Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2004 - Volume 30  - Number 2  (March/April)


1 - 

Milton de Arruda Martins

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):-

PDF PT Portuguese Text

2 - 

Thais Helena Abrahão Thomaz Queluz

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):92-

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Original Article

4 - Effect of a clinical protocol on the management of acute asthma in the emergency room of a university hospital

Efeito da implantação de um protocolo assistencial de asma aguda no serviço de emergência de um hospital universitário

Pérsio Mariano da Rocha, Andréia Kist Fernandes, Fernando Nogueira, Deise Marcela Piovesan, Suzie Kang, Eduardo Franciscatto, Thaís Millan, Cristina Hoffmann, Carísi Anne Polanczyk, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):94-101

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: There is a wide variability in clinical practice for treating acute asthma (AA) in the emergency room (ER) interfering in the quality of management. Objective: To evaluate the impact of a clinical protocol for care of acute asthma in the ER of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Method: In this hospital a cross-sectional study was conducted before and after implementation of the protocol, of consecutive patients presenting with acute asthma in the adult ER (age ³ 12 years). The intention was to measure the effect of recommendations on the objective assessment of severity, utilization of diagnostic tools, proposed therapy, not recommended therapy and on the outcomes. Results: The pre-protocol group comprised 108 patients and the protocol group comprised 96 patients. There was a significant increase in the use of pulse oximetry (8% to 77%, p<0.001) and PEFR (5% to 21%, p<0.001). There was an increase in the utilization of radiology (33% to 66%, p<0.001) and in that of blood tests (11% to 25%, p=0.016). There was also an increase in the number of patients receiving the three recommended nebulizations in the first hour (22% to 36%, p=0.04). Although the overall use of corticosteroids did not change, there was a significant increase in the use of oral steroids (8% to 28%, p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the not recommended therapy, time of stay and outcomes. Conclusion: The acute asthma clinical protocol used in the ER was associated to a positive effect on the objective assessment of severity of asthma and on the use of the recommended therapy. No other significant influence on the treatment or on the outcome was perceived.


Keywords: Clinical protocols. Asthma. Emergency medicine.


5 - Exercise-induced bronchospasm in children and adolescents with a diagnosis of asthma

Broncoespasmo induzido pelo exercício em crianças e adolescentes com diagnóstico de asma

Vitor E. Cassol, Maria E. Trevisna, Eliane Z. C. de Moraes, Luiz O. C. Portela, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):102-108

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Introduction: In asthmatic children and adolescents a high incidence of temporary bronchospasm is perceived after physical exertion. Objective: To investigate incidence and severity of exercise-induced bronchospasm in children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of mild, moderate or severe asthma. Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional, not controlled study was carried out. The sample encompassed follow-up of 40 asthmatic patients of both genders, between 7 and 18 years of age who were not regularly using anti-inflammatory medication. A standardized exercise provocation test that consisted of steady running on a treadmill with a 10% inclination was administered Pulmonary function was tested with forced spirometry using six expiratory maneuvers repeated at approximately 1, 5 ,10,15, 20 and 30 minutes after the exercise. The highest of six FEV1 readings was used for analysis. The FEV1 was employed to evaluate the presence and to classify the severity of positive exercise induced bronchospasm (EIB). The asthmatic patients presented adequate clinical and spirometric conditions for testing (FEV1 at least 70 % of the predicted value). A drop of ³ 10% in relation to FEV1 before exercise was adopted as a criterion for (EIB). Results: 26 (65 %) patients developed EIB. The proportion by category was: mild asthma 44%, moderate and severe asthma 100%. There was a significant association between proportion of EIB and severity of asthma (p<0.05), and a significant difference between severity of EIB (confirmed by a recorded decrease in the 1 second forced expiratory volume) and asthma severity (p<0.05). Conclusion: The proportion and severity of EIB were clearly related to the clinical severity of asthma.


Keywords: Asthma, exercise-induced/diagnosis. Children. Adolescent. Spirometry/methods.


