiology; Hospitalization; Smoking cessation.


12 - Audiometric evaluation of patients treated for pulmonary tuberculosis

Avaliação audiométrica de pacientes em tratamento para tuberculose pulmonar

Karla Anacleto de Vasconcelos, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Silvana Frota, Marco Antonio de M Tavares de Lima

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):81-87

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the hearing status of patients being treated for pulmonary tuberculosis at referral hospitals in Brazil. Methods: This was a descriptive study involving 97 male and female inpatients/outpatients between 18 and 60 years of age who were undergoing treatment for active pulmonary tuberculosis at one of two referral hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro. After being interviewed, all of the patients underwent pure tone audiometry. Results: Of the 97 patients studied, 65 (67%) were male, 52 (54%) were receiving first-line treatment, and 45 (46%) were receiving second-line treatment, which included aminoglycosides. Smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to noise, and ototoxic medication use were identified in 65 (67%), 51 (53%), 53 (55%), and 45 (46.4%) of the patients, respectively. The most common auditory and vestibular complaints were dizziness, in 28 patients (28.8%); tinnitus, in 27 (27.8%); and hypoacusis, in 23 (23.7%). Conclusions: Due to the great number of patients with hearing loss in the present study, we recommend that all patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis be submitted to auditory monitoring.


Keywords: Audiometry; Hearing loss; Tuberculosis; Drug toxicity.


13 - Predictors of tuberculosis treatment outcomes

Preditores dos desfechos do tratamento da tuberculose

Renata de Lima Orofino, Pedro Emmanuel Americano do Brasil, Anete Trajman, Carolina Arana Stanis Schmaltz, Margareth Dalcolmo, Valéria Cavalcanti Rolla

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):88-97

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze tuberculosis treatment outcomes and their predictors. Methods: This was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2004 and 2006 at the Instituto de Pesquisa Evandro Chagas, in the city of Rio de Janeiro. We estimated adjusted risk ratios (ARRs) for the predictors of treatment outcomes. Results: Among 311 patients evaluated, the rates of cure, treatment abandonment, treatment failure, and mortality were 72%, 19%, 2%, and 6%, respectively. Changes in the treatment regimen due to adverse events occurred in 8%. The factors found to reduce the probability of cure were alcoholism (ARR, 0.30), use of the streptomycin+ethambutol+ofloxacin (SEO) regimen (ARR, 0.32), HIV infection without the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART; ARR, 0.36), and use of the rifampin+isoniazid+pyrazinamide+ethambutol regimen (ARR, 0.58). Being younger and being alcoholic both increased the probability of abandonment (ARR, 3.84 and 1.76, respectively). It was impossible to determine the ARR for the remaining outcomes due to their low prevalence. However, using the relative risk (RR), we identified the following potential predictors of mortality: use of the SEO regimen (RR, 11.43); HIV infection without ART (RR, 9.64); disseminated tuberculosis (RR, 9.09); lack of bacteriological confirmation (RR, 4.00); diabetes mellitus (RR, 3.94); and homosexual/bisexual behavior (RR, 2.97). Low income was a potential predictor of treatment failure (RR, 11.70), whereas disseminated tuberculosis and HIV infection with ART were potential predictors of changes in the regimen due to adverse events (RR, 3.57 and 2.46, respectively). Conclusions: The SEO regimen should not be used for extended periods. The data confirm the importance of ART and suggest the need to use it early.


Keywords: Tuberculosis; HIV; Rifampin; Drug toxicity; Risk factors; Medication adherence.


14 - Low tidal volume mechanical ventilation and oxidative stress in healthy mouse lungs

Ventilação mecânica com baixo volume corrente e estresse oxidativo em pulmões saudáveis de camundongos

Karla Maria Pereira Pires, Adriana Correa Melo, Manuella Lanzetti, Natália Vasconcelos Casquilho, Walter Araújo Zin, Luís Cristóvão Porto, Samuel Santos Valença

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):98-104

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Mechanical ventilation (MV) itself can directly contribute to lung injury. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate early biomarkers concerning oxidant/antioxidant balance, oxidative stress, and inflammation caused by short-term MV in healthy mouse lungs. Methods: Twenty male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: MV, submitted to low tidal volume (VT, 6 mL/kg) MV for 30 min; and spontaneous respiration (SR), used as controls. Lung homogenate samples were tested regarding the activity of various antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α expression. Results: In comparison with the SR group, the MV group showed a significant decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (≈35%; p < 0.05), together with an increase in the activity of catalase (40%; p < 0.01), glutathione peroxidase (500%; p < 0.001), and myeloperoxidase (260%; p < 0.001), as well as a reduction in the glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio (≈50%; p < 0.05) and an increase in TNF-α expression in the MV group. Oxidative damage, assessed by lipid peroxidation, was also greater in the MV group (45%; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results show that short-term low VT MV can directly contribute to lung injury, generating oxidative stress and inflammation in healthy mouse lungs.


Keywords: Lesão pulmonar induzida por ventilação mecânica; Respiração artificial; Estresse oxidativo; Inflamação; Camundongos.


