Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2006 - Volume 32  - Number 6  (November/December)

3 - Silicosis (still) among us

A silicose (ainda) entre nós

Eduardo Mello De Capitani

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):33-35

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Original Article

4 - Prognostic factors for complications following pulmonary resection: pre-albumin analysis, time on mechanical ventilation, and other factors

Fatores prognósticos em complicações pós-operatórias de ressecção pulmonar: análise de pré-albumina, tempo de ventilação mecânica e outros

Renata Cristiane Gennari Bianchi, Juliana Nalin de Souza, Carolina de Almeida Giaciani, Neucy Fenalti Höehr, Ivan Felizardo Contrera Toro

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):489-494

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether pre-operative nutritional status and post-operative time on mechanical ventilation, as well as others factors, are correlated with post-operative complications (general or pulmonary) in patients undergoing elective thoracic surgery. Methods: A prospective study was conducted, involving 71 patients undergoing elective pulmonary resection. The data collected pre-operatively included gender, age, smoking status, pre-albumin level, lymphocyte count, and body mass index. The peri-operative data included type of surgery and surgical time, as well as post-operative time on mechanical ventilation. Results: Post-operative complications were found to correlate with low pre-albumin concentration, type of resection, surgical time, and post-operative time on mechanical ventilation. Surgical time and post-operative time on mechanical ventilation were also implicated in the post-operative pulmonary complications observed in 22 (30.99%) of the patients studied. Conclusion: Our results suggest that pre-albumin concentration, type of surgery and surgical time, as well as post-operative time on mechanical ventilation, serve as predictive indices of post-operative complications in patients undergoing elective pulmonary resection. In the analysis of the post-operative pulmonary complications, statistically significant correlations were found between such complications and increases in surgical time or post-operative time on mechanical ventilation.


Keywords: Thoracic surgery; Postoperative complications; Mechanical ventilation; Nutritional status; Prealbumin


5 - Lobectomy for treating bronchial carcinoma: analysis of comorbidities and their impact on postoperative morbidity and mortality

Lobectomia por carcinoma brônquico: análise das co-morbidades e seu impacto na morbimortalidade pós-operatória

Pablo Gerardo Sánchez, Giovani Schirmer Vendrame, Gabriel Ribeiro Madke, Eduardo Sperb Pilla, José de Jesus Peixoto Camargo, Cristiano Feijó Andrade, José Carlos Felicetti, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):495-504

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Objective: To analyze the impact that comorbidities have on the postoperative outcomes in patients submitted to lobectomy for the treatment of bronchial carcinoma. Methods: A retrospective study of 493 patients submitted to lobectomy for the treatment of bronchial carcinoma was conducted, and 305 of those patients met the criteria for inclusion in the final study sample. The surgical technique used was similar in all cases. The Torrington-Henderson scale and the Charlson scale were used to analyze comorbidities and to categorize patients into groups based on degree of risk for postoperative complications or death. Results: The postoperative (30-day) mortality rate was 2.9%, and the postoperative complications index was 44%. Prolonged air leakage was the most common complication (in 20.6%). The univariate analysis revealed that gender, age, smoking, neoadjuvant therapy and diabetes all had a significant impact on the incidence of complications. The factors found to be predictive of complications were body mass index (23.8 ± 4.4), forced expiratory volume in one second (74.1 ± 24%) and the ratio between forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity (0.65 ± 0.1). The scales employed proved efficacious in the identification of the risk groups, as well as in drawing correlations with morbidity and mortality (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, body mass index and the Charlson index were found to be the principal determinants of complications. In addition, prolonged air leakage was found to be the principal factor involved in mortality (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Reductions in forced expiratory volume in one second, in the ratio between forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity, and in body mass index, as well as a Charlson score of 3 or 4 and a Torrington-Henderson score of 3, were associated with a greater number of postoperative complications in patients submitted to lobectomy for the treatment of bronchial carcinoma. Air leakage was found to be strongly associated with mortality.


