Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2005 - Volume 31  - Number 5  (September/October)

2 - Sarcoidosis in Brazil

Sarcoidose no Brasil

Eduardo Pamplona Bethlem

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(5):2-3

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Original Article

4 - Factors predictive of the development of acute asthma attacks in children

Fatores preditivos da evolução da asma aguda em crianças

Maria Luisa Zocal Paro, Joaquim Carlos Rodrigues

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(5):373-381

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To use clinical and functional characteristics observed upon admission to an emergency room to identify factors predictive of the occurrence and course of acute asthma attacks in children. Methods: We prospectively studied 130 asthmatic children, from 1 to 13 years of age, who were treated for acute asthma attacks in an emergency room, evaluating status determined at admission and over the course of the crisis. Clinical scores were determined and arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry was measured, as was peak expiratory flow. Results: The initial clinical score, arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry and peak expiratory flow correlated with the number of inhalations performed, as well as with the need for corticosteroid treatment. Mean initial clinical score and mean arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry of the hospitalized patients were statistically different from those of patients who were not hospitalized. Initial clinical score, arterial oxygen saturation and prior treatment for the same exacerbation were predictive of the need for hospitalization. Conclusion: The measurement of arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry and the clinical score were useful in predicting the occurrence and course of acute asthma attacks in children. The measurement and interpretation of peak expiratory flow is difficult in children and, under these conditions, served no practical application.


Keywords: Asthma; Acute disease; Prospective studies; Predictive value of tests; Child


5 - Incidence of viral infection of the respiratory tract in acute asthma patients treated in the emergency room

Incidência de infecção viral do trato respiratório em asma aguda atendida em sala de emergência

Ivete Terezinha Machado da Rocha, Diego Menegotto, Cristine Feliciati Hoffmann, Sergio Saldanha Menna-Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Selir Maria Straliotto, Suzie Hyona Kang, Lilian Rech Pasin, Josiane Fischer, Fabiane Nieto

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(5):382-389

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Objective: To evaluate the incidence of viral infection in patients with acute asthma treated in the emergency room. Methods: We conducted a cohort study of patients aged 12 and older presenting to the emergency room of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre with acute asthma. Nasopharyngeal aspirate was collected, and antigens were detected through indirect immunofluorescence staining for respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus and influenza, as well as for parainfluenza types 1, 2, 3 and 4. Data were collected regarding demographic characteristics, medical history, the attack that led to the current emergency room visit, and clinical outcomes. Results: From March to July of 2004, 49 patients were examined for viral infection of the respiratory tract. Respiratory viruses were identified in 6 patients (3 with adenovirus, 2 with influenza A, 1 with parainfluenza type 1). The mean age of the patients with viral infection of the respiratory tract was 61.7 ± 11.5 years, compared with 41.7 ± 20.9 years for the patients without such infection (p = 0.027). There were no other significant differences in clinical characteristics or outcomes. Conclusion: The incidence of viral infection of the respiratory tract in acute asthma patients 12 years and older treated in an emergency room was 12.2%, which confirms that viral infection is a significant precipitant of acute asthma for patients in this age bracket.


Keywords: Emergency Service, Hospital; Vírus diseases/prevention & control; Asthma; Respiratory tract infections; Influenza A virus, human


6 - Asthma prevalence among employees of a university hospital as evaluated using a European Union respiratory health questionnaire

Prevalência de asma em funcionários de hospital universitário avaliada por meio de questionário de saúde respiratória da Comunidade Européia

Antônio Soares Aguiar Filho, Edmundo Pessoa Almeida Lopes Neto, Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti Sarinho, Maria Magalhães Vasconcelos, Darla Siqueira Tenório Lima, Penélope Matos Wirtsbiki

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(5):390-397

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Objective: To determine the prevalence of bronchial asthma among university hospital employees between the ages of 20 and 44 based on the criteria established in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Methods: A descriptive, prospective, randomized, stratified prevalence study was conducted, in which questionnaires completed between April and October of 2002 by 351 employees of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (Federal University at Pernambuco) Hospital das Clínicas were evaluated. For sample characterization, the independent variables used were the signs and symptoms of asthma, and one dependent variable (physician-diagnosed asthma, characterized by data related to attacks occurring within the 12 months preceding the study) was included. Results: The prevalence of asthma was 10.7%. Nocturnal dyspnea, chest tightness and nocturnal cough were the most frequent symptoms, although statistically significant correlations with asthma were found exclusively among females (p = 0.03, p = 0.04 and p = 0.001, respectively). Nocturnal dyspnea, wheezing within the last 12 months, dyspnea with wheezing and the use of asthma medication were more frequent among individuals between 20 and 29 years of age. The last two variables presented statistical significance (p < 0.001). Undertreatment of asthma was identified in 35 (10.7%) of the cases. Conclusions: The results of this pioneering study show that asthma prevalence in a sample composed of employees of a university hospital located in a developing country was slightly higher than that found in the literature and suggest that working in a university hospital does not reduce the frequency of undertreatment.


