Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2013 - Volume 39  - Number 4  (July/August)

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Original Article

2 - Portuguese-language version of the COPD Assessment Test: validation for use in Brazil

Validação do Teste de Avaliação da DPOC em português para uso no Brasil

Guilherme Pinheiro Ferreira da Silva, Maria Tereza Aguiar Pessoa Morano, Cyntia Maria Sampaio Viana, Clarissa Bentes de Araujo Magalhães, Eanes Delgado Barros Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To validate a Portuguese-language version of the COPD assessment test (CAT) for use in Brazil and to assess the reproducibility of this version. Methods: This was multicenter study involving patients with stable COPD at two teaching hospitals in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. Two independent observers (twice in one day) administered the Portuguese-language version of the CAT to 50 patients with COPD. One of those observers again administered the scale to the same patients one week later. At baseline, the patients were submitted to pulmonary function testing and the six-minute walk test (6MWT), as well as completing the previously validated Portuguese-language versions of the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea scale, and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Results: Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.97; p < 0.001; and ICC = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-0.98; p < 0.001, respectively). Bland & Altman plots showed good test-retest reliability. The CAT total score correlated significantly with spirometry results, 6MWT distance, SGRQ scores, MMRC dyspnea scale scores, and HADS-depression scores. Conclusions: The Portuguese-language version of the CAT is a valid, reproducible, and reliable instrument for evaluating patients with COPD in Brazil.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Questionnaires; Validation studies; Quality of life; Reproducibility of results.

 

3 - Local adverse effects associated with the use of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with moderate or severe asthma

Eventos adversos locais associados ao uso de corticosteroides inalatórios em pacientes com asma moderada ou grave

Charleston Ribeiro Pinto, Natalie Rios Almeida, Thamy Santana Marques, Laira Lorena Lima Yamamura, Lindemberg Assunção Costa, Adelmir Souza-Machado

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

To describe and characterize local adverse effects (in the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx) associated with the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) in patients with moderate or severe asthma. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 200 asthma patients followed in the Department of Pharmaceutical Care of the Bahia State Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Control Program Referral Center, located in the city of Salvador, Brazil. The patients were ≥ 18 years of age and had been using ICSs regularly for at least 6 months. Local adverse effects (irritation, pain, dry throat, throat clearing, hoarseness, reduced vocal intensity, loss of voice, sensation of thirst, cough during ICS use, altered sense of taste, and presence of oral candidiasis) were assessed using a 30-day recall questionnaire. Results: Of the 200 patients studied, 159 (79.5%) were women. The mean age was 50.7 ± 14.4 years. In this sample, 55 patients (27.5%) were using high doses of ICS, with a median treatment duration of 38 months. Regarding the symptoms, 163 patients (81.5%) reported at least one adverse effect, and 131 (65.5%) had a daily perception of at least one symptom. Vocal and pharyngeal symptoms were identified in 57 (28.5%) and 154 (77.0%) of the patients, respectively. The most commonly reported adverse effects were dry throat, throat clearing, sensation of thirst, and hoarseness. Conclusions: Self-reported adverse effects related to ICS use were common among the asthma patients evaluated here.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Glucocorticoids; Administration, inhalation; Pharmaceutical services.

 

4 - Congenital lobar emphysema: 30-year case series in two university hospitals

Enfisema lobar congênito: série de casos de 30 anos em dois hospitais universitários

Daniele Cristina Cataneo, Olavo Ribeiro Rodrigues, Erica Nishida Hasimoto, Aurelino Fernandes Schmidt Jr, Antonio José Maria Cataneo

