Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2018 - Volume 44  - Number 1  (January/February)



Continuing Education: Imaging

2 - Anterior mediastinal mass

Massa do mediastino anterior

Edson Marchiori1,a, Bruno Hochhegger2,b, Gláucia Zanetti1,c

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):3

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Continuing Education : Scientific Methodology

3 - Understanding diagnostic tests. Part 3.

Entendendo os testes diagnósticos. Parte 3.

Juliana Carvalho Ferreira1,2,a, Cecilia Maria Patino1,3,b

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):4

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Original Article

4 - Comparison of diaphragmatic mobility between COPD patients with and without thoracic hyperkyphosis: a cross-sectional study

Comparação da mobilidade diafragmática em pacientes com DPOC com e sem hipercifose torácica: um estudo transversal

Márcia Aparecida Gonçalves1, Bruna Estima Leal1, Liseane Gonçalves Lisboa2, Michelle Gonçalves de Souza Tavares3, Wellington Pereira Yamaguti4, Elaine Paulin1

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):5-11

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare diaphragmatic mobility, lung function, and respiratory muscle strength between COPD patients with and without thoracic hyperkyphosis; to determine the relationship of thoracic kyphosis angle with diaphragmatic mobility, lung function, and respiratory muscle strength in COPD patients; and to compare diaphragmatic mobility and thoracic kyphosis between male and female patients with COPD. Methods: Participants underwent anthropometry, spirometry, thoracic kyphosis measurement, and evaluation of diaphragmatic mobility. Results: A total of 34 patients with COPD participated in the study. Diaphragmatic mobility was significantly lower in the group of COPD patients with thoracic hyperkyphosis than in that of those without it (p = 0.002). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups of COPD patients regarding lung function or respiratory muscle strength variables. There was a significant negative correlation between thoracic kyphosis angle and diaphragmatic mobility (r = −0.47; p = 0.005). In the sample as a whole, there were statistically significant differences between males and females regarding body weight (p = 0.011), height (p < 0.001), and thoracic kyphosis angle (p = 0.036); however, there were no significant differences in diaphragmatic mobility between males and females (p = 0.210). Conclusions: Diaphragmatic mobility is lower in COPD patients with thoracic hyperkyphosis than in those without it. There is a negative correlation between thoracic kyphosis angle and diaphragmatic mobility. In comparison with male patients with COPD, female patients with COPD have a significantly increased thoracic kyphosis angle.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Kyphosis; Diaphragm.


5 - Factors associated with asthma expression in adolescents

Fatores associados à expressão da asma em adolescentes

Silvia de Souza Campos Fernandes1,a, Dirceu Solé2,d, Paulo Camargos1,c, Cláudia Ribeiro de Andrade1,e, Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina1,b

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):12-17

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Objective: To evaluate risk factors associated with asthma symptoms in adolescents in the 13- to 14-year age bracket. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving adolescents enrolled in randomly selected public schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, and conducted with the use of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and its supplementary module for risk factor assessment. The ISAAC questionnaire was completed by the students themselves, whereas the supplementary questionnaire was completed by their parents or legal guardians. Variables showing p ≤ 0.25 in the univariate analysis were included in the multivariate analysis. Stepwise regression with backward elimination was used for variable selection. Results: We evaluated 375 adolescents, 124 (33.1%) of whom had asthma symptoms. The final multivariate analysis model revealed that asthma symptoms were associated with birth weight < 2,500 g (p < 0.001), day care center or nursery attendance (p < 0.002), maternal history of asthma (p < 0.001), contact with animals during the first year of life (p < 0.027), current contact with animals outside the home (dogs, cats, or farm animals; p < 0.005), and more than 20 cigarettes per day smoked by parents or other household members (p < 0.02). Conclusions: Exposure to animals in and outside the home is associated with asthma symptoms, as is environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Families, health professionals, and administrators of health care facilities should take that into account in order to prevent asthma and reduce asthma morbidity.


Keywords: Asthma; Risk factors; Adolescent.


