Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2011 - Volume 37  - Number 6  (November/December)






Original Article

2 - Asthma control and quality of life in patients with moderate or severe asthma

Controle da asma e qualidade de vida em pacientes com asma moderada ou grave

Eanes Delgado Barros Pereira, Antonio George de Matos Cavalcante, Eduardo Nolla Silva Pereira, Pedro Lucas, Marcelo Alcântara Holanda

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):704-711

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the association between degree of asthma control and health-related quality of life in patients with moderate or severe asthma. Methods: This was a descriptive observational study involving 59 outpatients with moderate or severe asthma under treatment at the Asthma Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of Ceará Walter Cantídio University Hospital, in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. The patients were evaluated regarding sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as spirometric parameters. The asthma control status was assessed using the asthma control test (ACT), and quality of life was assessed using the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Results: The mean age of the patients was 55.0 ± 12.4 years, and 76.3% were female. The ACT score showed statistically significant negative correlations with all SGRQ scores: total (r = −0.72); symptoms (r = −0.78); activity (r = −0.67); and impact (r = −0.68). Multiple regression analysis showed that the most robust predictive variables for SGRQ total score were ACT score (coefficient = −3.18; 95% CI: −4.14 to −2.23) and duration of disease (coefficient = −0.29; 95% CI: −0.54 to −0.03). The ACT score also explained the linear variation of the SGRQ domains: symptoms (coefficient = −3.41; 95% CI: −4.45 to −2.37); activity (coefficient = −3.07; 95% CI: −4.57 to −1.57); and impact (coefficient = −2.68; 95% CI: −3.71 to −1.65). Conclusions: The degree of asthma control appears to have a significant impact on health-related quality of life.

 


Keywords: Asthma/prevention and control; Quality of life; Questionnaires.

 

3 - Analysis of physiological variables during acute hypoxia and maximal stress test in adolescents clinically diagnosed with mild intermittent or mild persistent asthma

Análise de variáveis fisiológicas de adolescentes com diagnóstico clínico de asma leve intermitente ou leve persistente quando submetidos a hipóxia aguda e teste de esforço máximo

Martin Maldonado, Luiz Osório Cruz Portela

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):712-719

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze adolescents clinically diagnosed with asthma, in terms of the physiological changes occurring during acute hypoxia and during a maximal stress test. Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study involving 48 adolescents (12-14 years of age) who were divided into three groups: mild intermittent asthma (MIA, n = 12); mild persistent asthma (MPA, n = 12); and control (n = 24). All subjects were induced to acute hypoxia and were submitted to maximal stress testing. Anthropometric data were collected, and functional variables were assessed before and after the maximal stress test. During acute hypoxia, the time to a decrease in SpO2 and the time to recovery of SpO2 (at rest) were determined. Results: No significant differences were found among the groups regarding the anthropometric variables or regarding the ventilatory variables during the stress test. Significant differences were found in oxygen half-saturation pressure of hemoglobin prior to the test and in PaO2 prior to the test between the MPA and control groups (p = 0.0279 and p = 0.0116, respectively), as was in the oxygen extraction tension prior to the test between the MIA and MPA groups (p = 0.0419). There were no significant differences in terms of the SpO2 times under any of the conditions studied. Oxygen consumption and respiratory efficiency were similar among the groups. The use of a bronchodilator provided no significant benefit during the hypoxia test. No correlations were found between the hypoxia test results and the physiological variables. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that adolescents with mild persistent asthma have a greater capacity to adapt to hypoxia than do those with other types of asthma.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Adolescent; Cell hypoxia; Exercise test.

