Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2001 - Volume 27  - Number 1  (January/February)






Editorial

1 - Jornal de Pneumologia: agora também on-line

Thais Helena A. Thomaz Queluz

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(1):5-7

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Original Article

2 - Localized and multisegmental bronchiectasis: clinical-epidemiological profile and surgical treatment results in 67 cases

Bronquiectasia localizada e multissegmentar: perfil clínico-epidemiológico e resultado do tratamento cirúrgico em 67 casos

Antero Gomes Neto, Marcos Lima de Medeiros, José Mauro Mendes Gifoni

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(1):1-6

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Bronchiectasis is a disease which is rarely found in developed countries and has a high incidence in developing countries. In Brazil, the most frequent causes are viral or bacterial respiratory infections in childhood, and tuberculosis. Antibiotic therapy considerably reduces morbidity. However, in patients with persistent symptoms, surgical resection offers greater chances of cure or better quality of life. Objectives: Prospectively evaluate the clinical-epidemiological profile of patients with bronchiectasis as well as the results of surgical treatment in patients from two public hospitals in Fortaleza (CE), northeastern Brazil. Patients and method: Sixty-seven patients with bronchiectasis submitted to surgery between August 1989 and March 1999 were evaluated, as well as demographic data, etiology of the disease, complications, and therapeutic success rate. Results: Mean age of patients (39 females e 28 males) was 32.5 ± 14.1 years. The most frequent causes of bronchiectasis were viral or bacterial infection (44.8%) and tuberculosis (31.3%). The disease was localized in 46 patients and multisegmental in 21. In six patients it was bilateral. No surgical death occurred and postoperative complications were more frequent in patients with multisegmental bronchiectasis (9/21 versus 6/46, p = 0.011). From the 62 patients who were followed up, 49 were cured, 10 showed improvement, and 3 did not obtain any benefit. Results were excellent in 39 patients with localized bronchiectasis and in 10 patients with the multisegmental form of the disease (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Results show two distinct groups of patients: those with bronchiectasis, who presented fewer surgical complications and better postoperative results, and those with multisegmental bronchiectasis.

 


Keywords: Bronchiectasis. Epidemiological profiles. Clinical diagnosis. Treatment outcome. Surgical operative procedures.

 

3 - Metered-dose inhaler technique learning after explanation given by pulmonologist

Aprendizado do uso do inalador dosimetrado após explicação por pneumologista

Alessandra Sandrini, Andréia Jacomossi, Sonia Maria Farensin, Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes, José Roberto Jardim

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(1):7-10

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Introduction: The use of inhaled drugs through metered-dose inhaler has been advocated for years. Nonetheless, a small number of patients are routinely treated by this technique. Prescriptions of inhaled drugs by healthcare providers are not frequent, usually because they anticipate patients will not be able to perform the technique correctly. In addition, healthcare providers do not usually take their time to appropriately teach patients how to use metered-dose inhalers correctly. Objective: To evaluate the percentage of uninstructed patients that learn how to use a metered-dose inhaler correctly after being taught by a pneumologist. Patients and methods: One hundred and nineteen patients from a private clinic were prospectively studied in São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Patients were exhaustively taught how to use the metered-dose inhaler at the first consultation and were told to return after 10 days, when they were asked to perform the technique exactly the way they were doing it at home. Their performance was classified as correct, slightly incorrect, intermediately incorrect, and totally incorrect. Results: Twenty-six patients were excluded for not coming to the second appointment. The final sample comprised 93 patients. Age ranged from 9 to 81 years (mean age 42.6 ± 21); 59.2% of the patients were male and 40.8% female. Considering all patients, only 16.25 of them used the metered-dose inhaler totally incorrectly and 19.3% performed the technique intermediately incorrectly. The most frequent mistakes were: metered-dose inhaler device was placed inside the mouth; inspiration before jet was activated; fast aspiration; inspiration through the nose. Thirty-three percent of patients who were under 15 and over 75 years performed the technique correctly. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that the majority of the patients learned how to use the metered-dose inhaler correctly after being properly and extensively taught.

 


Keywords: Nebulizers and vaporizers. Inhalation administration. Learning.

