Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2012 - Volume 38  - Number 2  (March/April)






Original Article

2 - Adherence to guidelines and its impact on outcomes in patients hospitalized with community- acquired pneumonia at a university hospital

Adesão a diretrizes e impacto nos desfechos em pacientes hospitalizados por pneumonia adquirida na comunidade em um hospital universitário

Carla Discacciati Silveira, Cid Sérgio Ferreira, Ricardo de Amorim Corrêa

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):148-157

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the agreement between the criteria used for hospitalization of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and those of the Brazilian Thoracic Association guidelines, and to evaluate the association of that agreement with 30-day mortality. Secondarily, to evaluate the agreement between the treatment given and that recommended in the guidelines with length of hospital stay, microbiological profile, 12-month mortality, complications, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and 30-day mortality. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving adult patients hospitalized between 2005 and 2007 at the Federal University of Minas Gerais Hospital das Clínicas, located in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Medical charts and chest X-rays were reviewed. Results: Among the 112 patients included in the study, admission and treatment criteria were in accordance with the guidelines in 82 (73.2%) and 66 (58.9%), respectively. The 30-day and 12-month mortality rates were 12.3% and 19.4%, respectively. The 30-day mortality rate was lower for patients in whom the CRB-65 (mental Confusion, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure, and age ≥ 65 years) score was 1-2 and the antibiotic therapy was in accordance with the guidelines (p = 0.01). Cerebrovascular disease and appropriate antibiotic therapy showed independent associations with 30-day mortality. There was a trend toward an association between guideline-concordant antibiotic therapy and shorter hospital stay. Conclusions: In the population studied, admission and treatment criteria that were in accordance with the guidelines were associated with favorable outcomes in hospitalized patients with CAP. Cerebrovascular disease, as a risk factor, and guideline-concordant antibiotic therapy, as a protective factor, were associated with 30-day mortality.

 


Keywords: Pneumonia/therapy; Pneumonia/mortality; Hospitalization; Guideline adherence.

 

3 - Persistent pulmonary function impairment in children and adolescents with asthma

Função pulmonar persistentemente reduzida em crianças e adolescentes com asma

Fernanda Luisi, Leonardo Araujo Pinto, Laura Marostica, Marcus Herbert Jones, Renato Tetelbom Stein, Paulo Márcio Pitrez

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):158-166

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Asthma is the most common chronic pulmonary disease, characterized by bronchial inflammation. Some children with asthma have persistent pulmonary function impairment. The prevalence and etiology of this abnormality in children with asthma in developing countries remain unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the proportion of patients with impaired pulmonary function who were unresponsive to treatment in a group of children and adolescents with asthma, and to describe the phenotypic characteristics of the sample. Methods: Using a standardized questionnaire, we selected outpatients (5-17 years of age) diagnosed with persistent asthma. These patients underwent spirometry and skin prick tests for sensitivity to common aeroallergens. Persistent pulmonary function impairment was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio < 0.80, even after 10 days of treatment with bronchodilators and oral corticosteroids. We used the atopic index to differentiate between patients with little or no response to the skin prick test and those with a strong response (cut-off point: 4 allergens). Results: We included 96 patients with a mean age of 10.6 years. Of those, 52 (54.1%) were male, and 89 (92.7%) were atopic. Of the 96 patients, 8 (8.3%) had impaired pulmonary function even after the treatment. Among those patients, 8 (100%) were atopic, 7 (87.5%) had moderate or severe asthma, and 7 (87.5%) had a history of hospitalization for acute bronchiolitis. Conclusions: Children and adolescents with moderate or severe asthma can present with impaired pulmonary function and be unresponsive to treatment. This clinical situation has been little studied in developing countries, and its risk factors and etiology will be better understood only through birth cohort studies.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Respiratory function tests; Allergy and immunology.

