Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2011 - Volume 37  - Number 2  (March/April)

Original Article

3 - Systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial pneumonia: evaluation of pulmonary function over a five-year period

Pneumonia intersticial associada à esclerose sistêmica: avaliação da função pulmonar no período de cinco anos

Agnaldo José Lopes, Domenico Capone, Roberto Mogami, Sara Lucia Silveira de Menezes, Fernando Silva Guimarães, Roger Abramino Levy

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):144-151

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate alterations in pulmonary function in patients with systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial pneumonia over a five-year period. Methods: This was a longitudinal study involving 35 nonsmoking patients with systemic sclerosis and without a history of lung disease. At the first evaluation, performed at the time of the diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia, the patients were submitted to HRCT, spirometry, and measurement of DLCO. The patients were subdivided into two groups by the presence or absence of honeycombing on the HRCT scans. Approximately five years after the first evaluation, the patients were submitted to spirometry and measurement of DLCO only. Results: Of the 35 patients, 34 were women. The mean age was 47.6 years. The mean time between the two evaluations was 60.9 months. Honeycombing was detected on the HRCT scans in 17 patients. In the sample as a whole, five years after the diagnosis, FVC, FEV1 and DLCO significantly decreased (81.3 ± 18.2% vs. 72.1 ± 22.2%; 79.9 ± 17.8% vs. 72.5 ± 20.6%; and 74.0 ± 20.5% vs. 60.7 ± 26.8%, respectively; p = 0.0001 for all), and the FEV1/FVC ratio significantly increased (98.5 ± 7.2% vs. 101.9 ± 7.8%; p = 0.008). In the same period, FVC, FEV1, and DLCO values were significantly lower in the patients with honeycombing on the HRCT scans than in those without (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: In systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease, the detection of honeycombing on HRCT is crucial to predicting accelerated worsening of pulmonary function.


Keywords: Scleroderma, systemic; Respiratory function tests; Tomography, X-ray computed.


4 - Implementation of community-acquired pneumonia guidelines at a public hospital in Brazil

Implementação de uma diretriz para pneumonia adquirida na comunidade em um hospital público no Brasil

Lucieni Oliveira Conterno, Fábio Ynoe de Moraes, Carlos Rodrigues da Silva Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):152-159

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To implement community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) guidelines at a public hospital in Brazil and to evaluate the impact of these guidelines on health care quality. Methods: A quasi-experimental study, with a before-and-after design, involving adult patients diagnosed with CAP and hospitalized between July of 2007 and October of 2008 in the general ward of the Marília School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas, located in the city of Marília, Brazil. Results: During the study period, 68 patients were diagnosed with CAP: 48 before the implementation of the guidelines and 20 after their implementation. After the implementation of the guidelines, 85% of the cases were treated in accordance with the guidelines, and there was a significant increase in the use of antibiotic therapy for atypical bacteria in patients with severe CAP (6.3% vs. 75.0%; p < 0.001). Comparing the pre-implementation and post-implementation periods, we observed a trend toward a decrease in the mortality (35.4% vs. 15.0%; p = 0.09) and toward an increase in the recording of SpO2 in the medical charts of the patients (18% vs. 30%; p = 0.42). During the study period, the degree of severity was not recorded on the medical charts of most patients. In addition, the initiation of antibiotic therapy followed a pre-established schedule, regardless of the severity of the infection. Conclusions: This study showed that, although the development and implementation of CAP guidelines promoted the optimization of the treatment, there were no significant differences regarding the assessment of severity, SpO2 recording, or the initiation of antibiotic therapy. Therefore, strategies that are more effective are needed in order to modify variables related to the work of physicians and nurses.


Keywords: Guideline adherence; Pneumonia; Health care quality, access, and evaluation; Community-acquired infections.