6 - Transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

Punção aspirativa transbrônquica por agulha no diagnóstico e estadiamento do câncer de pulmão

Mauro Zamboni, Deborah Cordeiro Lannes, Andréia Salarini Monteiro, Marilene S. Nascimento, Edson Toscano, Aureliano Mota de Sousa Cavalcanti, Samuel Z. de Biasi Cordeiro, Paulo de Biasi Cordeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):109-114

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) with a flexible bronchoscope has been used for many years in the United States of America to diagnose bronchogenic carcinoma. However little information on the subject is available in Brazil. Objective: Assess the effectiveness of transbronchial needle aspiration for diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. Method: A retrospective review was made of 74 TBNA performed at the National Cancer Institute, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. a thoracic computerized tomography had oreviouslbeen made of all patients. Eleven (15%) patients exhibited mediastinal masses and 63 (85%) hilar masses. Seventy six endoscopic alterations were detected: enlargement of the main carina in 44 (59%) patients; enlargement of the secondary carina in 12 (16%); paratracheal compression in 5 (7%); posterior tracheal wall compression in 3 (4%); main bronchus compression in 5 (7%) AND BRONCHOSCOPY was normal in 5 (7%) patients. Results: Specimens were satisfactory for diagnosis in 42 (57%) patients and in 34 (46%) diagnosis was confirmed. Malignancy was confirmed in 30 of 34 patients (88%): as follows: small cell undifferentiated carcinoma in 10 of 30 (33%); squamous cell lung cancer in 7 of 30 (23%); adenocarcinoma 7 of 30 (23%); and non-small cell lung cancer in 6 of 30 (20%). Four of 30 (12%) were diagnosed as bearers of benign disease: tuberculosis 2 of 4 (50%) and sarcoidosis 2 of 4 (50%). No complications related to the method were perceived. Conclusion: This preliminary experience with TBNA in 74 patients indicated that this method is safe, easy to perform with a minimum of complications and useful for the diagnosis and staging of pulmonary neoplasms.


Keywords: Bronchoscopy/methods. Carcinoma, bronchogenic/diagnosis. Aspiration/methods.


7 - Extended Thymectomy for Treating Patients with Myasthenia Gravis (MG)

Resultado da timectomia ampliada no tratamento de pacientes com Miastenia gravis

Raul Lopes Ruiz Jr, Samuel Marek Reibscheid, Antonio José Maria Cataneo, Luis Aatônio de Lima Rezende

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):115-120

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: Extended thymectomy is one of several types of thymectomy. Literature suggests that the outcome and prognosis will be enhanced by performing a more extensive resection of the gland and of the anterior mediastinum tissue. Objective: To retrospectively evaluate response of MG patients to extended thymectomy. Method: From August 1992 to January 2003, forty-six MG patients were submitted to preoperative plasmapheresis and extended thymectomy. According to the time elapsed since onset of symptom they were divided into three groups; < 12 months, 13 to 24 months, and > 25 months. Results: There were 31 female and 15 male patients, mean age 30 years and average evolution time 26.3 months. Outpatient post-operative follow-up was on the average of 26.6 months. Level of response was good, 50% had full remission and a further 39% had good response. There was one death. The most common histopathology finding was thymic hyperplasia. Only 3 patients (6.5%) had benign thymomas; 5 (10.8%) had extra glandular thymic tissue: 2 in the perithymic fat and 3 in the pericardiac fat adjacent to the left phrenic nerve and aortal-pulmonary window. Conclusion: Treatment of MG by extended thymectomy is safe and efficient with high levels of complete remission. Extra glandular thymic tissue was found in some patients. As soon as diagnosis is completed, thymectomy is indicated together with plasmapheresis and medication, independent of age, onset of symptoms, and thymus pathology.


Keywords: Thymectomy/methods. Myasthenia gravis/pathology. Neuromuscular diseases/rehabilitation.


