Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 1998 - Volume 24  - Number 1  (January/February)






Editorial

1 - O novo estadiamento do câncer do pulmão

Mauro Musa Zamboni

J Bras Pneumol.1998;24(1):1-2

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Original Article

2 - Relationship between aerobic fitness and clinical indicators of asthma severity in children

Relação entre capacidade aeróbia e indicadores clínicos da gravidade da asma em crianças

José Alberto Neder, Ana Luíza Godoy Fernandes, Antônio Carlos Silva, Anna Lúcia de Barros Cabral, Luiz Eduardo Nery

J Bras Pneumol.1998;24(1):3-10

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

In order to assess the relationship between the physical fitness of asthmatics and the clinical expression of the underlying disease, the authors studied 39 physically active children with moderate to severe but stable asthma. The patients (25 boys and 14 girls, aged between 9 and 16 years) were submitted to clinical evaluation; spirometry before and after bronchodilator (BD); maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test in cycle ergometer with breath-by-breath analysis of ventilatory and gas exchange variables; and, on a separate day, an exercise challenge test. As expected by the clinical stability, FEV1 post-BD was in the normal range in most of the children (mean ± SD = 93.8 ± 13.7% predicted). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was higher than the lower 95% confidence interval in 31/39 children; and in 29/39, the oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold (VO2AT) showed values above the lower limit of normality. Seven patients with low tolerance to exercise (reduced VO2max) presented suggestions of circulatory limitation (cardiovascular and/or peripheral) and only 1 had ventilatory limitation. There was no association or correlation between the lower ventilatory reserve (VEmax/MVV% ratio > 80%) and the decreased VO2max. Reduction in VO2AT, but not VO2max, was associated with some clinical indicators of asthma severity, e.g. (i) higher daily inhaled beclomethasone and frequent courses of oral steroids (p < 0.05) and (ii) higher exercise-induced bronchospasm occurrence (p < 0.01). The results show that (i) most patients with moderate to severe asthma, when clinically stable and physically active, present an adequate level of exercise tolerance; (ii) in estimation of the clinical severity of bronchial asthma in children, VO2AT is a better aerobic index than VO2max.

 


Keywords: Asthma in children. Exercise tolerance. Maximal oxygen uptake. Anaerobic threshold. Physical fitness. Exercise-induced

 

3 - Bronchiectasis: a study of 314 cases tuberculosis x non-tuberculosis

Bronquiectasias: estudo de 314 casos tuberculose x não-tuberculose

Miguel Bogossian, Ilka Lopes Santoro, Sérgio Jamnik, Hélio Ramaldini

J Bras Pneumol.1998;24(1):11-16

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

The authors studied 314 patients with bronchiectasis. An elevated percentage of sequelae of tuberculosis (42.7%) was found, and other causes of bronchiectasis represented 57.3%. Mean age was similar in both groups, around 50 years old, with predominance of females (65.0%). As to symptoms and signs, hemoptysis was sharply predominant in the tuberculosis group (37.3% x 22.8%; p < 0.05). Association between asthma and infections during childhood was similar in both groups, but sinusitis was more frequent in the non-tuberculosis group (45.0% x 23.9%; p < 0.05). The most frequent site for bronchiectasis secondary tuberculosis was the right upper lobe; in the other group, the most frequent sites were lower left lobe and lingula. The most frequent morphologic type in greater groups was cylindrical (more than 50% of patients). Lung function tests were abnormal, with reduction in both FEV 1 and FVC in the tuberculosis group. Forty-four percent of the patients in the first group and 37.2% in the second one were smokers. The authors make comments about the high number of patients with tuberculosis scars that have secondary bronchiectasis and the greater impairment of lung function in this group of patients.

