Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2014 - Volume 40  - Number 2  (March/April)



1 - Much more than cigarette smoking

Muito além do tabaco

Jaqueline Scholz Issa, Gabriel Magalhães Lopes

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

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Original Article

2 - Experimentation with and knowledge regarding water-pipe tobacco smoking among medical students at a major university in Brazil

Experimentação de e conhecimento sobre narguilé entre estudantes de medicina de uma importante universidade do Brasil

Stella Regina Martins, Renato Batista Paceli, Marco Antônio Bussacos, Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes, Gustavo Faibischew Prado, Elisa Maria Siqueira Lombardi, Mário Terra-Filho, Ubiratan Paula Santos

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. Methods: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. Results: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26%) and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65%) in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001). Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic.


Keywords: Tobacco products; Smoking/prevention & control; Education, medical, undergraduate; Health knowledge, attitudes, practice.


3 - Can bronchodilators improve exercise tolerance in COPD patients without dynamic hyperinflation?

Os broncodilatadores podem melhorar a tolerância ao exercício na ausência de hiperinsuflação dinâmica em pacientes com DPOC?

Maria Enedina Aquino Scuarcialupi, Danilo Cortozi Berton, Priscila Kessar Cordoni, Selma Denis Squassoni, Elie Fiss, José Alberto Neder

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

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Objective: To investigate the modulatory effects that dynamic hyperinflation (DH), defined as a reduction in inspiratory capacity (IC), has on exercise tolerance after bronchodilator in patients with COPD. Methods: An experimental, randomized study involving 30 COPD patients without severe hypoxemia. At baseline, the patients underwent clinical assessment, spirometry, and incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). On two subsequent visits, the patients were randomized to receive a combination of inhaled fenoterol/ipratropium or placebo. All patients then underwent spirometry and submaximal CPET at constant speed up to the limit of tolerance (Tlim). The patients who showed ΔIC(peak-rest) < 0 were considered to present with DH (DH+). Results: In this sample, 21 patients (70%) had DH. The DH+ patients had higher airflow obstruction and lower Tlim than did the patients without DH (DH−). Despite equivalent improvement in FEV1 after bronchodilator, the DH− group showed higher ΔIC(bronchodilator-placebo) at rest in relation to the DH+ group (p < 0.05). However, this was not found in relation to ΔIC at peak exercise between DH+ and DH− groups (0.19 ± 0.17 L vs. 0.17 ± 0.15 L, p > 0.05). In addition, both groups showed similar improvements in Tlim after bronchodilator (median [interquartile range]: 22% [3-60%] vs. 10% [3-53%]; p > 0.05). Conclusions: Improvement in TLim was associated with an increase in IC at rest after bronchodilator in HD− patients with COPD. However, even without that improvement, COPD patients can present with greater exercise tolerance after bronchodilator provided that they develop DH during exercise.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Bronchodilator agents; Exercise test; Exercise tolerance; Inspiratory capacity.


4 - Effect that an educational program for cystic fibrosis patients and caregivers has on the contamination of home nebulizers

Efeito de um programa de educação para cuidadores e pacientes com fibrose cística na contaminação de nebulizadores de uso domiciliar

Adriana Della Zuana, Doroti de Oliveira Garcia, Regina Célia Turola Passos Juliani, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira da Silva Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

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Objective: To describe the pathogens found in home nebulizers and in respiratory samples of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and to evaluate the effect that a standardized instruction regarding cleaning and disinfection of nebulizers has on the frequency of nebulizer contamination. Methods: We included 40 CF patients (22 males), all of whom used the same model of nebulizer. The median patient age was 11.2  3.74 years. We collected samples from the nebulizer mouthpiece and cup, using a sterile swab moistened with sterile saline. Respiratory samples were collected by asking patients to expectorate into a sterile container or with oropharyngeal swabs after cough stimulation. Cultures were performed on selective media, and bacteria were identified by classical biochemical tests. Patients received oral and written instructions regarding the cleaning and disinfection of nebulizers. All determinations were repeated an average of two months later. Results: Contamination of the nebulizer (any part) was detected in 23 cases (57.5%). The nebulizer mouthpiece and cup were found to be contaminated in 16 (40.0%) and 19 (47.5%), respectively. After the standardized instruction had been given, there was a significant decrease in the proportion of contaminated nebulizers (43.5%). Conclusions: In our sample of CF patients, nebulizer contamination was common, indicating the need for improvement in patient practices regarding the cleaning and disinfection of their nebulizers. A one-time educational intervention could have a significant positive impact.


