Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2012 - Volume 38  - Number 4  (July/August)

Original Article

3 - Impact of bacteremia in a cohort of patients with pneumococcal pneumonia

Impacto de la bacteriemia en una cohorte de pacientes con neumonía neumocócica

Ileana Palma, Ricardo Mosquera, Carmen Demier, Carlos Vay, Angela Famiglietti, Carlos Luna

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):422-430

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Bacteremia is the most common presentation of invasive disease in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. We investigated whether bacteremia in pneumococcal CAP worsens outcomes and whether it is related to pneumococcal vaccination (PV). Methods: Secondary analysis of a cohort of patients with pneumococcal CAP confirmed by blood culture, sputum culture, or urinary antigen testing. Demographic, clinical, radiographic, and biochemical data were collected, as were Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and pneumonia severity index (PSI) scores, comorbidities, and PV history. We drew comparisons between patients with bacteremic pneumococcal CAP (BPP) and those with non-bacteremic pneumococcal CAP (NBPP). Results: Forty-seven patients had BPP, and 71 had NBPP (confirmed by sputum culture in 45 and by urinary antigen testing in 26); 107 had some indication for PV. None of the BPP patients had received PV, compared with 9 of the NBPP patients (p = 0.043). Among the BPP patients, the mean age was higher (76.4 ± 11.5 vs. 67.5 ± 20.9 years), as were APACHE II and PSI scores (16.4 ± 4.6 vs. 14.1 ± 6.5 and 129.5 ± 36 vs. 105.2 ± 45, respectively), as well as the rate of ICU admission for cardiopathy or chronic renal failure (42.5% vs. 22.5%), whereas hematocrit and plasma sodium levels were lower (35.7 ± 5.8 vs. 38.6 ± 6.7% and 133.9 ± 6.0 vs. 137.1 ± 5.5 mEq/L, respectively), although mortality was similar (29.8% vs 28.2%). Conclusions: In this population at high risk for CAP due to S. pneumoniae, the PV rate was extremely low (8.4%). Although BPP patients were more severely ill, mortality was similar between the two groups. Because PV reduces the incidence of BPP, the vaccination rate in at-risk populations should be increased.


Keywords: Pneumococcal vaccines; Pneumonia, bacterial; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Pneumococcal infections; Mortality; Epidemiology.


4 - Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose, single-capsule budesonide-formoterol combination in uncontrolled asthma: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, controlled clinical trial

Avaliação da eficácia e segurança da associação de budesonida e formoterol em dose fixa e cápsula única no tratamento de asma não controlada: ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, multicêntrico e controlado

Roberto Stirbulov, Carlos Cezar Fritscher, Emilio Pizzichini, Márcia Margaret Menezes Pizzichini

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):431-437

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose, single-capsule budesonide-formoterol combination, in comparison with budesonide alone, in patients with uncontrolled asthma. Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, phase III, parallel clinical trial, comparing the short-term efficacy and safety of the combination of budesonide (400 μg) and formoterol (12 μg), with those of budesonide alone (400 μg), both delivered via a dry powder inhaler, in 181 patients with uncontrolled asthma. The age of the patients ranged from 18 to 77 years. After a run-in period of 4 weeks, during which all of the patients received budesonide twice a day, they were randomized into one of the treatment groups. The treatment consisted of the administration of the medications twice a day for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures were FEV1, FVC, and morning PEF. We performed an intention-to-treat analysis of the data. Results: In comparison with the budesonide-only group patients, those treated with the budesonide-formoterol combination showed a significant improvement in FEV1 (0.12 L vs. 0.02 L; p  =   0.0129) and morning PEF (30.2 L/min vs. 6.3 L/min; p  = 0.0004). These effects were accompanied by good tolerability and safety, as demonstrated by the low frequency of adverse events, only minor adverse events having occurred. Conclusions: The single-capsule combination of budesonide-formoterol appears to be efficacious and safe. Our results indicate that this formulation is a valid therapeutic option for obtaining and maintaining asthma control. ( Identifier: NCT01676987 [])


Keywords: Asthma; Budesonide; Adrenergic beta-2 receptor agonists.


