Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2006 - Volume 32  - Number 4  (July/August)

Original Article

4 - Compliance with maintenance treatment of asthma (ADERE study)

Adesão ao tratamento de manutenção em asma (estudo ADERE)

José Miguel Chatkin, Daniela Cavalet-Blanco, Nóris Coimbra Scaglia, Roberto Guidotti Tonietto, Mário B. Wagner, Carlos Cezar Fritscher

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):277-283

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the rate of compliance with preventive treatment of moderate and severe persistent asthma. Methods: Physicians at various medical centers across the country were invited to nominate patients for participation in the study. Inclusion criteria were being over the age of 12 and presenting moderate or severe persistent asthma. Participating patients received salmeterol/fluticasone 50/250 µg by dry powder inhaler for 90 days and were instructed to return the empty packages at the end of the study as a means of determining the total quantity used. In order to evaluate compliance, a member of the research team contacted each patient via telephone at the study outset and again at the end of the 90-day study period. Asthma patients were considered compliant with the treatment if they used at least 85% of the prescribed dose. The following variables were studied: gender, age, race, marital status, years of schooling, smoking habits, other atopic conditions, comorbidities, asthma severity, use of other medication and number of hospital admissions for asthma. Results: A total of 131 patients from fifteen states were included. The overall rate of compliance was found to be 51.9%. There was a significant difference in compliance in relation to asthma severity: compliance was greater among patients with severe persistent asthma than among those with moderate persistent asthma (p = 0.02). There were no statistically significant differences among any of the other variables. Conclusion: The overall rate of compliance with maintenance treatment of asthma was low.


Keywords: Asthma/drug therapy; Asthma/prevention & control; Patient compliance; Patient education; Physician-patient relations


5 - Seasonal variations in emergency room visits for asthma attacks in Gama, Brazil

Variação sazonal nos atendimentos de emergência por asma em Gama, Distrito Federal

Laércio Moreira Valença, Paulo César Nunes Restivo, Mário Sérgio Nunes

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):284-289

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To quantify the number of asthma attacks treated in the emergency room of a public hospital and to study seasonal fluctuations, taking into consideration the local climate, which is characterized by having only two seasons: a rainy/humid season and a dry season. Methods: A retrospective survey was conducted in a community general hospital. A total of 37,642 emergency room consultations related to asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, upper-airway infection or other respiratory complaints were registered during a two year period. The data from each patient chart were collected for later analysis. Results: Among the respiratory conditions treated, asthma (24.4%) was the second most common diagnosis. Most of the asthma consultations (56.6%) involved children below the age of fifteen. Regression analysis revealed a seasonal variation in the number of asthma consultations, which was significantly higher in March (p = 0.0109), the low points being in August (p = 0.0485) and September (p = 0.0169). The correlation between climate and asthma was most significant in relation to changes in humidity, although the effect was delayed by one month (p = 0.0026) or two months (p = 0.0002). Conclusion: Visits to the emergency room for the treatment of asthma attacks were more frequent during the rainy season, increasing at one to two months after the annual increase in humidity and decreasing in the dry season. This positive correlation raises the possibility of a causal relationship with proliferation of house dust mites and molds.


Keywords: Seasons; Status asthamaticus/etiology; Weather; Pyroglyphidae ; Humidity; Emergency service, hospital


6 - Post-pneumonectomy thoracic drainage: to drain or not to drain? A retrospective study

Drenagem torácica pós-pneumonectomia: sim ou não? Estudo retrospectivo

João Carlos Thomson, Olavo Franco Ferreira Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):290-293

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the need for post-pneumonectomy thoracic drainage. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 46 patients having undergone pneumonectomy in the Thoracic Surgery Department of the Londrina University Hospital between January of 1998 and December of 2004. Patients were divided into two groups: those having been submitted to drainage and those not having been. The diseases involved were lung cancer, bronchiectasis and tuberculosis. Results: Drainage was used in 21 patients, whereas no drainage was used in 25. The most common postoperative complication was subcutaneous emphysema (12 cases). Hospital stays were of shorter duration among patients who were not submitted to drainage than among those who were (mean, 6.5 days vs. 10.2 days). No serious postoperative complications were observed in the group of patients not submitted to drainage. Conclusion: The findings that evolutions were more favorable and hospital stays were shorter for the patients not submitted to drainage call into question the need for routine post-pneumonectomy drainage.


