Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2007 - Volume 33  - Number 5  (September/October)






Editorial

1 - Recurrence of tuberculosis

Recidiva da tuberculose

Antonio Ruffino-Netto

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):27-28

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2 - Lung cancer mortality

Mortalidade por câncer do pulmão

Carlos Alberto Guimarães

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):29-30

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Original Article

3 - Investigation of factors associated with difficult-to-control asthma

Investigação de fatores associados à asma de difícil controle

Ana Carla Sousa de Araujo, Érica Ferraz, Marcos de Carvalho Borges, João Terra Filho, Elcio Oliveira Vianna

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):495-501

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of factors associated with difficult-to-control asthma. Methods: Patients with severe asthma were selected from the outpatient asthma clinic of the Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas. The patients were divided into two groups: controlled severe asthma and difficult-to-control severe asthma. After new attempts to optimize the severe asthma treatment, a questionnaire was applied, and additional tests for factors associated with difficult-to-control asthma, such as environmental and occupational exposure, smoking history, social factors, rhinitis/sinusitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), obstructive sleep apnea, congestive heart failure (CHF), pulmonary embolism, cystic fibrosis, vocal cord dysfunction, α-1 antitrypsin deficiency, and Churg-Strauss syndrome, were performed. Results: 77 patients with severe asthma were selected, of which 47 suffered from hard-to-control asthma, being 68.1% female, with mean age of 44.4 years (±14.4), and forced expiratory volume in one second of 54.7% (±18.3). The most factors most often associated with difficult-to-control asthma were noncompliance with treatment (68%), rhinitis/sinusitis (57%), GERD (49%), environmental exposure (34%), occupational exposure (17%), smoking history (10%), obstructive sleep apnea (2%), and CHF (2%). At least one of these factors was identified in every case. Conclusions: Noncompliance with treatment was the factor most often associated with difficult-to-control asthma, underscoring the need to investigate comorbidities in the evaluation of patients with this form of the disease.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Smoking; Gastroesophageal reflux; Patient compliance; Rhinitis; Sinusitis.

 

4 - Quantitative assessment of elastic fibers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Avaliação quantitativa das fibras elásticas na doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Rogerio Rufino, Kalil Madi, Heitor Siffert Pereira de Souza, Cláudia Henrique da Costa, Eduardo Haruo Saito, José Roberto Lapa e Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):502-509

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Objective: To quantify elastic fibers (EFs) and smooth muscle (SM) cells, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Surgical specimens were obtained from 15 COPD patients, 18 smokers without airflow limitation, and 14 nonsmokers. Histological and immunohistochemical methods were employed in order to quantify EFs, SM cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells. Results: There was no significant difference in EF numbers among the three groups (p > 0.05). The number of EFs per unit area of lung tissue (mm2) and the percentage of EFs in the lung tissue were similar among the three groups. The numbers of SM cells were found to be higher in the COPD patients than in the smokers (p = 0.003) or in the nonsmokers (p = 0.009). There was a tendency toward an increase in CD8+ T-cell counts in the COPD patients. In specimens collected from the COPD patients, CD4+ T-cell counts were lower than in those collected from the smokers (p = 0.015) or from the nonsmokers (p = 0.003). There was a weak correlation between CD4+ T-cell count and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (r2 = 0.003). Conclusions: The EF counts were similar among the three groups. Hypertrophy/hyperplasia of airway wall SM cells was found in the COPD patients and in the smokers, indicating that airway remodeling occurs in smokers. The CD4/CD8 ratio was lower in the COPD patients.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; CD4 Lymphocyte Count; Elastic tissue; Muscle, smooth.

 

5 - Induced sputum and peripheral blood cell profile in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Perfil celular do escarro induzido e sangue periférico na doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Rogerio Rufino, Cláudia Henrique da Costa, Heitor Siffert Pereira de Souza, Kalil Madi, José Roberto Lapa e Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):510-518