 

4 - Bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with negative sputum smear microscopy results

Broncoscopia no diagnóstico de tuberculose pulmonar em pacientes com baciloscopia de escarro negativa

Márcia Jacomelli, Priscila Regina Alves Araújo Silva, Ascedio Jose Rodrigues, Sergio Eduardo Demarzo, Márcia Seicento, Viviane Rossi Figueiredo

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):167-173

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of bronchoscopy in patients with clinical or radiological suspicion of tuberculosis who were unable to produce sputum or with negative sputum smear microscopy results. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study involving 286 patients under clinical or radiological suspicion of having pulmonary tuberculosis and submitted to bronchoscopy-BAL and transbronchial biopsy (TBB). The BAL specimens were submitted to direct testing and culture for AFB and fungi, whereas the TBB specimens were submitted to histopathological examination. Results: Of the 286 patients studied, 225 (79%) were diagnosed on the basis of bronchoscopic findings, as follows: pulmonary tuberculosis, in 127 (44%); nonspecific chronic inflammation, in 51 (18%); pneumocystis, fungal infections, or nocardiosis, in 20 (7%); bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, alveolites, or pneumoconiosis, in 14 (5%); lung or metastatic neoplasms, in 7 (2%); and nontuberculous mycobacterium infections, in 6 (2%). For the diagnosis of tuberculosis, BAL showed a sensitivity and a specificity of 60% and 100%, respectively. Adding the TBB findings significantly increased this sensitivity (to 84%), as did adding the post-bronchoscopy sputum smear microscopy results (total sensitivity, 94%). Minor post-procedure complications occurred in 5.6% of the cases. Conclusions: Bronchoscopy is a reliable method for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, with low complication rates. The combination of TBB and BAL increases the sensitivity of the method and facilitates the differential diagnosis with other diseases.

 


Keywords: Bronchoscopy; Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Sputum; Bronchoalveolar lavage; Biopsy.

 

5 - Optical coherence tomography in conjunction with bronchoscopy

Tomografia de coerência óptica broncoscópica

Ascedio José Rodrigues, Celso Kiyochi Takimura, Pedro Alves Lemos Neto, Viviane Rossi Figueiredo

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):174-180

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of bronchoscopy in patients with clinical or radiological suspicion of tuberculosis who were unable to produce sputum or with negative sputum smear microscopy results. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study involving 286 patients under clinical or radiological suspicion of having pulmonary tuberculosis and submitted to bronchoscopy-BAL and transbronchial biopsy (TBB). The BAL specimens were submitted to direct testing and culture for AFB and fungi, whereas the TBB specimens were submitted to histopathological examination. Results: Of the 286 patients studied, 225 (79%) were diagnosed on the basis of bronchoscopic findings, as follows: pulmonary tuberculosis, in 127 (44%); nonspecific chronic inflammation, in 51 (18%); pneumocystis, fungal infections, or nocardiosis, in 20 (7%); bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, alveolites, or pneumoconiosis, in 14 (5%); lung or metastatic neoplasms, in 7 (2%); and nontuberculous mycobacterium infections, in 6 (2%). For the diagnosis of tuberculosis, BAL showed a sensitivity and a specificity of 60% and 100%, respectively. Adding the TBB findings significantly increased this sensitivity (to 84%), as did adding the post-bronchoscopy sputum smear microscopy results (total sensitivity, 94%). Minor post-procedure complications occurred in 5.6% of the cases. Conclusions: Bronchoscopy is a reliable method for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, with low complication rates. The combination of TBB and BAL increases the sensitivity of the method and facilitates the differential diagnosis with other diseases.

 


Keywords: Bronchoscopy; Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Sputum; Bronchoalveolar lavage; Biopsy.

 

6 - Differentiating between tuberculosis-related and lymphoma‑related lymphocytic pleural effusions by measuring clinical and laboratory variables: Is it possible?

É possível diferenciar derrames pleurais linfocíticos secundários a tuberculose ou linfoma através de variáveis clínicas e laboratoriais?

Leila Antonangelo, Francisco Suso Vargas, Eduardo Henrique Genofre, Caroline Maris Neves de Oliveira, Lisete Ribeiro Teixeira, Roberta Karla Barbosa de Sales

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):181-187

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe clinical and laboratory characteristics in patients with tuberculosis-related or lymphoma-related lymphocytic pleural effusions, in order to identify the variables that might contribute to differentiating between these diseases. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 159 adult HIV-negative patients with tuberculosis-related or lymphoma-related lymphocytic effusions (130 and 29 patients, respectively), treated between October of 2008 and March of 2010 at the Pleural Diseases Outpatient Clinic of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas Heart Institute, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Results: Mean age and the mean duration of symptoms were lower in the tuberculosis group than in the lymphoma group. The levels of proteins, albumin, cholesterol, amylase, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) in pleural fluid, as well as the serum levels of proteins, albumin, and amylase, were higher in the tuberculosis group, whereas serum cholesterol and triglycerides were higher in the lymphoma group. Pleural fluid leukocyte and lymphocyte counts were higher in the tuberculosis group. Of the tuberculosis group patients, none showed malignant cells; however, 4 showed atypical lymphocytes. Among the lymphoma group patients, cytology for neoplastic cells was positive, suspicious, and negative in 51.8%, 24.1%, and 24.1%, respectively. Immunophenotyping of pleural fluid was conclusive in most of the lymphoma patients. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate clinical and laboratory similarities among the patients with tuberculosis or lymphoma. Although protein and ADA levels in pleural fluid tended to be higher in the tuberculosis group than in the lymphoma group, even these variables showed an overlap. However, none of the tuberculosis group patients had pleural fluid ADA levels below the 40-U/L cut-off point.