 

4 - Use of inhaler devices and asthma control in severe asthma patients at a referral center in the city of Salvador, Brazil

Manuseio de dispositivos inalatórios e controle da asma em asmáticos graves em um centro de referência em Salvador

Ana Carla Carvalho Coelho, Adelmir Souza-Machado, Mylene Leite, Paula Almeida, Lourdes Castro, Constança Sampaio Cruz, Rafael Stelmach, Álvaro Augusto Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):720-728

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the use of inhaler devices by patients with severe asthma treated via the Programa para o Controle da Asma e Rinite Alérgica na Bahia (ProAR, Bahia State Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Control Program), recording the frequency of their errors in performing key steps and the relationship between such errors and the lack of asthma control. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 467 patients enrolled in the ProAR in the city of Salvador, Brazil. The devices evaluated were metered dose inhalers (MDIs), with or without a spacer, and dry powder inhalers (DPIs; Pulvinal® or Aerolizer®). For the assessment of the inhalation technique, a checklist was used; the patients were asked to demonstrate the technique so that an interviewer could observe all of the steps performed. For the assessment of asthma control, we used the 6-item asthma control questionnaire. Results: Most of the patients showed appropriate inhalation techniques when using the devices. When using an MDI, few patients made mistakes in the key step of "coordinating activation and inhalation" (5.2% and 9.1% with and without the use of a spacer, respectively). During Pulvinal® use, 39% of the patients did not inhale quickly and deeply, compared with only 5.8% during Aerolizer® use. Of the patients that made use of Aerolizer® alone, 71.3% appropriately performed all of the essential steps, and their asthma was controlled. Conclusions: Most of the patients in this sample, all of whom had been submitted to periodic checks of their inhalation technique (as part of the program), used the devices appropriately. Proper inhalation technique is associated with asthma symptom control.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Administration, inhalation; Metered dose inhalers; Dry powdered inhalers.

 

5 - Ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive in partial lobectomy in rats

Adesivo cirúrgico de etil-2-cianoacrilato em lobectomia parcial em ratos

Ariani Cavazzani Szkudlarek, Paula Sincero, Renato Silva de Sousa, Rosalvo Tadeu Hochmuller Fogaça

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):729-734

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the efficacy of ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate adhesive in repairing the lung parenchyma after partial lobectomy in rats, in terms of hemostasis/aerostasis, scarring, and surgical time. Methods: The study involved 30 Wistar rats, randomly divided into five groups (one control group and four study groups). In the study groups, the lung parenchyma was repaired with either cyanoacrylate adhesive or surgical suture following resection of a small or large fragment (25% or 50%, respectively) of the left caudal lung lobe. Results: Surgical time and hemostasis time were shorter in the two groups treated with the adhesive than in the two submitted to suture. There were no significant differences among the groups regarding specific lung compliance. Adherences and inflammatory reactions were more severe in the groups submitted to suture. Conclusions: In this study, the use of cyanoacrylate adhesive helped reduce the surgical time and the intensity of inflammatory reactions, as well as preserving lung compliance. Cyanoacrylate adhesives should be considered an option for lung parenchyma repair, decreasing the risk of complications after partial lobectomy in humans.

 


Keywords: Lung; Pneumonectomy; Cyanoacrylates.

 

6 - Functional performance on the six-minute walk test in patients with cystic fibrosis

Desempenho funcional de pacientes com fibrose cística e indivíduos saudáveis no teste de caminhada de seis minutos

Fabíola Meister Pereira, Maria Ângela Gonçalves de Oliveira Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando Ribeiro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera Toro, Gabriel Hessel, José Dirceu Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):735-744

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare patients with cystic fibrosis and healthy individuals in terms of their functional performance on the six-minute walk test (6MWT). Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study involving healthy individuals and patients with cystic fibrosis treated at a referral university hospital in the city of Campinas, Brazil. The 6MWT was administered in accordance with the American Thoracic Society guidelines, and it was repeated after a 30-min rest period. For all of the participants, RR, HR, SpO2, and Borg scale scores were obtained. For the cystic fibrosis patients, nutritional status and spirometric values were determined. Patients with pulmonary exacerbation were excluded. Spearman's correlation coefficient and repeated measures ANOVA were used. Results: The cystic fibrosis group comprised 55 patients, and the control group comprised 185 healthy individuals. The mean ages were 12.2 ± 4.3 and 11.3 ± 4.3 years, respectively. The six-minute walk distance (6MWD) was significantly shorter in the cystic fibrosis group than in the control group for both tests (547.2 ± 80.6 m vs. 610.3 ± 53.4 m for the first and 552.2 ± 82.1 m vs. 616.2 ± 58.0 m for the second; p < 0.0001 for both). The 6MWD correlated with age, weight, and height only in the cystic fibrosis group. During the tests, SpO2 remained stable, whereas HR and RR increased. Conclusions: In our sample, functional performance on the 6MWT was poorer among the cystic fibrosis patients than among the healthy controls in the same age bracket, and we found immediate repetition of the test to be unadvisable.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Exercise tolerance; Dyspnea.