5 - Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in a general hospital

Profilaxia para tromboembolia venosa em um hospital geral

Fernanda Fuzinatto, André Wajner, Fernando Starosta de Waldemar, João Luiz de Souza Hopf, Juliana Ferro Schuh, Sergio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):160-167

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the use of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in a general hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional cohort study at the Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição, located in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, involving a random sample of patients admitted between October of 2008 and February of 2009. We included patients over 18 years of age and hospitalized for more than 48 h. The exclusion criteria were anticoagulant use, pregnancy, puerperium, and a history of thromboembolic disease. The adequacy of prophylaxis was evaluated in accordance with a protocol created by the Hospital and principally based on the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines, eighth edition. Results: We included 262 patients. The mean age was 59.1 ± 16.6 years. The most common risk factors were immobilization (in 70.6%), infection (in 44.3%), cancer (in 27.5%), obesity (in 23.3%), and major surgery (in 14.1%). The risk of VTE was classified as high and moderate in 143 (54.6%) and 117 (44.7%) of the patients, respectively. Overall, 46.2% of the patients received adequate prophylaxis, 25% of those with ≥ three risk factors for VTE and 18% of those with cancer, the differences between these last two groups and their counterparts (patients with < three risk factors and those without cancer) being statistically significant (p < 0.001 for both). Conclusions: Our data reveal that nearly all patients at our hospital were at risk for VTE, and that less than half received adequate VTE prophylaxis, which is in agreement with the literature. It is surprising that inadequate prophylaxis is more common in high-risk patients.


Keywords: Venous thromboembolism/prevention and control; Venous thrombosis/prevention and control; Heparin.


6 - Evaluation of the use of transbronchial biopsy in patients with clinical suspicion of interstitial lung disease

Avaliação da utilização de biópsia transbrônquica em pacientes com suspeita clínica de doença pulmonar intersticial

Cristiano Claudino Oliveira, Alexandre Todorovic Fabro, Sérgio Marrone Ribeiro, Julio Defaveri, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Thais Helena Thomaz Queluz, Hugo Hyung Bok Yoo

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):168-175

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To study the clinical, radiological, and histopathological patterns of transbronchial biopsy (TBB) used in order to confirm the diagnosis in patients with clinical suspicion of interstitial lung disease (ILD) treated at a tertiary-care university hospital. Methods: We reviewed the medical records, radiology reports, and reports of transbronchial biopsies from all patients with suspected ILD who underwent TBB between January of 1999 and December of 2006 at the Hospital das Clínicas de Botucatu, located in the city of Botucatu, Brazil. Results: The study included 56 patients. Of those, 11 (19.6%) had a definitive diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the rate of which was significantly higher in the patients in which ILD was a possible diagnosis in comparison with those in which ILD was the prime suspect (p = 0.011), demonstrating the contribution of TBB to the diagnostic confirmation of these diseases. The histopathological examination of the biopsies revealed that 27.3% of the patients with IPF showed a pattern of organizing pneumonia, which suggests greater disease severity. The most common histological pattern was the indeterminate pattern, reflecting the peripheral characteristic of IPF. However, the fibrosis pattern showed high specificity and high negative predictive value. For CT scan patterns suggestive of IPF, the ROC curve showed that the best relationship between sensitivity and specificity occurred when five radiological alterations were present. Honeycombing was found to be strongly suggestive of IPF (p = 0.01). Conclusions: For ILDs, chest CT should always be performed, and TBB should be used in specific situations, according to the suspicion and distribution of lesions.


Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial; Diagnosis, differential; Bronchoscopy.


7 - Symptoms of dysphagia in patients with COPD

Sintomas indicativos de disfagia em portadores de DPOC

Rosane de Deus Chaves, Celso Ricardo Fernandes de Carvalho, Alberto Cukier, Rafael Stelmach, Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):176-183

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify symptoms of dysphagia in individuals with COPD, based on their responses on a self-perception questionnaire. Methods: The study comprised 35 individuals with COPD and 35 healthy individuals, matched for age and gender. The study group was assessed regarding COPD severity; sensation of dyspnea; body mass index (BMI); and symptoms of dysphagia. The control group was assessed regarding BMI and symptoms of dysphagia. Results: The most common symptoms of dysphagia in the study group were pharyngeal symptoms/airway protection (p < 0.001); esophageal symptoms/history of pneumonia (p < 0.001); and nutritional symptoms (p < 0.001). Positive correlations were found between the following pairs of variables: FEV1 and BMI (r = 0.567; p < 0.001); pharyngeal symptoms/airway protection and dyspnea (r = 0.408; p = 0.015); and esophageal symptoms/history of pneumonia and pharyngeal symptoms/airway protection (r = 0.531; p = 0.001). There was a negative correlation between nutritional symptoms and BMI (r = −0.046; p < 0.008). Conclusions: Our results show that the individuals with COPD presented with symptoms of dysphagia that were associated with the pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing, as well as with the mechanism of airway protection, a history of pneumonia, and nutritional symptoms.


