Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2007 - Volume 33  - Number 1  (January/February)


1 - In search of total quality

Em busca da qualidade total

José Antônio Baddini Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):i-iii

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Original Article

4 - Comparing asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in terms of symptoms of anxiety and depression

Asma e doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica: uma comparação entre variáveis de ansiedade e depressão

Neide Suzane Carvalho, Priscila Robles Ribeiro, Marcos Ribeiro, Maria do Patrocínio Tenório Nunes, Alberto Cukier, Rafael Stelmach

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):1-6

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the presence and severity of symptoms of anxiety and depression in individuals with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: In order to evaluate symptoms of anxiety and depression, specific instruments of quantification (the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory, respectively) were administered to patients at an outpatient clinic for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The population comprised 189 randomly and prospectively selected patients that were divided into three study groups (each with a different therapeutic objective): 40 patients with controlled asthma, 100 patients with uncontrolled asthma, and 49 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Included among the variables studied, as part of the methodology, were symptoms of anxiety and depression. The data obtained were compared taking into consideration demographic and functional aspects, as well as the severity of the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Results: Among the asthma patients, the prevalence of moderate or severe anxiety was significantly higher than that observed among those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p <  0.001). The uncontrolled asthma group presented significantly higher rates of depressive symptoms than did the controlled asthma group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The frequency of symptoms of anxiety and depression is greater among asthma patients than among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which can make clinical control difficult.


Keywords: Anxiety; Depression; Asthma; Pulmonary disease; Chronic obstructive


5 - Comparison between the drug treatment used in children up to five years of age treated in an emergency room and the guidelines established in the III Brazilian Consensus on Asthma Management

Comparação entre o tratamento farmacológico aplicado em crianças de zero a cinco anos atendidas em uma unidade de emergência e as diretrizes do III Consenso Brasileiro no Manejo da Asma

Ana Paula Ochoa Santos, Luciane Soares de Lima, Almir Gonçalves Wanderley

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):7-14

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Objective: To evaluate the management of asthma attacks in children up to five years of age treated in the pediatric emergency room of a hospital in the metropolitan area of the city of Recife, Brazil, as well as to determine whether the way in which asthma attacks are managed can influence the duration of emergency room visits for such children. Methods: A descriptive, exploratory study employing a quantitative, cross-sectional approach. The study sample comprised 246 children treated for asthma attacks in an emergency room. The approach used was evaluated in comparison with the approach recommended in the III Brazilian Consensus on Asthma Management, as was the length of time each child spent in the emergency room. Results: In 69 (28.1%) of the cases, the medications were used in accordance with the Consensus guidelines. In 34 (13.8%) of the cases, the doses used were those recommended in the Consensus guidelines, and the guidelines regarding nebulization procedures were followed in 33 cases (13.4%). No correlation was found between the approach taken and the length of the emergency room visit. In the logistic regression analysis, we observed that the adjusted risk of being released from the emergency room sooner than recommended in the Consensus guidelines (a length of time sufficient to allow the response to the treatment to be analyzed) was four times and fifteen times greater, respectively, for children with mild persistent asthma and for those with intermittent asthma. Conclusion: Although there are obstacles to using the asthma management approach recommended in the Consensus guidelines (such obstacles including the lack of familiarity with the guidelines on the part of the multidisciplinary team, as well as the lack of recommended material and therapeutic resources), the duration of emergency room visits was found to be related to the degree of asthma severity.