Keywords: Asthma/diagnosis; Asthma/epidemiology; Hospitals, university; Questionnnaires


7 - Sarcoidosis in the south of Brazil: a study of 92 patients

Sarcoidose no sul do Brasil: estudo de 92 pacientes

Luiz Carlos Corrêa da Silva, Felipe Teixeira Hertz, Dennis Baroni Cruz, Fernanda Caraver, Juliana Cardozo Fernandes, Fabrício Picoli Fortuna, Klaus Irion, Nelson da Silva Porto

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(5):398-406

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Objective: This case study, conducted in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, aims to determine the local profile of sarcoidosis, describing patient characteristics, clinical presentation and pulmonary function, as well as analyzing the results of radiological, histopathological and biochemical tests, at the time of diagnosis in a series of sarcoidosis patients. Methods: A retrospective study of 92 patients with sarcoidosis treated on the Pavilhão Pereira Filho (Pereira Filho [Respiratory Diseases] Ward) of the Hospital Santa Casa, in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, between 1990 and 2003. The protocol included the collection of clinical, biochemical, radiological, spirometric and histological data. Results: There was no significant gender-based difference in frequency (men, 42%; women, 58%). Mean age was 41.8 ± 14.1 years, with 87% of patients being between 20 and 60 years old. Caucasians predominated (84%). Most patients (61%) had never smoked, 29% were former smokers, and 10% were current smokers. The majority (33%) of the diagnoses were made in winter. Among the clinical findings, it is of note that 12% were asymptomatic, 18% presented pulmonary symptoms only, 22% presented extrapulmonary symptoms only, and 48% presented pulmonary and extrapulmonary symptoms. Spirometry was performed in 79% of patients at the time of diagnosis. In 45% of those patients, abnormal results were obtained: a restrictive pattern was seen in 23%, an obstructive pattern in 18% and a mixed pattern in 4%. Classification by radiological type revealed that 30% were stage I, 48% were stage II, and 22% were stage III. Conclusion: The findings of this study are quite similar to those of other studies in the literature, particularly those conducted in Europe.


Keywords: Sarcoidosis, pulmonary/diagnosis; Sarcoidosis, pulmonary/pathology; Lung diseases/pathology; Prognosis; Retrospective studies


8 - Measuring forced expiratory volume in one second alone is not an accurate method of assessing response to bronchodilators in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

O volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo não é suficiente para avaliar resposta broncodilatadora em doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Felícia de Moraes Branco Tavares, Luiz Carlos Corrêa da Silva, Adalberto Sperb Rubin

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(5):407-414

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Objective: To assess the frequency of variation in forced expiratory volume in one second after bronchodilator use in a sample of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, correlating such variation with clinical and demographic variables and evaluating the frequency of response presented in forced vital capacity, slow vital capacity, inspiratory capacity, residual volume, airway resistance and specific airway conductance. Methods: A total of 64 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were submitted to whole body plethysmography, and reversibility of bronchoconstriction after the administration 400 µg of fenoterol was quantified. Results: A response in forced expiratory volume in one second was observed in 31% of the patients. Excluding patients presenting a response in forced expiratory volume in one second, 5% presented responses in 5 of the other 6 parameters, 10% presented responses in 4 parameters, 17.5% in 3 parameters, 27.5% in 2 parameters, and 25% in only 1 parameter. Conclusion: When included in the evaluation of bronchodilator response together with forced expiratory volume in one second, static lung volumes, airway resistance and airway conductance allowed a broader evaluation of those patients presenting a functional pharmacodynamic response. These results are in accordance with the observation that bronchodilator use provides clinical improvement and relief of dyspnea to many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, even to those in whom such treatment leads to no improvement in forced expiratory volume in one second.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/drug therapy; Bronchodilator agents/therapeutic use; Airway resistance/drug effects; Respiratory function tests; Vital capacity; Forced expiratory volume


9 - Abnormalities on computed tomography scans of the paranasal sinus in adult patients with allergic rhinitis

Alterações tomográficas de seios paranasais em pacientes adultos com rinite alérgica

Eduardo Vieira Ponte, Fabiana Lima, Glauber Ferraz Aguiar, Fabíola Goyana, Marcelo Benício dos Santos, Álvaro Augusto Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(5):421-426