 

7 - Bronchodilator effect on maximal breath-hold time in patients with obstructive lung disease

Efeito do broncodilatador no tempo de apneia voluntária máxima em pacientes com distúrbios ventilatórios obstrutivos

Raqueli Biscayno Viecili, Paulo Roberto Stefani Sanches, Denise Rossato Silva, Danton Pereira da Silva, André Frota Muller, Sergio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):745-751

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify the role of bronchodilators in the maximal breath-hold time in patients with obstructive lung disease (OLD). Methods: We conducted a case-control study including patients with OLD and a control group. Spirometric tests were performed prior to and after the use of a bronchodilator, as were breath-hold tests, using an electronic microprocessor and a pneumotachograph as a flow transducer. Respiratory flow curves were displayed in real time on a portable computer. The maximal breath-hold times at end-inspiratory volume and at end-expiratory volume (BHTmaxVEI and BHTmaxVEE, respectively) were determined from the acquired signal. Results: A total of 35 patients with OLD and 16 controls were included. Prior to the use of a bronchodilator, the BHTmaxVEI was significantly lower in the OLD group than in the control group (22.27 ± 11.81 s vs. 31.45 ± 15.73 s; p = 0.025), although there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the post-bronchodilator values (24.94 ± 12.89 s vs. 31.67 ± 17.53 s). In contrast, BHTmaxVEE values were significantly lower in the OLD group than in the control group, in the pre- and post-bronchodilator tests (16.88 ± 6.58 s vs. 22.09 ± 7.95 s; p = 0.017; and 21.22 ± 9.37 s vs. 28.53 ± 12.46 s; p = 0.024, respectively). Conclusions: Our results provide additional evidence of the clinical usefulness of the breath-hold test in the assessment of pulmonary function and add to the existing knowledge regarding the role of the bronchodilator in this test.

 


Keywords: Respiratory function tests; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Bronchodilator agents; Apnea.

 

8 - Spirometry with bronchodilator test: effect that the use of large-volume spacers with antistatic treatment has on test response

Prova broncodilatadora na espirometria: efeito do uso de espaçador de grande volume com tratamento antiestático na resposta ao broncodilatador

Flávia de Barros Araújo, Ricardo de Amorim Corrêa, Luis Fernando Ferreira Pereira, Carla Discacciati Silveira, Eliane Viana Mancuso, Nilton Alves de Rezende

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):752-758

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate whether the use of inhaled albuterol via a metered-dose inhaler with a large-volume spacer with antistatic treatment modifies the bronchodilator test results when compared with the usual technique (no spacer). Methods: A prospective study involving 24 patients, 18-45 years of age, clinically suspected of having asthma, and under treatment at the Outpatient Pulmonary Clinic of the Federal University of Minas Gerais Hospital das Clínicas, located in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. All of the patients underwent two bronchodilator tests: one with and one without the use of a large-volume spacer. Results: There was no significant difference in the variation of FEV1 prior to and after bronchodilator use between the two techniques (mean FEV1 = 0.01 L; 95% CI: −0.05 to 0.06; p = 0.824). No statistically significant difference was found between the two techniques regarding the qualitative results on the bronchodilator test (p = 1.00). There was concordance between the techniques in terms of the bronchodilator test results (kappa coefficient = 0.909; p < 0.005). Conclusions: According to the results of this study, the use of large-volume spacers does not significantly modify bronchodilator test results.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Spirometry; Inhalation spacers.