Keywords: Emergency medicine; Pediatrics; Asthma; Status asthmaticus


6 - Impact that a program to control severe asthma has on the use of Unified Health System resources in Brazil

Impacto de um programa para o controle da asma grave na utilização de recursos do Sistema Único de Saúde

Eduardo Ponte, Rosana Abreu Franco, Adelmir Souza-Machado, Carolina Souza-Machado, Álvaro Augusto Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):15-19

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Objective: To quantify the use of health care resources among patients enrolled in the Bahia State Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Control Program. Methods: As of January of 2006, 1405 patients had enrolled in the program, which is carried out in four referral centers in the city of Salvador. These patients formed the basis of this retrospective/prospective, observational cohort study. The preliminary analysis involved 269 consecutive patients, all above the age of 12 and diagnosed with severe asthma. After being seen by pulmonologists, nurses, pharmacologists and psychologists, the patients received inhaled asthma medications. Based on patient interviews and charts, the year preceding enrollment in the program was compared with the first year enrolled in the program in terms of the following quantifiable parameters: hospital admissions; emergency room visits; courses of oral corticosteroids; and days of school/work missed due to asthma attacks. Results: In this sample of patients with severe asthma, enrollment in the program resulted in significant reductions in the number of emergency room visits and hospital admissions (of 85% and 90%, respectively). There were also reductions in the number of school/work days missed due to asthma attacks and in the number of courses of oral corticosteroids (of 86% and 67%, respectively). Conclusion: A program designed to control severe asthma in referral outpatient clinics and including pharmacological services at no charge can lead to a pronounced reduction in the demand for Unified Health Care System resources.


Keywords: Asthma/therapy; Asthma/prevention  control; Hospitalization; National Health System (BR)


7 - Prevalence of asthma attacks treated in public health facilities in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil

Prevalência dos atendimentos por crises de asma nos serviços públicos do Município de Juiz de Fora (MG)

Oscarina da Silva Ezequiel, Gilberto Salles Gazeta, Nicolau Maués da Serra Freire

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):20-27

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Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of asthma attacks treated in public health facilities in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil from February 1, 2002 to January 31, 2003. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving monthly analyses performed in order to evaluate the asthma attacks treated. The variables analyzed were patient gender, age, and place of residence, as well as the profile of the visits by age bracket and by the site of the visit. In addition, we attempted to determine whether asthma attacks correlated with temperature or relative humidity. Results: A total of 25,243 patients were treated for asthma attacks, accounting for 11.1% of the total number of visits to pediatric clinics and 2.7% of the total number visits to medical clinics. The mean age of the patients was 11.6 years (median, 4 years), and 52.9% of the patients were male. The analysis of the annual distribution revealed an increase in the number of asthma attacks treated in the months of May (11.5%), June (10.8%), and July (10.9%). Asthma attack presented a strong inverse correlation with temperature (-0.86) and a weak inverse correlation with relative humidity (-0.27). Statistically significant differences, in terms of mean age and gender, were found between patients with asthma attacks treated in emergency rooms and those treated in basic health clinics. The evaluation by age bracket revealed a predominance of males among patients younger than 12 years of age and a predominance of females among those aged 12 or older. Conclusion: We found that asthma represents a significant public health problem in this city. Local strategies are urgently needed in order to increase in the availability of prophylactic treatment.


Keywords: Asthma/epidemiology; Prevalence; Public Hospitals; Brazil


8 - Prevalence of and the potential physiopathological mechanisms involved in dyspnea in individuals with class II or III obesity

Prevalência de dispnéia e possíveis mecanismos fisiopatológicos envolvidos em indivíduos com obesidade graus 2 e 3

Christiane Aires Teixeira, José Ernesto dos Santos, Gerusa Alves Silva, Elisa Sebba Tosta de Souza, José Antônio Baddini Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):28-35