6 - Diagnostic value of α-enolase expression and serum α-enolase autoantibody levels in lung cancer

Valor diagnóstico da expressão de α-enolase e dos níveis séricos de autoanticorpos contra α-enolase no câncer de pulmão

Lihong Zhang1,a, Hongbin Wang1,b, Xuejun Dong1,c

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):18-23

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Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of α-enolase (ENO1) and serum ENO1 autoantibody levels in lung cancer. Methods: Immunohistochemistry staining and ELISA were performed to detect ENO1 expression in lung tissue and serum ENO1 autoantibody levels, respectively. Results: The expression of ENO1 was higher in lung cancer tissues than in benign lung disease tissues (p < 0.001). The proportion of lung cancer samples expressing ENO1 was not significantly different among the various pathological classification groups. The proportion of samples expressing ENO1 was higher in lung cancer patients in stages I/II than in those in stages III/IV (χ2 = 5.445; p = 0.018). The expression of ENO1 in lung cancer tissues was not associated with age, gender, or smoking history. Serum ENO1 antibody levels were significantly higher in the lung cancer group than in the benign lung disease and control groups (p < 0.001). The differences among the pathological classification groups were not statistically significant. Serum ENO1 antibody levels were also in lung cancer patients in stages I/II than in those in stages III/IV (p < 0.01). Serum ENO1 antibody levels were not associated with age, gender, or smoking history in lung cancer patients. The ROC curve representing the diagnosis of lung cancer based on ENO1 antibody levels had an area under the curve of 0.806. Conclusions: Our results suggest that high levels of ENO1 are associated with the clinical stage of lung cancer and that ENO1 expression and its serum autoantibody levels show diagnostic value in lung cancer.


Keywords: Phosphopyruvate hydratase/analysis; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Immunohistochemistry; Lung neoplasms.


7 - Complexity of autonomic nervous system function in individuals with COPD

Complexidade do sistema nervoso autônomo em indivíduos com DPOC

Laís Manata Vanzella1,f, Aline Fernanda Barbosa Bernardo1,d, Tatiana Dias de Carvalho3,e, Franciele Marques Vanderlei2,a, Anne Kastelianne França da Silva1,c, Luiz Carlos Marques Vanderlei2,b

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):24-30

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Objective: To evaluate autonomic modulation in individuals with COPD, compared with healthy controls, via recurrence plots (RPs) and linear heart rate variability (HRV) indices. Methods: We analyzed data on 74 volunteers, who were divided into two groups: COPD (n = 43) and control (n = 31). For calculation of HRV indices, heart rate was measured beat-by-beat during 30 min of supine rest using a heart-rate meter. We analyzed linear indices in the time and frequency domains, as well as indices derived from the RPs. Results: In comparison with the control group, the COPD group showed significant increases in the indices derived from the RPs, as well as significant reductions in the linear indices in the time and frequency domains. No significant differences were observed in the linear indices in the frequency domains expressed in normalized units or in the low frequency/high frequency ratio. Conclusions: Individuals with COPD show a reduction in both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, associated with decreased complexity of autonomic nervous system function, as identified by RPs, which provide important complementary information in the detection of autonomic changes in this population.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Autonomic nervous system; Nonlinear dynamics; Recurrence; Heart rate; Sympathetic nervous system.


8 - Is suicidal ideation associated with allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis?

Ideação suicida apresenta associação com asma e rinite alérgicas?

Martín Bedolla-Barajas1,a, Norma Angélica Pulido-Guillén2,b, Bolívar Vivar-Aburto3,c, Jaime Morales-Romero4,d, José Raúl Ortiz-Peregrina5,e, Martín Robles-Figueroa3,f

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):31-35

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Objective: To investigate whether there is an association between suicidal ideation (SI) and allergic diseases in adults. Methods: This was a comparative cross-sectional study involving individuals ranging from 20 to 50 years of age recruited from a university hospital in the city of Guadalajara, Mexico. We included patients with a confirmed diagnosis of allergic asthma, those with a confirmed diagnosis of allergic rhinitis, and healthy controls. All subjects completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), which includes an item that evaluates the presence of suicidal thoughts or desires within the last two weeks, in order to identify SI. Results: The sample comprised 115 patients with allergic asthma, 111 patients with allergic rhinitis, and 96 healthy controls. The number of individuals identified with SI in the three groups were, respectively, 17 (14.8%), 13 (11.7%), and 8 (8.3%). Regarding the presence of SI, no statistically significant association was found in the allergic asthma group (OR = 1.98; 95% CI: 0.78-4.64; p = 0.154) or in the allergic rhinitis group (OR = 1.46; 95% CI: 0.58-3.68; p = 0.424) when they were compared with the control group. However, the presence of depression was associated with SI in the three groups: allergic asthma (OR = 12.36; 95% CI: 2.67-57.15; p = 0.001); allergic rhinitis (OR = 6.20; 95% CI: 1.66-23.14; p = 0.006); and control (OR = 21.0; 95% CI: 3.75-117.36; p < 0,001). Conclusions: In comparison with the control group, no association was found between SI and the groups with allergic diseases. In contrast, there was association between SI and depression in the three groups.


