Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2002 - Volume 28  - Number 4  (July/August)






Original Article

1 - Pulmonary sequestration: a series of nine cases operated on

Seqüestro pulmonar: uma série de nove casos operados

Paulo M. Pêgo-Fernandes, Cibele Hasmann Freire, Fabio Biscegli Jatene, Ricardo Beyruti, Francisco Vargas Suso, Sérgio Almeida de Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):175-179

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: Pulmonary sequestration is a congenital anomaly involving the pulmonary parenchyma and its vascularization, and it presents as extralobar or intralobar. Aim: Describe the cases treated at the Institute of Heart (InCor) and Clinical Hospital of the Medical School of the University of São Paulo (FMUSP). Method: Retrospective analyses of the files of the patients treated over the 10-year period taking demographic, clinical and laboratorial data. Results: The patients were recurrent pulmonary infection and hemoptysis were frequent clinical findings in these patients. All cases were intralobar. The main localization was the left lower lobe (66%). Only one diagnosis was made intra-operatively. In the other eight cases, diagnosis was suggested on chest radiographs (100%) and confirmed by angiography (77%) and computed tomography (66%). Lobectomy (77%) was the most common surgical treatment, with low post-operative morbidity, and no mortality. Anatomic and histologic examination was performed in seven cases and confirmed the pathology. Conclusion: Pulmonary sequestration is an uncommon entity, in which the computed tomography and the angiography are the radiological investigations that provide the most information to a definitive and secure diagnosis. Resection of the involved tissue leads to excellent results.

 


2 - Analysis of the use of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire as an instrument to measure nicotine dependence

Análise da utilização do Questionário de Tolerância de Fagerström (QTF) como instrumento de medida da dependência nicotínica

Luis Suárez Halty, Maura Dumont Hüttner, Isabel Cristina de Oliveira Netto, Valéria A. dos Santos, Grasiele Martins

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):180-186

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Introduction: The University Hospital is reference in the city of Rio Grande, in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southeast part of Brazil, for chronic lung disease patients, with a major smoking cessation program. Aim: The purpose of this work was to analyze the utilization of Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire to assess the nicotine dependence of smoking patients with reference to individualization of treatment. Material and Method: The authors used the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (FTQ) in daily smoking adult patients from the Medical Clinic and Chest Medicine Units of the University Hospital and Rio Grande Santa Casa Hospital, during the period of one year. Three hundred and one valid questionnaires were filled out, 40.5% by females and 59.5% by males. Mean age was 48.6 years. The score of the questionnaires classified patients by dependence into five degrees: very low, low, medium, high, and very high. Results: 54.9% belong to the group of high nicotine dependence (score ³ 6), with a significant correlation of elevated nicotine dependence and cigarettes per day or time to the first cigarette of the day (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The use of the FTQ demonstrated ease of administration and more than 50% of the patients with a degree of chemical dependence that anticipate discomfort at cessation of smoking and need of treatment to control the withdrawal symptoms.

 


3 - Results of tuberculosis treatment with streptomycin, isoniazid, and ethambutol (scheme SHM)

Resultado do tratamento da tuberculose com estreptomicina, isoniazida e etambutol (esquema SHM)

Pedro Dornelles Picon, Maria de Lourdes Della Giustina, Carlos Fernando Carvalho Rizzon, Sérgio Luiz Bassanesi, Ana Paula Zanardo, Matheus Truccolo Michalczuk, Letícia Rebolho Dei Ricardi