Keywords: Deglutition disorders; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Pathological conditions, signs and symptoms.


8 - Quality of life assessment in patients with cystic fibrosis by means of the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire

Avaliação da qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibrose cística por meio do Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire

Milena Antonelli Cohen, Maria Ângela Gonçalves de Oliveira Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando Ribeiro, José Dirceu Ribeiro, André Moreno Morcillo

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):184-192

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess the quality of life (QoL) of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) followed at a university referral center for CF. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving application of the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ) and Shwachman score in CF patients between April of 2008 and June of 2009. Results: The sample consisted of 75 patients. The mean age was 12.5 ± 5.1 years (range, 6.1-26.4 years). The patients were divided into three groups by age in years: group I (< 12), II (12-14), and III (≥ 14). The highest and lowest CFQ scores were for the nutrition domain in group III (89.3 ± 16.2) and the social domain in group II (59.5 ± 22.3), respectively. Groups I and III differed significantly regarding the treatment domain (p = 0.001). Regarding Shwachman scores, there were significant differences between patients scoring ≤ 70 and those scoring > 70 in the social (group I; p = 0.045), respiratory (group II; p = 0.053), and digestive (p = 0.042) domains. In group III, severity did not correlate with QoL. In groups I and II, patients with an FEV1 < 80% of predicted did not differ from other patients for any CFQ domain. However, in group III, values for the following domains were significantly lower in patients with an FEV1 < 80%: physical (p = 0.012); body image (p = 0.031); respiratory (p = 0.023), emotional (p = 0.041); and social role (p = 0.024). Conclusions: It is important to assess QoL in CF patients, because it can improve treatment compliance.


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Quality of life; Questionnaires.


9 - Respiratory muscle strength: Comparison between primigravidae and nulligravidae

Força muscular respiratória: Comparação entre primigestas e nuligestas

Andrea Lemos, Ariani Impieri Souza, Armele Dornelas de Andrade, José Natal Figueiroa, José Eulálio Cabral-Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):193-199

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe and to compare MIP and MEP in primigravidae and nulligravidae in the 20-29 year age bracket and paired by age. Methods: We included 120 primigravidae with low obstetric risk (5th-40th week of gestation) and 40 nulligravidae. All of the participants were of normal weight and none exercised regularly. All were recruited from the metropolitan area of Recife, Brazil. Measurements of MIP and MEP were obtained from RV and TLC, respectively, with a digital manometer. We used Student's t-test to compare the two groups, and we used multiple linear regression in order to determine whether group or chronological age correlated with MIP or MEP. Results: In the primigravida and nulligravida groups, the mean MIP values were 88.50 ± 16.52 cmH2O and 94.22 ± 22.63 cmH2O, respectively, (p = 0.08), whereas the mean MEP values were 99.76 ±18.19 cmH2O and 98.67 ± 20.78 cmH2O (p = 0.75). Gestational age did not correlate with MIP (r = −0.06; p = 0.49) or MEP (r = −0.11; p = 0.22). The relationship between chronological age and MIP/MEP did not differ between primigravidae and nulligravidae (angular coefficient = 0.028 and 0.453, respectively). Conclusions: Within this sample of women in the 20-29 year age bracket, the respiratory pressures of primigravidae remained stable during pregnancy and did not differ significantly from those of nulligravidae.


Keywords: Pregnancy; Respiratory function tests; Muscle strength.


10 - Clinical, epidemiological, and etiological profile of inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia at a general hospital in the Sumaré microregion of Brazil

Perfil clínico, epidemiológico e etiológico de pacientes com pneumonia adquirida na comunidade internados em um hospital geral da microrregião de Sumaré, SP

