Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2016 - Volume 42  - Number 1  (January/February)

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Editorial

Original Article

3 - Effects of N-acetylcysteine and pentoxifylline on remote lung injury in a rat model of hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion injury

Efeitos da N-acetilcisteína e pentoxifilina na lesão pulmonar remota em um modelo de lesão de isquemia/reperfusão de membro posterior em ratos

Hamed Ashrafzadeh Takhtfooladi1, Saeed Hesaraki1, Foad Razmara2, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh Takhtfooladi3, Hadi Hajizadeh4

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):9-14

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and pentoxifylline in a model of remote organ injury after hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats, the lungs being the remote organ system. Methods: Thirty-five male Wistar rats were assigned to one of five conditions (n = 7/group), as follows: sham operation (control group); hind-limb ischemia, induced by clamping the left femoral artery, for 2 h, followed by 24 h of reperfusion (I/R group); and hind-limb ischemia, as above, followed by intraperitoneal injection (prior to reperfusion) of 150 mg/kg of NAC (I/R+NAC group), 40 mg/kg of pentoxifylline (I/R+PTX group), or both (I/R+NAC+PTX group). At the end of the trial, lung tissues were removed for histological analysis and assessment of oxidative stress. Results: In comparison with the rats in the other groups, those in the I/R group showed lower superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels, together with higher malondialdehyde levels and lung injury scores (p < 0.05 for all). Interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration of the lungs was also markedly greater in the I/R group than in the other groups. In addition, I/R group rats showed various signs of interstitial edema and hemorrhage. In the I/R+NAC, I/R+PTX, and I/R+NAC+PTX groups, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione levels, malondialdehyde levels, and lung injury scores were preserved (p < 0.05 for all). The differences between the administration of NAC or pentoxifylline alone and the administration of the two together were not significant for any of those parameters (p > 0.05 for all). Conclusions: Our results suggest that NAC and pentoxifylline both protect lung tissue from the effects of skeletal muscle I/R. However, their combined use does not appear to increase the level of that protection.

 


Keywords: Skeletal muscle; Ischemia; Reperfusion injury; Lung injury; Acetylcysteine; Pentoxifylline.

 

4 - The Manchester Respiratory Activities of Daily Living questionnaire for use in COPD patients: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

The Manchester Respiratory Activities of Daily Living questionnaire para o uso em pacientes com DPOC: tradução e adaptação cultural para a língua portuguesa falada no Brasil

Maíra Junkes-Cunha1, Anamaria Fleig Mayer2,3, Cardine Reis1, Abebaw M. Yohannes4, Rosemeri Maurici1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):15-21

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To translate The Manchester Respiratory Activities of Daily Living (MRADL) questionnaire into Portuguese and to create a version of the MRADL that is cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil. Methods: The English-language version of the MRADL was translated into Portuguese by two health care researchers who were fluent in English. A consensus version was obtained by other two researchers and a pulmonologist. That version was back-translated into English by another translator who was a native speaker of English and fluent in Portuguese. The cognitive debriefing process consisted in having 10 COPD patients complete the translated questionnaire in order to test its understandability, clarity, and acceptability in the target population. On the basis of the results, the final Portuguese-language version of the MRADL was produced and approved by the committee and one of the authors of the original questionnaire. Results: The author of the MRADL questioned only a few items in the translated version, and some changes were made to the mobility and personal hygiene domains. Cultural differences regarding the domestic activities domain were found, in particular regarding the item "Do you have the ability to do a full clothes wash and hang them out to dry?", due to socioeconomic and climatic issues. The item "Do you take care of your garden?" was questioned by the participants who lived in apartments, being modified to "Do you take care of your garden or plants in your apartment?" Conclusions: The final Portuguese-language version of the MRADL adapted for use in Brazil was found to be easy to understand and easily applied.

 


Keywords: Activities of daily living; Questionnaires; Translations; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.