 


Keywords: Pleural effusion; Tuberculosis; Lymphoma; Adenosine deaminase; Diagnosis, differential.

 

7 - Using the interrupter technique to evaluate airway resistance in cystic fibrosis patients

Utilização da técnica do interruptor na avaliação da resistência das vias aéreas em pacientes com fibrose cística

Alessandra Rocha, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes Donadio, Dariana Vale de Ávila, Patricia Xavier Hommerding, Paulo José Cauduro Marostica

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):188-193

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objetivo: Medir a resistência de vias aéreas utilizando a técnica de resistência do interruptor (Rint) em pacientes com fibrose cística (FC) e correlacioná-la com parâmetros espirométricos, assim como avaliar a acurácia de Rint para determinar a resposta das vias aéreas a um broncodilatador. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 38 crianças e adolescentes com FC acompanhados no Ambulatório de FC do Hospital São Lucas, em Porto Alegre (RS). Após a determinação de Rint, os pacientes foram submetidos à espirometria. Para a avaliação da resposta ao broncodilatador, as medições foram repetidas após o uso de salbutamol inalatório. Resultados: Houve uma forte correlação entre o inverso de Rint e VEF1 (r = 0,8; p < 0,001) e moderadas correlações entre o inverso de Rint e FEF25-75% (r = 0,74; p < 0,001) e entre o inverso de Rint e índice de massa corpórea (r = 0,62; p < 0,001). A curva ROC foi utilizada na comparação da resposta ao broncodilatador determinada por Rint com aquela determinada por valores espirométricos. Para um ponto de corte de −28% para Rint, a área sob a curva foi de 0,75, com uma sensibilidade de 66% e uma especificidade de 82%. Conclusões: Nossos achados indicam que Rint apresenta uma boa correlação com parâmetros espirométricos, embora a técnica Rint não tenha sido suficientemente acurada para substituir a espirometria na avaliação da resposta ao broncodilatador.

 


Keywords: Testes de função respiratória; Fibrose cística; Espirometria; Resistência das vias respiratórias.

 

8 - Using the interrupter technique to evaluate airway resistance in cystic fibrosis patients

Pletismografia respiratória por indutância: estudo comparativo entre calibração por manobra de isovolume e calibração qualitativa diagnóstica em voluntários saudáveis avaliados em diferentes posturas

Renata Cléia Claudino Barbosa, Celso Ricardo Fernandes de Carvalho, Henrique Takachi Moriya

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):194-201

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare two methods of respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) calibration in three different positions. Methods: We evaluated 28 healthy subjects (18 women and 10 men), with a mean age of 25.4 ± 3.9 years. For all of the subjects, isovolume maneuver calibration (ISOCAL) and qualitative diagnostic calibration (QDC) were used in the orthostatic, sitting, and supine positions. In order to evaluate the concordance between the two calibration methods, we used ANOVA and Bland-Altman plots. Results: The values of the constant of proportionality (K) were significantly different between ISOCAL and QDC in the three positions evaluated: 1.6 ± 0.5 vs. 2.0 ± 1.2, in the supine position, 2.5 ± 0.8 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 in the sitting position, and 2.0 ± 0.8 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 in the orthostatic position (p < 0.05 for all). Conclusions: Our results suggest that QDC is an inaccurate method for the calibration of RIP. The K values obtained with ISOCAL reveal that RIP should be calibrated for each position evaluated.

 


Keywords: Plethysmography; Respiratory mechanics; Posture; Calibration.