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Objective: To investigate dyspnea in individuals with Class II or III obesity and look for correlations among the respiratory data related to such individuals. Methods: This study involved 49 subjects with a body mass index >35 kg/m2, divided into two groups (those with dyspnea and those without). The baseline dyspnea index was evaluated, as were spirometry findings, maximal respiratory pressures and arterial blood gas analysis. Results: Of the 49 subjects evaluated, 37 reported dyspnea and 12 reported no dyspnea. The baseline dyspnea index differed between the two groups. The mean values were within the range of normality for all subjects and all parameters, except for the following: ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity; expiratory reserve volume; and the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. The subjects with dyspnea presented significantly lower values for expiratory reserve volume, maximal expiratory pressure and arterial pH. In all subjects, body mass index correlated significantly with the following: baseline dyspnea index; the residual volume/total lung capacity ratio; the forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ratio; forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity; arterial oxygen tension; the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient; and arterial carbon dioxide tension. The baseline dyspnea index was found to correlate significantly with the following parameters: residual volume/total lung capacity ratio; expiratory reserve volume; arterial oxygen tension; the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient; and arterial carbon dioxide tension. Conclusion:  Dyspnea is a common complaint in individuals with class II or III obesity. Such individuals present a pronounced reduction in expiratory reserve volume and an increase in the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. The correlations found suggest that obese individuals present dysfunction of the lower airways, and that obesity itself plays a role in the genesis of dyspnea.


Keywords: Obesity/complications; Dyspnea/epidemiology; Dyspnea/physiopathology; Respiratory function tests


9 - Pre-operative and post-operative spirometry in bone marrow transplant patients

A espirometria na avaliação pré e pós-transplante de medula óssea

Eliane Viana Mancuzo, Walace Espada da Silva, Nilton Alves de Rezende

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):36-42

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Objective: To analyze the spirometry findings in patients undergoing bone marrow transplant, determining the importance of such findings in predicting postoperative pulmonary complications and looking for correlations with postoperative outcomes. Methods: The spirometry findings in 120 male and female patients, all above the age of 12, were evaluated retrospectively and compared in terms of the following parameters: the type of bone marrow transplant; the underlying disease; cytomegalovirus serology; source of the transplanted cells; smoking; pulmonary infection; history of lung disease; duration of the hematological disease; chemotherapy employed; conditioning regimen; acute or chronic rejection of the transplant; and post-operative mortality. Results: In the pre-operative spirometry, 16 patients (13.3%) presented alterations: 6 (5%) presented pure obstruction; 7 (5.8%) presented pure restriction; and 3 (2.5%) presented obstruction accompanied by a reduction in vital capacity. In the post-operative spirometry, 29 patients (24.2%) presented alterations. The chance of presenting post- operative spirometry alterations was greater in patients presenting acute transplant rejection (p = 0.02), patients older than 30 (p = 0.02), female patients (p = 0.02) and patients receiving stem cells (p = 0.01). Having a history of lung disease was found to be associated with greater mortality, as was suffering from chronic transplant rejection. No relationship was found between pre-operative spirometry alterations and post-operative mortality. Conclusion: In bone marrow transplant patients, the alterations found through pre-operative spirometry were not predictive of post-operative pulmonary complications or mortality. Nor were such alterations determinant of whether or not a given patient was a good candidate for bone marrow transplant. Simple spirometry seems to be of little practical importance in the evaluation of such patients.


Keywords: Spirometry; Bone marrow transplantation/adverse effects; Bone marrow transplantation/mortality


10 - Comparison between azithromycin and amoxicillin in the treatment of infectious exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Comparação entre a azitromicina e a amoxicilina no tratamento da exacerbação infecciosa da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Mara Rúbia Andre-Alves, José Roberto Jardim, Rodney Frare e Silva, Elie Fiss, Denison Noronha Freire, Paulo José Zimermann Teixeira

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):43-50

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Objective: To compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of azithromycin and amoxicillin in the treatment of patients with infectious exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: This study was conducted at six medical centers across Brazil and included 109 patients from 33 to 82 years of age. Of those, 102 were randomized to receive either azithromycin (500 mg/day for three days, n = 49) or amoxicillin (500 mg every eight hours for ten days, n = 53). The patients were evaluated at the study outset, on day ten, and at one month. Based on the clinical evaluation of the signs and symptoms present on day ten and at one month, the outcomes were classified as cure, improvement, or treatment failure. The microbiological evaluation was made through the culture of sputum samples that were considered appropriate samples only after leukocyte counts and Gram staining. Secondary efficacy evaluations were made in order to analyze symptoms (cough, dyspnea, and expectoration) and pulmonary function. Results: There were no differences between the groups treated with azithromycin or amoxicillin in terms of the percentages of cases in which the outcomes were classified as cure or improvement: 85% vs. 78% (p = 0.368) on day ten; and 83% vs. 78% (p = 0.571) at one month. Similarly, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the secondary efficacy variables or the incidence of adverse effects. Conclusion: Azithromycin and amoxicillin present similar efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