5 - Children and adolescents with mild intermittent or mild persistent asthma: aerobic capacity between attacks

Capacidade aeróbica em crianças e adolescentes com asma intermitente e persistente leve no período intercrises

Eliane Zenir Corrêa de Moraes, Maria Elaine Trevisan, Sérgio de Vasconcellos Baldisserotto, Luiz Osório Cruz Portela

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):438-444

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess children and adolescents diagnosed with mild intermittent or mild persistent asthma, in terms of their aerobic capacity between attacks. Methods: We included 33 children and adolescents recently diagnosed with asthma (mild intermittent or mild persistent) and 36 healthy children and adolescents. Those with asthma were evaluated between attacks. All participants underwent clinical evaluation; assessment of baseline physical activity level; pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry; and a maximal exercise test, including determination of maximal voluntary ventilation, maximal oxygen uptake, respiratory quotient, maximal minute ventilation, ventilatory equivalent, ventilatory reserve, maximal HR, SpO2, and serum lactate. Results: No significant differences were found among the groups (intermittent asthma, persistent asthma, and control) regarding anthropometric or spirometric variables. There were no significant differences among the groups regarding the variables studied during the maximal exercise test. Conclusions: A diagnosis of mild intermittent/persistent asthma has no effect on the aerobic capacity of children and adolescents between asthma attacks.


Keywords: : Asthma; Exercise; Respiratory function tests.


6 - Fiberoptic bronchoscopy findings in patients diagnosed with lung cancer

Achados de fibrobroncoscopia em pacientes com diagnóstico de neoplasia pulmonar

Marcelo Fouad Rabahi, Andréia Alves Ferreira, Bruno Pereira Reciputti, Thalita de Oliveira Matos, Sebastião Alves Pinto

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):445-451

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compile fiberoptic bronchoscopy findings in patients diagnosed with lung cancer and to correlate those with histopathological findings. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 212 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of lung cancer by cytological evaluation of BAL specimens or by histopathological evaluation of endobronchial or transbronchial biopsy specimens. The data were collected at the Respiratory Endoscopy Section of Hospital São Salvador, located in the city of Goiânia, Brazil, between 2005 and 2010. The endoscopic findings were classified as endoscopically visible tumor, endoscopically invisible tumor, and mucosal injury, as well as being classified by the presence/type of secretion. The visible tumors were also classified according to their location in the tracheobronchial tree. Results: Endobronchial mass (64%) and mucosal infiltration (35%) were the main endoscopic findings. The histological type was determined in 199 cases, the most prevalent types being squamous carcinoma, in 78 (39%), adenocarcinoma, in 42 (21%), small cell carcinoma, in 24 (12%), and large cell carcinoma, in 2 (1%). More than 45% of the visible tumors were at the upper bronchi. Squamous carcinoma (n = 78) was most commonly visualized as an endobronchial mass (in 74%), mucosal infiltration (in 36%), luminal narrowing (in 10%), or external compression (in 6%). Conclusions: Our results show that an endobronchial mass is the most common bronchoscopic finding that is suggestive of malignancy. Proportionally, mucosal infiltration is the most common finding in small cell carcinoma. In adenocarcinoma, luminal narrowing, external compression, mucosal injury, and endobronchial secretion prevail.


Keywords: Lung neoplasms/diagnosis; Lung neoplasms/classification; Bronchoscopy.