Keywords: Suicidal ideation; Asthma; Rhinitis, allergic; Adult.


9 - Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor as a measure of treatment response in acute exacerbation of COPD

Receptor do ativador de plasminogênio tipo uroquinase solúvel como medida da resposta ao tratamento da exacerbação aguda da DPOC

Gehan Hassan AboEl-Magd1,a, Maaly Mohamed Mabrouk2,b

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):36-41

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Objective: To evaluate the value of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in the diagnosis of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) and in monitoring treatment response, analyzing the relationship between suPAR and fibrinogen in AECOPD. AECOPD leads to increased airway inflammation, contributing to an exaggerated release of inflammatory mediators. Methods: We recruited 45 patients with AECOPD and 20 healthy control subjects. Medical histories were taken, and all subjects underwent clinical examination, chest X-ray, pulmonary function tests, and blood gas analysis. On day 1 (treatment initiation for the AECOPD patients) and day 14 (end of treatment), blood samples were collected for the determination of serum suPAR and plasma fibrinogen. Results: Serum levels of suPAR were significantly higher in the AECOPD group than in the control group. In the AECOPD patients, there was a significant post-treatment decrease in the mean serum suPAR level. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of suPAR were 95.6%, 80.0%, and 93.0%, respectively. The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage (i.e., COPD severity) correlated positively and significantly with serum levels of suPAR and plasma levels of fibrinogen. Conclusions: Monitoring the serum suPAR level can be helpful in the evaluation of the COPD treatment response and might be a valuable biomarker for determining the prognosis of AECOPD. Because serum suPAR correlated with plasma fibrinogen, both markers could be predictive of AECOPD.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/complications; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/diagnosis; Receptors, urokinase plasminogen activator; Fibrinogen.


10 - Evaluation of smoking cessation treatment initiated during hospitalization in patients with heart disease or respiratory disease

Avaliação de um tratamento para cessação do tabagismo iniciado durante a hospitalização em pacientes com doença cardíaca ou doença respiratória

Thaís Garcia1,a, Sílvia Aline dos Santos Andrade2, Angélica Teresa Biral1, André Luiz Bertani1,b, Laura Miranda de Oliveira Caram1,c, Talita Jacon Cezare3, Irma Godoy4,d, Suzana Erico Tanni3,e

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):42-48

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Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation program, delivered by trained health care professionals, in patients hospitalized for acute respiratory disease (RD) or heart disease (HD). Methods: Of a total of 393 patients evaluated, we included 227 (146 and 81 active smokers hospitalized for HD and RD, respectively). All participants received smoking cessation treatment during hospitalization and were followed in a cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation program for six months after hospital discharge. Results: There were significant differences between the HD group and the RD group regarding participation in the cognitive-behavioral program after hospital discharge (13.0% vs. 35.8%; p = 0.003); smoking cessation at the end of follow-up (29% vs. 31%; p < 0.001); and the use of nicotine replacement therapy (3.4% vs. 33.3%; p < 0.001). No differences were found between the HD group and the RD group regarding the use of bupropion (11.0% vs. 12.3%; p = 0.92). Varenicline was used by only 0.7% of the patients in the HD group. Conclusions: In our sample, smoking cessation rates at six months after hospital discharge were higher among the patients with RD than among those with HD, as were treatment adherence rates. The implementation of smoking cessation programs for hospitalized patients with different diseases, delivered by the health care teams that treat these patients, is necessary for greater effectiveness in smoking cessation.


Keywords: Smoking; Smoking cessation; Hospitalization; Respiratory tract diseases; Heart diseases.


Brief Communication

11 - Association between the display of cigarette packs at the point of sale and smoking susceptibility among adolescents in Brazil

Associação entre a exposição a maços de cigarros em pontos de venda e susceptibilidade ao tabagismo entre adolescentes brasileiros

Ana Luiza Curi Hallal1, Andreza Madeira Macario1, Roberto Hess de Souza2, Antônio Fernando Boing1, Lúcio Botelho1, Joanna Cohen3

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):49-51

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This was a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the association between exposure to tobacco displays at the point of sale and susceptibility to smoking in schoolchildren in the 14- to 17-year age bracket. Of the participating students, 69.0%, 21.3%, and 9.7% were classified as never smokers, experimenters, and smokers, respectively. Of the participants who were classified as being exposed to smoking, 18.9% were susceptible to smoking. Of the participants who were classified as being unexposed to smoking, 12.9% were susceptible to smoking (OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.04 -2.35; p = 0.029). Exposure to point-of-sale tobacco displays is associated with smoking susceptibility in Brazilian adolescents.