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):187-192

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Aim: To evaluate the performance of an SHM scheme (streptomycin, isoniazid, and ethambutol) in an outpatient clinic routine treatment for tuberculosis. Method: Seventy-eight patients with tuberculosis whose prior treatment with the RHZ scheme (six months of rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide) had to be discontinued due to adverse effects, or who could not receive the RHZ scheme due to high risk for liver toxicity, were treated in the outpatient clinic with the 12 month SHM scheme from 1986 to 1994, in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Results: Three patients (3.8%) required a scheme change due to toxicity. In the remaining 75 patients, 58 (77.3%) were cured, eight (10.7%) withdrew, five (6.7%) presented failure, and four (5.3%) died. Theoretical cure rate, which is the percent of cure of patients who regularly followed the treatment, was 95.3%. Adverse reactions were seen in 32 patients (41%), the most frequent being vestibular damage in 18 patients (23.1%). Results were compared to those obtained in the same outpatient clinic with the 12 month RHM scheme (rifampicin, isoniazid, and ethambutol), and with the six month RHZ scheme. Conclusion: The SHM scheme may be recommended as an alternative for the treatment of tuberculosis whenever the RHZ scheme cannot be indicated.

 


4 - Education of the asthmatic patient: the nursing approach

Educação de pacientes com asma: atuação do enfermeiro

Ana Rita de Cássia Bettencourt, Maria Alenita de Oliveira, Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes, Miguel Bogossian

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):193-200

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: Asthma education programs induce better asthma control and are one of main recommendations in guidelines. The programs recommendations should include a nurse in the educational team applying the structured program. The purpose of the intervention is to bring a change in the daily life of the patient and the family in order to improve disease control and quality of life. Aim: To standardize and apply a structured post-consultation model as part of multidisciplinary care in an educational program for asthmatic patients seen at the outpatient clinic of a public hospital, and to monitor the changes in asthma knowledge and quality of life. Methods: A longitudinal prospective study over six months with regular visits at four week intervals (total = 6 visits), conducted at the outpatient department of Unifesp/EPM/HSP, and the patients were included after signing a consent form. The asthma structured educational plan was conducted by a multidisciplinary team and addressed the following issues: what is asthma, relief and prevention medicines, daily report of symptoms and dyspnea score, training of the correct use of inhaled medication, discussion and actions regarding triggering factors and how to avoid them, and tips to recognize the signals of uncontrolled asthma. A standard questionnaire about general knowledge on asthma and a quality of life questionnaire were applied at the beginning, during the course, and at the end of the program. Results: 26 asthmatics were followed over six months and showed a statistically significant improvement in their identification and management of asthma skills as well as better quality of life indices. Conclusion: The model of care and the approach and training techniques were adequate and useful in the development of a structured educational program for socially deprived patients.

 


Review Article

5 - Minimum requirements for the anatomopathological report in lung cancer: justifications in the pathogenesis

Requisitos mínimos para o laudo de anatomia patológica em câncer de pulmão: justificativas na patogênese

Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Alexandre Muxfeldt Ab'Saber, Alecsander Guillamon Pereira da Silva, Célia Petrossi Gallo, Fernando Brandão

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):201-218

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

The lung is source to a large number of cytological and histologic specimens. Pathologists should diagnose these specimens and then participate in the clinical and pathologic staging of the tumor. The first priority of pathologists when evaluating a lung tumor with specific histologic diagnosis can usually be accomplished with routine cytological or histologic preparations. These may be supplemented as necessary with ancillary histochemical or immunohistochemical studies. If adequate diagnostic tissue is available, special studies such as electron microscopy, frozen section immunostaining, cytogenetics, and molecular studies can be performed. In the case of small specimens, all tissue should be routinely processed; if a diagnosis cannot be rendered, subsequent biopsies can be prospectively triaged for the necessary and appropriate special studies. This is typical in cases of malignant lymphoma, in which biopsy specimens may be too small for definitive diagnosis without the aid of immunophenotype studies. The pathologic staging of a primary lung tumor is contingent on appropriate gross and microscopic examination of resection specimens. Standardized and unified staging schemes are necessary for comparative and collaborative studies of lung tumors. The following approach can be applied to segmentectomy, lobectomy, pneumectomy, en bloc resections, and tracheal or bronchial sleeve resections.

