Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2003 - Volume 29  - Number 6  (November/December)






Editorial

1 - O espírito do Jornal de Pneumologia

Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(6):335-

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2 - Prevendo a sobrevida da fibrose pulmonar idiopática: estamos melhorando?

Harold R. Collard, Talmadge E. King Jr.

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(6):336-337

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3 - Perfil dos pacientes portadores de Mycobacterium SP

Afrânio Lineu Kritski

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(6):338-339

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Original Article

4 - Lung disease caused by Mycobacterium kansasii

Pneumopatia causada por Mycobacterium kansasii

Nelson Morrone, Maria do Carmo Cruvinel, Nelson Morrone Junior, José Antonio dos Santos Freire, Lilia Maria Lima de Oliveira, Carla Gonçalves

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(6):341-349

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: Mycobacterium kansasii is a nontuberculous mycobacterium that can colonize the lungs and cause pulmonary infection. Objective: To report authors' study of 6 patients with pulmonary disease caused by M. kansasii infection in a series of 6 patients diagnosed over 5 years. Method: Between June 1995 and June 2000, 1,349 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis were admitted to the Ipiranga Ari Nogueira da Silva Sanitarium. M. kansasii was identified in the sputum cultures of six (0.44%) of these patients. Results: Patient ages ranged from 25 to 77 years, 5 of the 6 were male, and all presented symptomatic chronic lung disease. All patients tested negative for HIV. Chest radiographs confirmed a history of lung disease; all presented thin walled cavities and adjacent pleural thickening was seen in 2. All patients were initially treated with isoniazid-rifampin-pyrazinamide. In 2 patients, intolerance to pyrazinamide necessitated the substitution of pyrazinamide with ethambutol. Based on the culture results, pyrazinamide was also replaced by ethambutol in 2 other patients. All patients were treated for 9 months or longer, and only one patient suffered recurrence of the disease. After being considered cured of the M. kansasii infection, 1 patient died of respiratory insufficiency due to silicosis. Conclusions: Mycobacteriosis due to M. kansasii was found only rarely and may be attributable to the characteristics of our patients. Therapy with isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide with eventual replacement of the latter by ethambutol was shown to be effective.

 


Keywords: Mycobacterium kansaii. Lung diseases. Respiratory insufficiency.

 

Editorial

4 - Quem espera nem sempre alcança

Daniel Deheinzelin

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(6):340-

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Original Article

6 - Factors associated with inadequate treatment in a group of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

Fatores associados aos tratamentos inadequados em grupo de portadores de tuberculose multirresistente

Elizabeth Clara Barroso, Rosa Maria Salani Mota, Maria Filomena Martiniano Morais, Creusa Lima Campelo, Joana Brasileiro Barroso, Jorge Luis Nobre Rodrigues

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(6):350-357

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis is a threat to tuberculosis control worldwide. In many studies, it has been suggested that inadequate treatment is a risk factor for the development of multidrug resistent tuberculosis. Objective: To identify the factors associated with inadequate treatment in a group of patients with multidrug resistent tuberculosis. Method: The authors identified all drug sensitivity test for tuberculosis performed at the Central Laboratory of the state of Ceará from 1990 to 1999. Retrospective and prospective analysis was performed, comparing the characteristics of adequately treated patients with those of inadequately treated patients. Multidrug resistance was defined as resistance to 2 drugs (rifampin and isoniazid) or more, using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Of the 1,500 sensitivity test performed at the Central Laboratory of Public Health of the state of Ceará, 266 revealed multidrug-resistant strains. Of those 266 patients, the authors were able to identify only 153, of whom 19 were excluded. Thus, our sampling consisted of 134 patients. Univariate analysis demonstrated that the significant factors associated with inadequate treatment were: noncompliance with the treatment, extreme poverty, drug intolerance, mistakes in the management of the patients, lack of medication being supplied by the health service, two or more previous treatments, pronounced lung cavities and bilateral lesions on chest X-rays. They found a further association (p < 0.0010) between alcoholism or smoking and noncompliance with the treatment. In the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with an outcome of inadequate treatment were: two or more previous treatments (p < 0.0001, OR = 5.9; CI 95%: 2.5-13.7), pronounced cavitation (p < 0.0217, OR = 2.7; CI 95%: 1.2-6.1) and bilateral chest X-ray lesions (p < 0.0226, OR = 3.2; CI 95%: 1.4-7.4) Conclusion: In the study, the authors observed that factors related to inadequate treatment are wide-ranging. An attempt at better control of the disease is warranted, especially in those patients with pronounced cavitation or bilateral lesions in chest X-rays. And those with 2 or more previous treatments.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant. Risk factors.