 

9 - Effect of seasonality on the occurrence of respiratory symptoms in a Brazilian city with a tropical climate

Efeito da sazonalidade climática na ocorrência de sintomas respiratórios em uma cidade de clima tropical

José Laerte Rodrigues da Silva Júnior, Thiago Fintelman Padilha, Jordana Eduardo Rezende, Eliane Consuelo Alves Rabelo, Anna Carolina Galvão Ferreira, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):759-767

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the effect that seasonality has on the occurrence of respiratory symptoms in a Brazilian city with a tropical climate. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, in which data related to subjects who sought outpatient treatment at a primary health care clinic in the city of Goiânia, Brazil, were correlated with daily meteorological data. Over a one-year period, all the patients who met the inclusion criteria were interviewed on 44 distinct, randomly selected days (11 days per season). We used ANOVA in order to compare the means of the dependent variables by season. Correlations were drawn between each dependent variable and each meteorological variable. The effects of the meteorological variables were analyzed with an AutoRegressive Moving Average with eXogenous input (ARMAX) model. Results: Of the 3,354 participants, 494 (14.6%) had respiratory symptoms. Although temperature variation alone had no effect on the number of individuals with respiratory symptoms, the low levels of humidity during winter resulted in a statistically significant difference among the seasons (p < 0.01). The mean minimum relative humidity on the three days prior to the interviews correlated negatively with the number of subjects with respiratory symptoms (p = 0.04). An ARMAX model including the same variable showed a statistically significant coefficient (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: In this sample, the number of subjects with respiratory symptoms increased significantly when the relative humidity dropped, and this increase could be predicted using meteorological data.

 


Keywords: Seasons; Tropical climate/adverse effects; Signs and symptoms, respiratory; Logistic models.

 

10 - Clinical, radiological, and laboratory characteristics in pulmonary tuberculosis patients: comparative study of HIV‑positive and HIV-negative inpatients at a referral hospital

Manifestações clínicas, radiológicas e laboratoriais em indivíduos com tuberculose pulmonar: estudo comparativo entre indivíduos HIV positivos e HIV negativos internados em um hospital de referência

Aline Besen, Guilherme Jönck Staub, Rosemeri Maurici da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):768-775

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare clinical, radiological, and laboratory characteristics of individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis co-infected or not with HIV. Methods: A cross-sectional study, in which signs and symptoms were assessed by anamnesis and physical examination in patients hospitalized with pulmonary tuberculosis. The results of sputum smear microscopy and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as hemoglobin levels and CD4+ T-cell counts, were obtained from medical records, and chest X-ray reports were consulted. Results: We included 50 pulmonary tuberculosis patients, who were divided into two groups (HIV-positive and HIV-negative; n = 25 per group). The mean age of the participants was 38.4 ± 10.5 years; 46 (92%) were males; and 27 (54%) were White. Expectoration was presented by 21 (84%) and 13 (52%) of the patients in the HIV-negative and HIV-positive groups, respectively (p = 0.016). Radiological findings of cavitation were present in 10 (43%) and 2 (10%) of the patients in the HIV-negative and HIV-positive groups, respectively (p = 0.016), whereas an interstitial pattern was observed in 18 (78%) and 8 (40%), respectively (p = 0.012). The mean hemoglobin level was 11.1 ± 2.9 g/dL and 9.3 ± 2.2 g/dL in the HIV-negative and HIV-positive groups, respectively (p = 0.015). Conclusions: In our sample of tuberculosis patients, expectoration was less prevalent, hemoglobin levels were lower, and cavitation was less common, as was an interstitial pattern, among those co-infected with HIV than among those without HIV co-infection.