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Nebulizers and vaporizers; Disinfection.


5 - Effects of yoga breathing exercises on pulmonary function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: an exploratory analysis

Efeitos de exercícios respiratórios de ioga na função pulmonar de pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne: uma análise exploratória

Marcos Rojo Rodrigues, Celso Ricardo Fernandes Carvalho, Danilo Forghieri Santaella, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho, Suely Kazue Nagahashi Marie

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

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Objective: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in children, and children with DMD die prematurely because of respiratory failure. We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of yoga breathing exercises, as well as the effects of those exercises on respiratory function, in such children. Methods: This was a prospective open-label study of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of DMD, recruited from among those followed at the neurology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were taught how to perform hatha yoga breathing exercises and were instructed to perform the exercises three times a day for 10 months. Results: Of the 76 patients who entered the study, 35 dropped out and 15 were unable to perform the breathing exercises, 26 having therefore completed the study (mean age, 9.5  2.3 years; body mass index, 18.2  3.8 kg/m2). The yoga breathing exercises resulted in a significant increase in FVC (% of predicted: 82.3  18.6% at baseline vs. 90.3  22.5% at 10 months later; p = 0.02) and FEV1 (% of predicted: 83.8  16.6% at baseline vs. 90.1  17.4% at 10 months later; p = 0.04). Conclusions: Yoga breathing exercises can improve pulmonary function in patients with DMD.


Keywords: Respiratory therapy; Forced expiratory volume; Vital capacity; Muscular dystrophy, Duchenne; Complementary therapies.


6 - Lung function in the absence of respiratory symptoms in overweight children and adolescents

Função pulmonar de crianças e adolescentes sem sintomas respiratórios e com excesso de peso

Silvana Neves Ferraz de Assunção, Carla Hilário da Cunha Daltro, Ney Christian Boa Sorte, Hugo da Costa Ribeiro Júnior, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Cleriston Farias Queiroz, Antônio Carlos Moreira Lemos

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe lung function findings in overweight children and adolescents without respiratory disease. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving male and female overweight children and adolescents in the 8-18 year age bracket, without respiratory disease. All of the participants underwent anthropometric assessment, chest X-ray, pulse oximetry, spirometry, and lung volume measurements. Individuals with respiratory disease were excluded, as were those who were smokers, those with abnormal chest X-rays, and those with an SpO2 ≤ 92%. Waist circumference was measured in centimeters. The body mass index-for-age Z score for boys and girls was used in order to classify the individuals as overweight, obese, or severely obese. Lung function variables were expressed in percentage of the predicted value and were correlated with the anthropometric indices. Results: We included 59 individuals (30 males and 29 females). The mean age was 11.7 ± 2.7 years. Lung function was normal in 21 individuals (35.6%). Of the 38 remaining individuals, 19 (32.2%), 15 (25.4%), and 4 (6.7%) presented with obstructive, restrictive, and mixed ventilatory disorder, respectively. The bronchodilator response was positive in 15 individuals (25.4%), and TLC measurements revealed that all of the individuals with reduced VC had restrictive ventilatory disorder. There were significant negative correlations between the anthropometric indices and the Tiffeneau index in the individuals with mixed ventilatory disorder. Conclusions: Lung function was abnormal in approximately 65% of the individuals evaluated here, all of whom were overweight. Obstructive ventilatory disorder and positive bronchodilator response predominated.


Keywords: Obesity/complications; Respiratory function tests; Lung diseases/etiology.


