Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2017 - Volume 43  - Number 6  (November/December)


Continuing Education: Imaging

4 - Tree-in-bud pattern

Padrão de árvore em brotamento

Edson Marchiori1, Bruno Hochhegger2, Gláucia Zanetti1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):407

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Continuing Education : Scientific Methodology

5 - Understanding diagnostic tests. Part 2.

Entendendo os testes diagnósticos: parte 2

Cecilia Maria Patino1,2, Juliana Carvalho Ferreira1,3

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):408

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Original Article

6 - Impact of continuous positive airway pressure on the pulmonary changes promoted by immersion in water

Impacto da pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas sobre as alterações pulmonares promovidas pela imersão em água

Danize Aparecida Rizzetti1, Janayna Rodembuch Borba Quadros1, Bruna Esmerio Ribeiro1, Letícia Callegaro1, Aline Arebalo Veppo2, Giulia Alessandra Wiggers1, Franck Maciel Peçanha1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):409-415

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Objective: To determine whether different levels of CPAP improve the lung volumes and capacities of healthy subjects immersed in water. Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial, conducted between April and June of 2016, involving healthy female volunteers who were using oral contraceptives. Three 20-min immersion protocols were applied: control (no CPAP); CPAP5 (CPAP at 5 cmH2O); and CPAP10 (CPAP at 10 cmH2O). We evaluated HR, SpO2, FVC, FEV1, the FEV1/FVC ratio, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and FEF25-75%) at three time points: pre-immersion; 10 min after immersion; and 10 min after the end of each protocol. Results: We evaluated 13 healthy volunteers. The CPAP10 protocol reversed the restrictive pattern of lung function induced by immersion in water, maintaining pulmonary volumes and capacities for a longer period than did the CPAP5 protocol. Conclusions: When the hemodynamic change causing a persistent lung disorder, only the application of higher positive pressures is effective in maintaining long-term improvements in the pulmonary profile.


Keywords: Physical therapy modalities; Noninvasive ventilation; Continuous positive airway pressure.


7 - Tuberculosis infection among primary health care workers

Infecção por tuberculose entre profissionais de saúde da atenção básica

Thamy Carvalho Lacerda1,2,3, Fernanda Mattos de Souza1, Thiago Nascimento do Prado1,2,4,5, Rodrigo Leite Locatelli1,2, Geisa Fregona1,3, Rita de Cássia Duarte Lima2,5, Ethel Leonor Maciel1,2,5

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):416-423

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Objective: To estimate the prevalence of and determine the risk factors associated with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among primary health care workers in the city of Vitória, Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with data collected through a survey regarding socio-demographic, occupational, clinical, and exposure characteristics, as well as knowledge about tuberculosis, conducted between 2011 and 2012. All participants underwent a tuberculin skin test (TST), and TSTs were read at 72 h by a trained professional. Results: A total of 218 primary health care workers participated in the study. The prevalence of TST positivity at the ≥ 10-mm and ≥ 5-mm cut-off points was, respectively, 39.4% (95% CI: 32.9-45.9) and 54.1% (95% CI: 47.4-60.7). Regarding occupational categories, community health agents had the highest proportion of TST positivity, regardless of the cut-off point (≥ 10 mm: 47.5%; and ≥ 5 mm: 60.5%). Regarding factors associated with TST results, "having had a previous TST" showed a statistically significant association with TST positivity at the ≥ 10-mm and ≥ 5-mm cut-off points (OR = 2.5 [95% CI: 1.17-5.30] and OR = 2.18 [95% CI: 1.23-3.87], respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of LTBI was found to be high among the primary health care workers in this sample. Therefore, we recommend the establishment of a periodic screening program for LTBI and implementation of effective biosafety policies for the prevention of this infection among primary health care workers.


Keywords: Health personnel; Tuberculin test; Latent tuberculosis; Primary health care.


8 - Accuracy of closed pleural biopsy in the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion

Exactitud de la biopsia pleural cerrada para el diagnóstico de derrame pleural maligno

Renata Báez-Saldaña1,2, Uriel Rumbo-Nava1, Araceli Escobar-Rojas2, Patricia Castillo-González1, Santiago León-Dueñas1, Teresa Aguirre-Pérez1, María Eugenia Vázquez-Manríquez3

