Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2011 - Volume 37  - Number 1  (January/February)






Original Article

3 - Thoracic sympathectomy at the level of the fourth and fifth ribs for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis

Simpatectomia torácica ao nível de 4ª e 5ª costelas para o tratamento de hiper-hidrose axilar

Paulo César Buffara Boscardim, Ramon Antunes de Oliveira, Allan Augusto Ferrari Ramos de Oliveira, Juliano Mendes de Souza, Roberto Gomes de Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):6-12

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the clinical results and the degree of satisfaction of patients submitted to thoracic sympathectomy at the level of the fourth and fifth ribs (R4-R5) for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis. Methods: We included 118 patients diagnosed with axillary hyperhidrosis and having undergone axillary sympathectomy at the R4-R5 level between March of 2003 and December of 2007 at the Paraná Federal University Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. All procedures were carried out by the same surgeon. Data regarding the resolution of axillary hyperhidrosis and the degree of patient satisfaction with the surgical outcome, as well as compensatory hyperhidrosis in the early and late postoperative periods (after 7 days and after 12 months, respectively), were collected. Results: Of the 118 patients evaluated, 99 (83.9%) and 81 (68.6%) showed complete resolution of the symptoms in the early and late postoperative periods, respectively. Compensatory hyperhidrosis occurred in 49 patients (41.5%) in the early postoperative period and in 77 (65.2%) in the late postoperative period. Of those 77, 55 (71.4%) categorized the compensatory hyperhidrosis as mild. In the early postoperative period, 110 patients (93.2%) were satisfied with the surgical results, and 104 (88.1%) remained so in the late postoperative period. Conclusions: Sympathectomy at the R4-R5 level is efficient in the resolution of primary axillary hyperhidrosis. The degree of patient satisfaction with the long-term surgical results is high. Mild compensatory hyperhidrosis is the main side effect associated with this technique.

 


Keywords: Hyperhidrosis; Axilla; Sympathectomy; Thoracic surgery, video-assisted.

 

4 - Anxiety and depression in asthma patients: impact on asthma control

Ansiedade e depressão em pacientes com asma: impacto no controle da asma

Aline Arlindo Vieira, Ilka Lopes Santoro, Samir Dracoulakis, Lilian Ballini Caetano, Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):13-18

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: There is evidence that asthma is associated with an increase in psychiatric symptoms and mental disorders. This association can make it difficult to achieve asthma control. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the level of asthma control is associated with anxiety and depression. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 78 patients with confirmed moderate or severe asthma and under regular treatment at the Asthma Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of São Paulo Hospital São Paulo, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The patients were divided into two groups by asthma control status, as assessed by the asthma control test, and were subsequently compared in terms of demographic, clinical, and spirometric data, as well as scores for asthma quality of life and hospital anxiety/depression. Results: The sample was predominantly female. Of the 78 patients, 49 (63%) were classified as having uncontrolled asthma. The prevalence of anxiety and of anxiety+depression was significantly higher among patients with uncontrolled asthma than among those with controlled asthma (78% and 100%; p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively), whereas there were no differences between the two groups in terms of the prevalence of depression, spirometry results, or quality of life score. Conclusions: In this sample, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was higher in the patients with uncontrolled asthma than in those with controlled asthma.In the evaluation of asthma patients, the negative impact of mood states ought to be taken into consideration when asthma control strategies are being outlined.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Anxiety; Depression; Cross-sectional studies.

 

5 - Impact of a short-term educational intervention on adherence to asthma treatment and on asthma control

Impacto de uma intervenção educacional de curta duração sobre a adesão ao tratamento e controle da asma

Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Denis Maltz Grutcki, Paola Paganella Laporte, Paula Borges de Lima, Vinícius Pellegrini Viana, Glauco Luís Konzen, Samuel Millán Menegotto, Mariana Alves Fonseca, Rosemary Petrik Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):19-27