Review Article

15 - Magnetic resonance of the lung: a step forward in the study of lung disease

Ressonância magnética de pulmão: um novo passo no estudo das doenças pulmonares

Bruno Hochhegger, Edson Marchiori, Klaus Irion, Arthur Soares Souza Junior, Jackson Volkart, Adalberto Sperb Rubin

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):105-115

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lung has progressed tremendously in recent years. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use. The main advantage of MRI of the lung is its unique combination of structural and functional assessment in a single imaging session. We review the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lung: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular disease; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.


Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging; Lung; Lung diseases; Carcinoma, non-small-cell lung; Lung diseases, interstitial; Pneumonia.


16 - The use of step tests for the assessment of exercise capacity in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic lung disease

O uso de testes do degrau para a avaliação da capacidade de exercício em indivíduos saudáveis e pacientes com doenças pulmonares crônicas

Carlos Henrique Silva de Andrade, Reinaldo Giovanini Cianci, Carla Malaguti, Simone Dal Corso

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):116-124

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Step tests are typically used to assess exercise capacity. Given the diversity of step tests, the aim of this review was to describe the protocols that have been used in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic lung disease. Step tests for use in healthy subjects have undergone a number of modifications over the years. In most step tests, the duration is variable (90 s-10 min), but the step height (23.0-50.8 cm) and stepping rate (22.5-35.0 steps/min) remain constant throughout the test. However, the use of a fixed step height and constant stepping rate might not provide adequate work intensity for subjects with different levels of fitness, the workload therefore being above or below individual capacity. Consequently, step test protocols have been modified by introducing changes in step heights and stepping rates during the test. Step tests have been used in patients with chronic lung diseases since the late 1970s. The protocols are quite varied, with adjustments in step height (15-30 cm), pacing (self-paced or externally paced), and test duration (90 s-10 min). However, the diversity of step test protocols and the variety of outcomes studied preclude the determination of the best protocol for use in individuals with chronic lung disease. Shorter protocols with a high stepping rate would seem to be more appropriate for assessing exercise-related oxygen desaturation in chronic lung disease. Symptom-limited testing would be more appropriate for evaluating exercise tolerance. There is a need for studies comparing different step test protocols, in terms of their reliability, validity, and ability to quantify responses to interventions, especially in individuals with lung disease.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Asthma; Cystic fibrosis; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; Exercise tolerance; Exercise test.


Case Series

17 - Aspergillus fumigatus fungus ball in the pleural cavity

Bola fúngica por Aspergillus fumigatus em cavidade pleural

Luciana Silva Guazzelli, Cecília Bittencourt Severo, Leonardo Santos Hoff, Geison Leonardo Fernandes Pinto, José Jesus Camargo, Luiz Carlos Severo

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):125-132

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To report the cases of 6 patients with fungus ball caused by Aspergillus fumigatus (aspergilloma) in the pleural cavity. Methods: Between 1980 and 2009, 391 patients were diagnosed with aspergilloma at the Santa Casa Hospital Complex in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The diagnosis of aspergilloma in the pleural cavity was made through imaging tests revealing effusion and pleural thickening with air-fluid level; direct mycological examination revealing septate hyphae, consistent with Aspergillus sp.; and positive culture for A. fumigatus in the surgical specimen from the pleural cavity. Results: Of the 391 patients studied, 6 (2%) met the established diagnostic criteria. The mean age of those 6 patients was 48 years (range, 29-66 years), and 5 (83%) were male. The most common complaints were cough, expectoration, and hemoptysis. Four patients (67%) had a history of tuberculosis that had been clinically cured. All of the patients were submitted to surgical removal of the aspergilloma, followed by intrapleural instillation of amphotericin B, in 4; and 2 received systemic antifungal treatment p.o. There was clinical improvement in 5 patients, and 1 died after the surgery. Conclusions: In adult patients with a history of cavitary lung disease or pleural fistula, a careful investigation should be carried out and fungal infection, especially aspergilloma, should be taken into consideration. In such cases, laboratory testing represents the most efficient use of the resources available to elucidate the diagnosis.


Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus; Tuberculosis; Empyema, pleural; Pleural effusion.


Case Report

18 - Carcinoid tumor and pulmonary sequestration

Tumor carcinoide e sequestro pulmonar

Fernando Luiz Westphal, Luís Carlos de Lima, José Corrêa Lima Netto, Maria do Socorro Lucena Cardoso, Márcia dos Santos da Silva, Danielle Cristine Westphal

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):133-137

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pulmonary sequestration is defined as a mass of lung tissue separated from the tracheobronchial tree and irrigated by an anomalous systemic artery. It is rarely seen in conjunction with lung neoplasms. We report the case of a 39-year-old female patient diagnosed with a carcinoid tumor, located in the intermediate bronchus and accompanied by bronchiectasis in the right lower lobe. The patient underwent thoracotomy for the resection of the affected area. During surgery, she presented with significant hemorrhage resulting from the transection of the anomalous artery that irrigated an intralobar pulmonary sequestration, which was located in right lower lobe and had not been identified in pre-operative examinations.


Keywords: Bronchopulmonary sequestration; Hemorrhage; Carcinoid tumor.


Letter to the Reader

19 - Subglottic cyst: a rare cause of laryngeal stridor

Cisto subglótico: uma causa rara de estridor laríngeo

Ascedio José Rodrigues, Silvia Regina Cardoso, Diamari Caramelo Ricci Cereda, Manoel Ernesto Peçanha Gonçalves

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):138-139

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