8 - Six Minutes Walk Test: Study of the Effect of Learning in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

Teste de caminhada de seis minutos: estudo do efeito do aprendizado em portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Sérgio Leite Rodrigues, Hélder Fonseca E Mendes, Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):121-125

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: The six minutes walk test has been increasingly utilized to assess the effectiveness of different clinical and surgical treatment options in pulmonary diseases. However lack of standardization for their performance may influence measurements and jeopardize assessment of the functional capacity of patients with cardiopulmonary disease. Objective: To determine the possible effects of learning on the distance covered during the six minute walk test for bearers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Method: A retrospective analysis of 35 medical records of COPD patients referred to the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program of the University Hospital of Brasília was carried out. On alternate days these patients had performed two six minutes walk tests, spirometry and arterial blood gas analysis. Clinical and functional diagnosis was based upon the history of exposure to risk factors, mucus production, dyspnea and spirometric dysfunction after use of bronchodilators. The Student test was used for the comparison of results that were different. Results: The distances covered in the second six-minute walk test (515 ± 82 meters) were greater than those covered in the first six-minute walk test (480 ± 85 metros), with statistically significant differences (p<0.05). However measurements of the muscular effort and perception of dyspnea (Borg scale), peripheral blood oxygen saturation (SpO2), respiratory and heart rates did not disclose any statistically significant differences between the two tests (p<0.05). Conclusion: The present study suggests that in order to standardize the six minutes walk test, the procedure should be performed at least twice to better assess the functional capacity of patients, bearers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


Keywords: Walking. Effectiveness. Lung diseases, obstrutive.


9 - Objective evaluation of clubbing on shadow images of index fingers. A study of patients with pulmonary disease and of normal individuals

Avaliação objetiva do hipocratismo digital em imagens de sombra de dedo indicador; estudo em pacientes pneumopatas e em indivíduos normais

José da Silva Moreira, Nelson da Silva Porto, Ana Luiza Schneider Moreira

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):126-133

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: Normal diagnosis of clubbing is clinical; however use of objective criteria may improve the accuracy of findings Objective: To present a simple method of obtaining finger images for the purpose of studying clubbing. Method: Shadow images of the index fingers obtained by projection through a transparent glass plate virtually without distortion and displayed on a common sheet of paper yielded the profile (PA) and hyponychial (HA) angles; as well as the ratio between distal phalangean and interphalangean depths (DPD/IPD). Upon physical examination of 306 adult bearers of pulmonary disease, 116 disclosed presence of clubbing (YES); 126 absence (NO); and 64 were doubtful cases (DBT). Also studied were 452 normal adult individuals. Among these 71.0% of the bearers and 33.4% of the controls were smokers. Results: Values found in normal individuals and in patients bearers of clubbing (YES) were, respectively, 172.8±5.9º vs. 183.4±5.9º for PA, 181.5±5.0º vs. 201.4±6.5º for HA, and 0.904±0.029 vs. 1.014±0.062 for DPD/IPD (significant differences, p<0.001). In the doubtful) cases (DBT) the three values were also higher than in normal controls (p<0.001). Furthermore, it was shown that among controls PA, HA and the DPD/IPD ratios were significantly larger in male smokers (p<0.005) while only the DPD/IPD ratio was larger in female smokers (p<0.05). Conclusions: This is a simple method of obtaining clear index finger images. The hyponychial angle determined on the images was the most useful measurement to discriminate digits clinically with and without clubbing (sensitivity of 76.7%, specificity of 83.2%, predictive positive value of 95.5% and predictive negative value of 96.9%).


Keywords: Clubbing, profile angle, hyponychial angle, relation DPD/IPD.


10 - Study of bronchoalveolar lavage in leptospirosis patients with pulmonary involvement

Estudo do lavado broncoalveolar em pacientes com comprometimento pulmonar na leptospirose

Jorge Eduardo Manhães de Carvalho, Isabela Nascimento Moraes, Angela Santos Ferreira, Regina Lúcia Caetano Gomes, Marcos Olivier Dalston, João José Pereira da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):134-139