Maria Rita Donalisio, Carlos Henrique Mamud Arca, Paulo Roberto de Madureira

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):200-208

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the clinical, etiological, and epidemiological aspects of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in hospitalized individuals. Methods: We prospectively studied 66 patients (> 14 years of age) with CAP admitted to the Hospital Estadual Sumaré, located in the Sumaré microregion of Brazil, between October of 2005 and September of 2007. We collected data related to clinical history, physical examination, pneumonia severity index (PSI) scores, and laboratory tests (blood culture; sputum smear microscopy and culture; serology for Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila; and detection of Legionella sp. and Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens in urine). Results: The mean age of patients was 53 years. Most had a low level of education, and 55.7% presented with at least one comorbidity at the time of hospitalization. The proportion of elderly people vaccinated against influenza was significantly lower among the inpatients than in the general population of the Sumaré microregion (52.6% vs. > 70%). Fever was less common among the elderly patients (p < 0.05). The clinical evolution was associated with the PSI scores but not with age. The etiology was confirmed in 31 cases (50.8%) and was attributed to S. pneumoniae, principally detected by the urinary antigen test, in 21 (34.4%), followed by C. pneumoniae, in 5 (8.2%). The mortality rate was 4.9%, and 80.3% of the patients were classified as cured at discharge. Conclusions: The knowledge of the etiologic profile of CAP at the regional level favors the appropriate choice of empirical treatment, which is particularly relevant in elderly patients and in those with comorbidities. The lack of influenza vaccination in elderly patients is a risk factor for hospitalization due to CAP.


Keywords: Chlamydophila pneumoniae; Community-acquired infections; Pneumonia; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Influenza vaccines.


11 - Results and complications of CT-guided transthoracic fine-needle aspiration biopsy of pulmonary lesions

Biópsia aspirativa transtorácica por agulha fina guiada por TC de lesões pulmonares: resultados e complicações

Cristiano Dias de Lima, Rodolfo Acatauassu Nunes, Eduardo Haruo Saito, Cláudio Higa, Zanier José Fernando Cardona, Denise Barbosa dos Santos

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):209-216

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the cytological findings of CT-guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsies of the lung, to demonstrate the diagnostic feasibility of the method in the investigation of pulmonary lesions, and to determine the complications of the procedure, evaluating its safety. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 89 patients with various types of pulmonary lesions who underwent 97 procedures over a period of five years. The patients were divided into groups regarding the indication for the procedure: suspicion of primary lung cancer (stages IIIB or IV); suspicion of lung cancer (stages I, II, or IIIA) and clinical contraindications for surgery; suspicion of pulmonary metastasis from other organs; and pulmonary lesions with benign radiological aspect. All of the procedures were performed with 25-gauge needles and were guided by spiral CT. The final diagnosis was confirmed by surgical biopsy and clinical/oncological follow-up. For the analysis of complications, the total number of procedures was considered. Results: The main indication for the procedure was suspicion of advanced-stage primary lung cancer. The accuracy of the method for malignant lesions was 91.5%. The lesion was confirmed as cancer in 73% of the patients. The major complication was pneumothorax (27.8%), which required chest tube drainage in 12.4% of the procedures. Conclusions: The principal indication for CT-guided fine-needle biopsy was suspicion of primary lung cancer in patients who were not surgical candidates. The procedure has high diagnostic feasibility for malignant pulmonary diseases. The most prevalent complication was pneumothorax. However, in most cases, chest tube drainage was unnecessary. No deaths were related to the procedure.


Keywords: Biopsy, fine-needle; Tomography, spiral computed; Lung neoplasms; Pneumothorax.


12 - Characteristics of COPD patients admitted to the ICU of a referral hospital for respiratory diseases in Brazil

Características de pacientes com DPOC internados em UTI de um hospital de referência para doenças respiratórias no Brasil

Mariângela Pimentel Pincelli, Ana Cristina Burigo Grumann, Camilo Fernandes, André G C Cavalheiro, Daiane A P Haussen, Israel Silva Maia

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):217-222

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To report data regarding COPD patients admitted to the ICU of a referral hospital for respiratory diseases, including outcomes and treatment evaluation. Methods: Study of a series of patients with respiratory failure and COPD admitted to the ICU of Nereu Ramos Hospital, located in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil, between October of 2006 and October of 2007. Data related to demographics, causes of hospitalization, pharmacological treatment, ventilatory support, length of hospital stay, in-hospital complications, ICU mortality, and 28-day mortality were obtained from the medical charts of the patients. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores were calculated. Mortality at 18 months was assessed by subsequent telephone calls. Results: During the study period, 192 patients were admitted to the ICU, 24 (12.5%) of whom were diagnosed with respiratory failure and COPD. The mean length of ICU stay was 12.0 ± 11.1 days. Noninvasive ventilation was used in 10 of the 24 patients (41.66%) and failed in 5 of those 10. Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) was used in a total of 15 patients (62.5%). Overall ICU mortality and 28-day mortality were 20.83% and 33.33%, respectively. However, 18-month mortality was 62.5%. Conclusions: Respiratory failure associated with COPD was responsible for 12.5% of the ICU admissions. Orotracheal intubation and IMV were necessary in 62.5% of the cases. The ICU mortality rate was in accordance with that predicted by the APACHE II scores. However, late mortality was high.


