Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2012 - Volume 38  - Number 6  (November/December)






Original Article

2 - Cross-cultural adaptation and assessment of reproducibility of the Duke Activity Status Index for COPD patients in Brazil

Adaptação cultural e avaliação da reprodutibilidade do Duke Activity Status Index para pacientes com DPOC no Brasil

Livia dos Anjos Tavares, José Barreto Neto, José Roberto Jardim, George Márcio da Costa e Souza, Mark A. Hlatky, Oliver Augusto Nascimento

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):684-691

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: To cross-culturally adapt the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) for use in Brazil and evaluate the reproducibility of the new (Brazilian Portuguese-language) version. Methods: We selected stable patients with clinical and spirometric diagnosis of COPD. Initially, the DASI was translated into Brazilian Portuguese, and the cross-cultural adaptation was performed by an expert committee. Subsequently, 12 patients completed the questionnaire, so that their questions and difficulties could be identified and adjustments could be made. An independent translator back-translated the final version into English, which was then submitted to and approved by the original author. The final Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the DASI was applied to 50 patients at three distinct times. For the assessment of interobserver reproducibility, it was applied twice within a 30-min interval by two different interviewers. For the assessment of intraobserver reproducibility, it was applied again 15 days later by one of the interviewers. Results: The mean age of the patients was 62.3 ± 10.0 years, the mean FEV1 was 45.2 ± 14.7% of the predicted value, and the mean body mass index was 26.8 ± 5.8 kg/m2. The intraclass correlation coefficients for intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility were 0.95 and 0.90, respectively. The correlations between the DASI and the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) domains were all negative and statistically significant. The DASI correlated best with the SGRQ activity domain (r = −0.70), the total SGRQ score (r = −0.66), and the six-minute walk distance (r = 0.55). Conclusions: The Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the DASI is reproducible, fast, and simple, correlating well with the SGRQ.

 


Keywords: Activities of daily living; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Reproducibility of results.

 

3 - Underdiagnosis of COPD at primary health care clinics in the city of Aparecida de Goiânia, Brazil

Subdiagnóstico de DPOC na atenção primária em Aparecida de Goiânia, Goiás

Maria Conceição de Castro Antonelli Monteiro de Queiroz, Maria Auxiliadora Carmo Moreira, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):692-699

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed COPD among individuals with risk factors for the disease treated at primary health care clinics (PHCCs) in the city of Aparecida de Goiânia, Brazil. Methods: Inclusion criteria were being ≥ 40 years of age, having a > 20 pack-year history of smoking or a > 80 hour-year history of exposure to biomass smoke, and seeking medical attention at one of the selected PHCCs. All subjects included in the study underwent spirometry for the diagnosis of COPD. Results: We successfully evaluated 200 individuals, mostly males. The mean age was 65.9 ± 10.5 years. The diagnosis of COPD was confirmed in 63 individuals, only 18 of whom had been previously diagnosed with COPD (underdiagnosis rate, 71.4%). There were no significant differences between the subgroups with and without a previous diagnosis of COPD in relation to demographics and risk factors. However, there were significant differences between these subgroups for the presence of expectoration, wheezing, and dyspnea (p = 0.047; p = 0.005; and p = 0.047, respectively). The FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio, expressed as percentages of the predicted values, were significantly lower in the subjects with a previous diagnosis of COPD, which was predominantly mild or moderate in both subgroups. Conclusions: The rate of underdiagnosis of COPD was high at the PHCCs studied. One third of the patients with risk factors for COPD met the clinical and functional criteria for the disease. It seems that spirometry is underutilized at such facilities.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/diagnosis; Primary health care; Spirometry.