Keywords: Lung neoplasms/surgery; Postoperative complications; Pneumonectomy; Morbidity


6 - Analysis of 39 cases of idiopathic chronic interstitial pneumonia

Análise de 39 casos de pneumonia intersticial crônica idiopática

Rogério Rufino, Leonardo Rizzo, Cláudia Henrique da Costa, Roberto José de Lima, Kalil Madi

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):505-509

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Objective: To make a retrospective analysis of lung biopsy samples obtained from patients diagnosed with chronic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, as defined in the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification system made public in 2000. Methods: Samples from 252 open-lung biopsies of patients with interstitial lung disease, all performed between 1977 and 1999, were reviewed, and 39 cases of idiopathic interstitial lung disease were selected and re-evaluated by two pathologists in accordance with the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification system. Results: Among those 39 cases, the diagnoses were maintained in 28 (71.8%). A new pathologic entity, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, was included in the reclassification, and overlapping patterns were observed in 6 cases. Of the 28 cases in which the diagnosis of chronic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia remained unchanged, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was accompanied by cryptogenic organizing pneumonia in 4, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia was accompanied by nonspecific interstitial pneumonia in 1, and desquamative interstitial pneumonia was accompanied by nonspecific interstitial pneumonia in 1. All cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were confirmed, although 3 of those were found to be accompanied by cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. Virtually all prior diagnoses were maintained in the review of the biopsy samples (p > 0,05). Conclusion: The American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society system of classifying interstitial lung disease is a useful tool for pathologists who deal with lung biopsies.


Keywords: Pulmonary fibrosis; Lung diseases, interstitial


7 - Location of lung carcinoma in relation to the smoking habit and gender

Localização do carcinoma pulmonar em relação ao vício tabágico e ao sexo

Sérgio Jamnik, César Uehara, Vilmer Vieira da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):510-514

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Objective: To analyze the locations of lung carcinomas in relation to patient gender and smoking status. Methods: In order to test the hypothesis that lung carcinoma location (upper or lower lobe; left or right side) is correlated with smoking status and gender, we conducted a retrospective study of 697 patients with bronchogenic carcinoma treated at the Pulmonology-Oncology Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of São Paulo. Results: We found that the bronchogenic carcinomas occurring in smokers were more frequently located in the upper lobes, whereas those occurring in nonsmokers were more frequently located in the lower lobes. In women, the neoplasms were more often seen in the lower lobes, especially in nonsmokers. Based on the available data, there were no differences in terms of the side affected (left or right). Conclusion: Overall, bronchogenic carcinomas are predominantly found in the upper lobes. However, in nonsmokers, they occur more frequently in the lower lobes. In females, bronchogenic carcinomas present a tendency to occur more often in the lower lobes.


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Sex factors; Smoking


8 - Hydrostatic pulmonary edema: high-resolution computed tomography aspects

Edema pulmonar hidrostático: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução

Cláudia Maria Cunha Ribeiro, Edson Marchiori, Rosana Rodrigues, Emerson Gasparetto, Arthur Soares Souza Júnior, Dante Escuissato, Luiz Felipe Nobre, Gláucia Zanetti, César de Araujo Neto, Klaus Irion

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):515-522

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Objective: This study aimed to use high-resolution computed tomography scans of the chest to characterize the principal alterations occurring in cases of hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Methods: A retrospective analysis was made of the tomography scans of 15 patients presenting clinical profiles of hydrostatic pulmonary edema. The cases were divided into five groups by etiology: congestive heart failure (n = 7); acute mitral valve disease (n = 2); acute myocardial infarction (n = 2); myocarditis (n = 2); and fibrosing mediastinitis (n = 2). Results: The principal findings in the cases of hydrostatic pulmonary edema were ground-glass opacities (in 100%), interlobular septal thickening (in 100%), pleural effusion (in 87%) and peribronchovascular interstitial thickening (in 80%). Other, less common, findings were increased blood vessel diameter, consolidations and air-space nodules. Conclusion: The predominant pattern found in the patients studied was that of ground-glass opacities accompanied by interlobular septal thickening (mosaic attenuation pattern) and bilateral (predominantly right-sided) pleural effusion.


Keywords: Pulmonary edema; Tomography, X-ray computed; Lung diseases


9 - Progressive massive fibrosis in silica-exposed workers. High-resolution computed tomography findings

Fibrose maciça progressiva em trabalhadores expostos à sílica. Achados na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução

Ângela Santos Ferreira, Valéria Barbosa Moreira, Hevânia Mara Vaz Ricardo, Renata Coutinho, José Manoel Gabetto, Edson Marchiori