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

To review the cases of patients with congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) submitted to surgical treatment at two university hospitals over a 30-year period. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of children with CLE undergoing surgical treatment between 1979 and 2009 at the Botucatu School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas or the Mogi das Cruzes University Hospital. We analyzed data regarding symptoms, physical examination, radiographic findings, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and postoperative follow-up. Results: During the period studied, 20 children with CLE underwent surgery. The mean age at the time of surgery was 6.9 months (range, 9 days to 4 years). All of the cases presented with symptoms at birth or during the first months of life. In all cases, chest X-rays were useful in defining the diagnosis. In cases of moderate respiratory distress, chest CT facilitated the diagnosis. One patient with severe respiratory distress was misdiagnosed with hypertensive pneumothorax and underwent chest tube drainage. Only patients with moderate respiratory distress were submitted to bronchoscopy, which revealed no tracheobronchial abnormalities. The surgical approach was lateral muscle-sparing thoracotomy. The left upper and middle lobes were the most often affected, followed by the right upper lobe. Lobectomy was performed in 18 cases, whereas bilobectomy was performed in 2 (together with bronchogenic cyst resection in 1 of those). No postoperative complications were observed. Postoperative follow-up time was at least 24 months (mean, 60 months), and no late complications were observed. Conclusions: Although CLE is an uncommon, still neglected disease of uncertain etiology, the radiological diagnosis is easily made and surgical treatment is effective.

 


Keywords: Respiratory system abnormalities; Congenital abnormalities; Pulmonary surgical procedures; Pulmonary emphysema.

 

5 - Reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the fatigue severity scale and its correlation with pulmonary function, dyspnea, and functional capacity in patients with COPD

Reprodutibilidade da versão brasileira da escala de gravidade da fadiga e sua correlação com função pulmonar, dispneia e capacidade funcional em pacientes com DPOC

Silvia Valderramas, Aquiles Assunção Camelier, Sinara Alves da Silva, Renata Mallmann, Hanna Karine de Paulo, Fernanda Warken Rosa

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

To describe the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the fatigue severity scale (FSS) in patients with COPD and to identify the presence of its association with parameters of pulmonary function, dyspnea, and functional capacity. Methods: This was an observational cross-sectional study involving 50 patients with COPD, who completed the FSS in interviews with two researchers in two visits. The FSS scores were correlated with those of the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale, as well as with FEV1, FVC, and six-minute walk distance (6MWD). Results: The mean age of the patients was 69.4 ± 8.23 years, whereas the mean FEV1 was 46.5 ± 20.4% of the predicted value. The scale was reliable, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.90 (95% CI, 0.81-0.94; p < 0.01). The FSS scores showed significant correlations with those of MRC scale (r = 0.70; p < 0.01), as well as with 6MWD (r = −0.77; p < 0.01), FEV1 (r = −0.38; p < 0.01), FVC (r = −0.35; p < 0.01), and stage of the disease in accordance with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria (r = 0.37; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the FSS proved reliable for use in COPD patients in Brazil and showed significant correlations with sensation of dyspnea, functional capacity, pulmonary function, and stage of the disease.

 


Keywords: Fatigue; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Reproducibility of results; Validation studies.

 

6 - Effect of tramadol on lung injury induced by skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion: an experimental study

Efeito do tramadol na lesão pulmonar induzida por isquemia-reperfusão de músculo esquelético: um estudo experimental

Mohammad Ashrafzadeh Takhtfooladi, Amirali Jahanshahi, Amir Sotoudeh, Gholamreza Jahanshahi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh Takhtfooladi, Kimia Aslani

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether tramadol has a protective effect against lung injury induced by skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion. Methods: Twenty Wistar male rats were allocated to one of two groups: ischemia-reperfusion (IR) and ischemia-reperfusion + tramadol (IR+T). The animals were anesthetized with intramuscular injections of ketamine and xylazine (50 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively). All of the animals underwent 2-h ischemia by occlusion of the femoral artery and 24-h reperfusion. Prior to the occlusion of the femoral artery, 250 IU heparin were administered via the jugular vein in order to prevent clotting. The rats in the IR+T group were treated with tramadol (20 mg/kg i.v.) immediately before reperfusion. After the reperfusion period, the animals were euthanized with pentobarbital (300 mg/kg i.p.), the lungs were carefully removed, and specimens were properly prepared for histopathological and biochemical studies. Results: Myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide levels were significantly higher in the IR group than in the IR+T group (p = 0.001 for both). Histological abnormalities, such as intra-alveolar edema, intra-alveolar hemorrhage, and neutrophil infiltration, were significantly more common in the IR group than in the IR+T group. Conclusions: On the basis of our histological and biochemical findings, we conclude that tramadol prevents lung tissue injury after skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion.