 

4 - Reference values for sniff nasal inspiratory pressure in healthy subjects in Brazil: a multicenter study

Valores de referência da pressão inspiratória nasal em indivíduos saudáveis no Brasil: estudo multicêntrico

Palomma Russelly Saldanha de Araújo, Vanessa Regiane Resqueti, Jasiel Nascimento Jr, Larissa de Andrade Carvalho, Ana Gabriela Leal Cavalcanti, Viviane Cerezer Silva, Ester Silva, Marlene Aparecida Moreno, Arméle de Fátima Dornelas de Andrade, Guilherme Augusto de Freitas Fregonezi

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):700-707

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The objectives of this study were to determine reference values for sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP) and to propose reference equations for the population of Brazil. Methods: We evaluated 243 healthy individuals (111 males and 132 females), between 20 and 80 years of age, with an FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio > 80% and > 85% of the predicted value, respectively. All of the subjects underwent respiratory muscle strength tests to determine MIP, MEP, and SNIP. Results: We found that SNIP values were higher in males than in females (p < 0.05) and that SNIP correlated negatively with age, for males (r = −0.29; p < 0.001) and for females (r = −0.33; p < 0.0001). Linear regression also revealed that age influenced the predicted SNIP, for males (R2 = 0.09) and females (R2 = 0.10). We obtained predicted SNIP values that were higher than those obtained for other populations. Conclusions: We have devised predictive equations for SNIP to be used in adults (20-80 years of age) in Brazil. These equations could help minimize diagnostic discrepancies among individuals.

 


Keywords: Respiratory Muscles; Respiratory Function Tests; Reference Values; Linear Models.

 

5 - Potential impacts of climate variability on respiratory morbidity in children, infants, and adults

Potenciais impactos da variabilidade climática sobre a morbidade respiratória em crianças, lactentes e adultos

Amaury de Souza, Widinei Alves Fernandes, Hamilton Germano Pavão, Giancarlo Lastoria, Edilce do Amaral Albrez

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):708-715

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether climate variability influences the number of hospitalizations for respiratory diseases in infants, children, and adults in the city of Campo Grande, Brazil. Methods: We used daily data on admissions for respiratory diseases, precipitation, air temperature, humidity, and wind speed for the 2004-2008 period. We calculated the thermal comfort index, effective temperature, and effective temperature with wind speed (wind-chill or heat index) using the meteorological data obtained. Generalized linear models, with Poisson multiple regression, were used in order to predict hospitalizations for respiratory disease. Results: The variables studied were (collectively) found to show relatively high correlation coefficients in relation to hospital admission for pneumonia in children (R2 = 68.4%), infants (R2 = 71.8%), and adults (R2 = 81.8%). Conclusions: Our results indicate a quantitative risk for an increase in the number of hospitalizations of children, infants, and adults, according to the increase or decrease in temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind speed, and thermal comfort index in the city under study.

 


Keywords: Meteorology; Pneumonia/epidemiology; Risk factors.

 

6 - Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and reproducibility of the Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale

Tradução, adaptação cultural e reprodutibilidade da Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale para o português do Brasil

Boanerges Lopes de Oliveira Junior, José Roberto Jardim, Oliver Augusto Nascimento, George Márcio da Costa e Souza, Timothy B. Baker, Ilka Lopes Santoro

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):716-723

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To cross-culturally adapt the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) for use in Brazil and evaluate the reproducibility of the new (Brazilian Portuguese-language) version. Methods: The original English version of the WSWS was translated into Brazilian Portuguese. For cross-cultural adaptation, the Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the WSWS was administered to eight volunteers, all of whom were smokers. After adjustments had been made, the WSWS version was back-translated into English. The Brazilian Portuguese-language version was thereby found to be accurate. The final Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the WSWS was applied to 75 smokers at three distinct times. For the assessment of interobserver reproducibility, it was applied twice within a 30-min interval by two different interviewers. For the assessment of intraobserver reproducibility, it was applied again 15 days later by one of the interviewers. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used in order to test the concordance of the answers. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: Of the 75 volunteers, 43 (57.3%) were female. The overall mean age was 46.3 years. Interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility was determined for each of the WSWS seven domains, the ICCs for which ranged from 0.87 to 0.94 and from 0.76 to 0.92, respectively. The mean time to completion of the WSWS was 6 min and 44 s, and the response time per question ranged from 4.2 to 12.6 s. Conclusions: The Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the WSWS is reproducible, fast, and simple. It can therefore be used as a tool for assessing the severity of the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal syndrome.