Keywords: Amoxicillin/therapeutic use; Azithromycin/therapeutic use; Bronchitis, chronic/drug therapy;


11 - Adverse events after pneumococcal vaccination

Eventos adversos após vacinação contra o pneumococo

Maria Rita Donalisio, Somnia Marlene Cadogan Piraggini Rodrigues, Elisa Teixeira Mendes, Mariana Krutman

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):51-56

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Objective: To study the occurrence of adverse events after administration of a capsular polysaccharide vaccine against 23 pneumococcal serotypes in individuals for whom such vaccination is indicated. Methods: This was a prospective study, conducted in a general hospital in the city of Sumaré, in which 152 individuals were evaluated after intramuscular vaccination with 0.5 mL of the Pneumo 23® vaccine. The study variable was subject complaint of at least one symptom forming a temporal nexus with the vaccine (appearing within 48 h after its administration). The subjects were evaluated at five to seven days after vaccination. The covariables age, gender and clinical profile were tested using the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression, with the level of significance set at 5%. Results: The age of the population ranged from 5 to 86 years (mean, 61.8 years). For nearly all (99%) of the subjects, the vaccination evaluated was their first dose of the vaccine. Events occurring at the injection site were reported in 36 subjects (23.7%). Of those 36 events, 24 (68%) were mild and had no repercussions for the daily activities of the subjects. Pain at the site of the injection was the most common symptom, being reported by 97.2% of the subjects. Erythema and localized edema were found in 6.3% and 5.1% of the subjects, respectively. Of the subjects evaluated, 12.8% reported general symptoms (malaise, fever, sleepiness and generalized pain). In the bivariate analysis, none of the covariables were found to present a statistically significant correlation with adverse events (p > 0.20). The same held true in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Although, the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine provokes few reactions in the first dose, it is still rarely recommended in the region, even for patients at risk.


Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae; Pneumonia; Pneumococcal/prevention & control; Pneumococcal vaccines/adverse effects


12 - Physicochemical properties of human tracheobronchial sputum maintained at room temperature

O muco traqueobrônquico humano mantido em temperatura ambiente e suas propriedades físico-químicas

Renata Claudia Zanchet, Gilvânia Feijó, Ada Clarice Gastaldi, José Roberto Jardim

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):57-61

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Objective: To evaluate the effect that maintaining tracheobronchial sputum at room temperature has on the analysis of ciliary transport and cough, as well as on the contact angle. Methods: Hyaline sputum was collected from 30 individuals without pulmonary diseases, and purulent sputum was collected from patients with bronchiectasis. The samples were analyzed immediately after collection and again after 24 h. Results: After 24 h at room temperature, the purulent sputum presented an increase in cough-induced dislodgment (96 ± 50 vs. 118 ± 61 mm) and a decrease in the contact angle (32 ± 6 vs. 27 ± 6 degrees) (p < 0.05). For the hyaline sputum, there were no alterations in the parameters analyzed. Conclusion:  Hyaline tracheobronchial sputum can be stored in room temperature for 24 h without presenting alterations in ciliary transport or contact angle. However, purulent sputum should not be stored at room temperature for many hours, since ciliary transport and contact angle might be altered as a result.


