Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2003 - Volume 29  - Number 5  (September/October)






Editorial

1 - Bom para alguns, ótimo para outros

Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(5):251-

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Original Article

2 - Mediastinal tumors in children

Tumores do mediastino em crianças

José Carlos Fraga, Marcia Komlós, Eliziane Takamatu, Luciano Camargo, Fábio Contelli, Algemir Brunetto, Carlos Antunes

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(5):253-257

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: Mediastinal tumors in children comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions that have a range of embryonic origins. They may present as benign cysts, as well as malignant lesions. Objective: To describe the diagnostic procedures, the treatments and outcomes of a group of children and adolescents with mediastinal tumors. Method: A retrospective analysis of twenty children and adolescents with mediastinal tumors who were treated at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre from July, 1996 to July, 2002. All patients were submitted to some kind of surgical procedure: diagnostic, therapeutic, or both. Results: Twelve boys and eight girls were studied. Mean age at diagnosis was 6 years and 8 months (ranging from 3 months to 16 years). Fourteen tumors (70%) were located at the anterior, and six (30%) at the posterior mediastinum. Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas were the most common tumors found in anterior mediastinum, whereas neuroblastoma was the most common among posterior malignancies. The most used surgical procedure for anterior tumors was Chamberlain anterior thoracotomy; posterolateral thoracotomy was usually performed for posterior tumors. Six patients died during the follow-up period but none of the deaths was considered related to the surgical procedure. Conclusion: Mediastinal tumors in children and adolescents represent an important cause of morbidity/mortality. The most common tumors at the anterior mediastinum were lymphomas, whereas at the posterior mediastinum the most common were neurogenic tumors. Surgery is an important step for the diagnosis and treatment of such lesions.

 


Keywords: Tumors. Mediastinum. Child. Lymphoma/surgery.

 

3 - Bronchiectasis: diagnostic and therapeutic features A study of 170 patients

Bronquiectasias: aspectos diagnósticos e terapêuticos Estudo de 170 pacientes

José da Silva Moreira, Nelson da Silva Porto, José de Jesus Peixoto Camargo, José Carlos Felicetti, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Ana Luiza Schneider Moreira, Cristiano Feijó Andrade

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(5):258-263

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: Bronchiectasis is a frequently found disease in medical practice in Brazil leading to significant morbidity and decrease in quality of life of the affected individuals. Objectives: To study diagnostic and therapeutic aspects in a series of hospitalized patients with bronchiectasis in a department of pulmonary diseases. Methods: Signs, symptoms, microbiological and radiographic data, and therapeutic results were studied in 170 hospitalized patients between 1978 and 2001 - females 62.4%, males 37.6%, and aged from 12 to 88 years (mean age 36.8 yrs). Previous history of pneumonia in childhood was detected in 52.5% of the patients, tuberculosis in 19.8%; 8.8% had bronchial asthma, and 2 had Kartagener's syndrome. Results: The most common symptoms were cough (100.0%), expectoration (96.0%) and pulmonary rales (66.0%). The pulmonary lesions were unilateral in 46.5% of the cases. Pneumococcus, H. influenzae or mixed flora were found in 85.0% of the examined sputa. All 170 patients received antibiotics and postural drainage, and 88 of them (younger and with a higher functional reserve) were also submitted to pulmonary resections (82 unilateral and 6 bilateral). Two deaths occurred, and repetitive hospitalizations were more frequent among the clinically treated patients. The follow up showed that most of the surgically treated patients had significant symptoms improvement and rarely needed to be re-hospitalized. Conclusions: In the majority of the patients, lung resection surgery improved permanently the prolonged bronchopulmonary symptoms of patients with bronchiectasis, differently from the patients who received only clinical treatment.

 


Keywords: Bronchiectasis/diagnosis. Bronchiectasis/therapy. Bronchiectasis/surgery. Bronchiectasis/complications. Tomography X-ray computed/methods. Inpatients. Retrospective studies.

 

4 - Smoking among school adolescents in Salvador (BA)

Tabagismo em amostra de adolescentes escolares de Salvador-Bahia

Adelmo Souza Machado Neto, Álvaro A. Cruz2

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(5):264-272

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: Most tobacco users become addicted during adolescence. In Brazil, smoking prevalence among teenagers varies from 1% to 35%. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of smoking among teenagers, aged from 13 to 20, in fundamental and high school in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Method: Cross-sectional exploratory study. Thirty five hundred questionnaires were applied to students at fundamental and high school in five schools at the metropolitan region of Salvador (BA). Statistical analysis: descriptive and associative measurements (Prevalence Rate), Student's t and qui-square tests. Results: Smoking prevalence among teenagers in Salvador (BA) was 9.6%, considering 3,180 valid questionnaires. The frequency was higher in males (14%) than in females (6%). The prevalence increased with age. The mean age ± SD for tobacco initiation was 14 ± 2 years. Among the teenagers, 46% tried cigarettes, and 20% became addicted. The frequency was higher among teenagers whose parents were smokers. The mean ± SD number of daily cigarettes smoked by adolescent tobacco users (n = 132) was 7.4 (± 6.4) units per day, with a higher frequency among boys. Conclusion: Smoking prevalence in a selected set of adolescent students in Salvador (BA) was 9.6%, and it was higher among males. Parental smoking and cigarette experimentation were the major factor found to be associated to tobacco addiction among teenagers.