 

9 - Time from symptom onset to the initiation of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in a city with a high incidence of the disease

Tempo entre o início dos sintomas e o tratamento de tuberculose pulmonar em um município com elevada incidência da doença

Marina de Loureiro Maior, Renata Leborato Guerra, Michelle Cailleaux-Cezar, Jonathan Eric Golub, Marcus Barreto Conde

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):202-209

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To estimate the time elapsed between the onset of symptoms and the initiation of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis among treatment-naïve patients with positive results in sputum smear microscopy, and to evaluate the variables associated with delays in diagnosis and in treatment initiation. Methods: This was a descriptive exploratory study involving 199 treatment-naïve tuberculosis patients ≥ 12 years of age with AFB-positive sputum smear microscopy results between 2006 and 2008. At their first (treatment initiation) visit to a primary health care clinic in the city of Nova Iguaçu, Brazil, the patients were interviewed and their ancillary test results were reviewed. Results: The medians (and respective interquartile ranges) of the time from symptom onset to the initiation of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, from symptom onset to seeking medical attention, from entry into care to diagnosis, and from entry into care to treatment initiation, in weeks, were 11 (6-24), 8 (4-20), 2 (1-8), and 1 (1-1), respectively. The variables gender, age, level of education, previous use of antibiotics, HIV status, site of first medical visit, and radiological extent of tuberculosis showed no associations with the time from entry into care to diagnosis or to treatment initiation. The main reason for the delay in seeking medical attention reported by the patients was their inability to recognize their symptoms as indicators of a disease. Conclusions: Among the patients studied, there was an unacceptably long delay between the onset of symptoms and the initiation of tuberculosis treatment.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Tuberculosis/therapy; Delayed diagnosis.

 

Brief Communication

10 - Evaluation of the nitrate reductase assay for the rapid detection of resistance to first-line medications in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients in a general hospital

Avaliação do teste de nitrato redutase para a detecção rápida de resistência aos medicamentos de primeira linha em cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis isoladas de pacientes em um hospital geral

Maria de Fátima Filardi Oliveira Mansur, Wânia da Silva Carvalho, Raquel Bandeira da Silva, Rodrigo Gonçalves Cata Preta, Lucas Almeida Fernandes Junior, Silvana Spíndola de Miranda

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):210-213

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We compared the nitrate reductase assay with the proportion method, which is considered the gold standard, in 57 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients treated at the Federal University of Minas Gerais Hospital das Clínicas, located in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. For rifampin and isoniazid, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the nitrate reductase assay were all 100%, whereas they were 100%, 88.9%, and 66.7%, respectively, for streptomycin and 98.0%, 100%, and 98.2%, respectively, for ethambutol. The mean time to results was ten days. In the study sample, the nitrate reductase assay proved highly accurate and showed excellent concordance with the gold standard.

 


Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Microbial sensitivity tests; Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant; Nitrate reductase.

 

11 - A new model of a self-expanding tracheal stent made in Brazil: an experimental study in rabbits

Novo modelo de endoprótese traqueal autoexpansível de fabricação nacional: estudo experimental em coelhos

Celso Murilo Nálio Matias de Faria, Olavo Ribeiro Rodrigues, Helio Minamoto, Patricia Maluf Cury, José de Mendonça Costa Neto, Domingo Marcolino Braile

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):214-217

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We aimed to test a new model of self-expanding tracheal stent so that it might be made available for clinical use. Using direct laryngoscopy, we placed polyurethane-coated, nitinol stents into the middle third of the trachea in 25 New Zealand rabbits. After a mean observation period of 26 days, we evaluated stent migration, degree of expansion, attachment, adherence, formation of granulation tissue, presence of inflammatory infiltrate, parietal involvement, and epithelial lining. The results showed complete radial expansion, little adherence to the tracheal mucosa, and low tissue attachment, as well as high rates of granuloma formation and stent migration. This new model proved to be biocompatible and showed a behavior similar to that of other stents on the market.

 


Keywords: Prosthesis implantation; Tracheal stenosis; Rabbits; Stents.

 

Ensaio Pictórico

12 - Aspects of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and of adenocarcinoma with a bronchioloalveolar component: CT findings

Aspectos tomográficos do carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar e dos adenocarcinomas mistos com componente bronquíolo-alveolar

Pedro Paulo Teixeira e Silva Torres, Julia Capobianco, Marcelo Eustáquio Montandon Júnior, Gustavo Souza Portes Meirelles

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):218-225

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma has various presentations and a wide spectrum of imaging patterns, as does adenocarcinoma with a bronchioloalveolar component. The objective of this essay was to describe and illustrate the CT findings that are most characteristic of these tumors. Three presentations are described: solitary pulmonary nodule, consolidation, and diffuse pattern. The last two should be included in the differential diagnosis, together with infectious diseases. Knowledge of the various presentations and the use of proper diagnostic procedures are crucial to early diagnosis and to improving survival.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Adenocarcinoma, bronchiolo-alveolar; Tomography, X-ray computed.