 


Keywords: Nicotine; Tobacco use disorder; Substance withdrawal syndrome; Reproducibility of results.

 

7 - Clinical and epidemiological profile and prevalence of tuberculosis/HIV co-infection in a regional health district in the state of Maranhão, Brazil

Perfil clínico e epidemiológico e prevalência da coinfecção tuberculose/HIV em uma regional de saúde no Maranhão

Marcelino Santos Neto, Fabiane Leita da Silva, Keyla Rodrigues de Sousa, Mellina Yamamura, Marcela Paschoal Popolin, Ricardo Alexandre Arcêncio

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):724-732

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile, as well as the prevalence, of tuberculosis/HIV co-infection in the Regional Health District of Tocantins, which serves 14 cities in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. Methods: This was a descriptive epidemiological study based on secondary data obtained from individual tuberculosis reporting forms in the Brazilian Case Registry Database. We included all reported cases of tuberculosis/HIV co-infection, by city, between January of 2001 and December of 2010. Results: In the district, 1,746 cases of tuberculosis were reported. Of those tested for HIV, 100 had positive results, which corresponded to a tuberculosis/HIV co-infection prevalence of 39%. Of the co-infected patients, 79% were male, 42% were Mulatto, and 64% were in the 20- to 40-year age bracket, 31% had had ≤ 4 years of schooling, and 88% resided in the city of Imperatriz. Cases of pulmonary tuberculosis and new cases of tuberculosis predominated (in 87% and 73%, respectively). Of the co-infected patients, 27% had positive sputum smear microscopy results, and 89% had chest X-ray findings suggestive of tuberculosis. Sputum culture was performed in only 7% of the cases. Conclusions: Our results show that, because of its clinical and epidemiological profile, tuberculosis/HIV co-infection is still a major public health problem in the southwestern region of Maranhão. This situation calls for better coordination between tuberculosis and sexually transmitted disease/AIDS control programs, as well as a political commitment and greater involvement on the part of administrators and health care professionals in the planning of interventions and the functioning of health care facilities.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; HIV infections/epidemiology; Comorbidity.

 

8 - Prevalence of primary drug resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis patients with no known risk factors for such

Prevalência de resistência primária em pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar sem fatores de risco conhecidos para resistência primária

Giselle Mota Bastos, Michelle Cailleaux Cezar, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz Mello, Marcus Barreto Conde

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):733-739

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of primary resistance to the drugs in the basic treatment regimen for tuberculosis in treatment-naïve patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and no known risk factors for such resistance, as well as to identify factors potentially associated with drug resistance. Methods: This was an exploratory cross-sectional study. We analyzed the medical records of the subjects enrolled in two clinical trials of treatments for drug-susceptible tuberculosis between November 1, 2004 and March 31, 2011 at the Prof. Newton Bethlem Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Thoracic Diseases Institute, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The inclusion criteria were being ≥ 18 years of age, testing positive for AFB in the first sputum sample, having a positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, having undergone drug susceptibility testing, and being treatment-naïve. Patients with a history of imprisonment or hospitalization were excluded, as were those who had been in contact with drug-resistant tuberculosis patients. Results: We included 209 patients. The overall prevalence of primary drug resistance was 16.3%. The overall prevalence of resistance to isoniazid and streptomycin was, respectively, 9.6% and 9.1%, compared with 5.8% and 6.8% for single-drug resistance to isoniazid and streptomycin, respectively. The prevalence of resistance to two or more drugs was 3.8%, and the prevalence of multidrug resistance was 0.5%. No statistically significant associations were found between the variables studied and drug susceptibility testing results. Conclusions: In this sample, the prevalence of primary drug resistance was high despite the absence of known risk factors.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant; Risk factors.