7 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to antituberculosis drugs in Mozambique

Resistência de Mycobacterium tuberculosis aos tuberculostáticos em Moçambique

Germano Manuel Pires, Elena Folgosa, Ndlovu Nquobile, Sheba Gitta, Nureisha Cadir

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

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Objective: To determine the drug resistance profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mozambique. Methods: We analyzed secondary data from the National Tuberculosis Referral Laboratory, in the city of Maputo, Mozambique, and from the Beira Regional Tuberculosis Referral Laboratory, in the city of Beira, Mozambique. The data were based on culture-positive samples submitted to first-line drug susceptibility testing (DST) between January and December of 2011. We attempted to determine whether the frequency of DST positivity was associated with patient type or provenance. Results: During the study period, 641 strains were isolated in culture and submitted to DST. We found that 374 (58.3%) were resistant to at least one antituberculosis drug and 280 (43.7%) were resistant to multiple antituberculosis drugs. Of the 280 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases, 184 (65.7%) were in previously treated patients, most of whom were from southern Mozambique. Two (0.71%) of the cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were confirmed to be cases of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was most common in males, particularly those in the 21-40 year age bracket. Conclusions: M. tuberculosis resistance to antituberculosis drugs is high in Mozambique, especially in previously treated patients. The frequency of M. tuberculosis strains that were resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin in combination was found to be high, particularly in samples from previously treated patients.


Keywords: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis; Tuberculosis; Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant.


8 - Use of amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test in respiratory samples from HIV-infected patients in Brazil

Utilização do amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test em amostras respiratórias de pacientes HIV positivos no Brasil

Leonardo Bruno Paz Ferreira Barreto, Maria Cristina da Silva Lourenço, Valéria Cavalcanti Rolla, Valdiléia Gonçalves Veloso, Gisele Huf

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

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Objective: To compare the accuracy of the amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct (AMTD) test with reference methods for the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients. Methods: This was a study of diagnostic accuracy comparing AMTD test results with those obtained by culture on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium and by the BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 (BACTEC MGIT 960) system in respiratory samples analyzed at the Bioassay and Bacteriology Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Results: We analyzed respiratory samples collected from 118 patients, of whom 88 (74.4%) were male. The mean age was 36.6 ± 10.6 years. Using the AMTD test, the BACTEC MGIT 960 system, and LJ culture, we identified M. tuberculosis complex in 31.0%, 29.7%, and 27.1% of the samples, respectively. In comparison with LJ culture, the AMTD test had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 87.5%, 89.4%, 75.7%, and 95.0%, respectively, for LJ culture, whereas, in comparison with the BACTEC MGIT 960 system, it showed values of 88.6%, 92.4%, 83.8%, and 94.8%, respectively. Conclusions: The AMTD test showed good sensitivity and specificity in the population studied, enabling the laboratory detection of M. tuberculosis complex in paucibacillary respiratory specimens.


Keywords: Molecular diagnostic techniques; Tuberculosis; HIV; Molecular probe techniques.


9 - Drug-resistant tuberculosis in subjects included in the Second National Survey on Antituberculosis Drug Resistance in Porto Alegre, Brazil

Tuberculose resistente em pacientes incluídos no II Inquérito Nacional de Resistência aos Fármacos Antituberculose realizado em Porto Alegre, Brasil

Vania Celina Dezoti Micheletti, José da Silva Moreira, Marta Osório Ribeiro, Afranio Lineu Kritski, José Ueleres Braga

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

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Objective: To describe the prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among tuberculosis patients in a major Brazilian city, evaluated via the Second National Survey on Antituberculosis Drug Resistance, as well as the social, demographic, and clinical characteristics of those patients. Methods: Clinical samples were collected from tuberculosis patients seen between 2006 to 2007 at three hospitals and five primary health care clinics participating in the survey in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The samples were subjected to drug susceptibility testing. The species of mycobacteria was confirmed using biochemical methods. Results: Of the 299 patients included, 221 (73.9%) were men and 77 (27.3%) had a history of tuberculosis. The mean age was 36 years. Of the 252 patients who underwent HIV testing, 66 (26.2%) tested positive. The prevalence of MDR-TB in the sample as a whole was 4.7% (95% CI: 2.3-7.1), whereas it was 2.2% (95% CI: 0.3-4.2) among the new cases of tuberculosis and 12.0% (95% CI: 4.5-19.5) among the patients with a history of tuberculosis treatment. The multivariate analysis showed that a history of tuberculosis and a longer time to diagnosis were both associated with MDR-TB. Conclusions: If our results are corroborated by other studies conducted in Brazil, a history of tuberculosis treatment and a longer time to diagnosis could be used as predictors of MDR-TB.