Keywords: Epidemiology; Respiration, artificial; Respiratory insufficiency; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Intensive care units; Mortality.


13 - Compliance with tuberculosis treatment after the implementation of the directly observed treatment, short-course strategy in the city of Carapicuíba, Brazil

Adesão ao tratamento da tuberculose após a instituição da estratégia de tratamento supervisionado no município de Carapicuíba, Grande São Paulo

Amadeu Antonio Vieira, Sandra Aparecida Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):223-231

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the compliance with tuberculosis treatment among patients enrolled the tuberculosis control program in the city of Carapicuíba, Brazil, before and after the implementation of the directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) strategy. Methods: A retrospective historical cohort study of operational aspects based on records of attendance and treatment evolution of patients in self-administered treatment (SAT) and of those submitted to DOTS. Monthly treatment outcome tables were created, and the probability of compliance with the treatment was calculated for both groups of patients. Results: A total of 360 patients with tuberculosis met the inclusion criteria: 173 (48.1%) in the SAT group; and 187 (51.9%) in the DOTS group. Treatment compliance was 6.1% higher in the DOTS group than in the SAT group. The proportion of patients completing the six months of treatment was 91.6% and 85.5% in the DOTS group and in the SAT group, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study show that DOTS can be successfully implemented at primary health care clinics. In this population of patients, residents of a city with low incomes and a high burden of tuberculosis infection, DOTS was more effective than was SAT.


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Treatment outcome; Medication adherence.


14 - Tuberculous pneumonia: a study of 59 microbiologically confirmed cases

Pneumonia tuberculosa: um estudo de 59 casos confirmados microbiologicamente

Jose Moreira, Jamila Belicanta Fochesatto, Ana L Moreira, Marisa Pereira, Nelson Porto, Bruno Hochhegger

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):232-237

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To study the clinical, epidemiological, radiographic and endoscopic features of individuals with tuberculous pneumonia. Methods: We evaluated 2,828 consecutive tuberculosis patients treated at a public health center between December of 2005 and February of 2007. Of those, 59 (2.1%) had pulmonary involvement consistent with fistula between a lymph node and a bronchus. Results: Of the 59 patients studied, 43 (73%) were between 20 and 50 years of age, 31 (53%) were male, and 28 (47%) were Black. The most common symptoms were cough (in 100%), fever (in 88%), expectoration (in 81%), and weight loss (in 40%). Comorbidities were reported in 35 cases (59%), the most common being HIV infection (in 20%) and diabetes (in 15%). On chest X-rays, consolidation was observed, predominantly in the upper lobes (in 68%). The diagnostic confirmation (identification of AFB) was made through the sputum smear microscopy in the majority of the cases and by bronchoscopy (BAL examination or bronchial biopsy) in the remainder. Bronchial lesions were clearly indicative or suggestive of fistula in three cases and five cases, respectively. Conclusions: Tuberculous pneumonia presents as acute respiratory infection, initiating with a dry cough that is followed by fever. Chest X-rays show alveolar consolidation. In most cases, tuberculous pneumonia was accompanied by at least one comorbid condition, the most common being HIV infection, and the etiological diagnosis was made through sputum smear microscopy for AFB. Bronchoscopy findings were indicative of bronchial fistula in eight cases (13%).


Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Pneumonia; Bronchial fistula; Lymph nodes.


Brief Communication

15 - Suspension laryngoscopy for the thoracic surgeon: When and how to use it

Laringoscopia de suspensão para o cirurgião torácico: Quando e como utilizá-la

Antonio Oliveira dos Santos Júnior, Hélio Minamoto, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Tales Rubens de Nadai, Rafael Turano Mota, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):238-241

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Suspension laryngoscopy is one of the most common otolaryngological procedures for the diagnosis and surgical approach to the larynx. However, most thoracic surgeons are not familiar with the procedure and seldom use it. The indications for its use are similar to those for that of rigid bronchoscopy (dilatation, endoprosthesis insertion, and tumor resection). It can be performed in children and adults. Suspension laryngoscopy is an alternative when rigid bronchoscopy is unavailable and is therefore a viable option for use at smaller facilities. In this communication, we describe the technique and the applications of suspension laryngoscopy in thoracic surgery.