 

Special Article

13 - Mycoplasma pneumoniae em crianças e adolescentes Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related community-acquired pneumonia and parapneumonic pleural effusion in children and adolescents

Pneumonia adquirida na comunidade e derrame pleural parapneumônico relacionados a Mycoplasma pneumoniae em crianças e adolescentes

Letícia Alves Vervloet, Vitor Earl Cardoso Vervloet, Mário Tironi Junior, José Dirceu Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):226-236

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence and the characteristics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and parapneumonic pleural effusion (PPE) in children and adolescents. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study involving 121 patients with CAP/PPE hospitalized in a tertiary referral hospital between 2000 and 2008, divided into six groups according to the etiologic agent (G1 to G6, respectively): M. pneumoniae with or without co-infection, in 44 patients (group 1); etiologic agents other than M. pneumoniae, in 77 (group 2); M. pneumoniae without co-infection, in 34 (group 3); Streptococcus pneumoniae, in 36 (group 4); Staphylococcus aureus, in 31 (group 5); and M. pneumoniae/S. pneumoniae co-infection, in 9 (group 6). Results: In comparison with group 2, group 1 showed higher frequencies of females, dry cough, and previous use of beta-lactam antibiotics; longer duration of symptoms prior to admission; and lower frequencies of use of mechanical ventilation and chest tube drainage. In comparison with groups 4 and 5, group 3 showed higher frequencies of previous use of beta-lactam antibiotics and dry cough; longer duration of symptoms prior to admission; a lower frequency of use of chest tube drainage; a higher mean age and a lower frequency of nausea/vomiting (versus group 4 only); and a lower frequency of use of mechanical ventilation (versus group 5 only). M. pneumoniae/S. pneumoniae co-infection increased the duration of symptoms prior to admission. Conclusions: In this sample, the prevalence of M. pneumoniae-related CAP/PPE was 12.75%. Although the disease was milder than that caused by other microorganisms, its course was longer. Our data suggest that M. pneumoniae-related CAP/PPE in children and adolescents should be more thoroughly investigated in Brazil.

 


Keywords: Pleural effusion; Empyema, pleural; Pneumonia; Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

 

Review Article

14 - Evaluation of the clinical utility of new diagnostic tests for tuberculosis: the role of pragmatic clinical trials

Avaliação da utilidade clínica de novos testes diagnósticos em tuberculose: o papel dos ensaios clínicos pragmáticos

Gisele Huf, Afrânio Kritski

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):237-245

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Tuberculosis is one of the major infectious diseases in developing countries, and the length of time for which the chain of transmission is maintained has been implicated as a major factor in the perpetuation of the disease. In this context, regulatory agencies in such countries have approved new diagnostic tools, which have been almost immediately incorporated into the national tuberculosis control programs. Health interventions have been increasingly investigated in clinical trials, including explanatory trials (in order to evaluate the beneficial effects of such interventions) and pragmatic trials (in order to aid in the decision-making process). We argue that the evaluation of new diagnostic techniques for the detection of tuberculosis should not escape this same logic of evaluation.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Tuberculosis/prevention & control; Controlled clinical trial as topic.

 

15 - Lung ultrasound in critically ill patients: a new diagnostic tool

Ultrassom pulmonar em pacientes críticos: uma nova ferramenta diagnóstica

Felippe Leopoldo Dexheimer Neto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Cassiano Teixeira, Flávia Gabe Beltrami

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):246-256

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The evaluation of critically ill patients using lung ultrasound, even if performed by nonspecialists, has recently garnered greater interest. Because lung ultrasound is based on the fact that every acute illness reduces lung aeration, it can provide information that complements the physical examination and clinical impression, the main advantage being that it is a bedside tool. The objective of this review was to evaluate the clinical applications of lung ultrasound by searching the PubMed and the Brazilian Virtual Library of Health databases. We used the following search terms (in Portuguese and English): ultrasound; lung; and critical care. In addition to the most relevant articles, we also reviewed specialized textbooks. The data show that lung ultrasound is useful in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates, having good accuracy in identifying consolidations and interstitial syndrome. In addition, lung ultrasound has been widely used in the evaluation and treatment of pleural effusions, as well as in the identification of pneumothorax. This technique can also be useful in the immediate evaluation of patients with dyspnea or acute respiratory failure. Other described applications include monitoring treatment response and increasing the safety of invasive procedures. Although specific criteria regarding training and certification are still lacking, lung ultrasound is a fast, inexpensive, and widely available tool. This technique should progressively come to be more widely incorporated into the care of critically ill patients.