 


Keywords: Smoking/epidemiology. Adolescents. Students. Tobacco.

 

5 - Extended thymectomy through video assisted thoracic surgery and cervicotomy in the treatment of myasthenia

Timectomia estendida por cirurgia torácica videoassistida e cervicotomia no tratamento da miastenia

Eduardo Haruo Saito, Cláudio Higa, Rodolfo Acatauassu Nunes, Gérson C. Magalhães, Luiz Carlos Aguiar Vaz, Vicente Faria Cervante

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(5):273-279

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: The relationship between myasthenia and the thymus is evident and the current treatment of this condition includes thymectomy. However, a revision of our experience with thymectomy has revealed the necessity of a more radical technique. Objective: To analyze, retrospectively, myasthenia gravis patients who underwent videothoracoscopic radical thymectomy, emphasizing the advantages and drawbacks of the methodology, pathological findings and results related to disease control. Material and methods: Twenty-one myasthenic patients (18 females and 3 males, aged 17 to 51 years), underwent videothoracoscopic bilateral thymectomy associated to transverse cervicotomy for removal of the thymus gland and surrounding tissues, and right and left pericardiac fat tissues. Those tissues were separately sent to pathology analysis. The mean time of follow-up was 39.2 months. Results: There were no intra-operative deaths. Two patients (9.5%) suffered vascular injury, and one patient (4.8%) presented a low level permanent dysphonia. Nineteen patients (90.4%) are doing well, with none or low dose medications. Pathology studies showed 10 hyperplastic thymuses, 6 with involution and 5 with normal aspect. Ectopic thymic tissue was found in six patients (28.6%). Conclusion: Videothoracoscopic radical thymectomy offered a good control of myasthenia gravis. Additionally, ectopic thymus tissue was removed from some patients.

 


Keywords: Thorax. Surgery, video-assisted. Myastenia gravis. Thymectomy.

 

6 - Management of massive hemoptysis with the rigid bronchoscope and cold saline lavage

Controle da hemoptise maciça com broncoscopia rígida e soro fisiológico gelado

Giovanni Antonio Marsico, Carlos Alberto Guimarães, Jorge Montessi, Antonio Miguel Martins da Costa, Levi Madeira

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(5):280-286

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: Massive hemoptysis is a high morbidity and high mortality condition, independently of the treatment administered. A variety of methods are used to control the acute bleeding. The instillation of iced saline solution through a rigid bronchoscope was described in 1980. Objective: To establish the efficacy of repeated instillations of iced saline solution (4oC) using a rigid bronchoscope for the acute control of massive hemoptysis. Method: A group of 94 patients with massive hemoptysis was treated with rigid bronchoscopy and lavage with iced saline solution of the actively bleeding lung. The absence of bleeding recurrence within the following 15 days was considered a therapeutic success. The causes of hemoptysis included: pulmonary tuberculosis: 78 (83%), among which 48 had active disease, and 30 had tuberculosis sequelae, bronchiectasis (6), lung cancer (5), intracavitary aspergilloma (3), and unknown (2). The bleeding site was found in 93 patients (99%). The mean saline volume used in the bronchoscopy was 528 mL, ranging from 160 mL to 2,500 mL. Results: All patients stopped bleeding during the procedure. Fifteen patients were submitted to some kind of procedure (surgery, embolization, or radiation therapy) within 15 days, and the efficacy of lavage could not be assessed. Twenty of the 79 patients followed-up for more than 15 days had recurrence of hemoptysis. Cold saline lavage was repeated once in 13 patients, twice in 6 patients, and 3 times in one patient. Conclusion: The control of tracheobronchial hemorrhage through bronchoscopy and lavage with iced saline is an effective procedure and can be repeated in case of re-bleeding. It is a safe procedure, and allows the definitive treatment to occur in better clinical conditions.

 


Keywords: Hemoptysis. Tuberculosis. Bronchoscopy.