 


Keywords: HIV; Tuberculosis; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

 

11 - Pulmonary tuberculosis treatment regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health: predictors of treatment noncompliance in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil

Fatores preditores para o abandono do tratamento da tuberculose pulmonar preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil na cidade de Porto Alegre (RS)

Simone Teresinha Aloise Campani, José da Silva Moreira, Carlos Nunes Tietbohel

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):776-782

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare clinical, radiological, and laboratory characteristics of individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis co-infected or not with HIV. Methods: A cross-sectional study, in which signs and symptoms were assessed by anamnesis and physical examination in patients hospitalized with pulmonary tuberculosis. The results of sputum smear microscopy and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as hemoglobin levels and CD4+ T-cell counts, were obtained from medical records, and chest X-ray reports were consulted. Results: We included 50 pulmonary tuberculosis patients, who were divided into two groups (HIV-positive and HIV-negative; n = 25 per group). The mean age of the participants was 38.4 ± 10.5 years; 46 (92%) were males; and 27 (54%) were White. Expectoration was presented by 21 (84%) and 13 (52%) of the patients in the HIV-negative and HIV-positive groups, respectively (p = 0.016). Radiological findings of cavitation were present in 10 (43%) and 2 (10%) of the patients in the HIV-negative and HIV-positive groups, respectively (p = 0.016), whereas an interstitial pattern was observed in 18 (78%) and 8 (40%), respectively (p = 0.012). The mean hemoglobin level was 11.1 ± 2.9 g/dL and 9.3 ± 2.2 g/dL in the HIV-negative and HIV-positive groups, respectively (p = 0.015). Conclusions: In our sample of tuberculosis patients, expectoration was less prevalent, hemoglobin levels were lower, and cavitation was less common, as was an interstitial pattern, among those co-infected with HIV than among those without HIV co-infection.

 


Keywords: HIV; Tuberculosis; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

 

12 - Outcomes of tuberculosis treatment among inpatients and outpatients in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

Desfechos de tratamento de tuberculose em pacientes hospitalizados e não hospitalizados no município de São Paulo

Mirtes Cristina Telles Perrechi, Sandra Aparecida Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):783-790

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare inpatient and outpatient treatment of tuberculosis, in terms of outcomes, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, as well to determine which variables are most frequently associated with hospitalization. Methods: A prospective, longitudinal study carried out between January and December of 2007, at two large hospitals and at outpatient clinics, in two regions of the city of São Paulo. For inpatients, data were collected with a structured questionnaire. Additional data were obtained from the São Paulo State Department of Health Tuberculosis Database. Results: Of the 474 patients included in the study, 166 were inpatients, and 308 were outpatients. The multivariate analysis showed that hospitalization for tuberculosis was associated with hospital/emergency room diagnosis of tuberculosis (OR = 55.42), with HIV co-infection (OR = 18.57), with retreatment (OR = 18.51), and with having previously sought treatment at another health care facility (OR = 12.32). For the inpatient and outpatient groups, the overall cure rates were 41.6% and 78.3%, respectively, compared with 30.4% and 58.5% for those who were co-infected with HIV, whereas the overall mortality rates were 29.5% and 2.6%, respectively, compared with 45.7% and 9.8% for those who were co-infected with HIV. Conclusions: Among inpatients, tuberculosis appears to be more severe and more difficult to diagnose, resulting in lower cure rates and higher mortality rates, than among outpatients. In addition, tuberculosis patients co-infected with HIV have less favorable outcomes.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Hospitalization; Primary health care; Treatment outcome.

 

Brief Communication

13 - Ex vivo experimental model: split lung block technique

Modelo experimental ex vivo com bloco pulmonar dividido

Alessandro Wasum Mariani, Israel Lopes de Medeiros, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Flávio Guimarães Fernandes, Fernando do Valle Unterpertinger, Lucas Matos Fernandes, Mauro Canzian, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):791-795

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Since they were first established, ex vivo models of lung reconditioning have been evaluated extensively. When rejected donor lungs are used, the great variability among the cases can hinder the progress of such studies. In order to avoid this problem, we developed a technique that consists of separating the lung block into right and left blocks and subsequently reconnecting those two blocks. This technique allows us to have one study lung and one control lung.

 


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Transplantation conditioning; Organ preservation; Organ preservation solutions.