 

5 - Restrictive pattern on spirometry: association with cardiovascular risk and level of physical activity in asymptomatic adults

Distúrbio ventilatório restritivo sugerido por espirometria: associação com risco cardiovascular e nível de atividade física em adultos assintomáticos

Evandro Fornias Sperandio1, Rodolfo Leite Arantes2, Agatha Caveda Matheus1, Rodrigo Pereira da Silva1, Vinícius Tonon Lauria1, Marcello Romiti2, Antônio Ricardo de Toledo Gagliardi2, Victor Zuniga Dourado2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):22-28

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether a restrictive pattern on spirometry is associated with the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL), as well as with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, in asymptomatic adults. Methods: A total of 374 participants (mean age, 41 ± 14 years) underwent spirometry, which included the determination of FVC and FEV1. A restrictive pattern on spirometry was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio > 0.7 and an FVC < 80% of the predicted value. After conducting demographic, anthropometric, and CVD risk assessments, we evaluated body composition, muscle function, and postural balance, as well as performing cardiopulmonary exercise testing and administering the six-minute walk test. The PADL was quantified with a triaxial accelerometer. Results: A restrictive pattern on spirometry was found in 10% of the subjects. After multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for confounders (PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness), the following variables retained significance (OR; 95% CI) as predictors of a restrictive pattern: systemic arterial hypertension (17.5; 1.65-184.8), smoking (11.6; 1.56-87.5), physical inactivity (8.1; 1.43-46.4), larger center-of-pressure area while standing on a force platform (1.34; 1.05-1.71); and dyslipidemia (1.89; 1.12-1.98). Conclusions: A restrictive pattern on spirometry appears to be common in asymptomatic adults. We found that CVD risk factors, especially systemic arterial hypertension, smoking, and physical inactivity, were directly associated with a restrictive pattern, even when the analysis was adjusted for PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness. Longitudinal studies are needed in order to improve understanding of the etiology of a restrictive pattern as well as to aid in the design of preventive strategies.

 


Keywords: Spirometry; Hypertension; Motor activity; Sedentary lifestyle; Smoking.

 

6 - Respiratory therapy: a problem among children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis.

Fisioterapia respiratória: um problema de crianças e adolescentes com fibrose cística

Taiane dos Santos Feiten1, Josani Silva Flores2, Bruna Luciano Farias3, Paula Maria Eidt Rovedder2,3, Eunice Gus Camargo4, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin2,5, Bruna Ziegler1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):29-34

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the level of self-reported adherence to physical therapy recommendations in pediatric patients (6-17 years) with cystic fibrosis (CF) and to ascertain whether the different levels of adherence correlate with pulmonary function, clinical aspects, and quality of life. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The patients and their legal guardians completed a questionnaire regarding adherence to physical therapy recommendations and a CF quality of life questionnaire. We collected demographic, spirometric, and bacteriological data, as well as recording the frequency of hospitalizations and Shwachman-Kulczycki (S-K) clinical scores. Results: We included 66 patients in the study. Mean age, FEV1 (% of predicted), and BMI were 12.2 ± 3.2 years, 90 ± 24%, and 18.3 ± 2.5 kg/m2, respectively. The patients were divided into two groups: high-adherence (n = 39) and moderate/poor-adherence (n = 27). No statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding age, gender, family income, and total S-K clinical scores. There were statistically significant differences between the high-adherence group and the moderate/poor-adherence group, the latter showing lower scores for the "radiological findings" domain of the S-K clinical score (p = 0.030), a greater number of hospitalizations (p = 0.004), and more days of hospitalization in the last year (p = 0.012), as well as lower scores for the quality of life questionnaire domains emotion (p = 0.002), physical (p = 0.019), treatment burden (p < 0.001), health perceptions (p = 0.036), social (p = 0.039), and respiratory (p = 0.048). Conclusions: Low self-reported adherence to physical therapy recommendations was associated with worse radiological findings, a greater number of hospitalizations, and decreased quality of life in pediatric CF patients.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Patient compliance; Physical therapy modalities; Quality of life.