7 - Comparison of two experimental models of pulmonary hypertension

Comparação de dois modelos experimentais de hipertensão pulmonar

Igor Bastos Polônio, Milena Marques Pagliarelli Acencio, Rogério Pazetti, Francine Maria de Almeida, Mauro Canzian, Bárbara Soares da Silva, Karina Aparecida Bonifácio Pereira, Rogério de Souza

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):452-460

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare two models of pulmonary hypertension (monocrotaline and monocrotaline+pneumonectomy) regarding hemodynamic severity, structure of pulmonary arteries, inflammatory markers (IL-1 and PDGF), and 45-day survival. Methods: We used 80 Sprague-Dawley rats in two study protocols: structural analysis; and survival analysis. The rats were divided into four groups: control; monocrotaline (M), pneumonectomy (P), and monocrotaline+pneumonectomy (M+P). In the structural analysis protocol, 40 rats (10/group) were catheterized for the determination of hemodynamic variables, followed by euthanasia for the removal of heart and lung tissue. The right ventricle (RV) was dissected from the interventricular septum (IS), and the ratio between RV weight and the weight of the left ventricle (LV) plus IS (RV/LV+IS) was taken as the index of RV hypertrophy. In lung tissues, we performed histological analyses, as well as using ELISA to determine IL-1 and PDGF levels. In the survival protocol, 40 animals (10/group) were followed for 45 days. Results: The M and M+P rats developed pulmonary hypertension, whereas the control and P rats did not. The RV/LV+IS ratio was significantly higher in M+P rats than in M rats, as well as being significantly higher in M and M+P rats than in control and P rats. There were no significant differences between the M and M+P rats regarding the area of the medial layer of the pulmonary arteries; IL-1 and PDGF levels; or survival. Conclusions: On the basis of our results, we cannot conclude that the monocrotaline+pneumonectomy model is superior to the monocrotaline model.


Keywords: Monocrotaline; Hypertension, pulmonary; Pneumonectomy; Interleukin-1; Receptor, platelet-derived growth factor beta.


8 - An experimental rat model of ex vivo lung perfusion for the assessment of lungs regarding histopathological findings and apoptosis: low-potassium dextran vs. histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate

Modelo experimental de perfusão pulmonar ex vivo em ratos: avaliação histopatológica e de apoptose celular em pulmões preservados com solução de baixo potássio dextrana vs. solução histidina-triptofano-cetoglutarato

Edson Azevedo Simões, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Mauro Canzian, Rogério Pazetti, Karina Andriguetti de Oliveira Braga, Natalia Aparecida Nepomuceno, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):461-469

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare histopathological findings and the degree of apoptosis among rat lungs preserved with low-potassium dextran (LPD) solution, histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution, or normal saline (NS) at two ischemia periods (6 h and 12 h) using an experimental rat model of ex vivo lung perfusion. Methods: Sixty Wistar rats were anesthetized, randomized, and submitted to antegrade perfusion via pulmonary artery with one of the preservation solutions. Following en bloc extraction, the heart-lung blocks were preserved for 6 h or 12 h at 4°C and then reperfused with homologous blood for 60 min in an ex vivo lung perfusion system. At the end of the reperfusion, fragments of the middle lobe were extracted and processed for histopathological examination. The parameters evaluated were congestion, alveolar edema, alveolar hemorrhage, inflammatory infiltrate, and interstitial infiltrate. The degree of apoptosis was assessed using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. Results: The histopathological examination showed that all of the lungs preserved with NS presented alveolar edema after 12 h of ischemia. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups in terms of the degree of apoptosis. Conclusions: In this study, the histopathological and apoptosis findings were similar with the use of either LPD or HTK solutions, whereas the occurrence of edema was significantly more common with the use of NS.


Keywords: : Organ preservation; Organ preservation solutions; Lung transplantation; Reperfusion injury; Apoptosis.


9 - Anthropometric and dietary intake indicators as predictors of pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis patients

Indicadores antropométricos e de ingestão alimentar como preditores da função pulmonar em pacientes com fibrose cística

Gabriele Carra Forte, Juliane Silva Pereira, Michele Drehmer, Miriam Isabel Souza dos Santos Simon