 

7 - Delay in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of lung cancer

Retardo no diagnóstico e no tratamento cirúrgico do câncer de pulmão

Marli Maria Knorst, Rodrigo Dienstmann, Luciane Pankowski Fagundes

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(6):358-364

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Objective: To determine the time spent diagnosing, staging and surgically treating lung cancer in a university hospital. Method: Between January 1990 and December 1998, 69 (53 male, 16 female) patients were diagnosed with lung cancer and underwent surgery. The hospital records of these patients were reviewed to evaluate clinical and histological data, dates of outpatient visits, hospital admission, tests and procedures, as well as to determine if the patients were examined as inpatients or as outpatients. Results: The 15 patients investigated as outpatients were designated as group I, the 28 examined as both inpatients and outpatients as group II, and the 26 investigated as inpatients as group III. Age ranged from 43 to 79 years (mean ± SD; 61 ± 10). Of the 69 patients, 43 were smokers and 23 were ex-smokers. The mean time from onset of symptoms to the first outpatient visit was 110 days and 33 days from the first outpatient visit until diagnosis. There was a lapse of 25 days between diagnosis and surgery. The mean total elapsed time between the first outpatient visit and surgery was 58 days. The mean total time was 72 days for group I, 72 days for group II, and 35 days for group III (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference regarding total time in relation to the different stages of the disease (p = 0.16). Conclusions: The results show that patients waited too long before seeking medical assistance and that medical treatment of lung cancer was further delayed when patients were examined in an outpatient setting.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasm/surgery. Disease progression.

 

8 - Profile and follow-up of patients with Mycobacterium sp. at the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Perfil e seguimento dos pacientes portadores de Mycobacterium sp. do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Giselle Carvalho Froes, Rosane Luiza Coutinho, Marcelo Nardy de Ávila, Leandra Rocha Cançado, Silvana Spíndola de Miranda

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(6):365-370

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: Surveys of patients diagnosed with mycobacteriosis, taken at the Laboratory of Mycobacteriology of the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, have shown that lack of information concerning diagnosis prevented 42% from initiating treatment. Objective: To evaluate the profile of patients with mycobacterial infection attending the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. To describe the follow up of those patients and compare it to the guidelines made by the National Program for the Control of Tuberculosis. Methods: The files of patients diagnosed with mycobacterium infection during 2002 were selected from the archives of the Laboratory of Mycobacteriology of the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. An active search for these patients was carried out and follow-up exams were then performed. Results: Of the 66 patients selected, 62 (94%) were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 4 (6%) had nontuberculous mycobacteriosis. Another 4 (6%) had been transferred to other institutions. Of the remaining 58, 37 (63%) had been cured, 1 (2%) had refused treatment, 9 (16%) were not found and 11 (19%) had died. Of the 11 deaths, 7 (64%) had tested positive for HIV. Conclusion: Patients failed to receive treatment not due to lack of diagnosis, but to inadequate structure, low awareness levels of all parties, and lack of tuberculosis control organization at the hospital level. Due to the high number of HIV-positive patients, the number of patients cured was lower than that required by the National Health Ministry. Deaths were attributed to HIV infection and lack of knowledge about the disease. In order to identify and address the problems associated with clinical laboratory practice, laboratory professionals must work in concert with their clinical counterparts when carrying out operational research on tuberculosis.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis. Mycobacterium infections/complications.

 

9 - Histological features and survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Achados histológicos e sobrevida na fibrose pulmonar idiopática

Ester Nei Aparecida Martins Coletta, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira, Rimarcs Gomes Ferreira, Adalberto Sperb Rubin, Lucimara Sonja Villela, Tatiana Malheiros, João Norberto Stávale

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(6):371-378

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was recently redefined as usual interstitial pneumonia of unknown etiology. Consequently, the prognostic value of histological findings needs to be reassessed. Objective: To correlate clinical, functional and histological findings with survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Method: Patients (n = 51; mean age: 66 ± 8 years; gender: 21 females/30 males) were evaluated. Of the 51, 26 were smokers or ex-smokers. Duration of symptoms, forced vital capacity and smoking habits were recorded. All patients presented usual interstitial pneumonia verified through histology. Degree of honeycombing, established fibrosis, desquamation, cellularity, myointimal thickening of blood vessels and number of fibroblastic foci were graded according to the semiquantitative method. Results: Median duration of symptoms was 12 months and initial forced vital capacity was 72 ± 21%. Cox multivariate analysis revealed that survival correlated inversely and significantly (p < 0.05) with duration of symptoms and fibroblastic foci score, as well as with myointimal thickening of blood vessels. Limited numbers of fibroblastic foci, as well as myointimal thickening involving less than 50% of blood vessels, were predictive of greater survival. No correlation with survival was found for gender, age, forced vital capacity, inflammation or degree of cellularity. Conclusion: Semiquantitative analysis of lung biopsies yields relevant prognostic information regarding patients with usual interstitial pneumonia.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary fibrosis. Lung diseases, interstitial. Survival analysis.