Keywords: Drainage; Pleural cavity; Pneumonectomy; Postoperative care; Postoperative complications; Retrospective studies


7 - The relative frequency of hypomagnesemia in outpatients with chronic airflow limitation treated at a referral center in the north of the state of Paraná, Brazil

Freqüência relativa de hipomagnesemia em pacientes com limitação crônica do fluxo aéreo atendidos em ambulatório de referência do norte do Paraná

Alcindo Cerci Neto, Olavo Franco Ferreira Filho, Johnathan de Sousa Parreira

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):294-300

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the relative frequency of hypomagnesemia among patients with chronic airflow limitation treated as outpatients at a referral center in the northern part of the state of Paraná between 2000 and 2001, as well as to determine whether hypomagnesemia correlates with hypoxia, with other electrolyte disturbances and with the severity of airflow limitation. Methods: This was a descriptive study of the relative frequency of hypomagnesemia in 72 patients with chronic airflow limitation. All of the patients were submitted to blood tests to determine serum levels of magnesium and other electrolytes, as well as to staging of the underlying disease. Results: The prevalence of hypomagnesemia was 27.8%. The mean age was 65 ± 9.9 years, and there was a predominance of males. The mean forced expiratory volume in one second was 1.31 ± 0.52 L. Most of the patients (68.1%) were found to be in the advanced stages of the disease. Hypomagnesemia was not found to correlate with other electrolyte disturbances, hypoxemia or disease stage. Conclusion: The high frequency of patients in the advanced stages is likely attributable to the fact that the outpatient facility is a referral center for the region. Further studies should be conducted in order to determine the probable causes of this high prevalence of hypomagnesemia.


Keywords: Magnesium/blood; Pulmonary ventilation; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Respiratory insufficiency


8 - Potential consequences for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients who do not get the recommended minimum daily amount of physical activity

Possíveis conseqüências de não se atingir a mínima atividade física diária recomendada em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva cronica estável

Fabio Pitta, Thierry Troosters, Vanessa S. Probst, Sarah Lucas, Marc Decramer, Rik Gosselink

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):301-308

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The present study attempted to determine whether patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) get the minimum daily amount of physical activity recommended in the guidelines established by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), as well as to characterize the consequences of noncompliance with those guidelines. Methods: This study involved 23 patients (median age: 61 - range, 59-69 years; FEV1: 39% of predicted - range, 34-53%; BMI: 24 kg/m2 - range, 21-27 kg/m2). The following parameters were evaluated: daily physical activity (DynaPort activity monitor); pulmonary function; muscle force; exercise tolerance; quality of life; functional status; and various indices of disease severity (GOLD, BODE and MRC). Results: Based on compliance with the guidelines (minimum of 30 minutes of walking per day), 12 patients were considered "physically active", and 11 were considered "physically inactive". No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of age, gender, BMI, muscle force, ventilatory reserve, hyperinflation or quality of life. The inactive group presented more impaired pulmonary function and lower exercise tolerance, as well as lower MRC and BODE scores (p < 0.05). In their daily life, patients in the inactive group also walked for less time and more slowly than did those in the active group (p < 0.05). The MRC and BODE indices were superior to the GOLD index in predicting compliance with the guidelines, both presenting a specificity of 0.83, compared with 0.50 for the GOLD index. The BODE index score increased significantly with each day of inactivity. Conclusion: A large number of COPD patients do not walk more than 30 minutes per day and are therefore not getting the minimum daily amount of physical activity recommended by the ACSM. Inactivity correlates with a higher mortality rate. The MRC and BODE indices proved superior to the GOLD index in predicting whether patients are physically inactive in their daily lives.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Body mass index; Exercise tolerance; Exercise; Guidelines; Severity of illness index