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):470-476

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate whether anthropometric and dietary intake indicators are predictors of pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 69 patients (age range, 5.4-16.5 years) diagnosed with CF under follow-up at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, located in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Anthropometric assessment was based on body mass index (BMI), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), and triceps skinfold thickness (TST). Dietary intake was assessed by using recall data, which were compared with the recommended dietary allowances. Pulmonary function was assessed by ventilatory capacity, expressed as FEV1. Prevalence ratios for the outcome studied (FEV1 < 80% of predicted) were calculated by indicator. Results: In patients with MAMC and TST below the 25th percentile, the prevalence of FEV1 < 80% of predicted was significantly higher than in those with higher MAMC and TST (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). In comparison with other patients, those with a BMI below the 50th percentile showed a 4.43 times higher prevalence of FEV1 < 80% of predicted (95% CI: 1.58-12.41), and that prevalence was 2.54 times higher in those colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) than in those not so colonized (95% CI: 1.43-4.53). The association between dietary intake and the prevalence of FEV1 < 80% of predicted was of only borderline significance (95% CI: 0.95-3.45). Conclusions: Not being colonized with MRSA and having a BMI above the 50th percentile appear to preserve pulmonary function in CF patients.


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Respiratory function tests; Nutrition assessment; Energy intake.


10 - Manual hyperinflation combined with expiratory rib cage compression for reduction of length of ICU stay in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation

Hiperinsuflação manual combinada com compressão torácica expiratória para redução do período de internação em UTI em pacientes críticos sob ventilação mecânica

Juliana Savini Wey Berti, Elisiane Tonon, Carlos Fernando Ronchi, Heloisa Wey Berti, Laércio Martins de Stefano, Ana Lúcia Gut, Carlos Roberto Padovani, Ana Lucia Anjos Ferreira

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):477-486

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Although manual hyperinflation (MH) is widely used for pulmonary secretion clearance, there is no evidence to support its routine use in clinical practice. Our objective was to evaluate the effect that MH combined with expiratory rib cage compression (ERCC) has on the length of ICU stay and duration of mechanical ventilation (MV). Methods: This was a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial involving ICU patients on MV at a tertiary care teaching hospital between January of 2004 and January of 2005. Among the 49 patients who met the study criteria, 24 and 25 were randomly assigned to the respiratory physiotherapy (RP) and control groups, respectively. Of those same patients, 6 and 8, respectively, were later withdrawn from the study. During the 5-day observation period, the RP patients received MH combined with ERCC, whereas the control patients received standard nursing care. Results: The two groups were similar in terms of the baseline characteristics. The intervention had a positive effect on the duration of MV, as well as on the ICU discharge rate and Murray score. There were significant differences between the control and RP groups regarding the weaning success rate on days 2 (0.0% vs. 37.5%), 3 (0.0% vs. 37.5%), 4 (5.3% vs. 37.5%), and 5 (15.9% vs. 37.5%), as well as regarding the ICU discharge rate on days 3 (0% vs. 25%), 4 (0% vs. 31%), and 5 (0% vs. 31%). In the RP group, there was a significant improvement in the Murray score on day 5. Conclusions: Our results show that the use of MH combined with ERCC for 5 days accelerated the weaning process and ICU discharge.


Keywords: Physical therapy modalities; Ventilator weaning; Length of stay.


11 - Clinical and pathological factors influencing the survival of breast cancer patients with malignant pleural effusion

Fatores clínicos e anatomopatológicos que influenciam a sobrevida de pacientes com câncer de mama e derrame pleural neoplásico

Giovana Tavares dos Santos, João Carlos Prolla, Natália Dressler Camillo, Lisiane Silveira Zavalhia, Alana Durayski Ranzi, Claudia Giuliano Bica

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):487-493

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the clinical and pathological factors that can influence the prognosis of breast cancer patients with clinical symptoms of malignant pleural effusion. Methods: This was a clinical cohort study, in which we analyzed the medical charts of patients diagnosed with malignant pleural effusion between 2006 and 2010. By examining the charts, we identified the female patients with a history of breast cancer. For those patients, we collected pathology data related to the primary tumor and cytopathology data related to the pleural metastasis. Results: We evaluated 145 patients, 87 (60%) of whom had tested positive for malignant cells in the pleural fluid. Ductal histology was observed in 119 (82%). The triple-negative breast cancer phenotype was seen in 25 cases (17%). Those patients had the worst prognosis (with a sharp decline in the survival curve), and 20 of the 25 (80%) died during the follow-up period (through June of 2011). The mean survival after the identification of malignant pleural effusion was 6 months. Conclusions: In patients with triple-negative breast cancer who test positive for malignant cells in the pleural fluid, the prognosis is poor and survival is reduced.