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Objective: To evaluate, using computerized tomography, the frequency of paranasal sinus involvement in patients with allergic rhinitis. Methods: From among outpatients diagnosed with rhinitis and complaining of nasal obstruction, 60 were selected for evaluation. The patients were submitted to anterior rhinoscopy, skin prick test for reactivity to aeroallergens and computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses. In addition, questionnaires designed to evaluate symptom severity were administered. The Lund score was used to evaluate paranasal sinus involvement on computed tomography scans. Results: Computed tomography scans of the paranasal sinuses were abnormal in 31 patients (52%). The sum of the largest diameters of cutaneous reactions to the aeroallergens, symptom severity and anterior rhinoscopy findings did not differ between patients with paranasal sinus involvement and those without. All the patients with paranasal sinus abnormalities also presented osteomeatal complex abnormalities, whereas only 11 patients (38%) without paranasal sinus involvement presented such abnormalities (p < 0.01). Conclusion: In a sample of patients with allergic rhinitis, the frequency of paranasal sinus abnormalities on computed tomography scans was elevated and did not correlate with symptom severity or skin prick test reactivity but was correlated with osteomeatal complex obstruction.


Keywords: Rhinitis; Sinusitis; Tomography, X-ray computed; Paranasal sinuses/radiography


11 - Noncompliance with treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis in Cuiabá, in the State of Mato Grosso - Brazil

Abandono do tratamento da tuberculose pulmonar em Cuiabá - MT - Brasil

Silvana Margarida Benevides Ferreira, Ageo Mário Cândido da Silva, Clóvis Botelho

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(5):427-435

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Objective: To analyze factors predictive of noncompliance with pulmonary tuberculosis treatment. Methods: A historical cohort study involving 481 of the 529 active tuberculosis patients registered with the Tuberculosis Control Program in the city of Cuiabá, located in the state of Mato Grosso, during the 1998-2000 period. Data were obtained by analyzing medical charts and registration records. In the bivariate analysis, the chi-square test was used to calculate noncompliance rate ratios (relative risk), 95% confidence intervals were determined, and Fisher's exact test was used. The choice to estimate the rate of incidence was the method of density and a multivariate logistic regression model was constructed in order to identify the variables that were most predictive of noncompliance, using a level of statistical significance of p < 0.05. Results: The global rate of incidence was 27.3%, equivalent to 5.1 noncompliant patients/100 patients/month, increasing in the second and third months of treatment. In the final logistic regression model, the following were considered predictors of noncompliance: unsupervised treatment (odds ratio: 2.58; 95% confidence interval: 1.64 - 4.06; p < 0.001); having been treated during the 1998-1999 period (odds ratio: 1.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.14 - 1.80; p = 0.002); being male (odds ratio: 1.39; 95% confidence interval: 1.10 - 1.76; p = 0.005) and having been out of compliance with previous treatment regimes (odds ratio: 1.37; 95% confidence interval: 1.06 - 1.78; p < 0.017). Conclusion: The results indicate an elevated incidence of noncompliance and show that unsupervised treatment, year in which treatment was received, male gender and prior noncompliance were predictors of future noncompliance.


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary/therapy; Treatment refusal; Cohort studies


Review Article

12 - Avian influenza A (H5N1) - the bird flu

Influenza A aviária (H5N1) - a gripe do frango

Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina, Gabriela Araújo Costa, Alessandra Coutinho Faria

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(5):436-444

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The objective of this study was to review the literature related to avian influenza A (H5N1). The bibliographic research was conducted using the Medline, MD Consult, HighWire, Medscape and Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature) databases, as well as through direct research, limiting the scope to articles published within the past 10 years. We selected 31 original articles addressing the recent outbreaks of infection with the H5N1 subtype of avian influenza A in domesticated birds in Asia, which have resulted in significant economic losses and repercussions for public health, as well as some cases of human infection presenting high lethality. In most cases, infection has been associated with direct exposure to infected birds or contact with surfaces infected with bird excrement. However, cases of human-to-human transmission have been confirmed. In those cases, the incubation period varied from 2 to 4 days. The clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic infection to mild upper airway disease, pneumonia and multiple organ failure. Chest X-rays may reveal bilateral interstitial infiltrate, lobar collapse, focal consolidation and air bronchogram without pleural effusion. Lymphopenia is indicative of a poor prognosis. Supportive care appears to be the only acceptable treatment. Risk factors for poor prognosis include advanced age, delayed hospitalization, lower airway involvement, low white blood cell count or lymphopenia upon admission. Controlling outbreaks in domestic fowl and limiting contact between humans and infected birds must be the priorities in the management of this disease at the public health level. In addition, techniques and knowledge regarding the disease should be widely disseminated.