 

7 - Alternative diagnoses based on CT angiography of the chest in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism

Diagnósticos alternativos corroborados por angiotomografia computadorizada de tórax em pacientes com suspeita de tromboembolia pulmonar

Eleci Vaz Ferreira1,2, Marcelo Basso Gazzana2,3, Muriel Bossle Sarmento4, Pedro Arends Guazzelli4, Mariana Costa Hoffmeister4, Vinicius André Guerra2, Renato Seligman4,5, Marli Maria Knorst2,3,4

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):35-41

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of alternative diagnoses based on chest CT angiography (CTA) in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) who tested negative for PTE, as well as whether those alternative diagnoses had been considered prior to the CTA. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study involving 191 adult patients undergoing CTA for suspected PTE between September of 2009 and May of 2012. Chest X-rays and CTAs were reviewed to determine whether the findings suggested an alternative diagnosis in the cases not diagnosed as PTE. Data on symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, and mortality were collected. Results: On the basis of the CTA findings, PTE was diagnosed in 47 cases (24.6%). Among the 144 patients not diagnosed with PTE via CTA, the findings were abnormal in 120 (83.3%). Such findings were consistent with an alternative diagnosis that explained the symptoms in 75 patients (39.3%). Among those 75 cases, there were only 39 (20.4%) in which the same alterations had not been previously detected on chest X-rays. The most common alternative diagnosis, made solely on the basis of the CTA findings, was pneumonia (identified in 20 cases). Symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, and the in-hospital mortality rate did not differ significantly between the patients with and without PTE. However, the median hospital stay was significantly longer in the patients with PTE than in those without (18.0 and 9.5 days, respectively; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Our results indicate that chest CTA is useful in cases of suspected PTE, because it can confirm the diagnosis and reveal findings consistent with an alternative diagnosis in a significant number of patients.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary embolism/diagnosis; Pulmonary embolism/epidemiology; Angiography.

 

8 - The Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma: a specialized care program for children with wheezing or asthma in Brazil

Programa Infantil de Prevenção de Asma: um programa de atenção especializada a crianças com sibilância/asma

Marilyn Urrutia-Pereira1, Jennifer Avila1, Dirceu Solé2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):42-47

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To present the Programa Infantil de Prevenção de Asma (PIPA, Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma) and the characteristics of the patients followed in this program. Methods: Implemented in the city of Uruguaiana, Brazil, PIPA has as its target population children and adolescents (< 18 years of age) with asthma or suspected asthma. Patients either enroll in PIPA spontaneously or are referred by pediatricians or primary care physicians. In this retrospective study, we use a standardized protocol to assess PIPA patients. Results: By the end of the study period, 646 patients were being followed. Of those, 298 (46.1%) were ≤ 3 years of age. In this group of patients, recurrent wheezing was identified in 60.7%, and the first episode of wheezing occurred in the first six months of life in 86.0%. Severe wheezing was identified in 29.5% and 45.4% in the children ≤ 3 and > 3 years of age, respectively. Physician-diagnosed asthma was reported in 26.5% and 82.2%, respectively. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of passive smoking was high (> 36%), occurring during pregnancy in > 15%; > 40% of the patients had been born by cesarean section; and 30% had a mother who had had < 8 years of schooling. Conclusions: A prevention program for children with asthma is an effective strategy for controlling the disease. Knowledge of local epidemiological and environmental characteristics is essential to reducing the prevalence of the severe forms of asthma, to improving the use of health resources, and to preventing pulmonary changes that could lead to COPD in adulthood.

 


Keywords: Asthma/prevention and control; Asthma/epidemiology; Patient care.

 

9 - Obstructive sleep apnea related to rapid-eye-movement or non-rapid-eye-movement sleep: comparison of demographic, anthropometric, and polysomnographic features.

Apneia obstrutiva do sono relacionada ao sono rapid eye movement ou ao sono non-rapid eye movement: comparação de aspectos demográficos, antropométricos e polissonográficos.