Keywords: Temperature; Sputum; Cough; Mucociliary clearance


13 - The effect of adenotonsillectomy on oxygen saturation in children with sleep disordered breathing

O efeito da adenotonsilectomia na saturação de oxigênio em crianças com distúrbios respiratórios do sono

Jaime Luís Freitas Arrarte, José Faibes Lubianca Neto, Gilberto Bueno Fischer

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):62-68

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Objective: To evaluate the effect of adenotonsillectomy on oxygen saturation measured through nocturnal pulse oximetry in children with sleep disordered breathing. Methods: A pre- and post-intervention study was carried out using nocturnal pulse oximetry. The study involved 31 children who were suspected of having sleep disordered breathing and had been referred for adenotonsillectomy. Results: A total of 27 children completed the study. The mean age was 5.2 ± 1.8 years, and 18 (66.7%) of them were male. Upon physical examination, 23 (85.2%) of the children presented class III or class IV hyperplasia of the palatine tonsils. There was significant improvement in the post-operative period over the pre-operative period in terms of the oxygen desaturation rate (OR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.5-1.3 vs. OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.1-2.4; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Adenotonsillectomy significantly improved oxygen saturation, as measured through nocturnal pulse oximetry, in children with sleep disordered breathing.


Keywords: Sleep apnea obstructive; Tonsillectomy; Oximetry; Child


14 - Evaluation of the limited participation by university students in a smoking cessation program

Avaliação da participação de pequeno número de estudantes universitários em um programa de tratamento do tabagismo

Wilson Paloschi Spiandorello, Liliana Zugno Filippini, Angélica Dal Pizzol, Fernanda Kreische, Diogo Sandri Soligo, Tiago Spiandorello, Raquel Boff, Mauricio Michele

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):69-75

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Objective: To evaluate the limited participation by university students in a smoking cessation program. Methods: A cross-sectional, comparative study was conducted at the University of Caxias do Sul, located in Caxias do Sul, Brazil, involving students who enrolled in a smoking cessation program, together with those who did not. Results: Of the 108 student who did not enroll in the program, 102 (94.4%) stated that they had no intention to quit smoking (95% confidence interval: 88.29-97.93%. Comparisons between the enrolled and nonenrolled students revealed the following statistical differences: in mean age (35 vs. 23 years, p < 0.01); mean duration of the smoking habit (19.42 vs. 7.36 years, p < 0.01); considering oneself addicted (100% vs. 58.5%, p = 0.047); believing oneself able to stop smoking at any time (7.1% vs. 22.6%, p = 0.02); having no knowledge of any reasons to quit smoking (37.5% vs. 12%, p = 0.03); having suffered discrimination (42.9% vs. 9.3%, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Among the university students evaluated, there was a phase, classified as precontemplative or contemplative, during which they were refractory to smoking cessation. Although all of the students were aware of the diseases caused by smoking, 41.5% did not consider themselves addicted. The concept of substance dependence does not apply to these students. It would seem more appropriate to define nicotine dependence as resulting from the lifetime consumption of at least 100 cigarettes. These students do not perceive that they are passing through the initial phase of the natural history of tobacco use disorder and do not realize that they are increasing their risk of presenting smoking-related diseases in the future.


Keywords: Smoking; Students; Smoking cessation


15 - Characteristics of smoking among physicians in the Federal District of Brazil

Características do tabagismo na categoria médica do Distrito Federal

Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas, Ana Paula Alves de Andrade, Rosangela da Silva Silvestre

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):76-80

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Objective: To profile the characteristics of smoking among physicians working in the Federal District of Brazil. Methods: A questionnaire on smoking, adapted from that used by the World Health Organization, was mailed to all physicians registered with the Federal District Regional Council of Medicine. Of the 7023 questionnaires mailed, 830 (12%) were duly completed and returned. Results: Among the physicians participating in the study, the prevalence of smoking was 7.2% (5.9% being regular smokers and 1.3% being occasional smokers). The remainder of the sample consisted of nonsmokers (70.1%) and former smokers (22.7%). In terms of gender, approximately 8.5% of the male physicians were smokers, compared with 5.3% of the female physicians (p > 0.05). Of the physicians who smoked, 80% had taken up the habit before the age of 20, 13% from 21 to 30, and 7% after the age of 31. The prevalence of smoking by specialty was as follows: Surgeons, 10.3%; Anesthesiologists, 10.3%; Clinicians, 9.1%; Gynecologists, 2.9%; and Pediatricians, 2.4%. Approximately 75% of the smoking physicians had been advised by their own doctors to stop smoking, although only 34.9% had tried to quit smoking with the preceding year. Of the physicians responding, 57.1% agreed that smoking is a health hazard, and 26.3% reported smoking in hospitals or doctors' offices. Conclusion: Efforts to control smoking in the Federal District should be intensified and, despite the fact that the prevalence of smoking is declining among physicians, smoking cessation programs should target this population.