 


4 - Mediastinal evaluation in lung cancer staging

Avaliação mediastinal no estadiamento do câncer do pulmão

Angelo Fernandez, Aldo Rodrigues Junqueira Jr., Ricardo H. Bammann, Ricardo Beyruti, Fábio B. Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.1998;24(1):17-22

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

The presence of mediastinal lymph node metastasis in lung cancer has a great influence on treatment selection and prognosis, and the diagnosis of lymphatic metastasis must be accurate. CT chest scans and mediastinoscopy are the diagnostic tools available to detect mediastinal lymph node metastases and to establish preoperative staging. Lymph node size evaluated by CT scans is not an acceptable criterion in the patients studied here. The aim of this study was to find out a representative pattern of size to indicate the possibility of neoplastic invasion in the population studied. Fifty consecutive patients were operated on and were submitted to pulmonary resection and mediastinal dissection to treat lung cancer. Seventy-four percent of the lymph nodes with transverse section of more than 3 cm had no neoplastic invasion. CT scans and mediastinoscopy have similar sensitivity (close to 65%), but mediastinoscopy has higher specificity (100%). This means that the authors must have histologic confirmation of any suspected lymph node to achieve a correct staging.

 


Keywords: Carcinoma, non-small cell. Lung neoplasias. Lymph nodes. Lymphatic metastasis. Mediatinoscopy. Neoplasm, staging. CT scanning.

 

5 - Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure

Ventilação não-invasiva com pressão positiva em pacientes com insuficiência respiratória aguda

Bruno do Valle Pinheiro, Alessandra Ferreira Pinheiro, Diane Michela Nery Henrique, Júlio César Abreu de Oliveira, Jorge Baldi

J Bras Pneumol.1998;24(1):23-29

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Recent studies suggest that non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) improves clinical signs and gas exchange, apart from avoiding the need for endotracheal intubation in selected patients with acute respiratory failure. In this prospective, open trial in the Intensive Care Unit (Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora), the authors evaluated the efficacy and security of using NPPV in patients with acute respiratory failure. Twenty-five patients with clinical or gasometric diagnosis of acute respiratory failure (respiratory rate > 25 breaths/min, accessory muscle use, PaO2 < 60 mmHg, PaCO2 > 50 mmHg after supplemental oxygen) received NPPV. Fifteen patients (60%) were successfully ventilated with NPPV, avoiding the tracheal intubation. After two hours with NPPV, the respiratory rate was reduced (from 36 ± 2 breaths/min to 26 ± 1 breaths/min, p < 0.01) and the PaO2 increased (from 76 ± 6 mmHg to 100 ± 12 mmHg, p < 0.05). Among the patients with hypercapnia, after two hours, the PaCO2 decreased (from 60 ± 2 mmHg to 49 ± 3 mmHg, p < 0.05). Four patients (16%) presented complications with facial skin necrosis, but only one had the NPPV stopped. Among the patients who did not respond to the method, three did not adapt to the NPPV and seven had it interrupted because of clinical deterioration. The authors conclude that NPPV is a safe option that can be used to treat selected patients with acute respiratory failure.

 