 

Case Series

14 - Minimally invasive bronchoscopic resection of benign tumors of the bronchi Ressecção minimamente invasiva por broncoscopia de tumores brônquicos benignos

Ressecção minimamente invasiva por broncoscopia de tumores brônquicos benignos

Ascedio Jose Rodrigues, David Coelho, Sérvulo Azevedo Dias Júnior, Márcia Jacomelli, Paulo Rogério Scordamaglio, Viviane Rossi Figueiredo

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):796-800

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Primary benign tumors of the trachea and main bronchi are uncommon. Interventional bronchoscopy allows the diagnosis and the treatment of some of these lesions. Methods: We reviewed four cases endoscopically treated at our institution. Results: Two patients had hamartoma, and two patients had endobronchial lipoma. In all of the cases, the interventional technique for the resection was the use of a polypectomy snare and electrocautery. The only complication reported was one episode of bronchospasm. Conclusions: Minimally invasive bronchoscopic resection is a safe, effective method for treating selected benign tumors of the main airway and has a low complication rate.

 


Keywords: Bronchoscopy; Bronchial neoplasms; Hamartoma; Lipoma.

 

Special Article

15 - Evaluation of articles on pulmonology published in Brazilian journals other than the Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

Avaliação dos artigos de pneumologia publicados em periódicos brasileiros além do Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia

Bruno Guedes Baldi, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):801-808

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In Brazil, research on pulmonology has become increasingly more visible in recent years. In addition to the Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology, other journals have contributed to that by publishing relevant articles in this area. The objective of this article was to briefly report the most relevant studies on pulmonology that were published in other important Brazilian journals between 2009 and 2010. Altogether, there were 56 articles related to the various subareas that compose the field of respiratory diseases.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary medicine; Research; Brazil.

 

Original Article

16 - Treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis: update

Atualização do tratamento das vasculites associadas a anticorpo anticitoplasma de neutrófilos

Alfredo Nicodemos Cruz Santana, Viktoria Woronik, Ari Stiel Radu Halpern, Carmen S V Barbas

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):809-816

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In its various forms, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is characterized by a systemic inflammation of the small and medium-sized arteries (especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, as well as in the kidneys). The forms of AAV comprise Wegener's granulomatosis (now called granulomatosis with polyangiitis), microscopic polyangiitis, renal AAV, and Churg-Strauss syndrome. In this paper, we discuss the phases of AAV treatment, including the induction phase (with cyclophosphamide or rituximab) and the maintenance phase (with azathioprine, methotrexate, or rituximab). We also discuss how to handle patients who are refractory to cyclophosphamide.

 


Keywords: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis; Wegener granulomatosis; Antibodies, antineutrophil cytoplasmic.

 

Case Report

17 - 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography as a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of primary pulmonary artery sarcoma

Tomografia por emissão de pósitrons com 18F fluordesoxiglicose como exame não invasivo para o diagnóstico de sarcomas primários de artéria pulmonar

Olívia Meira Dias, Elisa Maria Siqueira Lombardi, Mauro Canzian, José Soares Júnior, Lucas de Oliveira Vieira, Mário Terra Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):817-822

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pulmonary artery sarcomas are rare, difficult-to-diagnose tumors that frequently mimic chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. We report the cases of two female patients with clinical signs of dyspnea and lung masses associated with pulmonary artery filling defects on chest CT angiography. We performed 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, which revealed increased radiotracer uptake in those lesions. Pulmonary artery sarcoma was subsequently confirmed by anatomopathological examination. We emphasize the importance of this type of tomography as a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of these tumors.

 


Keywords: Positron-emission tomography; Pulmonary artery; Pulmonary embolism; Leiomyosarcoma; Histiocytoma, malignant fibrous.

 

20 - A novel position for postural relief of dyspnea

Uma posição incomum para alívio postural da dispneia

José Antônio Baddini Martinez, Heloise Baldan Otero Rodrigues, Alexandre Martins Portelinha

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):829-830

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