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Objective: To determine cell profiles, as well as to identify CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subgroups, in induced sputum (IS) and peripheral venous blood (PVB) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Total cell counts and counts of individual cell types, including CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, were determined in the IS and PVB of 85 subjects (38 with COPD without exacerbation, 29 smokers without obstruction and 18 nonsmokers). Mann-Whitney and Spearman non-parametric tests were used in the statistical analysis, and values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Comparing the IS of subjects with COPD to that of nonsmokers, neutrophil, eosinophil and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts were higher (respectively p = 0.005, p < 0.05 and p < 0.05), whereas the percentage of macrophages was lower (p = 0.003). There were weak linear correlations (r2 < 0.1) between each cell type in IS and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC ratio. Eosinophil and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts were also higher in PVB (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02). Conclusions: In patients with stable COPD, CD8+ T lymphocyte counts were higher in PVB, whereas total leukocyte counts were similar to those of the other two groups analyzed, suggesting systemic inflammatory involvement. The CD8+ T lymphocyte count in blood can be a useful marker of systemic inflammation and can help identify smokers who already present a COPD inflammatory pattern.

 


Keywords: Sputum; T-lymphocytes; Neutrophils; Macrophages; Eosinophils; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.

 

6 - Reliability and accuracy of cirtometry in healthy adults

Precisão e acurácia da cirtometria em adultos saudáveis

Valéria da Silva Caldeira, Célia Cristina Duarte Starling, Raquel Rodrigues Britto, Jocimar Avelar Martins, Rosana Ferreira Sampaio, Verônica Franco Parreira

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):519-526

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Objective: To determine the intrarater and interrater reliability of cirtometry (measurements of the circumference of the chest and abdomen taken during respiratory movements) as well as its correlation with pulmonary volumes measured by respiratory inductive plethysmography. Methods: A total of 40 healthy individuals were evaluated. The mean age was 28 years. The measurements were taken in the supine position at three different time points: at rest, at maximal inspiration, and at maximal expiration. Two trained investigators, each of whom was blinded as to the results obtained by the other, performed the measurements. The Friedman test was used to determine intrarater reliability, and the Wilcoxon test, together with the intraclass correlation coefficient, were used to determine interrater reliability. The correlation between the cirtometry measurements and the plethysmography results was obtained using Spearman's correlation coefficient. The level of significance was set at 0.05 for all tests. Results: Intrarater reliability was satisfactory. Regarding interrater reliability, statistically significant differences (2.8 cm at the most) were found in all sets of measurements. However, through the analysis of the intraclass correlation coefficient, the investigators were found to be responsible only for a small portion of the variability (1.2-5.08%) found among the measurements. When the cirtometry measurements were compared to the volumes measured by respiratory inductive plethysmography, low correlations (range, r = 0.170-0.343) were found. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that, although cirtometry is a reliable measurement, it does not accurately measure pulmonary volumes.

 


Keywords: Reproducibility of results; Lung volume measurements; Plethysmography; Statistics, nonparametric.

 

7 - Validation of new Brazilian predicted values for forced spirometry in Caucasians and comparison with predicted values obtained using other reference equations

Validação de novos valores previstos brasileiros para a espirometria forçada na raça branca e comparação com os valores previstos obtidos por outras equações de referência

Andrezza Araújo de Oliveira Duarte, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira, Silvia Carla Sousa Rodrigues

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):527-535

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare the most recent (2006) predicted values of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second for spirometry in Brazilians with those obtained using other reference equations and to validate the findings through comparisons with a new sample of normal Brazilians. Methods: Forced spirometry was performed, in accordance with the Brazilian Thoracic Society guidelines, in 643 nonsmoking adult Caucasians. The predicted values obtained by Brazilian researchers in 1992 and those obtained by four groups of foreign researchers were compared with the new Brazilian predicted values obtained in 2006. In the second phase, the mean values obtained in 65 adult females and 79 adult males were compared with the predicted values obtained using the various reference equations. Results: A t-test for paired samples revealed significant differences between the predicted values obtained using the six equations and those obtained using the 2006 Brazilian equation. In the second phase, the mean predicted values obtained by Crapo et al., as well as those obtained by Hankinson et al. for Mexican-Americans, were similar to those found in the new sample. However, when the predicted values obtained in the new sample were compared with those obtained by those authors, discrepancies were found, with high and low predicted values. The mean values obtained using the 2006 Brazilian equation presented the smallest differences in comparison with the mean values obtained in the new sample. Conclusions: These results underscore the importance of using prediction equations for spirometry that are appropriate for our population.

 


Keywords: Spirometry; Reference values; Respiratory function tests.