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: Pulmonary involvement is common in leptospirosis and usually characterized by hemoptysis, dyspnea and diffuse bilateral infiltrates in chest X-rays. Such findings may be compatible with alveolar hemorrhage, already described by some authors both in autopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Objective: To evaluate the presence of alveolar hemorrhage, diagnosed through BAL, in bearers of leptospirosis patients with pulmonary involvement emphasizing the method's importance for early detection of this complication. Method: Seven patients with leptospirosis were submitted to BAL. All presented respiratory symptoms and/or infiltrates in the chest X-rays and/or hypoxemia. Alveolar hemorrhage was defined by the following findings in BAL: percentage of siderophages e"20% and/or Golde score >100 and/or hemorrhagic fluid. Culture and direct tests for leptospirosis were performed in BAL. Diagnosis of disease was confirmed by microscopy serum agglutination. Results: The aspect of the bronchoscopy was normal in five patients, showed blood in the bronchial tree in one case and inflammatory manifestations in another. The BAL aspect was hemorrhagic for all patients portraying alveolar hemorrhage. Culture and direct tests were negative for Leptospiras in the BAL. Conclusions: Leptospirosis must be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage. The BAL was confirmed as an efficient method for detection of alveolar hemorrhage in leptospirosis, to recommend immediate therapy for the purpose of preventing its evolution to massive hemoptysis and respiratory failure.


Keywords: Leptospirosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Radiography, thoracic.


11 - Tuberculosis associated to AIDS: demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients cared for at a reference center in the south of Brazil.

Tuberculose associada à AIDS: características demográficas, clínicas e laboratoriais de pacientes atendidos em um serviço de referência do sul do Brasil

Maria Marta Santos Boffo, Ivo Gomes de Mattos, Marta Osório Ribeiro, Isabel Cristina de Oliveira Neto

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):140-146

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Background: Synergism between tuberculosis and HIV is responsible for the increased morbidity-mortality rate in AIDS patients. Objective: To delineate the profile of patients with tuberculosis and AIDS in the city of Rio Grande by relating demographic, clinical and laboratory data. Method: The sample comprised all cases of tuberculosis defined by identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that occurred in the AIDS Service of the University Hospital/FURG between September, 1997 and December, 2000, which added to a total of 31 patients confirmed as definite cases of AIDS. Using the Ogawa-Kudoh culture method and the Kinyoun bacilloscopy, 33 clinical pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens were analyzed. Identification of M. tuberculosis was made by the usual phenotype methods. The method of proportions was chosen to establish resistance of isolated strains. Results: The mean age was of 33.8±9.9 years, with a man/woman ratio of 2.87:1 and 80.7% of Caucasians. All patients (n=31) exhibited overall or specific clinical manifestations of turberculosis at the time of suspicion diagnosis. In 20 of the cases risk factors were observed: use of injected drugs, alcoholism, malnutrition, imprisonment. Pulmonary disease occurred in 19 cases, extrapulmonary in 10 and the association of both in two. Lymph node commitment was more frequent among those with extrapulmonary disease. The isolated strains (33) were identified as M. tuberculosis and 28 were tested and showed sensibility to Isoniazid and Rifampin. Conclusion: In AIDS patients, tuberculosis appeared with various clinical manifestations, jeopardizing both men and women of less favored social conditions while at a fully productive stage of their lives.


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology. Tuberculosis/complications. Acquired immunodeficiency syndorme/tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis/indicators of morbidity and mortality.


Case Report

12 - Hemangioendothelioma: a rare tumor of the mediastinum

Hemangioendotelioma:tumor raro de mediastino

Marcelo Loze de Queiroz, Petrucio Arantes Sarmento de Souza, Carlos Jogi Imaeda, Vicente Forte

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):147-149

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

A 30 year old Caucasian male from São Paulo was admitted to the hospital He had been complaining about constant, moderate pain in the anterior and lateral left hemi-thoracic region for the last three months as well as associated great effort dyspnea over the last month.Investigation with chest X-rays, CT scans and MRI revealed a large anterior and medial mediastinal tumor suggesting large vessel invasion. The patient was submitted to a left side parasternal mediastinostomy and a biopsy of the mediastinal mass which was complicated by severe bleeding. An immediate median full sternotomy was elected in addition to a left anterior-lateral thoracotomy for total tumor resection and control of the bleeding. Evolution was good, with hospital discharge on the ninth postoperative day. The anatomical-pathological essay disclosed a hemangioendothelioma of the mediastinum.


Keywords: Hemangioendothelioma/diagnosis. Mediastinal neoplasms.