9 - Profile of research published in the annals of the Brazilian Pulmonology and Phthisiology Conferences held over the last twenty years

Perfil da atividade de pesquisa publicada nos anais dos congressos brasileiros de pneumologia e tisiologia nos últimos vinte anos

Alexandre Todorovic Fabro, Hugo Hyung Bok Yoo, Thaís Helena Abrahão Thomaz Queluz

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):309-315

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To increase the knowledge base regarding pulmonology research in Brazil. Methods: A retrospective, observational study of the abstracts published in the Annals of the Brazilian Pulmonology and Phthisiology Conferences held from 1986 to 2004, quantifying the institutions of origin by geographic distribution and type, as well as categorizing the abstracts by study design and topic. Results: A total of 6467 abstracts were published. The institutions of origin were located, variously, in the Southeast (3870 abstracts), South (1309), Northeast (783), Central-West (267) and North (84). There were 94 abstracts originating from foreign institutions, especially from institutions in Portugal (56.3%) and the United States (13.8%). Most of the studies (5825) were conducted in public Brazilian institutions. There were 4234 clinical studies, 1994 case reports and 239 original research articles. A marked, progressive increase was observed in the number of clinical studies and case reports during the period evaluated. Overall, the most common themes were tuberculosis and other infections diseases (25.2%), following by oncology (11.6%), interstitial lung diseases (8.8%) and thoracic surgery (8.5%). Nevertheless, the number of abstracts on each topic varied widely from year to year. Conclusion: Public Brazilian institutions are the principal sources of pulmonology research in Brazil. Such research activity is concentrated in the southeastern part of the country. Case reports account for one-third of this activity. Although there was great variability in the subjects addressed, diseases that are highly prevalent in Brazil, such as tuberculosis and other infections diseases, were the most common topics.


Keywords: Biomedical research/statistics & numerical data; Respiratory tract diseases; Pulmonary disease (Speciality); Bibliometrics; Scientific and technical publications/statistics & numerical data; Brazil


10 - Analysis of pulmonary mechanics in an experimental model of sepsis

Análise da mecânica pulmonar em modelo experimental de sepse

Rodrigo Storck Carvalho, André Gustavo Magalhãer de Pinho, Ana Paula Alves de Andrade, César Augusto Melo e Silva, Carlos Eduardo Gaio, Paulo Tavares

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):316-321

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether pulmonary mechanics are altered in mice with sepsis. Methods: A total of 40 Balb/c mice were divided into two groups: survival (n = 21) and pulmonary mechanics (n = 19). The survival group was divided into three subgroups: control (n = 7), sublethal (n = 7) and lethal (n = 7). The pulmonary mechanics group was also divided into three subgroups: control (n = 5), sublethal (n = 7) and lethal (n = 7). Sepsis was induced through cecal ligation and puncture, the latter varying in degree (sublethal or lethal). At eight hours after the intervention, pulmonary mechanics were measured through end-inflation occlusion. In the pulmonary mechanics group, the following variables were studied: total pressure, resistance, viscoelasticity, dynamic compliance and static compliance. The data obtained were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Results: The data for the survival group indicate the efficacy of the model employed. There were no statistically significant differences among the pulmonary mechanics subgroups in terms of dynamic compliance, static compliance, total pressure, resistance or viscoelasticity. Conclusion: At eight hours after cecal ligation and puncture, there were no changes in the lung parenchyma, nor were any alterations observed in the viscous and viscoelastic components of the lung.