 


Keywords: Tramadol; Muscle, skeletal; Ischemic attack, transient; Lung Injury.

 

7 - Oxygen desaturation in healthy subjects undergoing the incremental shuttle walk test

Dessaturação em indivíduos saudáveis submetidos ao incremental shuttle walk test

Daniel Machado Seixas, Daniela Miti Tsukumo Seixas, Monica Corso Pereira, Marcos Mello Moreira, Ilma Aparecida Paschoal

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the probability of oxygen desaturation in healthy individuals undergoing the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT). Methods: We enrolled 83 healthy subjects: 55 males (including 1 smoker) and 28 females. We determined pre-ISWT FEV1, FEV6, HR and SpO2, as well as post-ISWT HR and SpO2. Results: Mean values overall were as follows: age, 35.05 ± 12.53 years; body mass index, 24.30 ± 3.47 kg/m2; resting HR, 75.12 ± 12.48 bpm; resting SpO2, 97.96 ± 1.02%; FEV1, 3.75 ± 0.81 L; FEV6, 4.45 ± 0.87 L; FEV1/FEV6 ratio, 0.83 ± 0.08 (no restriction or obstruction); incremental shuttle walk distance, 958.30 ± 146.32 m; post-ISWT HR, 162.41 ± 18.24 bpm; and post-ISWT SpO2, 96.27 ± 2.21%. In 11 subjects, post-ISWT SpO2 was higher than was pre-ISWT SpO2. In 17 subjects, there was a 4% decrease in SpO2 after the ISWT. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with and without post-ISWT oxygen desaturation in terms of age, gender, FEV1, FEV6, FEV1/FEV6, pre-ISWT SpO2, incremental shuttle walk distance, HR, or percentage of maximal HR. In the individuals with post-ISWT oxygen desaturation, the body mass index was higher (p = 0.01) and post-ISWT SpO2 was lower (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: Healthy individuals can present oxygen desaturation after the ISWT. Using the ISWT to predict subtle respiratory abnormalities can be misleading. In healthy subjects, oxygen desaturation is common after the ISWT, as it is during any intense physical activity.

 


Keywords: Heart function tests; Respiratory function tests; Body mass index; Oximetry

 

8 - Contribution of flow-volume curves to the detection of central airway obstruction

Contribuição da curva de fluxo-volume na detecção de obstrução da via aérea central

Liliana Bárbara Perestrelo de Andrade e Raposo, António Bugalho, Maria João Marques Gomes

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Vídeo

Objective: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of flow-volume curves in detecting central airway obstruction (CAO), and to determine whether their quantitative and qualitative criteria are associated with the location, type and degree of obstruction. Methods: Over a four-month period, we consecutively evaluated patients with bronchoscopy indicated. Over a one-week period, all patients underwent clinical evaluation, flow-volume curve, bronchoscopy, and completed a dyspnea scale. Four reviewers, blinded to quantitative and clinical data, and bronchoscopy results, classified the morphology of the curves. A fifth reviewer determined the morphological criteria, as well as the quantitative criteria. Results: We studied 82 patients, 36 (44%) of whom had CAO. The sensitivity and specificity of the flow-volume curves in detecting CAO were, respectively, 88.9% and 91.3% (quantitative criteria) and 30.6% and 93.5% (qualitative criteria). The most prevalent quantitative criteria in our sample were FEF50%/FIF50% ≥ 1, in 83% of patients, and FEV1/PEF ≥ 8 mL . L−1 . min−1, in 36%, both being associated with the type, location, and degree of obstruction (p < 0.05). There was concordance among the reviewers as to the presence of CAO. There is a relationship between the degree of obstruction and dyspnea. Conclusions: The quantitative criteria should always be calculated for flow-volume curves in order to detect CAO, because of the low sensitivity of the qualitative criteria. Both FEF50%/FIF50% ≥ 1 and FEV1/PEF ≥ 8 mL . L−1 . min−1 were associated with the location, type and degree of obstruction.