 

9 - Primary and acquired pyrazinamide resistance in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis treated at a referral hospital in the city of Recife, Brazil

Resistência primária e adquirida à pirazinamida em pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar atendidos em um hospital de referência no Recife

Liany Barros Ribeiro, Vera Magalhães, Marcelo Magalhães

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):740-747

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine primary and acquired resistance to pyrazinamide in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in sputum samples from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: This was a prospective, descriptive study conducted between April and November of 2011 at a referral hospital for tuberculosis in the city of Recife, Brazil. Cultures, drug sensitivity tests, and tests of pyrazinamidase activity were conducted in a private laboratory in Recife. Results: Of the 71 patients included in the study, 37 were treatment-naïve and 34 represented cases of retreatment. Pyrazinamide-resistant strains were isolated in 14 (41.2%) of the 34 patients who had previously been treated for tuberculosis and in none of the 37 treatment-naïve patients. Of the 14 isolates, 10 (90.9%) tested negative for pyrazinamidase activity. A total of 60 isolates tested positive for pyrazinamidase activity. Of those, 56 (93.3%) were found to be sensitive to pyrazinamide. Conclusions: The high frequency of pyrazinamide-resistant strains (41.2%) in patients previously treated for tuberculosis highlights the need for drug susceptibility testing prior to the adoption of a new treatment regimen.

 


Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Pyrazinamide; Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant

 

Special Article

10 - Pharmaceutical equivalence of the combination formulation of budesonide and formoterol in a single capsule with a dry powder inhaler

Equivalência farmacêutica da formulação combinada de budesonida e formoterol em cápsula única com dispositivo inalador de pó

Marina Andrade-Lima, Luiz Fernando Ferreira Pereira, Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):748-756

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: To evaluate the pharmaceutical equivalence of a test formulation (fixed-dose combination of budesonide and formoterol fumarate in a single capsule dispensed in an Aerocaps® inhaler) in relation to a reference formulation (budesonide and formoterol fumarate in two separate capsules dispensed in an Aerolizer® inhaler). Methods: This was an in vitro study in which we performed the identification/quantification of the active ingredients by HPLC and determined dose uniformity and aerodynamic particle size distribution in the test and reference formulations. Results: In the test formulation, the content of budesonide and formoterol was 111.0% and 103.8%, respectively, compared with 110.5% and 104.5%, respectively, in the reference formulation. In the test formulation, dose uniformity regarding budesonide and formoterol was 293.2 µg and 10.2 µg, respectively, whereas it was 353.0 µg and 11.1 µg in the reference formulation. These values are within the recommended range for this type of formulation (75-125% of the labeled dose). The fine particle fraction (< 5 µm) for budesonide and formoterol was 45% and 56%, respectively, in the test formulation and 54% and 52%, respectively, in the reference formulation. Conclusions: For both of the formulations tested, the levels of active ingredients, dose uniformity, and aerodynamic diameters were suitable for use with the respective dry powder inhalers.

 


Keywords: : Asthma; Budesonide; Bronchodilator agents; Drug therapy, combination.

 

Brief Communication

11 - Evaluation of the diagnostic utility of fiberoptic bronchoscopy for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in routine clinical practice

Avaliação da utilidade diagnóstica da fibrobroncoscopia óptica na tuberculose pulmonar BAAR negativa na prática clínica de rotina

Alonso Soto, Daniela Salazar, Vilma Acurio, Patricia Segura, Patrick Van der Stuyft

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):761-765

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We evaluated the diagnostic yield of fiberoptic bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in patients treated at a referral hospital in Lima, Peru. Of the 611 patients who underwent the procedure, 140 (23%) were diagnosed with tuberculosis based on the analysis of BAL samples. Being young and being male were significantly associated with positive cultures. In addition, 287 patients underwent post-bronchoscopic sputum smear testing for AFB, the results of which increased the diagnostic yield by 22% over that obtained through the analysis of BAL samples alone. We conclude that the analysis of BAL samples and post-bronchoscopic sputum samples provides a high diagnostic yield in smear-negative patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary/diagnosis; Bronchoscopy; Sputum.