 

7 - Effects of a physical exercises program designed to increase thoracic mobility in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Efeitos de programa de exercícios físicos direcionado ao aumento da mobilidade torácica em pacientes portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Elaine Paulin, Antonio Fernando Brunetto, Celso Ricardo Fernandes Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(5):287-294

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is detrimental to lung mechanics and peripheral muscles. The physical programs developed for this condition are usually targeted to an improvement on aerobics capacity. Programs that approach specifically the changes in thoracic mobility and thoracic muscles are rare. Objective: To assess the effects of a physical exercise program designed to increase chest wall mobility on functional and psychosocial capacity in moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Methods: Thirty patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were studied. They were randomized to 2 groups: control group (CG) and treated group (TG). The CG was submitted to an educational program and the TG was submitted to an educational program plus a physical exercise program aiming to increase chest wall mobility. Variables included spirometry, thoracic mobility, quality of life, anxiety and depression levels and a six minute walk test (6MWT). Results: After 2 months of training, only the TG presented improvements on chest wall mobility (from 4.20 ± 0.58 cm to 5.27 ± 0.58 cm; p = 0.05) and 6MWT (from 469.73 ± 31.99 m to 500.60 ± 27.38 m; p = 0.01). It was also observed that the TG presented improvement on the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score, Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ), and Beck's depression scale after 2 months of treatment. Pulmonary function did not improve either in the CG or in the TG group. Conclusion: Our results suggest that exercises aimed to the increasing of chest wall mobility improve thoracic mobility, quality of life, submaximal exercise capacity, and reduce dyspnea and depression symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

 


Keywords: COPD. Thoracic mobility. Quality of life. Capacity of exercise. Dyspnea.

 

Upgrading

8 - Study about the ability of the pulmonary aerostasia, in animal model, using differents parenchymal pulmonary types of the sutures

Estudo sobre a eficácia da aerostasia pulmonar, em modelo animal, utilizando diferentes tipos de suturas

Darcy Ribeiro Pinto Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(5):295-301

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: The search for an ideal procedure to accomplish aerostasis, after partial surgical resection of the lung parenchyma, remains a practical challenge for the thoracic surgeon. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the ability of four types of parenchymal pulmonary sutures in preventing air leaks, using a porcine model with incremental endobronchial pressures. Method: Ex vivo experimental study in porcine lungs (n = 5) at the Laboratory of Experimental Surgery of the Universidade de Caxias do Sul. Four different parenchymal pulmonary types of suture were analyzed: type 1 (absorbable suture), type 2: (stapled suture), type 3 (stapled suture with bovine pericardium) and type 4 (stapled suture with biologic glue). The surgical sutures (n = 40) were exposed to different intrabronchial pressure levels, varying from 10 cmH2O to 60 cmH2O. The presence of air leaks along the suture line was verified through the water seal maneuver. Results: The mean intrabronchial pressure level needed to cause suture line air leaks for each type were: type 1 (n = 10): 29 cmH2O; type 2 (n = 10): 38.5 cmH2O; type 3 (n = 10): 44 cmH2O; and type 4 (n = 10): 51.4 cmH2O. The comparison between the mean intrabronchial pressure level of type 1 and of types 2 and 3 sutures was statistically significant, respectively: p = 0.04 and p = 0.01. However, the comparison between types 2, 3 and 4 did not show statistic significance (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The pulmonary suture covered by biologic glue demonstrated more resistance to incremental levels of intrabronchial pressure. Parenchymal pulmonary sutures using stapled suture exclusively or stapled with bovine pericardium or biologic glue demonstrated an increased ability to avoid air leaks if compared to absorbable sutures in a model of porcine lung with incremental levels of intrabronchial pressure. There were no differences between stapler exclusively or stapler and bovine pericardium or biologic glue.

 


Keywords: Experimental study. Thoracic surgery. Biologic glue. Staplers.

 

Case Report

9 - Sildenafil for treatment of pulmonary hypertension in association with systemic lupus erythematosus and anti-phospholipid syndrome

Sildenafil no tratamento da hipertensão pulmonar associada a lúpus eritematoso sistêmico e síndrome antifosfolipídio

Eduardo José do Rosário e Souza, Junia Rios Garib, Nasim Michel Garib, Paulo Madureira de Pádua

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(5):302-304

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Severe pulmonary hypertension is a debilitating disease with short life expectancy that often affects young people. Pleuropulmonary complications of systemic lupus erythematosus occur in 50-70% of patients. Severe symptomatic pulmonary hypertension in systemic lupus erythematosus is rare and carries a bad prognosis because a fatal outcome can occur within months. The authors describe, for the first time, a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus with severe pulmonary hypertension and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome who responded favorably to oral sildenafil, after unsuccessful use of prednisone, intravenous cyclophosphamide, warfarin and diltiazem.