 


Keywords: Ultrasonography; Lung; Critical care; Intensive care units.

 

Case Series

16 - Diurnal variations in the parameters of pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in patients with COPD

Variação diurna de parâmetros de função pulmonar e de força muscular respiratória em pacientes com DPOC

Guilherme Fregonezi, Vanessa Regiane Resqueti, Juliana Loprete Cury, Elaine Paulin, Antonio Fernando Brunetto (in memoriam)

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):257-263

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the magnitude of diurnal changes in the parameters of pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength/endurance in a sample of patients with COPD. Methods: A group of 7 patients underwent spirometry, together with determination of MIP and MEP, at two distinct times (between 8:00 and 8:30 a.m. and between 4:30 and 5:00 p.m.) on a single day. Between assessments, the patients remained at rest in the laboratory. Results: In accordance with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease staging system, COPD was classified as moderate, severe, and very severe in 1, 3, and 3 of the patients, respectively. From the first to the second assessment, there were significant decreases in FVC, FEV1, and MEP (of 13%, 15%, and 10%, respectively), as well as (less than significant) decreases in PEF, MIP, and maximal voluntary ventilation (of 9%, 3%, and 11%, respectively). Conclusions: In this sample of COPD patients, there were diurnal variations in the parameters of pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength. The values of FEV1, FVC, and MEP were significantly lower in the afternoon than in the morning.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Respiratory function tests; Respiratory muscles.

 

Case Report

17 - Concomitant pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis and pulmonary histoplasmosis: a rare case

Un caso excepcional de paracoccidioidomicosis e histoplasmosis pulmonares de presentación concomitante

Veronica Torres Esteche, Zaida Arteta, Gabriela Torres, Andrea Vaucher, Elbio Gezuele, Raquel Balleste

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):264-268

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The incidence of pulmonary fungal infections is very low in Uruguay, and such infections typically affect immunocompromised patients. We report the case of an immunocompetent patient presenting with a two-month history of cough, dyspnea, and fever. The patient resided in a rural area. Imaging tests revealed extensive pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. On the basis of direct mycological examination, culture, and serological testing, we made a diagnosis of concomitant histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. The patient presented arterial hypotension that was diagnostic of adrenocortical insufficiency. Although the pulmonary fibrosis and pneumonia were irreversible, the clinical condition of the patient improved after antifungal treatment. This was an exceptional case of two pulmonary fungal infections occurring simultaneously in the same patient.

 


Keywords: Paracoccidioidomycosis; Histoplasmosis; Lung diseases, fungal.

 

Letters to the Editor

18 - Liver transplantation in a patient with Niemann-Pick disease and pulmonary involvement

Transplante hepático em paciente portadora de doença de Niemann-Pick com envolvimento pulmonar

Marina Silveira Mendes, Flaviana Xavier Portela, Ricardo Coelho Reis, José Daniel Vieira de Castro, José Huygens Parente Garcia, Marcelo Alcântara Holanda

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):269-271

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19 - Expansion of a lung bulla caused by cystic adenomatoid malformation during air travel

Distensão de bolha pulmonar por malformação adenomatoide cística durante viagem aérea

Fernando Luiz Westphal, Luís Carlos de Lima, José Corrêa Lima Netto, Márcia dos Santos da Silva, Ingrid Loureiro de Queiroz Lima, Danielle Cristine Westphal

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):272-274

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20 - Mobile right heart thrombus and pulmonary thromboembolism

Trombo intracardíaco móvel e tromboembolia pulmonar

Thauana Luiza de Oliveira, Carolina Martins Vieira, Juliana Bernardes Costa, Tarciane Aline Prata, André Soares de Moura Costa, Maria do Carmo Pereira Nunes, Fernando Antônio Bottoni, Ricardo de Amorim Corrêa

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):275-278

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