 


Keywords: Bronchoscopy; Maximal expiratory flow-volume curves; Sensitivity and specificity; Lung neoplasms.

 

9 - Lung function in post-poliomyelitis syndrome: a cross-sectional study

Função pulmonar em pessoas com síndrome pós-poliomielite: um estudo transversal

Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira, Fábio Carderelli Minozzo, Bolivar Saldanha Sousa, Rodrigo Luiz Vancini, Marília dos Santos Andrade, Abrahão Augusto Juviniano Quadros, Acary Souza Bulle Oliveira, Antonio Carlos da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare lung function between patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome and those with sequelae of paralytic poliomyelitis (without any signs or symptoms of post-poliomyelitis syndrome), as well as between patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome and healthy controls. Methods: Twenty-nine male participants were assigned to one of three groups: control; poliomyelitis (comprising patients who had had paralytic poliomyelitis but had not developed post-poliomyelitis syndrome); and post-poliomyelitis syndrome. Volunteers underwent lung function measurements (spirometry and respiratory muscle strength assessment). Results: The results of the spirometric assessment revealed no significant differences among the groups except for an approximately 27% lower mean maximal voluntary ventilation in the post-poliomyelitis syndrome group when compared with the control group (p = 0.0127). Nevertheless, the maximal voluntary ventilation values for the post-poliomyelitis group were compared with those for the Brazilian population and were found to be normal. No significant differences were observed in respiratory muscle strength among the groups. Conclusions: With the exception of lower maximal voluntary ventilation, there was no significant lung function impairment in outpatients diagnosed with post-poliomyelitis syndrome when compared with healthy subjects and with patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis without post-poliomyelitis syndrome. This is an important clinical finding because it shows that patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome can have preserved lung function.

 


Keywords: Respiratory function tests; Postpoliomyelitis syndrome; Muscle strength.

 

10 - Psychological morbidity as a moderator of intention to quit smoking: a study of smokers and former smokers

Morbidade psicológica como moderador da intenção para deixar de fumar: um estudo com fumantes e ex-fumantes

Maria Fernanda Besteiro Afonso, Maria Graça Pereira Alves

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze psychological morbidity as a moderator of the relationship between smoking representations and quality of life in smokers and former smokers, as well as to determine which psychological variables discriminate between smokers with and without the intention to quit smoking. Methods: This was a quantitative, correlational cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 224 smokers and 169 former smokers. Results: In smokers and former smokers, psychological morbidity had a moderating effect on the relationship between mental/physical quality of life and smoking representations (cognitive representations, emotional representations, and comprehensibility). Smokers with the intention to quit smoking more often presented with low comprehensibility, threatening emotional representations, behavioral beliefs, and perceived behavioral control, as well as with normative/control beliefs, than did those without the intention to quit. Conclusions: The results of this study underscore the importance of the moderating effect exerted by psychological morbidity, as well as that of sociocognitive variables, among smokers who have the intention to quit smoking.

 


Keywords: Smoking/psychology; Smoking cessation; Smoking/prevention & control.