Keywords: Smoking; Physicians; Smoking cessation


Review Article

16 - Chronic respiratory failure in patients with neuromuscular diseases: diagnosis and treatment

Insuficiência respiratória crônica nas doenças neuromusculares: diagnóstico e tratamento

Ilma Aparecida Paschoal, Wander de Oliveira Villalba, Mônica Corso Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):81-92

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Neuromuscular diseases affect alveolar air exchange and therefore cause chronic respiratory failure. The onset of respiratory failure can be acute, as in traumas, or progressive (slow or rapid), as in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophies, diseases of the myoneural junction, etc. Respiratory muscle impairment also affects cough efficiency and, according to the current knowledge regarding the type of treatment available in Brazil to these patients, it can be said that the high rates of morbidity and mortality in these individuals are more often related to the fact that they cough inefficiently rather than to the fact that they ventilate poorly. In this review, with the objective of presenting the options of devices available to support and substitute for natural ventilation in patients with neuromuscular diseases, we have compiled a brief history of the evolution of orthopedic braces and prostheses used to aid respiration since the end of the 19th century. In addition, we highlight the elements that are fundamental to the diagnosis of alveolar hypoventilation and of failure of the protective cough mechanism: taking of a clinical history; determination of peak cough flow; measurement of maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures; spirometry in two positions (sitting and supine); pulse oximetry; capnography; and polysomnography. Furthermore, the threshold values available in the literature for the use of nocturnal ventilatory support and for the extension of this support through the daytime period are presented. Moreover, the maneuvers used to increase cough efficiency, as well as the proper timing of their introduction, are discussed.


Keywords: Respiratory insufficiency/diagnosis; Chronic disease; Respiratory insufficiency/therapy;


17 - Physiopathology of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

Síndrome da apnéia-hipopnéia obstrutiva do sono. Fisiopatologia

Andrea Barral Martins, Sérgio Tufik, Sonia Maria Guimaraes Pereira Togeiro Moura

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):93-100

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The physiopathology of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is multifactorial. Gender and obesity status, as well as genetic, anatomic, and hormonal factors, together with ventilatory drive, interact in a diverse manner in the physiopathology and clinical expression of the disease. Obesity is the main risk factor, since increases in body mass index, visceral fat, and neck circumference are strong predictors of the disease. Progesterone increases the activity of the upper airway dilator muscles and therefore plays a protective role in premenopausal women. This explains the fact that the prevalence of the disease is higher in postmenopausal patients, in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, as well as in males. Evidence supports the fact that, as individuals grow older, there is a decrease in muscle tonus, with a consequent reduction in the dimensions of the upper airway lumen. Craniofacial anomalies, such as in retrognathia or micrognathia, are accompanied by posterior positioning of the tongue and can result in narrowing of the upper airway lumen. Finally, decreased ventilatory drive has been detected in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and hypercapnia.