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):523-528

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Objective: To evaluate the radiological characteristics of conglomerate masses using high-resolution computed tomography of the chest. Methods: From among the patients treated between 1986 and 2004 at the Antonio Pedro University Hospital, 75 patients with silicosis and massive fibrosis, most working in the field of sandblasting, were selected for study. These patients were submitted to a clinical evaluation, chest X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography of the chest. Results: In more than half of the patients with accelerated silicosis, the chest X-ray revealed large type B and C opacities, denoting the severity of the disease in those patients. In 1 case, a unilateral mass simulating lung cancer was observed. High-resolution computed tomography scans of the chest were acquired for 44 patients. In most cases (88.6%), the masses were located in the superior and posterior thirds of the lung. Common findings within the masses included air bronchograms (in 70.4%) and calcifications (in 63.6%). A history of tuberculosis was reported by 52% of the patients. Conclusion: In the vast majority of cases, the masses were bilateral, predominantly located in the superior and posterior regions of the lung, featuring air bronchograms and interposed calcifications. Concomitant calcification of the mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes was another common finding. Exposure to high concentrations of dust and having a history of tuberculosis were considered significant risk factors for the development of progressive massive fibrosis.


Keywords: Pulmonary fibrosis; Silicosis; Silicon dioxide; Occupational diseases; Environmental exposure;


10 - Epidemiological aspects of human immunodeficiency virus/tuberculosis co-infection in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil from 1998 to 2003

Aspectos epidemiológicos da co-infecção tuberculose e vírus da imunodeficiência humana em Ribeirão Preto (SP), de 1998 a 2003

Jordana de Almeida Nogueira, Antônio Ruffino-Netto, Tereza Cristina Scatena Villa, Mellina Yamamura, Ricardo Arcencio, Roxana Isabel Cardozo-Gonzales

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):529-534

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Objective: This study aimed to characterize the epidemiological profile of tuberculosis cases reported in the city of Ribeirão Preto between 1998 and 2003, according to patient HIV status, gender, age bracket and treatment outcome. Methods: This was a descriptive epidemiological study that employed the Brazilian National Tuberculosis Notification Database as an instrument of data collection. The study sample consisted of all cases of human immunodeficiency virus/tuberculosis co-infection occurring in residents of Ribeirão Preto and reported between 1998 and 2003. Results: During this period, 1273 new cases of tuberculosis were reported, 377 of which were in HIV-positive individuals, for a co-infection rate of 30%. Of the cases of co-infection, 76% were in men, and the majority occurred in individuals in the 20-59 age bracket. In terms of treatment outcome, cure was achieved in 52%, treatment abandonment was reported in 11%, and death occurred in 32%. The predominant clinical form of tuberculosis was the pulmonary form, which accounted for 58% of the cases. Conclusion: A high prevalence of co-infection was observed in the community studied. The treatment outcomes seen among the cases in our study sample underscore the need to adopt special strategies to monitor this clientele. Comparing the cases of tuberculosis in isolation with the cases of co-infection, no gender-related or age-related differences were observed.


Keywords: Tuberculosis; HIV infections; Comorbidity


11 - Characteristics of elderly tuberculosis patients in Recife, Brazil: a contribution to the tuberculosis control program

Características da tuberculose em idosos no Recife (PE): contribuição para o programa de controle

Zilda do Rego Cavalcanti, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de Albuquerque, Antônio Roberto Leite Campelo, Ricardo Ximenes, Ulisses Montarroyos, Marianne Karel Amaral Verçosa

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):535-543

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Objective: To describe the demographic characteristics, everyday habits, socio-economic conditions, clinico-epidemiological profiles and access to health care services among the elderly patients with tuberculosis diagnosed and treated in the city of Recife, Brazil, comparing them to those observed in young adults with tuberculosis. Methods: A case-control type strategy was used to evaluate a cohort of patients with tuberculosis, all of whom were treated in public health care facilities in Recife between May of 2001 and July of 2003. Results: The final cohort consisted of 1127 patients: 136 elderly patients (cases) and 991 young adults (controls). In both groups, males predominated, and the most common form of tuberculosis was the pulmonary form. Alcoholism was more common in the control group, whereas illiteracy was more common in the case group. There were fewer complaints of cough, sweats and chest pain among the patients in the case group than among those in the control group. Serological testing for the human immunodeficiency virus was performed in only 29 patients (2.6%). The percentage of positive sputum smear microscopy results, as well as that of positive cultures, was higher in the controls. Prior to being diagnosed with the disease, patients in both groups had sought treatment at more than two health care facilities and had waited more than two months (after first seeking treatment). The elderly patients presented higher indices of cure and were more often compliant with the treatment regimen, yet presented higher mortality rates. Conclusion: In the population studied, the elderly presented less cough, fewer episodes of night sweats and less chest pain, as well as less often presenting positivity on complementary exams. Nevertheless, the mortality rate was higher among the elderly patients than among the young adult patients. Elderly patients with tuberculosis constitute a population that should be given special attention in public health care facilities.