 


Keywords: Vasodilator agents/therapeutic use. Lupus erythematosuos systemic. Antiphospholipid antibodies. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors.

 

10 - Resolution of right-to-left shunt after primary pulmonary hypertension treatment with sildenafil

Resolução do "shunt" direita-esquerda após uso do sildenafil como tratamento de hipertensão pulmonar primária

Sérgio Marques da Silva, Carla Bastos Valeri, Humberto Bassit Bogossian, Carlos Jardim, Sérgio Eduardo Demarzo, Rogério Souza

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(5):305-308

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Primary pulmonary hypertension is a rare, progressive disease with high mortality rates. The treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension is still based on high-cost drugs, not yet available in developing countries. Recently, the use of sildenafil as an alternative drug for primary pulmonary hypertension treatment has been reported. It is reported a case of a 21 year-old female patient with primary pulmonary hypertension, who presented an acute worsening of symptoms and decrease of oxygen saturation. The investigation revealed the existence of a patent oval foramen not previously seen, with right-to-left shunt. Sildenafil treatment was instituted in escalating doses. After 40 days of treatment, the echocardiogram showed resolution of the shunt, concomitant to oxygenation improvement. The authors believe that sildenafil is a feasible alternative for primary pulmonary hypertension treatment, although larger clinical trials are necessary to determine its clinical safety and efficacy.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary hypertension/therapy. Vasodilator agents/administration & dosage.

 

Review Article

11 - Hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome

Síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus

Mariangela Pimentel Pincelli, Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de Carvalho, Luiza Terezinha Madia de Souza, Luís Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(5):309-324

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome is a recently identified and often fatal disease, which presents as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Since the first outbreak, in Nov/Dec 1993, in Juquitiba, Brazil, 226 cases have been registered by FUNASA (National Health Foundation).(4) The disease occurs in previously healthy subjects, presenting with fever and symptoms similar to the common cold, and may rapidly evolve to pulmonary edema, respiratory failure and shock. Hemoconcentration and thrombocytopenia are common features, and the typical radiological finding is a bilateral diffuse interstitial infiltrate that evolves to alveolar consolidations in parallel to the worsening of the clinical condition. Initially, mortality was around 75%, but it declined to approximately 35% in the last few years. Patients who survive usually recover completely, about a week after the onset of the respiratory symptoms. The causal agent is a previously unrecognized hantavirus whose natural reservoirs are rodents of the family Muridae, sub-family Sigmodontinae. Specific antiviral treatment for hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome has not yet been well established, and the efficacy of ribavirin is currently being studied. Intensive care, including mechanical ventilation and invasive hemodynamic monitoring, is required for the more severe presentations of the disease. These measures may improve the prognosis and survival of patients with hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome if started early in the course of the disease.

 


Keywords: Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome/diagnoses. Hantavirus infections/diagnoses. Brazil.

 

12 - Inhaled nitric oxide: clinical application

Óxido nítrico inalatório: considerações sobre sua aplicação clínica

Gisele Limongeli Gurgueira, Werther Brunow de Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(5):325-331

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

The objective of this paper is to report some clinical and therapeutic aspects of inhaled nitric oxide in pediatrics. Some references were obtained from Medline® using the keywords: inhaled nitric oxide and pediatrics, and critical care. Other sources were the University library and personal files. Along the last decade, clinical trials with inhaled nitric oxide demonstrated only a few specific areas of proven efficacy and a variety of possible adverse events. Toxicity related to inhaled nitric oxide included metahemoglobinemia, cytotoxic pulmonary effects, excess production of nitrogen dioxide and peroxynitrite, and injury to the pulmonary surfactant system. The administration of inhaled nitric oxide to patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension should be cautious, since vasodilatation may increase pulmonary blood flow and lead to excessive preload. Some studies showed the clinical effects related to abrupt nitric oxide withdrawal, including rebound pulmonary hypertension. Current literature supports the therapeutic use of inhaled nitric oxide in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (gestational age ³ 34 weeks) to improve oxygenation and avoid extracorporeal oxygenation; and in congenital cardiopathy accompanied by pulmonary hypertension, especially in the immediate postoperative period. To date, research in pediatrics and multicentre trials in adults with inhaled nitric oxide therapy have failed to show mortality reduction or decrease the amount of time under mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury. This indication needs further investigations. Persistent pulmonary hypertension is the most important indication for inhaled nitric oxide. The Food and Drug Administration has not approved inhaled nitric oxide in acute respiratory distress syndrome for adults and children.

 


Keywords: Nitric oxide/therapeutic use. Pediatrics. Pulmonary hypertension. Critical care.

 

 


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