Keywords: Sepsis; Respiratory mechanics; Lung/injuries; Punctures/instrumentation; Respiratory distress syndrome, adult; Mice


11 - Morphological aspects as prognostic factors in malignant mesothelioma: a study of 58 cases

Marcadores morfológicos de prognóstico no mesotelioma maligno: um estudo de 58 casos

Alexandre Bottrel Motta, Germânia Pinheiro, Leila Antonângelo, Edwin Roger Parra, Maria Margarida Monteiro, José Carlos das Neves Pereira, Tereza Takagaki, Mario Terra Filho, Sandro Martins, Vera Luiza Capelozzi

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):322-332

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Various markers have shown promise as diagnostic markers and prognostic predictors in malignant mesothelioma (MM). Methods: Through morphometric and immunological studies of markers in stromal components (calretinin, CEA, Leu-M1 and thrombomodulin) and nuclear components (p53 and Ki-67), we evaluated post-diagnosis survival in 58 patients with MM. Results: The histologic pattern of the MM was typical in 50 cases and atypical in 8. Through immunohistochemistry, we confirmed 40 cases of mesothelioma and 11 cases of adenocarcinoma, although we were unable to classify 7 of the 8 cases presenting atypical histologic patterns. Cox multivariate analysis revealed that the risk factor for death was higher (476.2) among patients of advanced age, presenting the biphasic subtype and testing positive for components expressed at the nuclear level. Conclusion: The most useful immunohistochemical markers were was calretinin (for mesothelioma) and CEA (for adenocarcinoma). Immunohistochemical quantification of thrombomodulin facilitated the diagnosis of mesothelioma in patients testing positive for both calretinin and CEA. The most useful prognostic information was that provided by the routine histopathological analysis of the tumor type. It is of note that the combination of a mean age of 55 years and 30.5% immunohistochemical markers in nuclear components created a natural dividing point between patients in which survival was shorter than expected and those in which it was longer than expected. Therefore, histopathological analysis offers a powerful weapon with great potential to inform decisions regarding the use of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgical excision of a mesothelioma.


Keywords: Pleural neoplasms; Mesothelioma; Tumor markers, Biological; Carcinoembryonic antigen; Prognosis.


12 - Sleep disordered breathing concomitant with fibromyalgia syndrome

Coexistência de transtornos respiratórios do sono e síndrome fibromiálgica

Dienaro Germanowicz, Magali Santos Lumertz, Denis Martinez, Ane Freitas Margaretes

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):333-338

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify fibromyalgia syndrome in patients with sleep disordered breathing. Method: We studied 50 patients seeking treatment at a sleep disorder clinic for snoring, apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness. Sleep disordered breathing was diagnosed through the use of polysomnography. To diagnose fibromyalgia syndrome, patients were evaluated in accordance with the criteria established by the American College of Rheumatology. Results: Of the 50 patients, 32 were male. The mean (± standard deviation) age of the group was 50 ± 12 years. The mean body mass index was 29.7 ± 5.6 kg/m2. The mean apnea-hypopnea index was 36 ± 29 attacks of apnea or hypopnea per hour of sleep. Of the 18 women and 32 men evaluated, 9 and 2, respectively, met the American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia syndrome. Conclusion: Considering the fact that the prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome in the general population is 0.5% for men and 3.4% for women, the more than ten-fold higher proportion of fibromyalgia cases seen in this sample supports the hypothesis that there is an association between sleep disordered breathing and fibromyalgia syndrome.