 

4 - Clinical presentation of cow milk allergy symptoms

Apresentação clínica da alergia ao leite de vaca com sintomatologia respiratória

Fábio Ferreira de Carvalho Junior

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(1):17-24

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Cow milk allergens are the first antigens children have contact with. The symptoms, which are frequently multi-systemic, may be related to the gastrointestinal tract, to the skin and, more rarely, to the respiratory tract. Objective: To describe some clinic and epidemiological characteristics of children who have cow milk allergy and present respiratory symptoms. Patients and method: This retrospective study included 17 children who presented respiratory problems immediately after ingesting cow milk, showed no symptoms as cow milk was excluded from their diets for a period of 4 to 6 weeks, and presented recurrent symptoms as cow milk was reintroduced into their diet in a hospital environment. Results: No difference was observed between genders. Family atopic antecedents were present in 14 of the 17 children. Mean exclusive breast-feeding period was 2.9 months and the onset of symptoms occurred at an average of 3.6 months. Eight of the ten tests conducted to evaluate immediate cutaneous hypersensitivity to cow milk were positive. Clinical manifestations observed were: wheezing infants (9), asthma (5), repetition otitis (2), selective IgA deficiency related to wheezing and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (1). Conclusion: Regarding wheezing infants, cow milk allergy should be included as a differential diagnosis and exclusive breast-feeding should be stimulated in cases of atopic family antecedents. However, a precise diagnosis is vital to prevent unnecessary food deprivation.

 


Keywords: Milk hipersensitivity. Milk substitutes. Respiratory signs and symptoms. Respiratory diseases.

 

5 - usceptibility to respiratory tract isolated bacteria to antimicrobial agents in patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections: 1997 and 1998 Brazilian data of the SENTRY surveillance program of resistance to antimicrobial agents

Sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de bactérias isoladas do trato respiratório de pacientes com infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade: resultados brasileiros do Programa SENTRY de Vigilância de Resistência a Antimicrobianos dos anos de 1997 e 1

Hélio S. Sader, Ana C. Gales, Adriana O. Reis, Cassia Zoccoli, Jorge Sampaio, Ronald N. Jones

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(1):25-34

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: Antimicrobial treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTI) is usually empiric and antibiotics are chosen on the basis of surveillance studies. The SENTRY Program was designed to monitor antimicrobial resistance via a worldwide surveillance network of sentinel laboratories. Three sites in Brazil participated in the 1997 and 1998 SENTRY Program. Methods: A total of 344 bacterial isolates, collected from patients with CARTI in 1997 and 1998, were tested against more than 20 antimicrobial agents by the broth microdilution method. Results: Among S. pneumoniae (176 isolates), 71.6% were susceptible to penicillin. High level resistance to penicillin and resistance to cefotaxime was found in 2.3 and 4.0%, respectively. The newer quinolones, levofloxacin, (MIC90 of 2 mg/mL) and gatifloxacin (MIC90 of 0.5 mg/mL) were active against 100% of the isolates tested. Among the other non-b-lactam drugs tested, the rank order of pneumococci activity was (% susceptible): chloramphenicol (97.5%) > clindamycin (94.0%) > azithromycin (90.3%) > clarithromycin (89.4%) > tetracycline (76.4%) > trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (60.2%). The percentage of Haemophilus influenzae (101 isolates) susceptible to amoxicillin was 90.1%, whereas among Moraxella catarrhalis (67 isolates) only 9.0% were susceptible. Clavulanic acid restored the activity of amoxicillin against both H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. However, H. influenzae showed increased levels of resistance to trimethoprim/sulfametoxazole (55.1% susceptibility), clarithromycin (80.4% susceptibility), and cefaclor (88.2%) susceptibility). All H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates were susceptible to levofloxacin (MIC90, < 0.5 mg/mL for both) and gatifloxacin (MIC90, < 0.06 mg/mL for both) with very low MICs. Conclusion: Results indicate that the rate of S. pneumoniae showing high-level penicillin resistance is still low in Brazil. However, intermediate resistance to penicillin associated with resistance to other classes of antimicrobial agents was relatively high. On the other hand, the new quinolones were highly active against 100% of the respiratory pathogens tested.

 


Keywords: Respiratory tract infections. Bacterial pneumonia. Microbial drug resistance. Program evaluation. Microbial sensibility tests.

 

6 - Spirometric response to bronchodilators: which parameters and values are clinically relevant in obstructive diseases?

Resposta a broncodilatador na espirometria: que parâmetros e valores são clinicamente relevantes em doenças obstrutivas?