Aysel Sunnetcioglu1, Bunyamin Sertogullarından1, Bulent Ozbay2, Hulya Gunbatar1, Selami Ekin1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):48-54

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether there are significant differences between rapid-eye-movement (REM)-related obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and non-REM (NREM)-related OSA, in terms of the demographic, anthropometric, and polysomnographic characteristics of the subjects. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 110 patients (75 males) with either REM-related OSA (n = 58) or NREM-related OSA (n = 52). To define REM-related and NREM-related OSA, we used a previously established criterion, based on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): AHI-REM/AHI-NREM ratio > 2 and ≤ 2, respectively. Results: The mean age of the patients with REM-related OSA was 49.5 ± 11.9 years, whereas that of the patients with NREM-related OSA was 49.2 ± 12.6 years. The overall mean AHI (all sleep stages combined) was significantly higher in the NREM-related OSA group than in the REM-related OSA group (38.6 ± 28.2 vs. 14.8 ± 9.2; p < 0.05). The mean AHI in the supine position (s-AHI) was also significantly higher in the NREM-related OSA group than in the REM-related OSA group (49.0 ± 34.3 vs. 18.8 ± 14.9; p < 0.0001). In the NREM-related OSA group, the s-AHI was higher among the men. In both groups, oxygen desaturation was more severe among the women. We found that REM-related OSA was more common among the patients with mild-to-moderate OSA, whereas NREM-related OSA was more common among those with severe OSA. Conclusions: We found that the severity of NREM-related OSA was associated mainly with s-AHI. Our findings suggest that the s-AHI has a more significant effect on the severity of OSA than does the AHI-REM. When interpreting OSA severity and choosing among treatment modalities, physicians should take into consideration the sleep stage and the sleep posture.

 


Keywords: Sleep, REM; Sleep stages; Sleep apnea, obstructive; Apnea; Sleep apnea syndromes.

 

10 - Cervical computed tomography in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: influence of head elevation on the assessment of upper airway volume

Tomografia computadorizada cervical em pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono: influência da elevação postural na avaliação do volume das vias aéreas superiores

Fábio José Fabrício de Barros Souza1, Anne Rosso Evangelista2, Juliana Veiga Silva2, Grégory Vinícius Périco3, Kristian Madeira4,5

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):55-60

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has a high prevalence and carries significant cardiovascular risks. It is important to study new therapeutic approaches to this disease. Positional therapy might be beneficial in reducing the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Imaging methods have been employed in order to facilitate the evaluation of the airways of OSAS patients and can be used in order to determine the effectiveness of certain treatments. This study was aimed at determining the influence that upper airway volume, as measured by cervical CT, has in patients diagnosed with OSAS. Methods: This was a quantitative, observational, cross-sectional study. We evaluated 10 patients who had been diagnosed with OSAS by polysomnography and on the basis of the clinical evaluation. All of the patients underwent conventional cervical CT in the supine position. Scans were obtained with the head of the patient in two positions (neutral and at a 44° upward inclination), and the upper airway volume was compared between the two. Results: The mean age, BMI, and neck circumference were 48.9 ± 14.4 years, 30.5 ± 3.5 kg/m2, and 40.3 ± 3.4 cm, respectively. The mean AHI was 13.7 ± 10.6 events/h (range, 6.0-41.6 events/h). The OSAS was classified as mild, moderate, and severe in 70%, 20%, and 10% of the patients, respectively. The mean upper airway volume was 7.9 cm3 greater when the head was at a 44° upward inclination than when it was in the neutral position, and that difference (17.5 ± 11.0%) was statistically significant (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Elevating the head appears to result in a significant increase in the caliber of the upper airways in OSAS patients.

 


Keywords: Sleep apnea, obstructive/prevention and control; Sleep apnea, obstructive/therapy; Tomography.

 

Review Article

11 - Psychological distress related to smoking cessation in patients with acute myocardial infarction

Sofrimento psicológico relacionado à cessação do tabagismo em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio.