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the effect of a short-term individualized education program on adherence to asthma treatment, inhalation techniques, and asthma control. Methods: A prospective study involving patients aged 14 years or older, with a confirmed diagnosis of asthma and recruited from the asthma outpatient clinic of a university hospital in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The study was conducted in two phases (before and after the educational intervention). At a routine medical visit, the participants completed a general questionnaire in order to assess the level of asthma control and inhalation techniques. The participants also underwent pulmonary function testing. Subsequently, they participated in an asthma education program, which consisted of one individualized session. The participants were reevaluated after three months. Results: Of the 174 patients recruited, 115 completed the study. Between the first and second evaluations, there was a significant improvement in the effective use of inhaled corticosteroids (90.4% vs. 93.3%; p = 0.003), the effective use of long-acting β2 agonists (57.4% vs. 63.5%; p < 0.0001), the effective use of a combined regimen with these two medications (57.4% vs. 62.6%; p < 0.0001), and the self-reported adherence to corticosteroid therapy (p = 0.001). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of patients visiting ERs (30.4% vs. 23.5%; p = 0.012). However, the level of asthma control and the inhalation technique did not improve significantly (p = 0.095 and p = 0.512, respectively). Conclusions: This short-term asthma education program resulted in an improvement in the use of medications for asthma control and a decrease in the number of ER visits, although it had no significant effect on the inhalation technique.

 


Keywords: Ambulatory care; Patient education as topic; Respiratory therapy; Metered dose inhalers.

 

6 - Video-assisted thoracoscopy as an option in the surgical treatment of chylothorax after cardiac surgery in children

Videotoracoscopia como uma opção no tratamento cirúrgico do quilotórax após cirurgia cardíaca pediátrica

Paulo Manuel Pego-Fernandes, Mauro Boldrini Nascimbem, Otávio T. Ranzani, Mônica Satsuki Shimoda, Rosângela Monteiro, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):28-35

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the use of video-assisted thoracoscopy in the surgical treatment of chylothorax developed after the surgical correction of congenital heart disease in children. Methods: We reviewed the medical charts of 3,092 children who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease between February of 2002 and February of 2007 at the Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas, in São Paulo, Brazil. Results: Of the 3,092 children, 64 (2.2%) presented with chylothorax as a postoperative complication. In 50 (78.1%) of those patients, the clinical management was successful, whereas it failed in 14 (21.9%), all of whom were then submitted to thoracic duct ligation by video-assisted thoracoscopy. The thoracic duct ligation was successful in 12 patients (86%) but failed in 2. In the postoperative period, additional clinical measures, such as a low-fat diet and parenteral nutrition, were required in order to resolve those 2 cases. There was no surgical morbidity or mortality. Of the 14 patients who underwent thoracic duct ligation, 5 (35%) died due to cardiac or infectious complications. Conclusions: Video-assisted thoracic duct ligation can be safely performed in patients with severe heart disease, and the outcomes are favorable.

 


Keywords: Chylothorax; Heart defects, congenital; Thoracic duct.

 

7 - Respiratory symptoms as health status indicators in workers at ceramics manufacturing facilities

Sintomas respiratórios como indicadores de estado de saúde em trabalhadores de indústrias de cerâmicas

Edilaura Nunes Rondon, Regina Maria Veras Gonçalves da Silva, Clovis Botelho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):36-45

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and their association with sociodemographic variables and with the characteristics of the work environment. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 464 workers employed at ceramics manufacturing facilities located in the city of Várzea Grande, Brazil. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire comprising questions regarding sociodemographic variables, work environment characteristics, and respiratory symptoms. Data were analyzed by means of prevalence ratios and their respective 95% CIs between the dependent variable (respiratory symptoms) and the other explanatory variables. In the multivariate analysis, two hierarchical models were built, the response variables being "all respiratory symptoms" and "severe respiratory symptoms". Results: In the sample studied, the prevalence of "all respiratory symptoms" was 78%, whereas that of "severe respiratory symptoms" was 35%. The factors associated with "all respiratory symptoms" were gender, age bracket, level of education, type of occupation, exposure to dust, and exposure to chemical products. The factors associated with "severe respiratory symptoms" were level of education, exposure to dust, and exposure to chemical products. Conclusions: Our results indicate the presence of upper and lower airway disease in the population studied.

 


Keywords: Questionnaires; Occupational diseases/epidemiology; Health status indicators.