 

12 - A new nicotine dependence score and a new scale assessing patient comfort during smoking cessation treatment

Um novo escore para dependência a nicotina e uma nova escala de conforto do paciente durante o tratamento do tabagismo

Jaqueline Scholz Issa

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):761-765

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Smoking is considered the leading preventable  cause of morbidity and mortality. The pharmacological management of nicotine withdrawal syndrome enables better cessation rates. In our smoking cessation program, we have developed a data collection system, which includes two new instruments: a score that assesses nicotine dependence in smokers of ≤ 10 cigarettes/day; and a patient comfort scale to be used during smoking cessation treatment. Here, we describe the two instruments, both of which are still undergoing validation.

 


Keywords: Smoking cessation; Nicotine; Treatment outcome; Substance withdrawal syndrome; Tobacco use disorder.

 

13 - Bottlenecks and recommendations for the incorporation of new technologies in the tuberculosis laboratory network in Brazil

Gargalos e recomendações para a incorporação de novas tecnologias na rede pública laboratorial de tuberculose no Brasil

Maria Alice da Silva Telles, Alexandre Menezes, Anete Trajman

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):766-770

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently recommended new technologies for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The WHO recommendations include the development of a strategic plan for bringing the network up to grade; investment in supervision and quality control; and implementation of a system of laboratory environmental management. Without those measures having been taken, no new technology can be effectively incorporated. We surveyed the tuberculosis laboratory network in Brazil in order to identify possible bottlenecks for the incorporation of new technologies. We identified a lack of resources allocated to supervision and quality control; a low number of requests for cultures; a lack of effective laboratory information systems; and a lack of awareness regarding the future infrastructure needs of the laboratory network at the municipal level.

 


Keywords: Quality control; Tuberculosis; Laboratories; Clinical laboratory information systems; Technology

 

14 - Temporal trends in tuberculosis-related morbidity and mortality in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between 2002 and 2009

Tendência temporal da morbidade e mortalidade por tuberculose no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, no período entre 2002 e 2009

Jefferson Traebert, Glênio César Nunes Ferrer, Nazaré Otília Nazário, Ione Jayce Ceola Schneider, Rosemeri Maurici da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):757-760

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of this study was to describe temporal trends in tuberculosis morbidity and mortality in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between 2002 and 2009. Data regarding mortality and incidence were obtained from the Brazilian Mortality Database and National Case Registry Database, respectively. Crude rates were calculated and standardized by age using the direct method. We estimated annual variation by joinpoint regression, identifying the points at which there were changes in the trends. There was a significant (3.7%) annual decrease in the mortality rate. In the study period, two distinct temporal trends were identified: one between 2002 and 2007, showing a significant (5.9%) annual decrease in the mortality rate; and one between 2007 and 2009, showing an insignificant (2.0%) annual increase. There was also a significant (0.9%) annual reduction in tuberculosis incidence.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; Tuberculosis/mortality; Brazil.

 

Review Article

15 - Ex vivo lung reconditioning: a new era for lung transplantation

Recondicionamento pulmonar ex vivo: uma nova era para o transplante pulmonar

Alessandro Wasum Mariani, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Luis Gustavo Abdalla, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):776-785

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Lung transplantation has come to be viewed as the best treatment option for various end-stage lung diseases. The low number of viable donors continues to be a major obstacle to increasing the number of lung transplants, resulting in high mortality among patients on the waiting list. Unlike transplantation of other solid organs, lung transplantation is primarily limited not by the absolute number of donors but by the viability of the donor lungs, which can be damaged by brain death and by treatments given in the ICU. There are various proposals of ways to increase the number of lung donors: intensification of donation campaigns, use of non-heart-beating donors, living lobar lung transplantation, and adoption of more flexible criteria for donors. However, the proposal that has attracted the most attention from lung transplant groups is ex vivo lung perfusion, especially due to the prospect of reconditioning previously discarded lungs. This system consists of perfusion and ventilation of the isolated heart-lung block using a modified cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. Various authors have been studying this technique due to the satisfactory results obtained and the prospect of an increase in the number of organs suitable for transplantation. Researchers in Sweden, Canada, Austria, England, Spain, and Brazil have extensive experience with the method and have introduced modifications to it. The objective of this article was to review the development of, state of the art in, and future prospects for the ex vivo model of lung perfusion and reconditioning.