Keywords: Trachea; Dilatation; Thoracic Surgery; Laryngoscopy.


Review Article

16 - Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest: Current and new applications, with an emphasis on pulmonology

Ressonância magnética do tórax: Aplicações tradicionais e novas, com ênfase em pneumologia

Marcel Koenigkam Santos, Jorge Elias Júnior, Fernando Marum Mauad, Valdair Francisco Muglia, Clóvis Simão Trad

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):242-258

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of the present review study was to present the principal applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest, including the description of new techniques. Over the past decade, this method has evolved considerably because of the development of new equipment, including the simultaneous interconnection of phased-array multiple radiofrequency receiver coils and remote control of the table movement, in addition to faster techniques of image acquisition, such as parallel imaging and partial Fourier acquisitions, as well as the introduction of new contrast agents. All of these advances have allowed MRI to gain ground in the study of various pathologies of the chest, including lung diseases. Currently, MRI is considered the modality of choice for the evaluation of lesions in the mediastinum and in the chest wall, as well as of superior sulcus tumors. However, it can also facilitate the diagnosis of lung, pleural, and cardiac diseases, as well as of those related to the pulmonary vasculature. Pulmonary MRI angiography can be used in order to evaluate various pulmonary vascular diseases, and it has played an ever greater role in the study of thromboembolism. Because cardiac MRI allows morphological and functional assessment in the same test, it has also become part of the clinical routine in the evaluation of various cardiac diseases. Finally, the role of MRI has been extended to the identification and characterization of pulmonary nodules, the evaluation of airway diseases, and the characterization of pleural effusion.


Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging; Thorax; Pulmonary medicine.


17 - Congenital lung malformations

Malformações pulmonares congênitas

Cristiano Feijó Andrade, Hylas Paiva da Costa Ferreira, Gilberto Bueno Fischer

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):259-271

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Congenital lung malformations are rare and vary widely in their clinical presentation and severity, depending mostly on the degree of lung involvement and their location in the thoracic cavity. They can manifest at any age and can be the source of significant morbidity and mortality in infants and children. Individuals with congenital lung malformations can present with respiratory symptoms at birth or can remain asymptomatic for long periods. Recently, there has been an increase in the early diagnosis of these malformations, a change that is attributable to the routine use of prenatal ultrasound. The clinical manifestation of these malformations varies from respiratory distress in the immediate postnatal period to an incidental finding on chest X-rays. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment offer the possibility of absolutely normal lung development. The treatment of asymptomatic patients with lung malformations is controversial, because the prognosis of these diseases is unpredictable. The management of these lesions depends on the type of malformation and symptoms. Because of the risk of complications, most authors recommend resection of the lesion at the time of diagnosis. Lobectomy is the procedure of choice and yields excellent long-term results. This article describes the principal congenital lung malformations, their diagnosis, and the controversies regarding treatment.


Keywords: Cystic adenomatoid malformation of lung, congenital; Bronchopulmonary sequestration; Pulmonary surgical procedures; Diagnosis.


Case Report

18 - Treatment of schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension

Tratamento da hipertensão pulmonar esquistossomótica

Ricardo de Amorim Correa, Marcus Vinicius Souza Couto Moreira, Jucielle Marcelina da Silva Saraiva, Eliane Viana Mancuzo, Luciana Cristina dos Santos Silva, José Roberto Lambertucci

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):272-276

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Schistosomiasis mansoni is the third most prevalent endemic parasitic disease in the world. It is estimated that over 200 million people are infected with parasites belonging to one of the Schistosoma species. Of those, 270,000 people (4.6%) suffer from pulmonary arterial hypertension, which is associated with the hepatosplenic form of the disease. This high prevalence makes schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension the leading cause of pulmonary hypertension worldwide. However, no specific treatment for the pulmonary vascular component of the disease has yet been devised. We report the case of a patient with schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary hypertension who was treated satisfactorily with a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (sildenafil).


Keywords: Schistosomiasis mansoni; Hypertension, pulmonary; Drug therapy.



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