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):424-430

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Objective: Previous studies have demonstrated that closed pleural biopsy (CPB) has a sensitivity of less than 60% for diagnosing malignancy. Therefore, controversy has recently emerged regarding the value of CPB as a diagnostic test. Our objective was to assess the accuracy of CPB in diagnosing malignancy in patients with pleural effusion. Methods: This was a prospective 8-year study of individuals who underwent CPB to establish the etiology of pleural effusion. Information on each patient was obtained from anatomopathological reports and medical records. When CPB findings showed malignancy or tuberculosis, the biopsy was considered diagnostic, and that was the definitive diagnosis. In cases in which biopsy histopathological findings were nonspecific, a definitive diagnosis was established on the basis of other diagnostic procedures, such as thoracoscopy, thoracotomy, fiberoptic bronchoscopy, biochemical and cellular measurements in pleural fluid, and/or microbiological tests. The accuracy of CPB was determined with 2 × 2 contingency tables. Results: A total of 1034 biopsies from patients with pleural effusion were studied. Of those, 171 (16.54%) were excluded from the accuracy analysis either because of inadequate samples or insufficient information. The results of the accuracy analysis were as follows: sensitivity, 77%; specificity, 98%; positive predictive value, 99%; negative predictive value, 66%; positive likelihood ratio, 38.5; negative likelihood ratio, 0.23; pre-test probability, 2.13; and post-test probability, 82. Conclusions: CPB is useful in clinical practice as a diagnostic test, because there is an important change from pre-test to post-test probability.


Keywords: Biopsy; Pleural effusion, malignant/diagnosis; Pleural effusion, malignant/epidemiology.


9 - Survival in a cohort of patients with lung cancer: the role of age and gender in prognosis

Sobrevida em uma coorte de pacientes com câncer de pulmão: papel da idade e do sexo no prognóstico

Juliana Pereira Franceschini, Sérgio Jamnik, Ilka Lopes Santoro

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):431-436

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Objective: To determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as well as their disease course, by age group and gender. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with NSCLC from 2000 to 2012 and followed until July 2015 in a tertiary referral hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Based on the 25th and 75th percentiles of the age distribution, patients were stratified into three age groups: < 55 years; ≥ 55 and < 72 years; and ≥ 72 years. Survival time was evaluated during the follow-up period of the study. Functions of overall and gender-specific survival stratified by age groups (event: all-cause mortality) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Differences among survival curves were assessed via the log-rank test. Results: We included 790 patients with the following age distribution: < 55 years, 165 patients; ≥ 55 and < 72 years, 423; and ≥ 72 years, 202. In the entire sample, there were 493 men (62.4%). Adenocarcinoma was the most common histological pattern in the < 72-year age groups; 575 patients (73%) presented with advanced disease (stages IIIB-IV). The median 5-year survival was 12 months (95% CI: 4-46 months), with no significant differences among the age groups studied. Conclusions: NSCLC remains more common in men, although we found an increase in the proportion of the disease in women in the < 55-year age group. Adenocarcinoma predominated in women. In men, squamous cell carcinoma predominated in the ≥ 72-year age group. Most patients presented with advanced-stage disease at diagnosis. There were no statistical differences in survival between genders or among age groups.


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Age groups, Sex; Survival.


10 - Evaluation of the impact that the changes in tuberculosis treatment implemented in Brazil in 2009 have had on disease control in the country

Avaliação do impacto das mudanças do tratamento da tuberculose implantadas em 2009 no controle da tuberculose pulmonar no Brasil

Marcelo Fouad Rabahi, José Laerte Rodrigues da Silva Júnior, Marcus Barreto Conde

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):437-444

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Objective: To analyze the impact that the 2009 changes in tuberculosis treatment in Brazil had on the rates of cure, tuberculosis recurrence, mortality, treatment abandonment, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Methods: An ordinary least squares regression model was used in order to perform an interrupted time series analysis of secondary data collected from the Brazilian Tuberculosis Case Registry Database for the period between January of 2003 and December of 2014. Results: The 2009 changes in tuberculosis treatment in Brazil were found to have no association with reductions in the total number of cases (β = 2.17; 95% CI: −3.80 to 8.14; p = 0.47) and in the number of new cases (β = −0.97; 95% CI: −5.89 to 3.94; p = 0.70), as well as having no association with treatment abandonment rates (β = 0.40; 95% CI: −1.12 to 1.93; p = 0.60). The changes in tuberculosis treatment also showed a trend toward an association with decreased cure rates (β = −4.14; 95% CI: −8.63 to 0.34; p = 0.07), as well as an association with increased mortality from pulmonary tuberculosis (β = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.16 to 1.38; p = 0.01). Although there was a significant increase in MDR-TB before and after the changes (p < 0.0001), there was no association between the intervention (i.e., the changes in tuberculosis treatment) and the increase in MDR-TB cases. Conclusions: The changes in tuberculosis treatment were unable to contain the decrease in cure rates, the increase in treatment abandonment rates, and the increase in MDR-TB rates, being associated with increased mortality from pulmonary tuberculosis during the study period.