 


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Transplantation conditioning; Perfusion; Organ preservation.

 

16 - Anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides in childhood lung diseases

Efeito anti-inflamatório dos macrolídeos em doenças pulmonares da infância

Fernanda Luisi, Thays Dornelles Gandolfi, Arthur Dondonis Daudt, João Pedro Zelmanowicz Sanvitto, Paulo Márcio Pitrez, Leonardo Araujo Pinto

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):786-796

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Macrolides are drugs that have antimicrobial effects, especially against intracellular pathogens. Various studies have shown that macrolides might also have anti-inflammatory effects. Macrolides inhibit the production of interleukins and can reduce pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation. Clinical trials have demonstrated beneficial effects of macrolides in various chronic lung diseases. The objective of this study was to review recent data in the medical literature on the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides in childhood lung diseases by searching the Medline (PubMed) database. We used the following search terms: "macrolide and cystic fibrosis"; "macrolide and asthma"; "macrolide and bronchiolitis obliterans"; and "macrolide and acute bronchiolitis". We selected articles published in international scientific journals between 2001 and 2012. Clinical studies and in vitro evidence have confirmed the anti-inflammatory effect of macrolides in respiratory diseases. Some clinical trials have shown the benefits of the administration of macrolides in patients with cystic fibrosis, although the risk of bacterial resistance should be considered in the analysis of those benefits. Such benefits are controversial in other respiratory diseases, and the routine use of macrolides is not recommended. Further controlled clinical trials are required in order to assess the efficacy of macrolides as anti-inflammatory drugs, so that the benefits in the treatment of each specific clinical condition can be better established.

 


Keywords: Macrolides; Asthma; Cystic Fibrosis; Bronchiolitis.

 

Case Report

17 - Pleural endometriosis: findings on magnetic resonance imaging

Endometriose pleural: achados na ressonância magnética

Edson Marchiori, Gláucia Zanetti, Rosana Souza Rodrigues, Luciana Soares Souza, Arthur Soares Souza Jr, Flávia Angélica Ferreira Francisco, Bruno Hochhegger

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):797-802

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Endometriosis is a benign gynecological disorder associated with pelvic pain and infertility, primarily affecting women of reproductive age. Thoracic endometriosis affects the pulmonary parenchyma or pleura. We report the cases of two patients with pleural endometriosis who presented with recurrent pneumothorax. In both cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest showed right hydropneumothorax and well-defined, rounded nodules on the pleural surface in the right hemithorax. We conclude that MRI is a good option for the characterization of pleural endometriotic nodules and hemorrhagic pleural effusion.

 


Keywords: Endometriosis; Magnetic resonance imaging; Pneumothorax.

 

Letters to the Editor

18 - The role of academic associations in professional training

O papel das ligas acadêmicas na formação profissional

Mayara Lisboa Soares de Bastos, Anete Trajman, Eleny Guimarães Teixeira, Lia Selig, Márcia Teresa Carreira Teixeira Belo

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):803-805

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Letter to the Reader

19 - Lung transplantation without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass in a patient with Kartagener syndrome

Transplante pulmonar sem circulação extracorpórea em uma paciente com síndrome de Kartagener

Luziélio Alves Sidney Filho, Tiago Noguchi Machuca, José de Jesus Camargo, José Carlos Felicetti, Spencer Marcantonio Camargo, Fabíola Adélia Perin, Letícia Beatriz Sanchez, Sadi Marcelo Schio

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):806-809

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


21 - Overlap between asthma and COPD

Sobreposição de asma brônquica e DPOC

Tiago Manuel Alfaro, Sara da Silva Freitas, Carlos Robalo Cordeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):813-816

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Relationship of Reviewers

 


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