Keywords: Pleural effusion, malignant/mortality; Breast neoplasms/mortality; Breast neoplasms/genetics.


12 - Emphysema index in a cohort of patients with no recognizable lung disease: influence of age

Índice de enfisema pulmonar em coorte de pacientes sem doença pulmonar conhecida: influência da idade

Bruno Hochhegger, Giordano Rafael Tronco Alves, Klaus Loureiro Irion, José da Silva Moreira, Edson dos Santos Marchiori

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):494-502

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate the effects of age on pulmonary emphysema, based on the values of the emphysema index (EI) in a cohort of patients who had never smoked and who had no recognizable lung disease. Methods: We reviewed the CT scans, reported as normal, of 315 patients. Exclusion criteria were a history of smoking, cardiorespiratory disease, and exposure to drugs that could cause lung disease. From this cohort, we selected 32 patients (16 men and 16 women), matched for gender and body mass index, who were divided equally into two groups by age (< 50 years and  50 years). We quantified emphysema using a computer program specific to that task. The EI was calculated with a threshold of −950 HU. We also evaluated total lung volume (TLV) and mean lung density (MLD). Results: The overall means for TLV, MLD, and EI were 5,027 mL, −827 HU, and 2.54%, respectively. Mean values in the older and younger groups, respectively, were as follows: for TLV, 5,229 mL vs. 4,824 mL (p > 0.05); for MLD, −846 HU vs. −813 HU (p < 0.04); and for EI, 3.30% vs. 1.28% (p < 0.001). Significant correlations were found between EI and age (r = 0.66; p = 0.001), EI and TLV (r = 0.58; p = 0.001), and EI and MLD (r = −0.67; p < 0.001). The predicted EI per age was defined by the regression equation (r2 = 0.43): p50(EI) = 0.049 × age − 0.5353. Conclusions: It is important to consider the influence of age when quantifying emphysema in patients over 50 years of age. Based on the regression analysis, EI values of 2.6%, 3.5%, and 4.5% can be considered normal for patients 30, 50, and 70 years of age, respectively.


Keywords: Pulmonary emphysema; Tomography, spiral computed; Aging; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.


13 - Effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment

Efetividade do tratamento da tuberculose

Letícia Nazareth Fernandes da Paz, Maria Daise de Oliveira Ohnshi, Camila Melo Barbagelata, Fabiana de Arruda Bastos, João Augusto Figueiredo de Oliveira III, Igor Costa Parente

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):503-510

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the treatment strategies that influence the effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment at primary care clinics (PCCs) in Brazil. Methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective epidemiological survey based on the medical records of 588 tuberculosis patients enrolled in the tuberculosis control programs at two PCCs located in the city of Belém, Brazil: Centro de Saúde Escola do Marco (CSEM) and Unidade Básica de Saúde da Pedreira (UBSP). The survey was limited to patients enrolled between January of 2004 and December of 2008. We included only patients between 18 and 59 years of age, and we excluded those who were transferred or were found to have been misdiagnosed. We collected data regarding age, gender, type of treatment (self-administered or supervised), co-infection with HIV, and treatment outcome. The health professionals involved in the tuberculosis control program at the two PCCs were interviewed regarding the strategies used for tuberculosis control and regarding routine clinical care for tuberculosis patients. Results: There were no significant differences between the CSEM and UBSP patients regarding age, gender, or co-infection with HIV. Supervised treatment was used significantly more frequently and the rate of cure was higher at the CSEM than at the UBSP, whereas the rate of treatment noncompliance was higher at the UBSP than at the CSEM. Conclusions: For patients enrolled in tuberculosis control programs at PCCs in Brazil, supervised treatment appears to be an extremely important strategy for reducing the rate of treatment noncompliance.