 

11 - Adaptation to different noninvasive ventilation masks in critically ill patients

Adaptação a diferentes interfaces de ventilação mecânica não invasiva em pacientes críticos

Renata Matos da Silva, Karina Tavares Timenetski, Renata Cristina Miranda Neves, Liane Hirano Shigemichi, Sandra Sayuri Kanda, Carla Maekawa, Eliezer Silva, Raquel Afonso Caserta Eid

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify which noninvasive ventilation (NIV) masks are most commonly used and the problems related to the adaptation to such masks in critically ill patients admitted to a hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: An observational study involving patients ≥ 18 years of age admitted to intensive care units and submitted to NIV. The reason for NIV use, type of mask, NIV regimen, adaptation to the mask, and reasons for non-adaptation to the mask were investigated. Results: We evaluated 245 patients, with a median age of 82 years. Acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use (in 71.3%). Total face masks were the most commonly used (in 74.7%), followed by full face masks and near-total face masks (in 24.5% and 0.8%, respectively). Intermittent NIV was used in 82.4% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to the mask was found in 76% of the patients. Masks had to be replaced by another type of mask in 24% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to total face masks and full face masks was found in 75.5% and 80.0% of the patients, respectively. Non-adaptation occurred in the 2 patients using near-total facial masks. The most common reason for non-adaptation was the shape of the face, in 30.5% of the patients. Conclusions: In our sample, acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use, and total face masks were the most commonly used. The most common reason for non-adaptation to the mask was the shape of the face, which was resolved by changing the type of mask employed.

 


Keywords: Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation; Masks; Respiratory insufficiency.

 

12 - Prevalence of nutritional deficiency in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

Prevalência de deficiência nutricional em pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar

Silvana Gomes Nunes Piva, Maria da Conceição Nascimento Costa, Florisneide Rodrigues Barreto, Susan Martins Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of nutritional deficiency among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using data obtained from the Brazilian Case Registry Database and from the medical records of patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (15-59 years of age) residing in one of the municipalities that make up the 16th Regional Health District of the state of Bahia. We calculated the incidence, lethality, and mortality rates, as well as the prevalence of nutritional deficiency, as evaluated by body mass index. Demographic, social, clinical, and epidemiological data were collected. Results: Of the 72 confirmed cases of tuberculosis, 59 (81.9%) were in males, and 21 (29.2%) of the patients were in the 40-49 year age bracket. The majority (85.3%) described themselves as Mulatto or Black; 55.2% reported using alcohol; and approximately 90% were treated as outpatients. In the district and age bracket studied, the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 30.6/100,000 population. Among the 72 patients, data regarding nutritional status was available for 34. Of those, 50% and 25%, respectively, presented nutritional deficiency at the beginning and at the end of treatment. No statistically significant differences were found between normal-weight and malnourished patients regarding the characteristics studied. Conclusions: The prevalence of nutritional deficiency was high among our sample of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. This underscores the importance of nutritional follow-up for the assessment of tuberculosis treatment in the decision-making process regarding therapeutic interventions.

 


Keywords: Malnutrition; Tuberculosis; Body mass index; Malnutrition/epidemiology.

 

13 - Pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer: simultaneous and sequential occurrence

Tuberculose pulmonar e câncer de pulmão: ocorrência simultânea ou sequencial

Denise Rossato Silva, Dirceu Felipe Valentini Junior, Alice Mânica Müller, Carlos Podalirio Borges de Almeida, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death and represents a major public health problem worldwide. Another major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries, is tuberculosis. The simultaneous or sequential occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis and LC in the same patient has been reported in various case series and case-control studies. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients developing tuberculosis and LC, either simultaneously or sequentially. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on the review of medical charts. Results: The study involved 24 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and LC between 2009 and 2012. The diagnoses of tuberculosis and LC occurred simultaneously in 10 patients, whereas tuberculosis was diagnosed prior to LC in 14. The median time between the two diagnoses was 5 years (interquartile range: 1-30 years). Fourteen patients (58.3%) were male, 20 (83.3%) were White, and 22 (91.7%) were smokers or former smokers. The most common histological type was adenocarcinoma, identified in 14 cases (58.3%), followed by epidermoid carcinoma, identified in 6 (25.0%). Seven patients (29.2%) presented with distant metastases at diagnosis; of those 7 patients, 5 (71%) were diagnosed with LC and tuberculosis simultaneously. Conclusions: In the present study, most of the patients with tuberculosis and LC were smokers or former smokers, and tuberculosis was diagnosed either before or simultaneously with LC. Non-small cell lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma, was the most common histological type.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Lung neoplasms/diagnosis; Comorbidity.