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Elderly; Case-control; Brazil


12 - Deaths attributed to multiple causes and involving tuberculosis in the state of Rio de Janeiro Brazil between 1999 and 2001

Causas múltiplas de morte relacionadas à tuberculose no Estado do Rio de Janeiro entre 1999 e 2001

Augusto Hasiak Santo

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):544-552

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Objective: To evaluate deaths attributed to multiple causes in which tuberculosis was one of the causes listed. Methods: All deaths among residents of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, occurring between 1999 and 2001 and for which the death certificate mentioned tuberculosis, were investigated. The World Health Organization guidelines were used in characterizing the underlying and associated (non-underlying) causes of death. Results: In deaths from tuberculosis, conditions related to its natural history were the principal associated causes, together with alcoholism and diabetes. In approximately three-fifths of all deaths for which tuberculosis was listed as an associated cause, the underlying cause of death was acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. High proportion of ill-defined causes of death, low values found for the number of causes informed per death certificate and for TB as an associated cause point towards a certain degree of underestimation of the actual number of TB-related deaths in Rio de Janeiro State. Conclusion: The study shows that the rates of tuberculosis-related mortality in the state of Rio de Janeiro, calculated based on the number of times tuberculosis was listed as a cause of death (underlying or associated), are the highest in the country. Epidemiological studies of mortality are recommended as a means of guiding the activities of the tuberculosis control program.


Keywords: Tuberculosis/mortality; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; Multipe cause of death; Brazil


13 - Evolution of tuberculosis-related mortality in Fortaleza, Brazil from 1980 to 2001

Evolução da mortalidade por tuberculose em Fortaleza (CE), entre 1980 e 2001

Mônica Cardoso Façanha

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):553-558

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Objective: To evaluate the evolution of tuberculosis-related mortality, as well as gender-related and age-related tendencies, in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. Methods: A descriptive study, based on secondary data, was conducted. All deaths from tuberculosis occurring among residents of Fortaleza in the 1980-2001 period and reported to the Ministry of Health via the Mortality Database were included. The evolution of tuberculosis-related mortality was compared with that of overall mortality and with that of mortality from all infectious diseases. The tendencies of the coefficients of overall mortality and of tuberculosis-related mortality, adjusted and unadjusted for age and gender, were calculated for the study period. Results: The coefficients of overall mortality and of tuberculosis-related mortality presented decreasing tendencies. The coefficient of tuberculosis-related mortality presented a decreasing tendency in individuals = 19 years of age (y = -0.0906x + 2.5133), from 20 to 59 years of age (y = -0.414x + 12.29) and 60 years of age (y = -1.2494x + 40.289), as well as in males (y = -0.3175x + 10.971) and females (y = -0.1933x + 6.8051). Conclusion: Despite displaying a decreasing tendency, the coefficient of tuberculosis-related mortality remains high.


Keywords: Tuberculosis/mortality; Information systems; Prevalence


14 - Investigation of tuberculosis contacts in the tuberculosis control program of a medium-sized municipality in the southeast of Brazil in 2002

O controle de comunicantes de tuberculose no programa de controle da tuberculose em um município de médio porte da Região Sudeste do Brasil, em 2002

Cláudia Eli Gazetta, Antônio Ruffino Netto, José Martins Pinto Neto, Maria de Lourdes Sperli Geraldes Santos, Maria Rita de Cássia Oliveira Cury, Silvia Helena Figueiredo Vendramini, Tereza Cristina Scatena Villa

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):559-565

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Objective: This study aimed to describe the investigation of tuberculosis contacts enrolled in the Tuberculosis Control Program of the municipality of São José do Rio Preto, Brazil in 2002. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted using secondary data obtained from the Tuberculosis Notification Database, as well as charts and registries compiled by the São José do Rio Preto Tuberculosis Control Program in 2002. Results: A total of 166 household tuberculosis contacts were enrolled in the Program. Of those, 82 were male, and 84 were females. The incidence of tuberculosis was highest (70%) in the 15 to 59 age bracket: 42 (25.3%) of the cases occurred in individuals from 0 to 19 years of age; 73 (44%) in those from 20 to 49; and 44 (25.5%) in those 50 or over. In terms of their relationship with the index patient, 41 (24.7%) were children; 29 (17.5%) were partners; 22 (13.2%) were siblings, and 15 (9.1%) were mothers. The following tests were requested: (in 12%) sputum smear microscopy, culture or both; (in 100%) chest X-ray, revealing 2 suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis and 5 cases of other diseases; (in 7.2%) tuberculin skin test, the results of which showed that 4.2% were nonreactors, and that 1.2% presented an induration of 8 mm. Among the contacts examined, the disease was detected in 3 (1.8%). Conclusion: There is no systematization in the monitoring of individuals who are in contact with tuberculosis patients.


