Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2008 - Volume 34  - Number 1  (/January)






Original Article

3 - Evaluation of the knowledge of health professionals at a pediatric hospital regarding the use of metered-dose inhalers

Avaliação do conhecimento sobre o uso de inaladores dosimetrados entre profissionais de saúde de um hospital pediátrico

Fábio Pereira Muchão, Sílvia La Regina Rodrigues Perín, Joaquim Carlos Rodrigues, Cláudio Leone, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira Silva Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(1):4-12

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate health professionals working at a tertiary pediatric hospital in terms of their knowledge regarding the practical use of metered-dose inhalers. Methods: Practical and written tests on the use of metered-dose inhalers were applied to physicians, physical therapists, nurses and nursing assistants. A score from 0 to 10 was assigned to each evaluation, and median scores were calculated for each professional category. Questions with higher and lower correct values were identified, and a descriptive comparison was made regarding the performance of the various professional categories. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis method for comparison of medians. A sequential logistic multiple regression analysis was also performed. Results: A total of 30 resident physicians or interns in the pediatrics department, 23 attending physicians, 29 physical therapists, 33 nurses and 31 nursing assistants were evaluated. Resident physicians, physical therapists and attending physicians performed significantly better than did nurses and nursing assistants. Only resident physicians had a median score greater than 6. Conclusions: The health professionals evaluated, particularly the nurses and nursing assistants, who are directly involved in the practical use of metered-dose inhalers, possess insufficient knowledge regarding the use of such inhalers.

 


Keywords: Metered dose inhalers; Inhalation spacers; Asthma; Education, public health professional.

 

4 - Malignant pleural mesothelioma: multidisciplinary experience in a public tertiary hospital

Mesotelioma pleural maligno: experiência multidisciplinar em hospital público terciário

Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Lisete Ribeiro Teixeira, Ricardo Beyruti, Teresa Yae Takagaki, Francisco Suso Vargas, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(1):12-20

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the experience in diagnosing and treating malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) accumulated over 5 years in a tertiary public hospital. Methods: The medical charts of the patients diagnosed with MPM between January of 2000 and February of 2005 were evaluated retrospectively. Results: Of the 17 patients analyzed, 14 were male and 3 were female. The mean age was 54.1 years (range, 13-75 years). The biopsy specimens for histopathological examination were obtained through thoracoscopy in 9 patients (53%), Cope needle in 5 (29.5%), and open pleural biopsy in 3 (17.5%). The following histological types were identified: epithelial, in 14 patients (82%); sarcomatoid, in 1 (6%); and biphasic, in 2 (12%). The therapeutic approaches used were as follows: multimodal (pleuropneumonectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy) in 6 patients (35%); chemotherapy and radiotherapy in 6 (35%); radiotherapy alone in 3 (17.5%); and chemotherapy alone in 2 (12%). The mean survival was 11 months (range, 1-26 months). Conclusions: In the cases studied, an integrated multidisciplinary approach was used, and a highly complex hospital infrastructure was available for the diagnosis and treatment of MPM, as recommended in the literature. However, the mean survival was only 11 months, reflecting the aggressiveness of the disease.

 


Keywords: Mesothelioma; Pleura; Surgery; Diagnosis.

 

5 - Development of a modified Dumon stent for tracheal applications: an experimental study in dogs

Desenvolvimento de uma órtese de Dumon modificada para aplicações traqueais: um estudo experimental em cães

Rogério Gastal Xavier, Paulo Roberto Stefani Sanches, Amarilio Viera de Macedo Neto, Gabriel Kuhl, Samanta Bianchi Vearick, Marcelo Dall'Onder Michelon