 

8 - Effects of expiratory positive airway pressure on the electromyographic activity of accessory inspiratory muscles in COPD patients

Efeitos da pressão positiva expiratória nas vias aéreas sobre a atividade eletromiográfica da musculatura acessória da inspiração em portadores de DPOC

Dannuey Machado Cardoso, Dulciane Nunes Paiva, Isabella Martins de Albuquerque, Renan Trevisan Jost, Andréia Vanessa da Paixão

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):46-53

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the electromyographic activity (EA) of sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and scalene muscles during and after the use of expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) in patients with COPD. Methods: This was a clinical single-blind trial involving 13 healthy subjects as controls and 12 patients with stable COPD. At baseline, we determined EA during spontaneous respiration, lung function parameters, and respiratory muscle strength. Subsequently, EPAP at 15 cmH2O was applied by means of a face mask for 25 min, during which the EA of the SCM and scalene muscles was recorded every 5 min. A final record was obtained 10 min after the mask removal. Results: We found that the behavior of the EA of SCM and scalene muscles was comparable between the controls and the COPD patients (p = 0.716 and p = 0.789, respectively). However, during the use of EPAP, both muscles showed a trend toward an increase in the EA. In addition, there was a significant decrease in the EA of the SCM between the baseline and final measurements (p = 0.034). Conclusions: The use of EPAP promoted a significant reduction in the EA of the SCM in the controls and in the patients with stable COPD. However, this did not occur regarding the EA of the scalene muscle.

 


Keywords: Electromyography; Respiratory muscles; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Positive-pressure respiration.

 

9 - Three physiotherapy protocols: Effects on pulmonary volumes after cardiac surgery

Três protocolos fisioterapêuticos: Efeitos sobre os volumes pulmonares após cirurgia cardíaca

Cristina Márcia Dias, Raquel de Oliveira Vieira, Juliana Flávia Oliveira, Agnaldo José Lopes, Sara Lúcia Silveira de Menezes, Fernando Silva Guimarães

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):54-60

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate inspiratory volume in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and to determine the effects that incentive spirometry (IS) and the breath stacking (BS) technique have on the recovery of FVC in such patients. Methods: A prospective, controlled, randomized clinical trial involving 35 patients undergoing cardiac surgery at the Hospital de Força Aérea do Galeão (HFAG, Galeão Air Force Hospital), in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The patients, all of whom performed mobilization and cough procedures, were randomly divided into three groups: exercise control (EC), performing only the abovementioned procedures; IS, performing the abovementioned procedures and instructed to take long breaths using an incentive spirometer; and BS, performing the abovementioned procedures, together with successive inspiratory efforts using a facial mask coupled to a unidirectional valve. Forced spirometry was carried out in the preoperative period and on postoperative days 1 to 5. During the maneuvers, inspiratory volume was measured in the IS and BS groups. Results: On postoperative day 1, FVC significantly decreased in all groups (EC: 87.1 vs. 32.0%; IS: 75.3 vs. 29.5%; and BS: 81.9 vs. 33.2%; p < 0.001 for all), as did inspiratory volume in the IS and BS groups (2.29 vs. 0.82 L; and 2.56 vs. 1.34 L, respectively; p < 0.001 for both). Between postoperative days 1 and 5, FVC partially normalized in all groups (EC: 32.0 vs. 51.3%; IS: 29.5 vs. 46.7%; and BS: 33.3 vs. 54.3%; p < 0.001 for all). During the postoperative period, inspiratory volume was significantly higher in the BS group than in the IS group. Conclusions: The three protocols were equivalent concerning the recovery of FVC on the first five postoperative days. When compared with IS, the BS technique promoted higher inspiratory volumes in this sample of postoperative cardiac patients. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT01074957 [http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/])

 


Keywords: Postoperative complications; Thoracic surgery; Physical therapy modalities.