Review Article

6 - Difficulties to interpret biopsies in diffuse lung diseases

Dificuldades na interpretação de biópsias em doenças pulmonares difusas

Vera Luiza Capelozzi

J Bras Pneumol.1998;24(1):30-42

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

The approach described below is an attempt to make order out of chaos for the pathologists dealing with diffuse lung disease and to provide radiologists some information about the histology of interstitial lung disease as it applies to HRCT. Obviously, the approach outlined is not applicable to all situations and many cases remain insoluble. Nevertheless, it does give the pathologist a framework within which interstitial lung disease can be assessed, and helps to develop a differential diagnosis histologically. The author thinks this approach also shows good correlation with many of the changes observed by the chest radiologist with HRCT of the lung. Recognizing an anatomic distribution may not necessarily be correlated with how a lesion is clinically viewed. For example, bronchiolocentricity is an important and prominent feature in hypersensitivity pneumonitis and respiratory bronchiolitis associated with interstitial lung disease, but neither is clinically considered an airway disease. The authors also make comments about transbronchial biopsy in opposition to open-lung biopsy in the pathologic assessment of difuse lung disease, although HRCT does provide information to the clinician to help select the most appropriate biopsy modality. Obviously, open-lung biopsy (and those retrieved by thoracoscopic techniques) offer more tissue and make it easier to observe anatomic distribution and reaction patterns. Nevertheless, transbronchial biopsies often include sufficient tissue (although fragmented) and the pathologist is able to mentally reconstruct the distribution and reaction pattern. Obviously, the changes assessed in transbronchial biopsy have to be individualized on a case-by-case basis, but it is surprising how often they are useful when carefully correlated with the clinical and radiological features in a given case.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary interstitial disorders. Pathology. Pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary biopsy.

 

Case Report

7 - Hérnia diafragmática encarcerada com boa evolução após duas intervenções cirúrgicas: relato de caso

Célia Mallart Llarges, Lieselotte Von Ameli Roesler, Andrea Fátima de Souza Gomes, Carlos Eduardo P. Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.1998;24(1):43-46

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8 - Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing migratory pneumonia (BOOP) after unilateral radiotherapy for breast carcinoma treatment

Bronquiolite obliterante com pneumonia organizante (BOOP) migratória após radioterapia unilateral para tratamento de carcinoma de mama

Renata Tristão Rodrigues, Ricardo Togashi, Hugo H Bok Yoo, Júlio Defaveri, Irma de Godoy, Thais Helena A. Thomaz Queluz

J Bras Pneumol.1998;24(1):47-50

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

The authors describe a case of a woman submitted to radiation therapy for breast carcinoma who presented, 40 days after the end of the treatment, fever, dry cough, dyspnea on exertion, and weight loss. Chest imaging revealed migratory opacities. The histopathological examination of transbronchial biopsy specimens showed characteristic findings of BOOP. Corticosteroid therapy resulted in dramatic clinical improvement, together with complete clearing of the pulmonary opacities on chest imaging. The authors present a brief review of the literature concerning radiation-induced lung injury, emphasizing the importance of including BOOP in the differential diagnosis in these complications. The present case, as well as the two other reports from the literature, provide further evidence for the role of irradiation injury as a cause of clinicopathological syndrome identical to idiopathic BOOP, i.e., radiation-induced BOOP.

 


Keywords: Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. BOOP. Radiation pneumonitis. Radiotherapy. Breast carcinoma.

 

9 - Pulmonary siderosis

Siderose pulmonar

Márcia Beatriz de Souza, Guilherme Freire Garcia, Renato Maciel

J Bras Pneumol.1998;24(1):51-53

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Pulmonary siderosis is a rare cause of diffuse lung infiltration. This report describes the investigation of a patient with a micronodular pattern, where open-lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary siderosis in a welder.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary siderosis. Micronodular pattern.

 

10 - Endobronchial tuberculosis. Case report

Tuberculose endobrônquica

A.A. Arantes, P.C. Ribeiro, F.S. Lima, C.A.B. Franco

J Bras Pneumol.1998;24(1):54-56

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

A case of exuberant endobronchial tuberculosis is presented in a 29-year-old male patient, HIV negative, under endoscopic aspects before and after the institution of a specific therapy. Considering the high tuberculosis infection/disease prevalence in our environment and the potential sequelae of this kind of tuberculosis, the authors emphasize the importance of the respiratory endoscopic examination for the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of endobronchial lesions.

 


Keywords: Bacilo álcool-acidorresistente

 

11 - Dores articulares, pleurite, dispnéia, nódulos broncovasculares, centrolobulares e padrão em mosaico em paciente de 47 anos

Veronica Moreira Amado, Roseli Rocha Brito, Jaquelina Sonoe Ota, Rimarcs G. Ferreira, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.1998;24(1):57-60

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