Thyego Mychell Moreira-Santos1, Irma Godoy2, Ilda de Godoy1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):61-67

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Among all causes of preventable deaths, smoking is responsible for the greatest number of deaths worldwide and predisposes to fatal, noncommunicable diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. Lifestyle changes are effective in the treatment of patients with smoking-related diseases and assist in the prevention of premature mortality. Our objective was to investigate the available scientific evidence regarding the psychological distress related to smoking cessation in patients who have had acute myocardial infarction. To that end, we conducted an integrative review of the literature in order to summarize relevant studies on this topic. The selected databases were Scopus, PubMed Central, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science (Core Collection), ScienceDirect, EMBASE, SciELO, LILACS e PsycINFO. On the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria adopted for this study, 14 articles were selected for analysis. Those studies showed that the prevalence of psychological distress is higher among smokers than among nonsmokers, and distress-related symptoms are much more common in smokers with acute myocardial infarction than in those without. Smoking cessation depends on the active participation of the smoker, whose major motivation is the underlying disease. Most studies have shown that there is a need to create treatment subgroups as a means of improving the treatment provided. This review article expands the knowledge regarding smoking cessation and shows the need to invest in future research that investigates subgroups of smokers diagnosed with the major smoking-related comorbidities, such as acute myocardial infarction, in order to develop specific interventions and psychological support strategies.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Stress, psychological; Myocardial infarction; Tobacco use cessation.

 

Case Report

12 - Angiosarcoma of the lung

Angiossarcoma pulmonar

Mónica Grafino1, Paula Alves1, Margarida Mendes de Almeida2, Patrícia Garrido1, Direndra Hasmucrai1, Encarnação Teixeira1, Renato Sotto-Mayor1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):68-70

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant vascular tumor. Pulmonary involvement is usually attributable to metastasis from other primary sites, primary pulmonary angiosarcoma therefore being quite uncommon. We report a case of angiosarcoma with pulmonary involvement, probably primary to the lung, which had gone untreated for more than two years. We describe this rare neoplasm and its growth, as well as the extensive local invasion and hematogenous metastasis at presentation. We also discuss its poor prognosis.

 


Keywords: Hemangiosarcoma; Lung neoplasms; Sarcoma.

 

Images in Pulmonary Medicine

13 - Tumor seeding along the needle track after percutaneous lung biopsy

Implante tumoral por agulha após biópsia pulmonar percutânea

Leonardo Guedes Moreira Valle1, Rafael Dahmer Rocha1, Guilherme Falleiros Mendes1, José Ernesto Succi2, Juliano Ribeiro de Andrade1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):71

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Letters to the Editor

14 - Tracheal lobular capillary hemangioma treated with laser photocoagulation

Hemangioma capilar lobular da traqueia tratado com fotocoagulação a laser

Hans Dabó1, Rita Gomes2, Nelson Teixeira1, Gilberto Teixeira3, Gabriela Fernandes1, Adriana Magalhães1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):72-73

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15 - Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis can be a transient diagnosis

Fibrose pulmonar idiopática pode ser um diagnóstico transitório

Martina Rodrigues de Oliveira1, Daniel Antunes Silva Pereira1, Olívia Meira Dias1, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla1, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho1, Bruno Guedes Baldi1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):74-75

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Continuing Education: Imaging

16 - Crazy-paving pattern

Padrão de pavimentação em mosaico

Bruno Hochhegger1,2, Roberto Schumacher Neto1, Edson Marchiori3,4

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):76

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


Continuing Education : Scientific Methodology

20 - Bronchiectasis caused by common variable immunodeficiency

Bronquiectasia por imunodeficiência comum variável.

Paulo Henrique do Amor Divino1, José Henrique de Carvalho Basilio1, Renato Moraes Alves Fabbri1, Igor Bastos Polonio1, Wilma Carvalho Neves Forte2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):80

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text


 


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