Roberto Rodrigues Jr., Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(1):35-47

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

In lung function laboratories, statistical responses after bronchodilators (Bd) administration are widely used in patients with airflow limitation. However, their clinical relevance is debatable. Objective: To determine which spirometric parameters best reflect improvement in both exercise tolerance and exertional dyspnea in response to bronchodilators in obstructive lung diseases. Methods: Fifty patients with persistent asthma and/or COPD (FEV1/FVC = 41 ± 11%) were submitted to slow and forced vital capacity testing, MVV and a six-minute walking test (6 MW) following practice, before and after a 400 mg dose of salbutamol was given by MDI. Responses to Bd were expressed in absolute values and considered as increments to the initial values and predicted values. Responses to Bd were considered clinically significant if distance was longer than 30 m in the 6 MW test and/or if there was a 2-point decrease in the Borg scale in the walking distance. Results: 32 patients were responsive (R) to Bd and 18 were non-responsive (NR). As DMW correlated with age, (rs = -0.38 - p < 0.01) an analysis on spirometric data, including age as covariant, was performed and expressed as x ± SE. No difference in FEV1 was observed between the groups (R = 255 ± 57 ml; NR = 256 ± 43 ml). The same occurred regarding MVV (R = 11± 2 L/min; NR = 10 ± 2 L/min.). The best separation (p < 0.01) was given by changes in inspiration capacity (IC) followed by changes in slow vital capacity (SVC): IC% of initial R = 23 ± 3% and NR = 3 ± 4%; absolute IC = 411 ± 58 ml and NR = 163 ± 77 ml; predicted IC%: R = 19 ± 3% and NR = 3 ± 4%. For SVC, the values were: % initial - R = 18 ± 2% and NR = 9 ± 3%; absolute changes - R = 448 ± 52 ml and NR = 256 ± 70 ml. Increases in IC > 15% of the initial values and 0.3 L and increases in SVS > 15% of the initial values and 0.4 L determined responsive patients with positive predicted values as approximately 90%. Conclusion: Variations in FEV1, FVC and MVV do not predict improvement in exercise capacity after Bd. This is best reflected by 15% of increases in IC and/or in the SVC initial values.

 


Keywords: Obstructive lung diseases. Spirometry. Predictive value of tests. Bronchodilator agents. Exercise tolerance. Dyspnea.

 

Case Report

7 - Hypersensitivity pneumonitis to tobacco

Pneumonite de hipersensibilidade ao tabaco

Sílvia E.C. Macedo, Elicarlos Zago, Vítor F. Torres, Fabiano Bergamaschi

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(1):48-51

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) derives from the inhalation of organic and/or inorganic antigens by susceptible individuals. The authors report the case of an eighteen-year-old female, who worked as a tobacco planter in Pelotas, southern Brazil. She had been presenting progressive dyspnea, dry cough, and weight loss for 35 days. She had fine thoracic crepitations and X-ray examination revealed diffuse interstitial infiltration. The diagnosis of HP was determined by her history of exposure to tobacco, tomographic findings and anatomopathologic examination of the lung, obtained by open biopsy. Tobacco antigens were found to be the cause. As patient was treated with prednisone and tobacco exposure was discontinued, a good clinic and functional response was observed.

 


Keywords: Therapeutics. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Tobacco. Diagnosis.

 

8 - Hepatopulmonary syndrome in a patient with AIDS and virus C cirrhosis (viral cirrhosis type C)

Síndrome hepatopulmonar em paciente com cirrose por vírus C e SIDA

Maria Angélica Pires Ferreira, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Marli Maria Knorst

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(1):52-55

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Hepatopulmonary syndrome is characterized by a triad consisting of liver disorder, pulmonary vascular dilatation, and hypoxemia. No case of hepatopulmonary syndrome associated with AIDS has been reported so far. In this study, the authors report the case of a 43-year woman with AIDS and virus C cirrhosis taking prophylactic cotrimoxazole for pneumocystosis and retroviral therapy. Upon admission, the patient presented dyspnea, cyanosis, digital clubbing, vascular spiders, and normal chest examination. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral interstitial infiltration and evidenced increased alveolar-arterial gradient and liver function impairment. Intrapulmonary shunt was evidenced by contrast-enhanced echocardiography and radionuclide perfusion scanning, thus confirming hepatopulmonary syndrome.

 


Keywords: Hepatopulmonary syndrome. Acquired human immunodeficiency syndrome. Human viral hepatitis. Anoxemia. Liver cirrhosis.

 

Letters to the Editor

9 - Manoel de Abreu

Rubens Bedrikow

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(1):56-58

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