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(1):21-26

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the development of a silicone stent and perform in vivo testing for biocompatibility/applicability in the normal canine trachea. Methods: Four different densities were tested in order to obtain the silicone prototypes. The pressure required for compression considering a contact area of 1 cm2, and a 30% reduction in diameter was calculated for each density. The best density was 70-75 Shore A hardness. Powdered barium sulfate was added to the silicone to make the stent radiopaque and easily identifiable in radiological imaging. This novel stent presents a corrugated external surface with discontinuous and protruding arcs resembling the tracheobronchial rings (for intercalation and fixation in the lumen of the lower airways), a highly polished inner surface and smooth extremities (to prevent friction-related damage). The prototype considered most appropriate in terms of rigidity and flexibility was bronchoscopically implanted in normal canine tracheas. After eight weeks, the animals were euthanized, and the tracheas were removed for anatomopathological analysis. Results: There were no postimplantation complications, and none had to be removed. After eight weeks, the devices were found to be well-positioned. Histopathology revealed a well-preserved epithelial basal membrane, foci of denuded epithelium, mild submucosal inflammatory infiltrate with scattered granulation tissue, vascular neoformation, and no microorganisms. Conclusions: The stent developed proved resistant to mechanical stress, biocompatible in the canine trachea and well-preserved at the study endpoint.

 


Keywords: Implants, experimental; Silicones; Biocompatible materials.

 

6 - Detection of pulmonary nodules by computer-aided diagnosis in multidetector computed tomography: preliminary study of 24 cases

Diagnóstico auxiliado por computador na detecção de nódulos pulmonares pela tomografia computadorizada com múltiplos detectores: estudo preliminar de 24 casos

Julia Capobianco, Dany Jasinowodolinski, Gilberto Szarf

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(1):27-33

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objectives: To evaluate the performance of a computer program designed to facilitate the detection of pulmonary nodules using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scans of the chest. Methods: We evaluated 24 consecutive MDCT scans of the chest at the Fleury Diagnostic Imaging Center during the period from October 7 to October 19 of 2006, using a 64-channel CT scanner. The study comprised 12 females and 12 males, ranging from 35 to 77 years of age (mean, 57.9 years). Double reading and a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system were used in order to perform two independent analyses of the data. The nodules found using both methods were recorded, and the data were compared. Results: The total sensitivity of CAD for the detection of nodules was 16.5%, increasing to 55% when nodules <4 mm in diameter were excluded. Sensitivity by diameter was 6.5% for nodules <4 mm, 45% for nodules of 4-6 mm, 100% for nodules of 6 mm-1 cm, and 0% for nodules >1 cm. More than 99% of true nodules detected by CAD were registered in the image double-reading process. Conclusions: In this preliminary 24-case study, the sensitivity of computer program tested was not significantly greater than that of the double-reading process that is routinely performed in this facility.

 


Keywords: Image interpretation, computer-assisted; Coin lesion, pulmonary; Tomography, X-ray computed.

 

7 - The effect of corticosteroids on the prevention of fat embolism syndrome after long bone fracture of the lower limbs: a systematic review and meta-analysis

O efeito do corticosteróide na prevenção da síndrome da embolia gordurosa após fratura de osso longo dos membros inferiores: revisão sistemática com meta-análise

Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Antonio César Cavallazzi

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(1):34-41

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the available evidence regarding the effect that corticosteroids have on the prevention of fat embolism syndrome after long bone fracture of the lower limbs or pelvic fracture. Methods: In March of 2007, we performed a search of various electronic databases, including Medline, the Excerpta Medica database, the Cochrane Library, the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database and the Scientific Electronic Library Online. We selected randomized controlled trials that compared the effect of corticosteroids with that of placebo (or standard care) on the prevention of fat embolism syndrome after long bone fracture of the lower limbs or pelvic fracture. References from the studies included were also reviewed. Results: Six studies were included. The pooled relative risk for developing fat embolism syndrome was 0.16 (95% CI: 0.08-0.35) in the corticosteroid group as compared with the control group. The pooled relative risk for developing hypoxemia was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.19-0.59) in the corticosteroid group as compared with the control group. Conclusion: The analysis of evidence showed that corticosteroids decrease the risk of developing fat embolism syndrome and hypoxemia after long bone fracture of the lower limbs.

 


Keywords: Embolism, Fat; Adrenal Cortex Hormones; Meta-Analysis.