 

8 - Lung cancer, cancer of the trachea, and bronchial cancer: mortality trends in Brazil, 1980-2003

Tendência de mortalidade do câncer de pulmão, traquéia e brônquios no Brasil, 1980-2003

Deborah Carvalho Malta, Lenildo de Moura, Maria de Fátima Marinho de Souza, Maria Paula Curado, Airlane Pereira Alencar, Gizelton Pereira Alencar

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):536-543

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the mortality trends for lung cancer, cancer of the trachea, and bronchial cancer in relation to gender and age brackets in Brazil. Methods: Data related to mortality between 1980 and 2003 were collected from the Brazilian Mortality Database. A trend analysis of mortality was carried out, nationwide and in selected states, using the LOWESS technique for rate smoothing and model adjustments. Results: In Brazil, the standardized mortality rate for lung cancer, cancer of the trachea, and bronchial cancer increased from 7.21/100,000 inhabitants in 1980 to 9.36/100,000 inhabitants in 2003. Specific mortality rates decreased in males in the 30-49 and 50-59 age brackets. In the 60-69 age bracket, the rates for males increased from 1980 to 1995 and declined thereafter. There was a trend toward higher mortality rates in males over 70, as well as in females over 30, throughout the period evaluated. Conclusions: The decrease in the mortality rates in younger males might have resulted from recent national interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence of smoking and reducing exposure in younger cohorts. High mortality rates in older populations remained constant due to prior tobacco use. Increased mortality rates in females are a worldwide trend and are attributable to the recent increase in smoking prevalence in females.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms/epidemiology; Mortality/trends; Brazil.

 

9 - Temporal trend in and spatial distribution of lung cancer mortality in Brazil between 1979 and 2004: magnitude, regional patterns, and gender-related differences

Tendência temporal e distribuição espacial da mortalidade por câncer de pulmão no Brasil entre 1979 e 2004: magnitude, padrões regionais e diferenças entre sexos

Antonio Fernando Boing, Tiana Fávero Rossi

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):544-551

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Objectives: To describe the temporal trend in and spatial distribution of mortality from tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancer in Brazil from 1979 to 2004. Methods: Mortality data by gender and geographic region were obtained from the Mortality Database created by the Ministry of Health in 1975. Demographic data were collected from the national censuses, from population counts, and from population estimates made in non-census years. Mortality rates were standardized according to the direct method, and the trends were analyzed by gender and geographic region using the Prais-Winsten method for generalized linear regression. Results: Lung cancer mortality accounted for approximately 12% of the overall neoplasia-related mortality during the period. There was a trend toward an increase for both genders and in all regions, except for the male population in the southeast region, whose rates remained steady between 1979 and 2004. The highest rates were observed in the south and southeast regions. However, the northeast region was the one that presented the greatest increase, followed by the central-west and north regions. In all regions, the increase in mortality rates was higher in women. Conclusions: The increase in lung cancer mortality in Brazil between 1979 and 2004 requires public measures that can minimize exposition to risk factors, mainly tobacco, and allow greater access to health care facilities for diagnosis and treatment.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Epidemiology; Brazil.

 

10 - Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: high-resolution computed tomography findings in 10 patients

Microlitíase alveolar pulmonar: achados na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax em 10 pacientes

Edson Marchiori, Carolina Marinho Gonçalves, Dante Luiz Escuissato, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos Teixeira, Rosana Rodrigues, Miriam Menna Barreto, Mauro Esteves

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):552-557

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Objective: To present the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. Methods: The HRCT scans of 10 adult patients (seven females and three males; mean age, 38.7 years) were retrospectively analyzed. The films were studied independently by two radiologists. Results: The most common tomographic findings were ground-glass attenuation and linear subpleural calcifications, which were seen in 90% of the patients. Other relevant findings were small parenchymal nodules, calcification along the interlobular septa, nodular cissures, subpleural nodules, subpleural cysts, dense consolidations, and a mosaic pattern of attenuation. Conclusions: The HRCT findings presented by individuals with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis are distinct. In most cases, such findings can form the basis of the diagnosis, eliminating the need to perform a lung biopsy.

 


Keywords: Tomography, X-Ray Computed; Lithiasis/lung; Lung diseases.