Keywords: Tuberculosis/mortality; Information systems; Prevalence


15 - Tuberculosis in a Psychiatric Hospital in the state of Goiás, Brazil

Ocorrência de tuberculose em um hospital psiquiátrico do interior de Goiás

Hindenburg Cruvinel Guimarães da Costa, Ana Carolina Malaspina, Fernando Augusto Fiúza de Mello, Clarice Queico Fujimura Leite

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):566-572

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Objective: To investigate the prevalence of infection, disease and eventual institutional outbreak of tuberculosis in a psychiatric hospital using the PPD test, as well as testing for mycobacteria in material collected from the respiratory tree and using molecular tracking technique based on insertion sequence 6110 (IS6110). Methods: Between February and August of 2002, PPD tests were given to 74 inpatients and 31 staff members at a psychiatric hospital in the city of Rio Verde, located in the state of Goiás, Brazil. In addition, respiratory tree material collected from the inpatients was submitted to testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results: Among the patients analyzed, mycobacteria were isolated from five (6.8%): four identified as M. tuberculosis and one as M. chelonae. The M. tuberculosis isolates were sensitive to isoniazid and rifampicin, and, when submitted to the restriction fragment length polymorphism/IS6110 technique, presented unique genetic profiles, totally distinct from one another, suggesting that all of the tuberculosis cases were due to endogenous reactivation. It was not possible to characterize this group of cases as an institutional outbreak. Performing the two-step tuberculin test in the patients, the infection rates were 23% and 31%, compared with 42% among staff members, who were submitted to the one-step test. Conclusion: The results indicate a high incidence of tuberculosis infection among inpatients and hospital staff, as well as a high occurrence of the disease among inpatients.


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; Hospitals, psychiatric; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Tuberculin test;


Review Article

16 - The influence of genetics on nicotine dependence and the role of pharmacogenetics in treating the smoking habit

A influência da genética na dependência tabágica e o papel da farmacogenética no tratamento do tabagismo

José Miguel Chatkin

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):573-579

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Despite the considerable efforts made in the fight against smoking in the last decades, there are still substantial numbers of people who, in full knowledge of the health hazards, begin smoking or continue smoking. Recent studies have focused on the genetic bases of the nicotine addiction. Various genetic polymorphisms have been associated with smoking. However, environmental factors have also been shown to play a role. In this review, we present some of the principal data collected in genetic studies of smoking behavior. The results obtained through this line of research will eventually aid clinicians in individualizing the type, dosage and duration of treatment for patients with nicotine dependence in accordance with the genotype of each smoker, thereby maximizing the efficacy of the proposed treatment regimen.


Keywords: Smoking; Tobacco use cessation; Nicotine; Tobacco use disorder


17 - Functionality of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: energy conservation techniques

Funcionalidade do paciente com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica e técnicas de conservação de energia

Marcelo Velloso, José Roberto Jardim

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):580-586

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a progressive and debilitating disease that is typically diagnosed only after a long period of gradual worsening. Dyspnea is the symptom that most often interferes with the execution of professional, family, social and daily-life activities of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Such limitations can lead to a sedentary lifestyle and worsen overall quality of life. This article aims to address the functional limitations these patients deal with in carrying out their daily-life activities, establishing guidelines that health professionals can use to help their patients achieve maximum functionality. Guidelines for the use of energy conservation techniques are widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation programs. However, these guidelines should also be used in outpatient clinics and hospitals. A great number of human activities involve the legs and arms. The arms are involved in virtually all everyday activities - from the most simple to the most complex. Some studies have shown that upper-body exercises in which the arms are not supported cause thoracoabdominal asynchrony and dyspnea in shorter times and with less oxygen consumption than in exercises involving the legs. Even simple tasks can result in high oxygen consumption and minute ventilation, which accounts for the sensation of dyspnea reported by the patients. In view of these facts, it is appropriate to evaluate the impact that such incapacity has on daily life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Techniques of energy conservation that can be used as tools to minimize the discomfort of such patients are herein discussed, and those considered most appropriate are highlighted.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/rehabilitation ; Activities of daily living; Energy metabolism;