Keywords: Respiration disorders/complications; Fibromyalgia/complications; Sleep apnea, obstructive; Polysomnography


13 - Prevalence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in a university hospital and prognosis for the patients affected

Prevalência e prognóstico dos pacientes com pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica em um hospital universitário

Márcio Martins de Queiroz Guimarães, José Rodolfo Rocco

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):339-346

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in an intensive care unit, as well as to identify related factors and characterize patient evolution. Methods: This study evaluated 278 patients on mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours in a university hospital. Results: Ventilator-associated pneumonia developed in 38.1% of the patients, translating to 35.7 cases/1000 ventilator-days: 45.3% were caused by gram-negative agents (Pseudomonas aeruginosa accounting for 22%); and multidrug resistant organisms were identified in 43.4%. In the ventilator-associated pneumonia group, time on mechanical ventilation, time to mechanical ventilation weaning, hospital stays and intensive care unit stays were all longer (p < 0.001). In addition, atelectasis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumothorax, sinusitis, tracheobronchitis and infection with multidrug resistant organisms were more common in the ventilator-associated pneumonia group (p < 0.05). Mortality rates in the intensive care unit were comparable to those observed in the hospital infirmary. Associations between ventilator-associated pneumonia and various factors are expressed as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals: acute sinusitis (38.8; 3.4-441); > 10 days on mechanical ventilation (7.7; 4.1-14.2); immunosuppression (4.3; 1.3-14.3); acute respiratory distress syndrome (3.5; 1.4-9.0); atelectasis (3.0; 1.2-7.3); cardiac arrest (0.18; 0.05-0.66); and upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding (0.07; 0.009-0.62). The variables found to be associated with in-hospital death were as follows: chronic renal failure (26.1; 1.9-350.7); previous intensive care unit admission (15.6; 1.6-152.0); simplified acute physiologic score II > 50 (11.9; 3.4-42.0); and age > 55 years (4.4; 1.6-12.3). Conclusion: Ventilator-associated pneumonia increased the time on mechanical ventilation and the number of complications, as well as the length of intensive care unit and hospital stays, but did not affect mortality rates.


Keywords: Bacterial pneumonia; Hospital infection; Intensive care units; Prognosis; Prospective studies; Intensive care medicine


Review Article

14 - Pleurodesis: technique and indications

Pleurodese: técnica e indicações

Marcelo Costa Vaz, Evalo Marchi, Francisco Suso Vargas

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):347-356

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Recurrent pleural effusion, which is commonly seen in clinical practice, compromises patient quality of life, especially in patients with advanced malignant disease. The therapeutic approach to the pleural space involves a wide range of techniques, including aggressive procedures such as pleurectomy. Among such techniques, pleurodesis is the most frequently used. Pleurodesis can be induced through the insertion of pleural catheters, as well as through major surgical procedures (such as thoracotomy). There are various recommended sclerosing agents, including talc (which is the most widely used), silver nitrate and, recently, proliferative cytokines. This article summarizes the principal approaches to the treatment of recurrent pleural effusion, pleurodesis in particular, addressing the indications for, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of, their application in daily pulmonology practice.


Keywords: Pleural effusion, malignant/prevention & control; Pleural neoplasms; Pleura/surgery; Pleurodesis/methods; Silver nitrate; Talc; Recurrence


15 - Rhinitis, Sinusitis and Asthma: hard to dissociate?

Rinite, sinusite e asma: indissociáveis?

Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina, Emanuel Savio Cavalcantio Sarinho, Álvaro Augusto Souza da Cruz Filho, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):357-366

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of this study was to review the literature and to discuss epidemiological and physiopathological aspects and therapeutical implications of an unified approach to allergic rhinosinusitis and asthma. The bibliographic survey was based on the information provided by the following databases: Medline, MD Consult, Highwire, Medscape, LILACS and through direct search over thirty years, using the terms allergic rhinitis and asthma. Fifty-five original articles were selected in the no systematically review addressing the issue of clinical association between allergic rhinusinusitis and asthma. It is noteworthy that in the late years, with the use of specific topical medications for the lower airways or else, to the upper airways, the therapeutical approach has been distinct. However, numerous epidemiological surveys, immunopatological and clinical studies demonstrate the inter-relationship between asthma and allergic rhinossinusitis, characterized by: i) allergic rhinitis is associated to asthma and constitute an independent risk factor for its occurrence; ii) the immunopathological characteristics of allergic rhinitis and asthma are similar; iii) allergic rhinitis and asthma are manifestations of a systemic disease; iv) control of rhinitis favors asthma control. taking into consideration the close inter-relationship between allergic rhinitis and asthma, the approach to diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of these illnesses should be integrated. Therapeutical options that allow for the simultaneous control of asthma and allergic rhinitis offer advantages related both to costs and tolerability.