 

11 - Variables related to smoking initiation among students in public and private high schools in the city of Belém, Brazil

Variáveis relacionadas à iniciação do tabagismo entre estudantes do ensino médio de escola pública e particular na cidade de Belém - PA

Denise da Silva Pinto, Sandra Aparecida Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):558-564

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Objetive: To analyze the variables related to smoking initiation among adolescent students in two high schools (one public and one private) in the city of Belém, Brazil, in 2005. Methods: An anonymous self-report questionnaire - comprising 27 closed questions regarding smoking experimentation, smoking habit, access to buying cigarettes, reasons for smoking experimentation, self-perception regarding academic performance, conversations about smoking with the family, and socioeconomic level - was used for data collection. The study comprised 1520 students: 724 (47.6%) from the private school and 796 (52.4%) from the public school. Results: Mean age of participants was 16.5 years. Of the 1520 students evaluated, 669 (44%) reported experimenting with smoking, and 11% smoked regularly. In the public school and the private school, respectively, 51.2% and 36.7% of the participants had experimented with smoking (p = 0); 14.6% and 7%, respectively, were regular smokers (p = 0). We found that, in both schools, the following factors were associated with smoking initiation and current smoking: curiosity, presence of smokers as social contacts, not being praised for not smoking, and perceiving oneself as having poor or mediocre academic performance. Socioeconomic level was found to be associated with experimentation and current smoking only among experimenters of higher socioeconomic classes (A and B) in the private school. Conclusions: Among the students evaluated, the variable most closely associated with smoking was curiosity. Experimentation and regular tobacco use were more common in the public school than in the private school.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Epidemiologic factors; Students.

 

12 - Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients hospitalized with tuberculosis in Brasil between 1994 and 2004

Características clínico-demográficas de pacientes hospitalizados com tuberculose no Brasil, no período de 1994 a 2004

Norma Pinheiro Franco Severo, Clarice Queico Fujimura Leite, Marisa Veiga Capela, Maria Jacira da Silva Simões

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):565-571

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Objective: To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with tuberculosis hospitalized in the Nestor Goulart Reis Hospital, located in the city of Américo Brasiliense, Brazil. Methods: Epidemiological investigation by means of an observational, retrospective, descriptive study based on the medical charts of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and hospitalized between 1994 and 2004. Results: There were 1787 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis during the period evaluated. Of those, 117 (7%) were females, 1670 (93%) were males; 1215 (68%) were single, separated or widowed. Most of the patients (74%) had not completed middle school, and most (63%) were between 30 and 50 years of age. In addition, 61% suffered from alcoholism. The most common occupation was farm worker (25% of the patients), and 70% of the patients were unemployed. The most common clinical form of the disease was the pulmonary form (in 92%). The rate of medical discharge was 60%. The treatment regimen differed from the standard (rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide) in 34% of the cases. Conclusions: The profile of the patients with tuberculosis hospitalized in the hospital studied showed that they had special requirements: they were unable to take care of themselves (social cases) and required alternative treatment regimens, which justified their hospitalization. This hospital played an important social role in the treatment and guidance of these patients.

 


Keywords: Hospitalization; Tuberculosis; Demography.

 

13 - Risk factors for recurrence of tuberculosis

Fatores de risco para a recidiva da tuberculose

Pedro Dornelles Picon, Sergio Luiz Bassanesi, Maria Luiza Avancini Caramori, Roberto Luiz Targa Ferreira, Carla Adriane Jarczewski, Patrícia Rodrigues de Borba Vieira

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):572-578

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Objective: To identify risk factors for recurrence of tuberculosis. Methods: We studied a cohort of 610 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis who were enrolled for treatment between 1989 and 1994 and cured using a three-drug treatment regimen of rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide (RHZ). The risk factors studied were age, gender, race, duration of symptoms, lesion cavitation, extent of disease, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, HIV infection, delayed negative sputum conversion, treatment compliance, and medication doses. In order to detect recurrence, the patients were monitored through the Rio Grande do Sul State Healt Department Information System for 7.7 ± 2.0 years after cure. Data were analyzed using the Student's t-test, the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, and Cox regression models. Results: There were 26 cases of recurrence (4.3%), which corresponds to 0.55/100 patients-year. The recurrence rate was 5.95 and 0.48/100 patients-year in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients, respectively (p < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, HIV infection [RR = 8.04 (95% CI: 2.35-27.50); p = 0.001] and noncompliance [RR = 6.43 (95% CI: 2.02-20.44); p = 0.002] proved to be independently associated with recurrence of tuberculosis. Conclusions: Recurrence of tuberculosis was more common in HIV-positive patients and in patients who did not comply with the self-administered treatment (RHZ regimen). Patients presenting at least one of these risk factors can benefit from the implementation of a post-treatment surveillance system for early detection of recurrence. An alternative to prevent noncompliance with tuberculosis treatment would be the use of supervised treatment.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Recurrence; Risk factors.