 

10 - A new approach to the determination of airway resistance: interrupter technique vs. plethysmography

Uma nova abordagem na determinação da resistência das vias aéreas: técnica do interruptor vs. pletismografia

Leandro Antônio Gritti, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):61-68

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the agreement between interrupter resistance (Rint) and airway resistance (Raw) by plethysmography in order to verify the clinical applicability of the interrupter technique. Methods: The Rint technique was performed with the patients in a sitting position, during exhalation, with a nose clip and cheek support. Plethysmography was carried out in accordance with standard protocols. All measurements were taken prior to and after the administration of an inhaled bronchodilator via a metered dose inhaler with a spacer. Results: The study comprised 99 consecutive patients referred to the Porto Alegre Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, for pulmonary function testing. Patient ages ranged from 18 to 82 years, and 52 of the patients were women. In the patients with FEV1 ≥ 60% of predicted, there was good agreement between the methods (r = 0.8; intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.8). The Rint values were lower than were those of Raw by plethysmography in the patients with more severe disease. However, there was good agreement between Rint ≥ 4 cmH2O  L−1  s−1 and Raw by plethysmography > 2.5 cmH2O  L−1  s−1 (likelihood ratio > 8; kappa coefficient = 0.73). Conclusions: In the patients with less severe disease, there was good agreement between Rint and Raw by plethysmography. The agreement between the two methods was also strong regarding the detection of an increase in Raw. The Rint technique is a potentially useful method for the evaluation of adult patients.

 


Keywords: Plethysmography; Airway resistance; Diagnostic techniques, respiratory system; Respiratory function tests; Airway obstruction/diagnosis.

 

11 - Feasibility of spirometry in preschool children

Viabilidade da realização de espirometria em pré-escolares

Tiago Neves Veras, Leonardo Araujo Pinto

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):69-74

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the rate at which satisfactory spirometry results are obtained (spirometry success rate) in preschool children. Methods: We analyzed the spirometry results of children ≤ 6 years of age. All tests were conducted between June of 2009 and February of 2010 in the Pulmonary Function Laboratory of the Hospital Infantil Jeser Amarante Faria, located in the city of Joinville, Brazil. The spirometry program employed features an animated incentive (soap bubbles). The procedures were performed by a pediatric pulmonologist, in accordance with the reproducibility and acceptability criteria recommended by the American Thoracic Society. We attempted to achieve an expiratory time of at least 1 s. The following parameters were measured: FVC, FEV0.5, FEV1, and the FEV1/FVC ratio. Results: Our sample comprised 74 children. The spirometry success rate was 82%. Although the performance improved with age, the difference between younger and older children was not significant (p > 0.05). An average of 6.6 attempts/test were needed in order to achieve acceptable, reproducible curves. All 61 successful tests produced satisfactory FEV0.5 and FEV1 values. By calculating Z scores, we found that 21.6% of the children presented with an obstructive pattern. Conclusions: In our sample, the spirometry success rate was high, showing that spirometry is a valid method for assessing pulmonary function in preschool children. The high success rate in our sample might be attributable to the use of an incentive and to the fact that the tests were performed by professionals specializing in pediatrics.

 


Keywords: Spirometry; Feasibility studies; Respiratory function tests.

 

12 - Evaluation of a prediction model for sleep apnea in patients submitted to polysomnography

Avaliação de um modelo de predição para apneia do sono em pacientes submetidos a polissonografia

Silvio Musman, Valéria Maria de Azeredo Passos, Izabella Barreto Romualdo Silva, Sandhi Maria Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):75-84

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To test a prediction model for sleep apnea based on clinical and sociodemographic variables in a population suspected of having sleep disorders and submitted to polysomnography. Methods: We included 323 consecutive patients submitted to polysomnography because of the clinical suspicion of having sleep disorders. We used a questionnaire with sociodemographic questions and the Epworth sleepiness scale. Blood pressure, weight, height, and SpO2 were measured. Multiple linear regression was used in order to create a prediction model for sleep apnea, the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) being the dependent variable. Multinomial logistic regression was used in order to identify factors independently associated with the severity of apnea (mild, moderate, or severe) in comparison with the absence of apnea. Results: The prevalence of sleep apnea in the study population was 71.2%. Sleep apnea was more prevalent in men than in women (81.2% vs. 56.8%; p < 0.001). The multiple linear regression model, using log AHI as the dependent variable, was composed of the following independent variables: neck circumference, witnessed apnea, age, BMI, and allergic rhinitis. The best-fit linear regression model explained 39% of the AHI variation. In the multinomial logistic regression, mild apnea was associated with BMI and neck circumference, whereas severe apnea was associated with age, BMI, neck circumference, and witnessed apnea. Conclusions: Although the use of clinical prediction models for sleep apnea does not replace polysomnography as a tool for its diagnosis, they can optimize the process of deciding when polysomnography is indicated and increase the chance of obtaining positive polysomnography findings.