 

Brief Communication

8 - Anthropogenic air pollution and respiratory disease-related emergency room visits in Rio Branco, Brazil - September, 2005

Poluição atmosférica devido à queima de biomassa florestal e atendimentos de emergência por doença respiratória em Rio Branco, Brasil - Setembro, 2005

Márcio Dênis Medeiros Mascarenhas, Lúcia Costa Vieira, Tatiana Miranda Lanzieri, Ana Paula Pinho Rodrigues Leal, Alejandro Fonseca Duarte, Douglas Lloyd Hatch

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(1):42-46

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Air pollution is a major public health problem in the Amazon forest and in large Brazilian cities. During September of 2005, high concentrations of smoke from biomass burning were observed in the city of Rio Branco. An ecological study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between daily concentrations of particulate matter < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and the number of respiratory disease (RD)-related emergency room visits. Daily PM2.5 concentrations exceeded recommended air quality limits on 23 days. The incidence of RDs was higher among children < 10 years of age. There was a significant positive correlation between PM2.5 concentrations and asthma emergency room visits.

 


Keywords: Air pollution/adverse effects; Fires; Respiratory tract diseases/epidemiology; Asthma; Space-time clustering.

 

Ensaio Pictórico

9 - Diffuse abnormalities of the trachea: computed tomography findings

Alterações difusas da traquéia: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada

Edson Marchiori, Aline Serfaty Pozes, Arthur Soares Souza Junior, Dante Luiz Escuissato, Klaus Loureiro Irion, César de Araujo Neto, Jorge Luiz Barillo, Carolina Althoff Souza, Gláucia Zanetti

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(1):47-54

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The aim of this pictorial essay was to present the main computed tomography findings seen in diffuse diseases of the trachea. The diseases studied included amyloidosis, tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica, tracheobronchomegaly, laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis, lymphoma, neurofibromatosis, relapsing polychondritis, Wegener's granulomatosis, tuberculosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and tracheobronchomalacia. The most common computed tomography finding was thickening of the walls of the trachea, with or without nodules, parietal calcifications, or involvement of the posterior wall. Although computed tomography allows the detection and characterization of diseases of the central airways, and the correlation with clinical data reduces the diagnostic possibilities, bronchoscopy with biopsy remains the most useful procedure for the diagnosis of diffuse lesions of the trachea.

 


Keywords: Thoracic diseases; Tracheal diseases; Tomography, X-ray computed; Trachea.

 

Case Report

10 - Mediastinal liposarcoma: a case report

Lipossarcoma de mediastino: relato de caso

Roberto Saad Junior, Vicente Dorgan Neto, Roberto Gonçalves, Márcio Botter, Leticia Cristina Dalledone Siqueira

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(1):55-58

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Here, we describe the case of a 51-year-old female with mediastinal liposarcoma. Liposarcoma is the most common malignant mesenchymal neoplasm in adults, although a mediastinal location is extremely rare. It has a large volume and varied histologic subtypes. It is characterized by the compression of neighboring structures. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging provide useful data for diagnosis. Tissue biopsy and histological typing are very important in determining the treatment and are needed for the final diagnosis. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are ineffective treatment modalities. According to the literature, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Long-term follow-up evaluation is indicated since there is a high rate of recurrence.

 


Keywords: Liposarcoma; Mediastinal neoplasms; Case reports [publication type].

 

11 - Bronchial thermoplasty: report on the first endoscopic treatment for asthma in Latin America*

Termoplastia brônquica: relato do primeiro tratamento endoscópico de asma na América Latina

Adalberto Sperb Rubin, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(1):59-62

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Bronchial thermoplasty is a new bronchoscopic procedure that delivers radiofrequency energy to the airway and potentially reduces the smooth muscle-mediated bronchoconstriction. We report the case of a 48-year-old man with persistent moderate asthma submitted to bronchial thermoplasty. The treatment increased the forced expiratory volume in one second, increased the number of symptom-free days, reduced the use of relief medications, and improved the Juniper Asthma Quality of Life Scale score. In this patient, bronchial thermoplasty was well tolerated and safe. This was the first bronchial thermoplasty performed in Latin America. At 12 months after the procedure, the results were encouraging in terms of its potential benefits in patients with difficult-to-control asthma.

 


Keywords: Asthma/treatment; Respiratory function tests; Case reports [publication type].

 

 


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