Keywords: Influenza A virus, avian /pathogenicity; Influenza; Disease outbreaks; Disease vectors; Clinical trials


13 - Educational interventions for children with asthma: An analytical review of the literature

Intervenções educativas em asma na infância. Uma revisão analítica da literatura

Lívia Fonseca da Silva Carvalho de Azevedo Santana, Rita de Cássia Santos Bastos, Martha Silvia Martinez-Silveira, Leda Solano de Freitas Souza

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(5):445-458

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A review of the literature published from 1992 to 2002 was performed in order to evaluate educational interventions for asthmatics from 0 to 18 years of age and to identify characteristics related to the efficacy of such interventions. Various databases were used, and a manual search of the references found in the studies selected was conducted. Thirty-nine studies (including 27 controlled studies) were selected, and, although presenting varying results, these studies provided valuable insights into the validity of education in the control of pediatric asthma. The studies evaluated the following parameters: morbidity, use of health care services, quality of life, pulmonary function, knowledge of the disease and self-care abilities. In 32 studies (82%), a beneficial effect was attributed to one or more of the variables. Among the 27 controlled studies, 85.7% presented evidence of improvement in self-care abilities, 83.3% demonstrated increased knowledge, 80% showed a reduction in diurnal and nocturnal asthma symptoms, 71.4% demonstrated fewer unscheduled medical visits, 66.6% showed that the capacity for physical activity increased, 54.5% reported fewer hospital admissions, 50% demonstrated fewer emergency room visits, 50% presented evidence of improved pulmonary function, 22,2% showed fewer school absences, and 20% found an improvement in quality of life. Among the educational programs reviewed, the number of topics was the only characteristic that was found to correlate with the degree of efficacy. The use of sophisticated educational techniques did not lead to better results. Although asthma education programs for children and adolescents has beneficial effects, further studies with better control of confounding variables are needed in order to evaluate the efficacy of such programs with greater precision.


Keywords: Asthma/prevention & control; Health education; Health knowledge, attitudes, practice; Child; Questionnaires


Case Report

14 - Pleural effusion caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria

Derrame pleural por micobactéria não tuberculosa

Márcia Seiscento, Sidney Bombarda, Adriana Castro de Carvalho, José Ribas Milanez de Campos, Lisete Teixeira

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(5):459-463

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Mycobacterium kansasii, a nontuberculous mycobacterium, can cause pulmonary disease presenting clinical and radiological similarities to tuberculosis. M. kansasii infection has been associated with risk factors such as bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis sequelae, pneumoconiosis and immunosuppression. Herein, we describe a case of pleural effusion in a 67-year-old patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a history of pulmonary tuberculosis. The histological analysis demonstrated a granulomatous chronic process and acid-fast bacilli positivity, suggesting a diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis. M. kansasii was detected both in pleural fluid cultures and in cultures of tissue samples. We discuss the differential etiologic diagnosis with other infectious agents of granulomatous diseases, and we address treatment options.


Keywords: Mycobacterium kansasii; Mycobacterium infections; Pleural effusion; Case reports


15 - Acute respiratory failure after occupational exposure to food preservatives

Insuficiência respiratória aguda após exposição a conservantes de alimentos

Maria Auxiliadora Carmo Moreira, Luiz Carlos da Cunha, Tereza Yoshie Ikegami, José Laerte Rodrigues da Silva Junior

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(5):464-469

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Herein, we report an instance of occupational exposure to food preservatives and resultant acute respiratory failure in three workers. The toxicological analysis revealed that mixing the particular food preservatives involved, a procedure that was performed by the three workers involved, produced NO2, the inhalation of which caused the pulmonary edema and respiratory failure. With time, the pulmonary damage was completely reversed in all three individuals. Accompanying this case report is a brief review of the literature regarding acute pulmonary injury resulting from occupational exposure to chemicals. We emphasize the importance of training, as well as of the use of protective gear, for workers who handle chemical substances.


Keywords: Respiratory insufficiency; Occupational exposure; Occupational diseases; Case report


16 - Yellow nail syndrome

Síndrome da unha amarela

Renato Maciel, Andréia Cristina de Melo, Emanuella Braga Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(5):470-473

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by three main features: discoloration of the nails, together with dystrophic alterations; lymphedema; and pleural effusion. It is often accompanied by bronchiectasis and chronic rhinosinusitis. Herein, we report a case of the complete syndrome with bilateral pleural effusion in a patient under treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis for nine months. There was a family history of two similar cases in siblings.


Keywords: Nail diseases; Lymphedema; Pleural effusion; Antitubercular; Syndrome; Case report



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