 


Keywords: Sleep apnea syndromes; Polysomnography; Sleep apnea, obstructive; Body mass index.

 

13 - Clinical impact of sepsis at admission to the ICU of a private hospital in Salvador, Brazil

Impacto clínico do diagnóstico de sepse à admissão em UTI de um hospital privado em Salvador, Bahia

Verena Ribeiro Juncal, Lelivaldo Antonio de Britto Neto, Aquiles Assunção Camelier, Octavio Henrique Coelho Messeder, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho Farias

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):85-92

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and clinical outcomes of patients with and without sepsis admitted to the ICU of a private hospital in the city of Salvador, Brazil, and to identify clinical variables related to a worse prognosis in those with sepsis. Methods: This was a longitudinal study including all patients admitted to the general ICU of the Hospital Português, in the city of Salvador, Brazil, between June of 2008 and March of 2009. At ICU admission, two groups of patients were identified: with sepsis and without sepsis. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data were collected, and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score was calculated. Results: Of the 144 patients in the study, 29 (20.1%) had sepsis. Among the patients with sepsis, males accounted for 55.2%, the mean age was 73.1 ± 14.6 years, and the mean APACHE II score was 23.8 ± 9.1, compared with 36.3%, 68.7 ± 17.7 years, and 18.4 ± 9.5, respectively, among those without sepsis. There were significant associations between a diagnosis of sepsis and the following variables: APACHE II score; in-hospital mortality; ICU mortality; HR; mean arterial pressure; hematocrit level; white blood cell count; and antibiotic use. The use of life support measures and lower hematocrit levels were associated with a worse prognosis in the patients with sepsis. Conclusions: The patients diagnosed with sepsis presented worse clinical outcomes, probably due to their greater severity. Hematocrit level was the only variable that was a predictor of mortality risk in the patients with sepsis.

 


Keywords: Sepsis/epidemiology; Sepsis/mortality; Intensive care units.

 

14 - Epidemiological profile of adult patients with tuberculosis and AIDS in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil: Cross-referencing tuberculosis and AIDS databases

Perfil epidemiológico de pacientes adultos com tuberculose e AIDS no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil: Relacionamento dos bancos de dados de tuberculose e AIDS

Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Antonio Luiz Caus, Murilo Marques, Ethel Leonor Maciel, Jonathan E. Golub, Angélica Espinosa Miranda

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):93-99

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the epidemiological profile of patients with tuberculosis (TB) only and that of patients with TB/AIDS in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, between 2000 and 2006. Methods: For the patients of interest, we collected demographic and clinical data from the Epidemiological Surveillance Center (TB database), Brazilian Case Registry Database, and Brazilian National Mortality Database, as well as the Brazilian National CD4+/CD8+ T Lymphocyte Count and Viral Load Network Laboratory Test Control System and the Logistic Medication Monitoring System (HIV/AIDS databases). All of the compiled data were cross-referenced. Results: During the study period, we identified 9,543 TB patients > 15 years of age, 437 of whom (4.6%) had AIDS. The median age did not differ between TB/AIDS and TB-only patients (35 years vs. 38 years). Of the 437 TB/AIDS patients, 298 (68.2%) were male, and 156 (35.8%) were in the 30-39 age bracket. In terms of TB treatment outcome, 79.0% were cured, 9.7% were referred to other facilities, 6.0% died, 5.2% abandoned treatment, and 0.2% developed multidrug-resistant TB. Death was 4.75 times more common in patients with TB/AIDS than in those with TB only. Pulmonary TB accounted for 82.4% of the cases. The combination of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB was 8.2 times more common in the TB/AIDS patients than in the TB-only patients (95% CI: 6.2-10.8). Conclusions: Our results emphasize the significance of AIDS among TB patients in Brazil, as well as the importance of evaluating secondary data in order to improve their quality and develop public health interventions.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; Brazil.