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary/epidemiology; Tuberculosis, pulmonary/drug therapy; Tuberculosis, pulmonary/mortality; Interrupted time series analysis; Drug resistance, multiple; Drug compounding.


11 - Mortality from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a temporal trend analysis in Brazil, 1979-2014

Mortalidade por fibrose pulmonar idiopática: análise temporal no Brasil, 1979-2014

Eduardo Algranti, Cézar Akiyoshi Saito, Diego Rodrigues Mendonça e Silva, Ana Paula Scalia Carneiro, Marco Antonio Bussacos

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):445-450

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Objective: To analyze mortality from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in Brazil over the period 1979-2014. Methods: Microdata were extracted from the Brazilian National Ministry of Health Mortality Database. Only deaths for which the underlying cause was coded as International Classification of Diseases version 9 (ICD-9) 515 or 516.3 (until 1995) or as ICD version 10 (ICD-10) J84.1 (from 1996 onward) were included in our analysis. Standardized mortality rates were calculated for the 2010 Brazilian population. The annual trend in mortality rates was analyzed by joinpoint regression. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) by age group, time period of death, and gender, using a person-years denominator. Results: A total of 32,092 deaths were recorded in the study period. Standardized mortality rates trended upward, rising from 0.24/100,000 population in 1979 to 1.10/100,000 population in 2014. The annual upward trend in mortality rates had two inflection points, in 1992 and 2008, separating three distinct time segments with an annual growth of 2.2%, 6.8%, and 2.4%, respectively. The comparison of RRs for the age groups, using the 50- to 54-year age group as a reference, and for the study period, using 1979-1984 as a reference, were 16.14 (14.44-16.36) and 6.71 (6.34-7.12), respectively. Men compared with women had higher standardized mortality rates (per 100,000 person-years) in all age groups. Conclusion: Brazilian IPF mortality rates are lower than those of other countries, suggesting underdiagnosis or underreporting. The temporal trend is similar to those reported in the literature and is not explained solely by population aging.


Keywords: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/epidemiology; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/mortality; Population dynamics.


12 - Niemann-Pick disease type B: HRCT assessment of pulmonary involvement

Doença de Niemann-Pick tipo B: avaliação do comprometimento pulmonar por TCAR

Heloisa Maria Pereira Freitas1, Alexandre Dias Mançano2, Rosana Souza Rodrigues1,3, Bruno Hochhegger4, Pedro Paulo Teixeira e Silva Torres5, Dante Escuissato6, Cesar Augusto Araujo Neto7, Edson Marchiori1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):451-455

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Objective: To analyze HRCT findings in patients with Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type B, in order to determine the frequency of HRCT patterns and their distribution in the lung parenchyma, as well as the most common clinical characteristics. Methods: We studied 13 patients (3 males and 10 females) aged 5 to 56 years. HRCT images were independently evaluated by two observers, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. The inclusion criteria were presence of abnormal HRCT findings and diagnosis of NPD type B confirmed by histopathological examination of a bone marrow, lung, or liver biopsy specimen. Results: The most common clinical findings were hepatosplenomegaly and mild to moderate dyspnea. The most common HRCT patterns were smooth interlobular septal thickening and ground-glass opacities, which were both present in all patients. Intralobular lines were present in 12 patients (92.3%). A crazy-paving pattern was observed in 5 patients (38.4%), and areas of air trapping were identified in only 1 case (7.6%). Pulmonary involvement was bilateral in all cases, with the most affected area being the lower lung zone. Conclusions: Smooth interlobular septal thickening, with or without associated ground-glass opacities, in patients with hepatosplenomegaly is the most common finding in NPD type B.


Keywords: Niemann-Pick diseases; Tomography, X-ray computed; Lung diseases.


13 - Validation of the STOP-Bang questionnaire as a means of screening for obstructive sleep apnea in adults in Brazil

Validação do questionário STOP-Bang para a identificação de apneia obstrutiva do sono em adultos no Brasil

Ricardo Luiz de Menezes Duarte, Lorena Barbosa de Moraes Fonseca, Flavio José Magalhães-da-Silveira, Erika Aparecida da Silveira, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):456-463