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Patient dropouts; Patient care planning; Treatment outcome.


14 - Tuberculosis, HIV, and poverty: temporal trends in Brazil, the Americas, and worldwide

Tuberculose, HIV e pobreza: tendência temporal no Brasil, Américas e mundo

Raphael Mendonça Guimarães, Andréa de Paula Lobo, Eduardo Aguiar Siqueira, Tuane Franco Farinazzo Borges, Suzane Cristina Costa Melo

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):518-525

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the temporal trends of the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis, with and without HIV co-infection, as well as of the associated mortality, in Brazil, the Americas, and worldwide. Methods: We collected data related to tuberculosis, with and without HIV co-infection, between 1990 and 2010, in Brazil, the Americas, and worldwide. Temporal trends were estimated by linear regression. Results: We identified a trend toward a decrease in tuberculosis prevalence and mortality, and that trend was more pronounced in Brazil and the Americas than worldwide. There was also a trend toward an increase in the incidence of tuberculosis/HIV co-infection, as well as in the rates of detection of new cases of active and latent tuberculosis. The incidence of tuberculosis was found to trend downward in Brazil, whereas it trended upward worldwide. Tuberculosis incidence rates correlated positively with poverty rates and with HIV incidence rates. Conclusions: Social inequality and the advent of AIDS are the major factors that aggravate the current situation of tuberculosis. In this context, methodical approaches to the assessment of surveillance activities are welcome, because they will identify situations in which the reported tuberculosis data do not reflect the true incidence of this disease.


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; HIV; Socioeconomic factors.


15 - Evolution of public policies and programs for asthma control in Brazil from the perspective of consensus guidelines

Evolução das políticas públicas e programas de controle da asma no Brasil sob a perspectiva dos consensos

Ligia Menezes do Amaral, Pamella Valente Palma, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves Leite

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):518-525

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

There is much discussion about effective public policies that allow the proper treatment of asthma, providing care that is comprehensive and centered on asthma patients within their social context. Educating health professionals and asthma patients provides better recognition of symptoms and the triggers of asthma exacerbations, as well as disseminating strategies for avoiding such triggers, thereby ensuring better treatment and quality of life for asthma patients. Asthma imposes an ever-increasing burden on society, in terms of impaired quality of life, morbidity, and health care costs, making this a very important discussion in the field of public policy.


Keywords: Health policy; Asthma; Consensus.


Case Report

16 - Unilateral pulmonary agenesis

Agenesia pulmonar unilateral

Maura Cavada Malcon, Claudio Mattar Malcon, Marina Neves Cavada, Paulo Eduardo Macedo Caruso, Lara Flório Real

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):526-529

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pulmonary agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy with left lung agenesis, without any other congenital malformations. When the patient presented symptoms, including cough, wheezing, and dyspnea, with no clinical improvement after a period of 30 days, imaging studies were conducted and the diagnosis was made.


Keywords: Congenital abnormalities; Respiratory tract diseases; Bronchoscopy.


Letters to the Editor

17 - Pulmonary cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients, an underdiagnosed disease

Criptosporidiose pulmonar em pacientes com AIDS, uma doença subdiagnosticada

Yvana Maria Maia de Albuquerque, Márcia Cristina Fraga Silva, Ana Luiza Magalhães de Andrade Lima, Vera Magalhães

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):530-532

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

18 - Activated charcoal bronchial aspiration

Broncoaspiração de carvão ativado

Bruna Quaranta Lobão Bairral, Makoto Saito, Nelson Morrone

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):533-534

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19 - Lipoid pneumonia in a 40-day-old infant

Pneumonia lipoide em lactente de 40 dias de vida

Maria Cristina Ribeiro dos Santos Simões, Ivan Felizardo Contrera Toro, José Dirceu Ribeiro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera Toro

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(4):535-537

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