 

Special Article

15 - Myositis-related interstitial lung disease and antisynthetase syndrome

Doença pulmonar intersticial relacionada a miosite e a síndrome antissintetase

Joshua Solomon, Jeffrey J. Swigris, Kevin K. Brown

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):100-109

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In patients with myositis, the lung is commonly involved, and the presence of anti-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (anti-ARS) antibodies marks the presence or predicts the development of interstitial lung disease (ILD). A distinct clinical entity-antisynthetase syndrome-is characterized by the presence of anti-ARS antibodies, myositis, ILD, fever, arthritis, Raynaud's phenomenon, and mechanic's hands. The most common anti-ARS antibody is anti-Jo-1. More recently described anti-ARS antibodies might confer a phenotype that is distinct from that of anti-Jo-1-positive patients and is characterized by a lower incidence of myositis and a higher incidence of ILD. Among patients with antisynthetase syndrome-related ILD, the response to immunosuppressive medications is generally, but not universally, favorable.

 


Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial; Pneumonia; Infection.

 

Review Article

16 - Six-minute walk test: a valuable tool for assessing pulmonary impairment

Teste de caminhada de seis minutos: uma ferramenta valiosa na avaliação do comprometimento pulmonar

Jaime Eduardo Morales-Blanhir, Carlos Damián Palafox Vidal, María de Jesús Rosas Romero, Mauro Marcos García Castro, Alejandro Londoño Villegas, Mauro Zamboni

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):110-117

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Over the last few years, the use of exercise tests has come to be recognized as a convenient method of evaluating respiratory function, because the reserves of the various systems in the human body should be known in order to provide a more complete portrayal of the functional capacities of the patient. Because walking is one of the main activities of daily living, walk tests have been proposed in order to measure the state or the functional capacity of patients. The six-minute walk test has proven to be reproducible and is well tolerated by patients. It evaluates the distance a person can walk on a flat, rigid surface in six minutes. Its main objective is to determine exercise tolerance and oxygen saturation during submaximal exercise. In this review, we present various clinical areas in which the test can provide useful data.

 


Keywords: Hypertension, pulmonary; Pulmonary circulation; Pulmonary heart disease; Exercise.

 

17 - Women and smoking: Risks, impacts, and challenges

O tabagismo e a mulher: Riscos, impactos e desafios

Elisa Maria Siqueira Lombardi, Gustavo Faibichew Prado, Ubiratan de Paula Santos, Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):118-128

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Smoking among women has drawn increasing attention because of the increase (or less pronounced decrease) in its prevalence when compared with that observed for men, as well as because of the specific effects that smoking has on women's health. For the 2010 "World No Tobacco Day", the World Health Organization chose the theme "Gender and tobacco with an emphasis on marketing to women", with the aim of encouraging policies to combat marketing strategies employed by the tobacco industry and to curb the epidemic of smoking among women. In this article, we discuss the characteristics of smoking among women, addressing factors such as smoking prevalence, nicotine dependence, the role of the tobacco industry, health risks, approaches to smoking cessation, treatment strategies, and prevention measures.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Women's health; Tobacco industry.

 

Case Report

18 - Castleman's disease: An unusual presentation

Doença de Castleman: Uma apresentação pouco frequente

Nicole Murinello, Cristina Matos, Fernando Nogueira

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):129-132

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Castleman's disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder, with focal or systemic lymph node involvement, which rarely affects the lung parenchyma. We report the case of an asymptomatic immunocompetent male patient who had the rarest histological variant of the disease, a nodular parenchymal presentation. The patient underwent lobectomy, and the postoperative evolution was favorable. In the last 10 years, there have been only five reports of Castleman's disease presenting as a solitary pulmonary nodule. This case underscores the fact that Castleman's disease, albeit rare, should be included in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules.

 


Keywords: Giant lymph node hyperplasia; Lymphoproliferative disorders; Solitary pulmonary nodule.

 

 


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