 

Brief Communication

14 - Drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from sputum samples from symptomatic outpatients - Complexo de Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Resistência a drogas em cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis isoladas de amostras de escarro de pacientes ambulatoriais sintomáticos - Complexo de Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Joycenea Matsuda Mendes, Maria Cristina Lourenço, Rosa Maria Carvalho Ferreira, Leila de Souza Fonseca, Maria Helena Feres Saad

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):579-582

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

This study aimed to assess drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from sputum samples. To that end, sputum samples were collected from 263 patients suspected of having tuberculosis. All subjects lived in the Complexo de Manguinhos, which is located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cultures testing positive between October of 2000 and December of 2002 were tested to determine strain susceptibility to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, ethionamide, and ethambutol. Of the 75 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis, resistance to at least one of the drugs was found in 16 (21.4%). Of those 16 patients, 8 (50%) were new cases, and 8 (50%) had previously been treated. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was identified in 8 (10.6%) of the 75 patients, being associated with previous treatment in 6 (8%). The incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis might have been underestimated, since M. tuberculosis was not isolated from all of the samples testing positive for acid-fast bacilli. However, at least, our findings shed some light on the problem.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Drug resistance; Drug resistance, multiple.

 

Review Article

15 - Sickle cell anemia-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension

Hipertensão arterial pulmonar associada à anemia falciforme

Roberto Ferreira Pinto Machado

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):583-591

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Pulmonary hypertension is a common complication of sickle cell anemia. Despite the fact that the elevations in pulmonary artery pressures are slight, morbidity and mortality are high. In adult sickle cell anemia patients, pulmonary hypertension is emerging as a major risk factor for death. The pathogenesis of sickle cell anemia-related pulmonary hypertension is multifactorial, including hemolysis, impaired nitric oxide bioavailability, chronic hypoxemia, thromboembolism, chronic liver disease and asplenia. In the majority of patients, pulmonary arterial hypertension is the main cause of elevated pulmonary artery pressures. However, pulmonary venous hypertension also plays a role in a subgroup of patients. Specific data on the effects of treatment modalities for pulmonary hypertension in patients with sickle cell anemia are scarce. It is likely that all patients would benefit from maximization of sickle cell anemia therapy, and that patients with the severe form of the disease would benefit from treatment with selective pulmonary vasodilators and antiproliferative agents. Large trials evaluating the effects of treatment for pulmonary hypertension in the sickle cell anemia population are underway.

 


Keywords: Anemia, Sickle cell; Hemolysis; Hypertension, pulmonary; Nitric oxide.

 

16 - Psychological characteristics associated with tobacco smoking behavior

Características psicológicas associadas ao comportamento de fumar tabaco

Regina de Cássia Rondina, Ricardo Gorayeb, Clóvis Botelho

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):592-601

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

This article is a literature review of the psychological aspects of smoking behavior, highlighting personality characteristics of the smoker as an obstacle to smoking cessation. It describes the relation between smoking behavior and personality, and between smoking and the principal psychiatric disorders. Studies reveal that smokers tend to be more extroverted, anxious, tense, and impulsive, and show more traits of neuroticism and psychoticism than do ex-smokers or nonsmokers. The literature also reveals a strong association between smoking and mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and depression. Understanding the psychological factors associated with tobacco smoking and dependence can further the development and improvement of therapeutic strategies to be used in smoking-cessation programs, as well as of programs aimed at prevention and education.

 


Keywords: Personality; Mental disorders; Smoking.