 

10 - Influence of oral L-carnitine supplementation combined with physical training on exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Efeitos da suplementação oral de L-carnitina associada ao treinamento físico na tolerância ao exercício de pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Audrey Borghi Silva, Valéria Amorim Pires Di Lorenzo, Maurício Jamami, Luciana Maria Malosá Sampaio, Aureluce Demonte, Leonardo Cardello, Dirceu Costa

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(6):379-385

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease usually present intolerance to physical exertion due to ventilatory limitation. L-carnitine has been used to enhance aerobic capacity in patients with chronic diseases, but no study seems to be available for this patient population. Objective: To evaluate the influence of L-carnitine supplementation (2 g/day) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients undergoing physical training three times a week for six weeks. Method: Patients (mean age 69 ± 7 years, n = 30) with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and < 65% of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were separated into three groups of 10 patients each. Group 1 (G1, n = 10) received physical training and L-carnitine (2 g/day), group 2 (G2, n = 10) received physical training and placebo, and group 3 (G3, n = 10) received only L-carnitine (2 g/day). Spirometry and a 6-minute walking distance test were performed before and after intervention. Plasma levels of free carnitine were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Results: A significant increase in walking distance was found only in G1 and G2 (421 ± 100 to 508 ± 80.7 and 496 ± 78.7 to 526 ± 64.3 respectively). In addition, heart rates during physical training sessions were found to be significantly lower in G1 when compared to G2. There were no significant changes in spirometric variables, oxygen saturation or dyspnea in any group. Plasma levels of free L-carnitine were found to increase only in G3 (59.2 ± 13.8 to 102.3 ± 15.3 mmol/L). Conclusion: Oral L-carnitine supplementation combined with physical training may improve tolerance to physical exertion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

 


Keywords: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Carnitine/therapeutic use. Spirometry/methods. Exercise. Walking.

 

11 - Interference of nail polish colors and time on pulse oximetry in healthy volunteers

Interferência da coloração de esmaltes de unha e do tempo na oximetria de pulso em voluntários sadios

Mara Harumi Miyake, Solange Diccini, Ana Rita de Cássia Bettencourt

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(6):386-390

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive method to measure the saturation of peripheral oxyhaemoglobin (SpO2). It's usually used in emergency, intensive care and operating room units. Pulse oximeter readings have limited accuracy in the presence of methemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, anaemia, peripheral vasoconstriction, nail polish, fluorescent light, and motion. Objectives: To evaluate the interferences of the color of nail polishes and time on SpO2 in healthy individuals. Methods: Sixty-one healthy female volunteers, ages ranging from 18 to 32 years. The nail polish colors used to evaluate SpO2 were: base coat on the little finger, light pink on the ring finger, sparkling light pink on the medium finger and red on the thumb. The index finger was used as control and thus, did not receive nail polish. The time for each color was evaluated every minute until 5 minutes were completed. Results: When the SpO2 measurement was compared with the control, the base coat (p = 0.56), light pink (p = 0.56) and sparkling light pink (p = 0.37) colors didn't present statistically significant differences. Only the red presented a significant variation (p < 0,001), however it was within normal parameters. SpO2 didn't vary significantly with time. Conclusion: Despite the difference found with the red color, all the SpO2 values achieved were inside the normal range for a healthy individual. Pulse oximeter readings are not significantly affected by the color of nail polish in relation to time.

 


Keywords: Nail polish. Oxygen saturation. Pulse oximetry.

 

Case Report

12 - Idiopathic bronchocentric granulomatosis in a nonasthmatic young woman

Granulomatose broncocêntrica idiopática em jovem não asmática

José Wellington Alves dos Santos, Carlos Renato Mello, Gustavo Trindade Michel, Claudius Wladimir Cornelius de Figueiredo, Jader Miletho, Alessandro Zordan

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(6):391-394

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Bronchocentric granulomatosis is histopathologically defined as being characterized by necrotizing granulomatous inflammation centered in the bronchi or bronchioles, which can be idiopathic or associated with infectious, immunologic or neoplastic diseases. This paper reports the case of a 26 year old nonasthmatic young woman with a 1-month history of chest pain, fever and productive cough. Chest radiography and computerized tomography were performed, and an open-lung biopsy was submitted to histological analysis. Radiographs and tomographs revealed consolidation and cavitation in the lingula. Transbronchial needle aspiration showed nonspecific inflammatory lesions, and no etiologic agent was identified. Histological examination of the specimen obtained by open-lung biopsy was consistent with idiopathic bronchocentric granulomatosis. The patient responded positively to prednisone therapy, and no relapse was documented.

 


Keywords: Bronchocentric granulomatosis. Bronchi. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Prednisone/therapeutic use.

 

13 - Interstitial pneumonia in a patient undergoing treatment with leflunomide: drug-induced toxicity?