 

Brief Communication

14 - Effectiveness of diaphragmatic stimulation with single-channel electrodes in rabbits

Efetividade da estimulação diafragmática com eletrodos monocanais em coelhos

Rodrigo Guellner Ghedini, Julio de Oliveira Espinel, Elaine Aparecida Felix, Artur de Oliveira Paludo, Rodrigo Mariano, Arthur Rodrigo Ronconi Holand, Cristiano Feijó Andrade

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Every year, a large number of individuals become dependent on mechanical ventilation because of a loss of diaphragm function. The most common causes are cervical spinal trauma and neuromuscular diseases. We have developed an experimental model to evaluate the performance of electrical stimulation of the diaphragm in rabbits using single-channel electrodes implanted directly into the muscle. Various current intensities (10, 16, 20, and 26 mA) produced tidal volumes above the baseline value, showing that this model is effective for the study of diaphragm performance at different levels of electrical stimulation.

 


Keywords: Rabbits; Diaphragm; Electric stimulation; Models, animal.

 

Review Article

15 - Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis: scientific evidence regarding clinical impact, diagnosis, and treatment

Infecção por Pseudomonas aeruginosa em pacientes com fibrose cística: evidências científicas sobre o impacto clínico, diagnóstico e tratamento

Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira da Silva Filho, Flavia de Aguiar Ferreira, Francisco José Caldeira Reis, Murilo Carlos Amorim de Britto, Carlos Emilio Levy, Otavio Clark, José Dirceu Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Evidence-based techniques have been increasingly used in the creation of clinical guidelines and the development of recommendations for medical practice. The use of levels of evidence allows the reader to identify the quality of scientific information that supports the recommendations made by experts. The objective of this review was to address current concepts related to the clinical impact, diagnosis, and treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. For the preparation of this review, the authors defined a group of questions that would be answered in accordance with the principles of PICO-an acronym based on questions regarding the Patients of interest, Intervention being studied, Comparison of the intervention, and Outcome of interest. For each question, a structured review of the literature was performed using the Medline database in order to identify the studies with the methodological design most appropriate to answering the question. The questions were designed so that each of the authors could write a response. A first draft was prepared and discussed by the group. Recommendations were then made on the basis of the level of scientific evidence, in accordance with the classification system devised by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, as well as the level of agreement among the members of the group.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis/diagnosis; Cystic fibrosis/drug therapy; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Evidence-based medicine.

 

Case Report

16 - Transdiaphragmatic intercostal hernia: imaging aspects in three cases

Hérnia intercostal transdiafragmática: aspectos de imagem em três casos

Ana Carolina Sandoval Macedo, Fernando Uliana Kay, Ricardo Mingarini Terra, José Ribas Milanez de Campos, André Galante Alencar Aranha, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmão Funari

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Transdiaphragmatic intercostal hernia is uncommon and mostly related to blunt or penetrating trauma. We report three similar cases of cough-induced transdiaphragmatic intercostal hernia, highlighting the anatomic findings obtained with different imaging modalities (radiography, ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonance) in each of the cases.

 


Keywords: Hernia, diaphragmatic; Radiography; Ultrasonography; Tomography; Magnetic resonance imaging.

 

Letters to the Editor

17 - Not all that wheezes is asthma!

Nem tudo que sibila é asma!

José Antônio Baddini Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):

Portuguese Text


 


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