12 - Between-occasion repeatability of fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurements in children

Repetibilidade de medidas da fração de óxido nítrico exalado em crianças em duas ocasiões

Kamil Barański1,a, Jan E. Zejda1,b

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):52-54

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The aim of the study was to assess short-term repeatability of measurements of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and its correlates in children in the 6- to 9-year age bracket participating in a respiratory epidemiological survey. FENO was measured in two sessions one week apart in 101 children. Participants were divided into three groups: asymptomatic (n = 76); symptomatic (n = 14); and asthma (n = 11). Absolute and relative differences between the measurements, as well as concordance correlation coefficients, were used in order to assess repeatability. The two FENO measurements were strongly correlated (0.98). Although intragroup comparisons of the two measurements were not significantly different (p = 0.2), intergroup comparisons were. FENO measurements are reproducible in children in epidemiological settings.


Keywords: Nitric oxide; Exhalation; Asthma.


Review Article

13 - Lung cancer in Brazil

Câncer de pulmão no Brasil

Luiz Henrique Araujo1,2,a, Clarissa Baldotto1,2,b, Gilberto de Castro Jr3,4,c, Artur Katz4,d, Carlos Gil Ferreira5,6,e, Clarissa Mathias7,f, Eldsamira Mascarenhas7,g, Gilberto de Lima Lopes8,9,h, Heloisa Carvalho4,10,i, Jaques Tabacof8, Jeovany Martínez-Mesa11,j, Luciano de Souza Viana12,k, Marcelo de Souza Cruz13,l, Mauro Zukin1,2,m, Pedro De Marchi12,n, Ricardo Mingarini Terra3,o, Ronaldo Albuquerque Ribeiro14, Vladmir Cláudio Cordeiro de Lima15,p, Gustavo Werutsky16,q, Carlos Henrique Barrios17,r; Grupo Brasileiro de Oncologia Torácica

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):55-64

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Lung cancer is one of the most incident types of cancer and a leading cause of cancer mortality in Brazil. We reviewed the current status of lung cancer by searching relevant data on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in the country. This review highlights several issues that need to be addressed, including smoking control, patient lack of awareness, late diagnosis, and disparities in the access to cancer health care facilities in Brazil. We propose strategies to help overcome these limitations and challenge health care providers, as well as the society and governmental representatives, to work together and to take a step forward in fighting lung cancer.


Keywords: Lung neoplasms/epidemiology; Lung neoplasms/therapy; Lung neoplasms/diagnosis; Biomarkers; Brazil.


Case Report

14 - Sleep characteristics in an adult with sleep complaints in three cities at different altitudes

Características do sono em um adulto com queixas de sono em três cidades a diferentes altitudes

Julio Cesar Castellanos-Ramírez1,a, Alvaro J Ruíz2,3,b, Patricia Hidalgo-Martínez1,2,c, Liliana Otero-Mendoza4,d

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):65-68

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Sleep studies conducted at an altitude that is different from the home altitude can yield misleading results regarding the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The objective of the present study was to determine the sleep characteristics of a patient undergoing polysomnography (PSG) in three Colombian cities at different altitudes (Bogotá, at 2,640 m above sea level [ASL]; Bucaramanga, at 959 m ASL; and Santa Marta, at 15 m ASL). The patient was an obese man with diabetes and suspected OSA. All PSG recordings were scored and interpreted in accordance with American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria. In Bogotá, PSG revealed moderate OSA (an apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] of 21 events/h); in Bucaramanga, PSG revealed increased upper airway resistance (an AHI of 2 events/h); in Santa Marta, PSG revealed mild OSA (an AHI of 7 events/h). The reduction in the AHI was predominantly a reduction in hypopneas and obstructive apneas. The respiratory events were shorter in duration in the city at an intermediate altitude. Given that the AHI varied widely across cities, we can assume that the patient is normal or has moderate OSA depending on the city where he is. Central apneas were found to have no influence on the AHI.


Keywords: Sleep apnea, obstructive; Polysomnography; Altitude.


Letters to the Editor

15 - Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an awake patient as a bridge to lung transplantation

Oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea em paciente acordado como ponte para o transplante pulmonar

Spencer Marcantonio Camargo1,a, Stephan Adamour Soder1,b, Fabiola Adelia Perin1,c, Douglas Zaione Nascimento1,d, Sadi Marcelo Schio1,e

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):69-70

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