 

Case Series

17 - Primary ciliary dyskinesia: Considerations regarding six cases of Kartagener syndrome

Discinesia ciliar primária: Considerações sobre seis casos da síndrome de Kartagener

Hugo Alejandro Vega Ortega, Nelson de Araujo Vega, Bruno Quirino dos Santos, Guilherme Tavares da Silva Maia

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):602-608

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), previously known as immotile cilia syndrome, is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease that includes various patterns of ciliary ultrastructural defects. The most serious form is Kartagener syndrome (KS), which accounts for 50% of all cases of PCD. The incidence of PCD ranges from 1:20,000 to 1:60,000. Since PCD causes deficiency or even stasis of the transport of secretions throughout the respiratory tract, it favors the growth of viruses and bacteria. As a result, patients have lifelong chronic and recurrent infections, typically suffering from bronchitis, pneumonia, hemoptysis, sinusitis, and infertility. Bronchiectasis and other chronic conditions infections can be the end result of the irreversible bronchial alterations, leading to chronic cor pulmonale and its consequences. Only half of the patients affected by PDC present all of the symptoms, a condition designated complete KS, compared with incomplete KS, typically defined as cases in which situs inversus does not occur. The diagnosis is made clinically and confirmed through transmission electron microscopy. Since there is no specific therapy for PCD, it is recommended that, upon diagnosis, secondary infections be treated with potent antibiotics and prophylactic interventions be implemented. In this paper, we report six cases of PCD (five cases of complete KS and one case of KS) and review the related literature, focusing on the diagnostic, therapeutic and clinical aspects of this disease.

 


Keywords: Kartagener syndrome; Ciliary motility disorders; Bronchiectasis; Dextrocardia.

 

Case Report

18 - Carcinomatous lymphangitis as the initial manifestation of ovarian adenocarcinoma

Linfangite carcinomatosa pulmonar como manifestação inicial de adenocarcinoma de ovário

Mariane Gonçalves Martynychen, Lêda Maria Rabelo, Rodney Luiz Frare e Silva, Dante Luiz Escuissato

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):609-611

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Carcinomatous lymphangitis accounts for approximately 8% of all cases of metastatic pulmonary tumors. The most common primary sites are breast, lung, stomach, prostate and pancreas. We describe herein the case of a 42-year-old woman in whom the first manifestation of an ovarian adenocarcinoma was carcinomatous lymphangitis of the lung, an unusual presentation of the disease.

 


Keywords: Lymphangitis; Lung neoplasms; Ovarian neoplasms; Lymphatic metastasis; Hypertension, pulmonary.

 

19 - Intrapulmonary teratoma

Teratoma intrapulmonar maduro

Ricardo Alexandre Faria, José Alexandre Bizon, Roberto Saad Junior, Vicente Dorgan Neto, Marcio Botter, Mauro Ajaj Saieg

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):612-615

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Case report of a 49-year-old man, presenting chest pain and bloody sputum for six months. Chest X-ray and computed tomography scan showed opacification on the left upper lobe. The bronchoscopy showed bronchial hemorrhage in the lingular bronchial segment. Due to diagnostic and therapeutic needs, this patient underwent a left inframammilary thoracotomy. The anatomopathological analysis of the surgical sample revealed an intrapulmonary teratoma. The patient presented favorable evolution and is now under outpatient follow-up treatment.

 


Keywords: Teratoma; Lung; Neoplasms.

 

20 - Tracheal polyp

Pólipo traqueal

Bruno Guedes Baldi, Caio Júlio César dos Santos Fernandes, João Marcos Salge, Teresa Yae Takagaki

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):616-620

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Benign tracheal tumors are rare, recurrent papillomatosis being the most common. They often simulate obstructive pulmonary diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and patients with benign tracheal tumors often undergo long-term treatment for such diseases, without any improvement, Therefore, these tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting tracheobronchial tree obstruction. This report describes the case of a patient with a tracheal polyp. The patient presented symptoms for three years, and the spirometry findings suggested intrathoracic obstruction. The patient presented complete clinical and spirometric recovery after bronchoscopic resection of the tumor.

 


Keywords: Polyps; Airway obstruction; Spirometry; Bronchoscopy.

 

Letters to the Editor

23 - Video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy

Simpatectomia torácica por videotoracoscopia

Jorge Montessi, Edmílton Pereira de Almeida, João Paulo Vieira, Marcus da Matta Abreu, Renato Lucas Passos de Souza, Oswaldo Victor Duarte Montessi

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):624-

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