 


6 - Diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

Diagnóstico e estadiamento do câncer de pulmão

Angelo Fernandez, Fabio B. Jatene, Mauro Zamboni

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):219-228

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Carcinoma of the lung can present in a number of guises and a number of possible and often complementary diagnostic approaches are available. The choice of procedure should reflect the presentation of the tumor, local expertise, intended management and patient preference. There are different methods of investigation: sputum cytology, fiberbronchoscopy, transbronchial biopsy, transbronchial needle aspiration, transthoracic fine needle aspiration, etc. The association of all of these methods increases the power of diagnosis. Staging is the measurement of the anatomical extent of a tumor in any given patient. The staging of cancer began with Denoix's TNM classification system, and, although several modifications were developed, it remains the basis of lung cancer staging systems up to now. Assigning patients to a particular TNM stage allows choosing the most appropriate therapy and provides prognostic information. Also, the impact of new therapeutic methods can be evaluated for efficacy and a comparison of the expected survival rates can be predicted.

 


Case Report

7 - Leptospiral pneumonia

Pneumonia por leptospirose

Maura Dumont Hüttner, Hugo Cataud Pacheco Pereira, Rosimeire Mitsuko Tanaka

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):229-232

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Leptospirosis is an infectious disease characterized by multisystemic involvement. The lung involvement is common, usually mild and frequently neglected. When respiratory manifestations are prominent in a patient with leptospirosis, there is the potential for diagnostic confusion. The authors report a severe case of leptospiral pneumonia, with the objective of highlighting this etiological possibility of community pneumonia, especially when there is suspicion of epidemic features.

 


8 - Lung cancer in workers exposed to silica

Câncer de pulmão em trabalhadores expostos à sílica

Ana Paula Scalia Carneiro, Max Anderson Morales dos Santos, Plínio Vasconcelos Maia, Sandhi Maria Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):233-236

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Silica is one of the main occupational agents associated with lung cancer. It is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 substance, i.e., carcinogenic for humans, since 1996. The objective of this paper is to report two cases of workers previously exposed to silica who developed lung cancer, seen in an out-patient clinic, focusing on important points of the current literature on the subject.

 


9 - Acute chest syndrome as the first manifestation of sickle cell disease in a middle aged adult

Síndrome aguda do tórax como primeira manifestação de anemia falciforme em adulto

Hugo Hyung Bok Yoo, Nilva Regina Pelegrino, Ana Lúcia Oliveira de Carlos, Irma de Godoy, Thais Thomaz Queluz

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):237-240

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Acute chest syndrome is an affection, specially in young adults, of sickle cell disease and is responsible for 25% of the deaths. The authors report the case of an alcoholic 45-year-old mulatto man, without any previous manifestation of sickle cell disease, who presented with a pneumonia-like clinical picture with seven days of duration. The chest X-ray revealed bilateral lung infiltrates and spots of consolidation with air bronchograms, and left pleural effusion. The patient also had anemia and leukocytosis with neutrophilia. Treated with cefoxitin and amicacin, the patient developed acute respiratory insufficiency and died 14 hours after hospitalization. The necropsy showed lungs with intense congestion, intra-alveolar hemorrhage, diffuse alveolar damage, and sickle red blood cells. The progressive, fast, and severe character of the acute chest syndrome, which is frequently mimicked by other illnesses, makes the disease a dramatic and severe event of difficult earlier diagnosis. Therefore, in countries like Brazil, with a large black population, the physicians must always be aware of this possibility.

 


10 - Toxoplasmosis with pulmonary collapse

Toxoplasmose com comprometimento pulmonar

Claudio Luiz Viegas, Andrea M. Santos, André Camurça de Almeida, Arivaldo Araújo Teixeira, Melanio de Paula Barbosa

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):241-243

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

The authors describe a case of pulmonary collapse by T. gondii, in a 57 year-old man. Diagnosis was made by serology after an exhaustive clinical radiological evaluation. The clinical variants of polymiositis and of the respiratory system collapse presented by the patient are discussed considering the small number of references to this entity in the Brazilian medical literature.

 


Letters to the Editor

11 - Mortalidade por asma no município de Curitiba e no Estado do Paraná

Sônia Zulato, Denise Carvalho, Nelson A. Rosário

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):244-

PDF PT


 


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