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Drug resistance; HIV.


10 - The role of intercostal nerve preservation in acute pain control after thoracotomy

O papel da preservação do nervo intercostal no controle da dor aguda pós-toracotomia

Marco Aurélio Marchetti-Filho, Luiz Eduardo Villaça Leão, Altair da Silva Costa-Junior

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

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Objective: To evaluate whether the acute pain experienced during in-hospital recovery from thoracotomy can be effectively reduced by the use of intraoperative measures (dissection of the neurovascular bundle prior to the positioning of the Finochietto retractor and preservation of the intercostal nerve during closure). Methods: We selected 40 patients who were candidates for elective thoracotomy in the Thoracic Surgery Department of the Federal University of São Paulo/Paulista School of Medicine, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The patients were randomized into two groups: conventional thoracotomy (CT, n = 20) and neurovascular bundle preservation (NBP, n = 20). All of the patients underwent thoracic epidural anesthesia and muscle-sparing thoracotomy. Pain intensity was assessed with a visual analog scale on postoperative days 1, 3, and 5, as well as by monitoring patient requests for/consumption of analgesics. Results: On postoperative day 5, the self-reported pain intensity was significantly lower in the NBP group than in the CT group (visual analog scale score, 1.50 vs. 3.29; p = 0.04). No significant differences were found between the groups regarding the number of requests for/consumption of analgesics. Conclusions: In patients undergoing thoracotomy, protecting the neurovascular bundle prior to positioning the retractor and preserving the intercostal nerve during closure can minimize pain during in-hospital recovery.


Keywords: Pain, postoperative; Analgesia; Thoracotomy.


Brief Communication

11 - Utility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 in the assessment of asthma control

Utilidade do instrumento Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 na avaliação do controle da asma

Mariana Nadal Cardoso, Herberto José Chong Neto, Lêda Maria Rabelo, Carlos Antônio Riedi, Nelson Augusto Rosário

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

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Our objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of Asthma Control Questionnaire 7 (ACQ-7) in asthma patients, comparing our results against those obtained with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria. We evaluated 52 patients. Patients completed the ACQ-7, underwent spirometry, and were clinically assessed to determine the level of asthma control according to the GINA criteria, in two visits, 15 days apart. The ACQ-7 cutoff for uncontrolled asthma was a score of 1.5. The ACQ-7 showed good reproducibility, with a correlation coefficient of 0.73. The ACQ-7 identified a greater number of patients with uncontrolled asthma than did the GINA criteria; according to the GINA criteria, 47 patients (90.4%) presented with partially controlled asthma.


Keywords: Asthma/prevention and control; Asthma/classification; Questionnaires.


Review Article

12 - Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis

Acometimento músculo-esquelético na sarcoidose

Akasbi Nessrine, Abourazzak Fatima Zahra, Harzy Taoufik

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

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Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown cause. It most commonly affects the pulmonary system but can also affect the musculoskeletal system, albeit less frequently. In patients with sarcoidosis, rheumatic involvement is polymorphic. It can be the presenting symptom of the disease or can appear during its progression. Articular involvement is dominated by nonspecific arthralgia, polyarthritis, and Löfgren's syndrome, which is defined as the presence of lung adenopathy, arthralgia (or arthritis), and erythema nodosum. Skeletal manifestations, especially dactylitis, appear mainly as complications of chronic, multiorgan sarcoidosis. Muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and usually asymptomatic. The diagnosis of rheumatic sarcoidosis is based on X-ray findings and magnetic resonance imaging findings, although the definitive diagnosis is made by anatomopathological study of biopsy samples. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis is generally relieved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids. In corticosteroid-resistant or -dependent forms of the disease, immunosuppressive therapy, such as treatment with methotrexate or anti-TNF-, is employed. The aim of this review was to present an overview of the various types of osteoarticular and muscle involvement in sarcoidosis, focusing on their diagnosis and management.