13 - Microscopic Polyangiitis with Alveolar Hemorrhage

Poliangeíte microscópica com hemorragia alveolar difusa

José Wellington Alves dos Santos, Gustavo Trindade Michel, Carlos Eurico da Luz Pereira, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Jader Nascimento Mileto, Cleber Antonio Fiorini

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):150-153

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Microscopic Polyangiitis is a form of Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA)-associated small-vessel vasculitis that preferentially involves venules, capillaries and arterioles and may also involve arteries and veins. It is one of the most common primary systemic small-vessel vasculitis. Its clinical presentation is not distinguishable from the Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) and the Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). These types of small-vessel vasculitis are histologically similar and can be differentiated by the presence of granulomatous inflammation in WG or asthma in CSS. The case of a 66-year-old man with microscopic polyangiitis presenting with alveolar hemorrhage is reported with a discussion of the differential diagnosis of other types of pulmonary small-vessel vasculitis.


Keywords: Microscopic polyangiitis. Alveolar hemorrhage. Pulmonary vasculitis


14 - Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia

Bronquiolite obliterante com pneumonia em organização

Gabriela Addor, Andréia Salarini Monteiro, David Henrique Nigri, Wilhermo Torres, Carlos Alberto de Barros Franco

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):154-157

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

48 years-old woman, asymptomatic, presented with radiographic findings of patchy airspace consolidation with nodular opacities in the upper right lobe, middle lobe and lingula. The differential diagnoses of neoplasms, sarcoidosis, granulomatous diseases and tuberculosis were considered. Diagnosis of Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia was made by means of videothoracoscopy whereupon treatment with corticosteroids was begun. The patient had a positive evolution with resolution of the radiographic finding.


Keywords: bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, bronchiolitis obliterans


Review Article

15 - Biomass burning and health effects

Queima de biomassa e efeitos sobre a saúde

Marcos Abdo Arbex, José Eduardo Delfini Cançado, Luiz Alberto Amador Pereira, Alfésio Luís Ferreira Braga, Paulo Hilário do Nascimento Saldiva

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):158-175

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

The first thought that comes to mind concerning air pollution is related to urban centers where automotive exhausts and the industrial chimneys are the most important sources of atmospheric pollutants. However a significant portion of the earth's population is exposed to still another source of air pollution, the burning of biomass that primarily affects developing countries. This review article calls the attention of lung specialists, public authorities and the community in general to the health risks entailed in the burning of biomass, be it indoors or outdoors to which the population is exposed. This review describes the main conditions that lead to the burning of biomass and how the literature has recorded its effects on human health discussing the psychopathological mechanisms. Finally two recent studies are presented that emphasize an important type of biomass burning that of the sugar cane straw. This is a common practice in several regions of Brazil changing the respiratory morbidity standards of the population exposed.


Keywords: air pollution, biomass, sugar cane, smoke, vegetation fires, respiratory disease.


16 - Smoking and its peculiarities during pregnancy: a critical review

Tabagismo e suas peculiaridades durante a gestação: uma revisão crítica

Waldir Leopércio, Analice Gigliotti

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):176-185

Abstract PDF PT Portuguese Text

Pregnancy is a special occasion to promote the end of the smoking habit. Concern with health of the fetus brings about an extraordinary motivation for the pregnant woman. Results and cost-effectiveness of interventions are better in this group than in the overall population and the advantages extrapolate the benefits to the woman's health as they also allow for the development of a healthy fetus. Knowledge of the peculiarities of smoking during pregnancy is fundamental for a directed approach which adds to a probability of greater success. This review investigates the extent of the harm of tobacco for the pregnant woman as well as for the fetus. As such it, it encourages the use of appropriate techniques to urge pregnant women to stop smoking.


Keywords: Smoking/adverse effects. Tobacco use cessation/methods. Pregnancy.


Letters to the Editor

17 - Atividade bactericida precoce: uma metodologia segura e necessária

Moises Palaci, David Jamil Hadad, Valdério do Valle Dettoni, Reynaldo Dietze

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):189-191


18 - Carta ao Editor

Sergio Pripas

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):192-



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