Keywords: Sleep apnea obstructive/physiopathology; Body mass index; Obesity


Case Report

18 - Idiopathic tracheal stenosis. A report of four cases

Estenose idiopática de traquéia. Relato de quatro casos

Carolina Rossi, Fernanda Colombari, Alda Losi Guembarowsky, Olavo Franco Ferreira Filho, João Carlos Thomson

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):101-104

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Idiopathic tracheal stenosis is uncommon. Herein, we report four cases, all presenting a similar clinical profile: diagnosed through bronchoscopy and having a history of being treated unsuccessfully for bronchospasm. Three of the patients were treated with dilatation and an oral corticosteroid. One of those three underwent tracheoplasty. In the remaining patient, the stenosis was more extensive (2 cm, with a 70% reduction in the size of the lumen), and dilatation was not an option. Therefore, that patient underwent laryngotracheal resection. In all four patients, the evolution was favorable. Idiopathic tracheal stenosis should be contemplated in cases of 'bronchitis' that are not resolved using conventional treatments. Bronchoscopy and dilatation have provided satisfactory results. Occasionally, laryngotracheal reconstruction is necessary.


Keywords: Trachea/surgery; Constriction; Pathologic; Case reports [publication type].


19 - Tracheoesophageal fistula after caustic ingestion

Fístula esôfago-traqueal após ingestão cáustica

Eduardo Crema, Marcelo Cunha Fatureto, Marcel Noronha Gonzaga, Ricardo Pastore, Alex Augusto da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):105-108

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Tracheoesophageal fistulas are uncommon and present diverse etiologies, among which is burning of the esophagus due to caustic ingestion. Herein, we report the case of a 27-year-old male patient having ingested a caustic substance 14 days prior and presenting burning retrosternal pain, weakness, productive cough with purulent sputum and dyspnea accompanied by hoarseness for the preceding 24 h. Endoscopy of the upper digestive tract revealed a tracheoesophageal fistula. Treatment consisted of cervical exclusion of the esophageal transit, together with gastrostomy. Subsequently, the nutrient transit was reconstructed through pharyngocoloplasty. The postoperative evolution was favorable.


Keywords: Tracheoesophageal fistula/etiology; Tracheoesophageal fistula/surgery; Esophageal perforation/chemically induced; Colon/surgery


20 - Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: a rare cause of severe anemia

Telangiectasia hemorrágica hereditária: uma causa rara de anemia grave

José Wellington Alves dos Santos, Tiago Chagas Dalcin, Kelly Ribeiro Neves, Keli Cristina Mann, Gustavo Luis Nunes Pretto, Alessandra Naimaier Bertolazi

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):109-112

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Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is an autosomal dominant disease in which arteriovenous communications are typically seen in the skin, mucosal surfaces, lungs, brain and gastrointestinal tract. This disease typically presents as epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding and arteriovenous malformations (in the brain and lungs). Although the epistaxis and gastrointestinal bleeding can result in anemia, patients diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia rarely present severe anemia. Herein, we report the case of a 49-year-old man with severe anemia and undiagnosed hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.


Keywords: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia; Iron deficiency anemia; Case reports [publication type].


21 - Mediastinal teratoma mimicking pleural effusion on chest X-rays

Teratoma do mediastino simulando derrame pleural no estudo radiológico do tórax

Miguel Angelo Martins de Castro Júnior, Nelson Perelman Rosemberg, Miguel Angelo Martins de Castro, Angela Potter de Castro, Cacio Wietzycoscki, Cleiton Mespaque

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):113-115

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Teratomas account for 8-13% of all mediastinal tumors. A 27-year-old patient presented with chest pain and dyspnea of prolonged evolution. A chest X-ray revealed near total opacification of the right hemithorax. On a tomography scan of the chest, a collection of heterogeneous fluid, with irregular borders and 10.1 x 11.7 cm in size, was seen in the pleura of the lower two-thirds of the right hemithorax but was not encroaching on any of the adjacent structures. Based on the hypothesis that these findings represented a benign mediastinal teratoma, an exploratory thoracotomy was performed, during which such a teratoma was found and completely excised. The post-operative evolution was favorable. The atypical presentation and considerable growth of the tumor hindered the pre-operative diagnosis.


Keywords: Teratoma; Mediastinal neoplasms; Pleural effusion; Radiography thoracic



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