Case Report

18 - Postinfectious bronchiolitis obliterans accompanied by pulmonary hemosiderosis in childhood

Associação de bronquiolite obliterante pós-infecciosa e hemossiderose pulmonar na infância

Leonardo Araújo Pinto, Anick Oliveira, Sintia Collaziol, Paulo Márcio Pitrez, Marcus Jones, João Carlos Prolla, Marisa Dolhnikoff, Renato T. Stein

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):587-591

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In the present report, we describe an unusual presentation of post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans accompanied by pulmonary hemosiderosis in a nine-year-old boy with persistent respiratory symptoms subsequent to an episode of acute bronchiolitis occurring at the age of seven months. After the episode, the persistent respiratory symptoms worsened significantly, and, by the age of seven, the patient began to have difficulty breathing after minimal exertion. Computed tomography of the chest presented findings consistent with bronchiolitis obliterans. Open lung biopsy revealed numerous hemosiderin-laden macrophages, as well as other findings consistent with bronchiolitis obliterans. Pulmonary hemosiderosis can occasionally be accompanied by bronchiolitis obliterans in children with severe sequelae after an episode of viral infection.


Keywords: Bronchoalveolar lavage; Bronchiolitis obliterans; Hemosiderosis; Case reports [Publication type]


19 - Pulmonary and cutaneous nocardiosis in a patient treated with corticosteroids

Nocardiose pulmonar e cutânea em paciente usuário de corticosteróide

Bruno Guedes Baldi, Alfredo Nicodemos Cruz Santana, Teresa Yae Takagaki

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):592-595

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Nocardiosis is a localized or disseminated infection caused by gram-positive bacteria of the genus Nocardia. The infection most commonly affects the lungs, skin and central nervous system. Nocardiosis principally occurs in individuals with cellular immunodeficiency and should be considered in the differential diagnosis when such individuals present respiratory, cutaneous or neurological alterations. Herein, we report a case of pulmonary and cutaneous nocardiosis in a patient receiving oral corticosteroids to treat bronchiolitis obliterans accompanied by organizing pneumonia of unknown origin. After long-term treatment with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, the clinical and radiological profile improved.


Keywords: Nocardia infections; Lung diseases; Bronchiolitis obliterans; Adrenal cortex hormones; Case reports [Publication type]


20 - Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: importance of clinical history to the diagnosis

Pneumonia lipóide exógena: importância da história clínica no diagnóstico

Alfredo Pereira Leite de Albuquerque Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):596-598

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Lipoid pneumonia is a rare disease resulting from the micro-aspiration of lipid formulations. Making a diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia requires a high degree of clinical suspicion. Herein, we report the case of a female patient with a history of breast cancer, presenting progressive dyspnea and cough, together with radiological findings of bilateral pulmonary infiltrate. The working diagnosis of lymphangitic carcinomatosis, for which chemotherapy would be indicated, was called into question based on the high-resolution computed tomography findings and on the fact that the patient had a history of chronic ingestion of laxatives containing mineral oil. A lung biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia, which should always be considered in patients with diffuse lung disease having been exposed to potential causative agents.


Keywords: Pneumonia, lipid; Tomography, X-Ray Computed; Mineral oil; Case Reports [Publication type]


21 - Spontaneous chylothorax associated with light physical activity

Quilotórax espontâneo associado a atividade física leve

José Carlos Miranda Torrejais, Carolina Borges Rau, João Adriano de Barros, Márcia Miranda Torrejais

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):599-602

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Chylothorax occurs when there is rupture, laceration or obstruction of the thoracic duct, resulting in the release of chyle into the pleural space. Chylothorax can occur in cases of congenital lymphatic malformation, lymphoma, mediastinal tumor and infectious disease, as well as during surgical procedures and after traffic accident-related trauma. It can also be idiopathic. The condition presents clinical signs of dyspnea, hypotension, generalized edema and cyanosis. The diagnosis is usually made through thoracocentesis, and the treatment is conservative. Spontaneous chylothorax is an uncommon form of pleural effusion, and its diagnosis should be hypothesized only after all other causes have been ruled out. Herein, we describe a case of spontaneous chylothorax associated with light physical activity at a fitness center.


Keywords: Chylothorax; Pleural effusion; Motor; Case reports [Publication type]


Letters to the Editor

22 - Intratracheal stent: prosthesis or orthesis?

Dispositivos intra-traqueais: próteses ou órteses?

Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Helio Minamoto, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):606-607

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Index of Issues

Index of Authors

Relationship of Reviewers

26 - Revisores

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):616-618

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