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Objective: To validate the Portuguese-language version of the STOP-Bang (acronym for Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, high blood Pressure, Body mass index, Age, Neck circumference, and Gender) questionnaire, culturally adapted for use in Brazil, as a means of screening for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults. Methods: In this validation study, we enrolled patients ≥ 18 years of age, recruited between May of 2015 and August of 2016. All patients completed the STOP-Bang questionnaire and underwent overnight polysomnography. To evaluate the performance of the questionnaire, we used contingency tables and areas under the (receiver operating characteristic) curve (AUCs). Results: We included 456 patients. The mean age was 43.7 ± 12.5 years, and 291 (63.8%) of the patients were male. On the basis of the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), we categorized OSA as mild/moderate/severe (any OSA; AHI ≥ 5 events/h), moderate/severe (AHI ≥ 15 events/h), or severe (AHI ≥ 30 events/h). The overall prevalence of OSA was 78.3%, compared with 52.0%, and 28.5% for moderate/severe and severe OSA, respectively. The most common score on the STOP-Bang questionnaire was 4 points (n = 106), followed by 3 points (n = 85) and 5 points (n = 82). An increase in the score was paralleled by a reduction in sensitivity with a corresponding increase in specificity for all AHI cut-off points. The AUCs obtained for the identification of any, moderate/severe, and severe OSA were: 0.743, 0.731, and 0.779, respectively. For any OSA, the score on the questionnaire (cut-off, ≥ 3 points) presented sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 83.5%, 45.5%, and 75.2%, respectively. Conclusions: The STOP-Bang questionnaire performed adequately for OSA screening, indicating that it could be used as an effective screening tool for the disorder.


Keywords: Sleep apnea, obstructive/diagnosis; Polysomnography; Diagnostic techniques and procedures; Surveys and questionnaires.


14 - Efeitos de estratégias de longo prazo simples de cuidados respiratórios em homens idosos com DPOC

Fabrício Zambom-Ferraresi, Pilar Cebollero,Javier Hueto, María Hernández, José Cascante, María Milagros Antón

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):464-471

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Objective: To evaluate a 24-month supervised, community-based maintenance exercise program after 3 months of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in comparison with a 27-month physical activity counseling program, in terms of the effects on maximal muscle strength, muscle power output, and exercise capacity, in individuals with COPD. Methods: Sixty-three men with moderate-to-severe COPD were recruited from two previous studies. Of those 63 participants, 31 were offered 3 months of PR followed by a 24-month supervised maintenance exercise program (24MME group) and 32 were offered a 27-month physical activity counseling program (27MPAC group). Measurements at 3 months and at the end of the study period included maximal strength of the upper and lower limbs, power output of the lower limbs, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), and quality of life. Results: At 27 months, the improvements in maximal strength of the upper and lower limbs were greater in the 24MME group than in the 27MPAC group (37.6 ± 28.3% and 28.4 ± 13.3%, respectively, vs. 8.8 ± 16% and 13.6 ± 16.4%, respectively; p < 0.05), as was the improvement in power output of the lower limbs (24.6 ± 18.4% vs. −2.3 ± 28.5%; p < 0.01). The increase in the 6MWD after 3 months was also greater in the 24MME group than in the 27MPAC group (33.2 ± 36.6 m vs. 2.9 ± 34.7 m; p < 0.05), although there were no differences between the two groups in terms of the Δ6MWD at 27 months (vs. baseline). Conclusions: A supervised, community-based maintenance program is a successful long-term strategy to preserve the benefits of PR on peripheral muscle function and exercise capacity in individuals with COPD. However, physical activity counseling can maintain maximal muscle strength and exercise capacity in such individuals.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Muscle strength; Leg/physiology, Muscle, skeletal/physiology; Physical fitness; Exercise therapy/methods.


Review Article

15 - Tuberculosis treatment

Tratamento da tuberculose

Marcelo Fouad Rabahi1,2, José Laerte Rodrigues da Silva Júnior2, Anna Carolina Galvão Ferreira1,3, Daniela Graner Schuwartz Tannus-Silva1, Marcus Barreto Conde4,5

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):472-486

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Tuberculosis treatment remains a challenge due to the need to consider, when approaching it, the context of individual and collective health. In addition, social and economic issues have been shown to be variables that need to be considered when it comes to treatment effectiveness. We conducted a critical review of the national and international literature on the treatment of tuberculosis in recent years with the aims of presenting health care workers with recommendations based on the situation in Brazil and better informing decision-making regarding tuberculosis patients so as to minimize morbidity and interrupt disease transmission.


Keywords: Tuberculosis/drug therapy; Tuberculosis/prevention & control; Tuberculosis/surgery; Tuberculosis/classification.


17 - Primary sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma of the pleura

Fibrossarcoma epitelioide esclerosante primário da pleura

Erlon de Ávila Carvalho1, Daniel Oliveira Bonomi1, Astunaldo Júnior Macedo Pinho1, Paulo Guilherme Oliveira Salles1, Henrique Cunha Vieira1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):490-491

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