Keywords: Sarcoidosis; Joints; Muscles; Bone and Bones.


Case Report

13 - The value of family history in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in children

O valor da história familiar no diagnóstico de pneumonite de hipersensibilidade em crianças

Joana Cardoso, Isabel Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

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Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is an immunologically mediated disease resulting from the inhalation of organic substances that trigger an inflammatory response in the alveolar wall, bronchioles, and interstitium in susceptible individuals. Although HP is predominantly an occupational disease, seen in adulthood, cases in children have been described. The diagnosis of HP requires a high degree of suspicion. The treatment consists in avoiding contact with the antigen, and, in some cases, systemic corticosteroids might be necessary in order to prevent its progression to pulmonary fibrosis. We report the clinical cases of three children with a history of contact with birds and a family history of HP. All three patients presented with cough and dyspnea on exertion. The disease was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical history and ancillary diagnostic test results consistent with the diagnosis, including a predominance of lymphocytes (> 60%, CD8+ T lymphocytes in particular) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and a ground-glass pattern seen on HRCT of the chest. Early diagnosis is crucial in order to prevent HP from progressing to pulmonary fibrosis. Hereditary factors seem to influence the onset of the disease.


Keywords: Alveolitis, extrinsic allergic; Bronchoalveolar lavage; Glucocorticoids.


14 - Lymphadenitis caused by infection with an isoniazid- and rifampin-resistant strain of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in an infant with IFN-γ/IL-12 pathway defect

Linfadenite por Mycobacterium bovis BCG resistente a isoniazida e rifampicina em lactente com defeito no eixo IFN-γ/IL-12

Lilian Martins Oliveira Diniz, Tiago Guimarães, Maria das Graças Rodrigues de Oliveira, Jorge Andrade Pinto, Silvana Spindola de Miranda

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We report a rare case in a female infant (age, 3.5 months) with primary immunodeficiency (IFN-γ/IL-12 pathway defect) who presented with suppurative lymphadenitis after Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination. The strain of M. bovis BCG identified was found to be resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. The patient was treated with a special pharmacological regimen involving isoniazid (in a limited, strategic manner), ethambutol, streptomycin, and IFN-γ, after which there was complete resolution of the lesions.


Keywords: BCG vaccine; Interferon-gamma; Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant.


Letters to the Editor

15 - Solitary benign metastasizing leiomyoma: imaging features and pathological findings

Leiomioma metastático benigno solitário: aspectos de imagem e achados anatomopatológicos

Bernardo Corrêa de Almeida Teixeira, Kássia Mahfouz, Dante Luiz Escuissato, Ana Flávia Cardoso Buarque Costa, Lúcia de Noronha

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

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16 - Low-dose CT screening for lung cancer in Brazil: a study protocol

Rastreamento de câncer de pulmão por meio de TC de baixa dosagem no Brasil: protocolo de pesquisa

Ricardo Sales dos Santos, Juliana Franceschini, Fernando Uliana Kay, Rodrigo Caruso Chate, Altair da Silva Costa Júnior, Fernando Nunes Galvão de Oliveira, André Luiz Cavalcante Trajano, José Rodrigues Pereira, Jose Ernesto Succi, Roberto Saad Junior

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

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17 - Chest wall reconstruction with titanium plates after desmoid tumor resection

Reconstrução de parede torácica com placas de titânio após ressecção de tumor desmoide

Fernando Luiz Westphal, Luís Carlos de Lima, José Corrêa Lima Netto, Stephany da Cunha Seelig, Katienne Frota de Lima

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

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18 - Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for postpneumonectomy ARDS

Oxigenação extracorpórea por membrana no tratamento da SARA pós-pneumonectomia

Maurício Guidi Saueressig, Patrícia Schwarz, Rosane Schlatter, Alexandre Heitor Moreschi, Orlando Carlos Belmonte Wender, Amarilio Vieira de Macedo-Neto

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):

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