Pneumonite intersticial em paciente sob tratamento com leflunomide: toxicidade da droga?

Jonatas Reichert, Adriane Reichert, Luci Iolanda Bendhack, Lucia de Noronha, Dante Escuissato, Acir Rachid Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(6):395-400

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Leflunomide is an anti-rheumatic drug with immunomodulating effects. Granulomatous interstitial pneumonia has never been described in association with the use of this drug. We report the case of a 33-year-old female patient who presented with chest pain, weight loss and pulmonary infectious syndrome during the fifth month of monotherapy with leflunomide for rheumatoid arthritis, which advanced to respiratory insufficiency in the sixth month. Radiologic findings revealed pulmonary intersticial infiltrates, as well as bilateral alveolar infiltrates (mainly in the upper and medium lobes) and scattered micronodules. However, no mediastinal abnormalities were detected. Leflunomide was suspended. After resolution of the infection, interstitial reticulonodular lesions persisted, predominantly in the upper 2/3 of the right lung and in the center of the left lung, interspersed with a ground-glass pattern in the superior lobes. Surprisingly, pulmonary biopsy revealed tuberculoid granulomas without caseous necrosis. A thorough etiological investigation was carried out, but no etiologic agent was identified. After four months, the condition spontaneously and completely disappeared. This profile suggests that the pulmonary complications seen in this case were the result of leflunomide use.

 


Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial/chemically induced. Lung/drugs effects.

 

14 - Alveolar hemorrhage associated with lupus nephritis

Hemorragia alveolar associada a nefrite lúpica

Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga Teixeira, Marcel Hiratsuka, Flávia Calderini Rosa, Rogério Souza, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(6):401-404

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Alveolar hemorrhage leading to respiratory failure is uncommon. Various etiologies have been reported, including systemic lupus erythematosus, which generally presents as pulmonary-renal syndrome. It is believed that the pathogenesis of microangiopathy is related to deposits of immune complexes that lead to activation of cellular apoptosis. The authors report two cases of alveolar hemorrhage and respiratory failure, both requiring mechanical ventilation. The two cases had opposite outcomes after pharmacological therapy. The presence of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies in one of the cases demonstrates the multiplicity of physiopathological mechanisms that may be involved. This multiplicity of mechanisms provides a possible explanation for the heterogeneous responses to the available treatments.

 


Keywords: Lupus erythematosus systemic/etiology. Lupus nephritis/etiology. Respiratory insufficiency/complications.

 

Review Article

15 - Phosphodiesterase inhibitors: new perspectives on an old therapy for asthma?

Inibidores de fosfodiesterases: novas perspectivas de uma antiga terapia na asma?

Hisbello Campos, Debora Xisto, Walter A. Zin, Patricia R.M. Rocco

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(6):405-412

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by varying degrees of airflow obstruction and diverse clinical manifestations. As knowledge of asthma pathogenesis has increased, treatment has evolved. Airway inflammation, modulated by genetic and environmental factors, results in altered airway architecture (airway remodeling). Inflammation in asthma is typically multicellular in nature, involving mast cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and T lymphocytes, as well as muscle and epithelial cells. Various cytokines and chemokines play roles in orchestrating the inflammatory process. Recognition of the critical role played by airway inflammation, which is an indicator of the degree of asthma severity, has shifted the treatment toward either prevention or the inhibition of inflammatory markers. In light of this, new drug formulations have been considered. In addition to the b2 agonists, theophylline, and corticosteroids currently being used, the second generation of selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors has shown promising results. Recent studies suggest that these drugs may soon offer a novel alternative in the treatment of asthma.

 


Keywords: Phosphodiesterase inhibitors/therapeutic use. Inflammation mediators. Asthma/pathology.

 

16 - Chronic cough in non-smokers: diagnostic approach

Abordagem diagnóstica da tosse crônica em pacientes não-tabagistas

Márcia Jacomelli, Rogério Souza, Wilson Leite Pedreira Júnior

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(6):413-420

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Cough is the main physiological mechanism responsible for the clearance of secretions from airways, acting as an important defense mechanism. However, the presentation of chronic cough is one of the most important causes for patients to seek medical attention all over the world, thus the significance of the correct recognition of all the factors related to the process of cough. Among those factors, some are of extreme importance, since they may be present in almost 95% of the cases: post-nasal drip syndrome, asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease. The main step for a successful therapy for chronic cough is a rational and progressive diagnostic approach, narrowing the list of possible diagnosis and allowing the institution of a treatment with a better cost-effectiveness. The proposal of an algorithm focusing on the most common causes of chronic cough may be helpful in this initial approach.

 


Keywords: Chronic cough. Diagnostic algorithm. Asthma. Postnasal drip syndrome. Gastroesophageal reflux disease.

 

 


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