Keywords: Asthma/epidemiology; Asthma/physiopathology; Asthma/drug therapy; Sinusitis/epidemiology; Sinusitis/drug therapy; Sinusitis/physiopathology; Rhinitis, allergic, perennial


Case Report

16 - Asthma and Churg-Strauss syndrome

Asma e síndrome de Churg-Strauss

Soloni Afra Pires Levy, Alfeu Tavares França, Denise de La Reza, Solange Oliveira Rodrigues Valle, Ana Helena Pereira Correia

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):367-370

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We report the case of a 25-year-old woman with Churg-Strauss syndrome, the symptoms of which had first appeared soon after she began taking oral contraceptive at the age of sixteen. The clinical profile evolved rapidly to severe persistent asthma, nasal polyposis, perennial obstructive rhinitis, eosinophilia (peripheral/tissue) and mononeuritis. Churg-Strauss syndrome is the type of disease that demands early detection, accurate diagnosis, aggressive treatment and periodic monitoring. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of moderate and severe persistent asthma. The case reported calls attention to possibility that there is a hormonal component and that the disease can present early onset.


Keywords: Asthma; Churg-Strauss syndrome; Eosinophilia; Nasal polyps; Vasculitis; Case reports [publication type]


17 - Intrathoracic goiter and invasive thymoma: rare concomitant presentation

Bócio de tireóide intratorácico e timoma invasivo: apresentação simultânea incomum

Rodrigo Silva, Jefferson Gross, Fábio Haddad, Riad Younes

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):371-374

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We present a rare situation in which two mediastinal tumors of different topology and histology were found during the resection of an extensive mediastinal tumor in an asymptomatic patient. Different histologies within the same mass have been reported, although, to our knowledge, there have been no reports of different tumors at distinct locations. Thymomas and intrathoracic goiters account for a large proportion of the tumors found in the mediastinum. When feasible, surgical resection plays a fundamental role in effecting a cure. In order to identify concomitant lesions and perform a complete resection, detailed surgical exploration is required.


Keywords: Thymoma/complications; Mediastinal neoplasms/complications; Goite, substernal; Mediastinum/pathology; Case reports [publication type]


18 - An outbreak of histoplasmosis in the city of Blumenau, Santa Catarina

Microepidemia de histoplasmose em Blumenau, Santa Catarina

Flávio de Mattos Oliveira, Gisela Unis, Luiz Carlos Severo

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):375-378

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis is rarely diagnosed and is often confused with tuberculosis. Most knowledge of the disease has been derived from descriptions of epidemics in which a number of individuals were exposed to the same source of infection. Isolation of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum from soil samples is conclusive evidence of an epidemic focus. This is the first report of an outbreak of histoplasmosis, in which two cases were reported and the fungus was isolated at the focus of the epidemic, in the state of Santa Catarina. Further epidemiological studies are needed in order to determine the prevalence of the infection statewide.


Keywords: Histoplasmosis/diagnosis; Histoplasmosis/epidemiology; Histoplasma/isolation & purification; Lung disases, fungal; Disease outbreaks; Case reports [publication type]


Letters to the Editor

20 - Pulmonologists, awake!

Acorda pneumologista !

Geraldo Lorenzi Filho, Flávio Magalhães, Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):382-384

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

20 - Reply


Richard Ricachenevski Gurski, André Ricardo Pereira da Rosa, Enio do Valle, Marcelo Antonio de Borba, André Alves Valiati

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):384-

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