Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2008 - Volume 34  - Number 6  (/June)






Editorial

Original Article

2 - Evaluation of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in asthma patients based on clinical parameters and imaging studies, together with ear, nose and throat examination

Avaliação da rinussinusite bacteriana aguda em pacientes asmáticos com base em parâmetros clínicos, exame otorrinolaringológico e estudo de imagem

Alecsandra Calil Moises Faure, Ilka Lopes Santoro, Luc Louis Maurice Weckx, Henrique Manoel Lederman, Artur da Rocha Correa Fernandes, Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(6):340-346

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate paranasal sinuses in patients with stable or acute asthma in order to determine the prevalence of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 30 patients with acute asthma (73% females) treated in the emergency room and 30 patients with stable asthma (80% females) regularly monitored as outpatients. All patients completed a questionnaire on respiratory signs and symptoms and were submitted to ear, nose and throat (ENT) examination, as well as to X-ray and computed tomography (CT) imaging of the sinuses. Results: Based on the clinical diagnosis, the prevalence of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis was 40% in the patients with acute asthma and 3% in those with stable asthma. The ENT examination findings and the imaging findings in isolation were not useful to confirm the diagnosis. Conclusions: In themselves, ENT examination findings, X-ray findings and CT findings were not useful for the diagnosis of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Our results provide further evidence that a clinical diagnosis of bacterial rhinosinusitis should be made with caution.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Sinusitis; Radiography; Tomography, X-ray computed; Endoscopy.

 

3 - Wheezing phenotypes from birth to adolescence: a cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil, 1993-2004

Padrões de sibilância respiratória do nascimento até o início da adolescência: coorte de Pelotas (RS) Brasil, 1993-2004

Adriana Muiño, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Felipe Fossati Reichert, Rodrigo Pereira Duquia, Moema Chatkin

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(6):347-355

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To study the prevalence of wheezing patterns and their associations with independent variables. Methods: Cohort study of live births in 1993 in Pelotas, Brazil. A systematic subsample (20%) of the original cohort was evaluated at 6 months, 12 months and 4 years. At 10-12 years, 87.5% of the original cohort was contacted. Wheezing was categorized: transient, wheezing at 4 years but not at 10-12; persistent, wheezing at all evaluations; late-onset, wheezing at 10-12 years. Independent variables were analyzed: gender; skin color; family income; smoking/asthma during pregnancy; breastfeeding; respiratory infection/diarrhea (during the 1st year); family members with asthma/ allergy (at 4 years and at 10-12); physician-diagnosed rhinitis/eczema (at 10-12 years). Results: The subsample comprised 897 adolescents. Wheezing patterns were expressed as prevalence (95% CI): transient, 43.9% (40.7-47.2); persistent, 6.4% (4.8-8.0); and late-onset, 3.3% (2.2-4.5). The transient pattern was more common in children from low-income families, children breastfed for less time, children with a history of respiratory infections (during the 1st year) and children with asthma in the family (at 4 years). The persistent pattern was almost twice as common in males, in children whose mothers had asthma during pregnancy, in children with respiratory infections (during the 1st year) and in children with asthma in the family (at 4 and 10-12 years). The late-onset pattern was more prevalent among those with asthma in the family (at 10-12 years) and those diagnosed with rhinitis (at 10-12 years), being less prevalent among those reporting respiratory infections (during the 1st year) and those diagnosed with eczema (at 10-12 years). Conclusions: Knowledge of the associations of wheezing patterns allows us to adopt preventive and therapeutic measures.

 


Keywords: Respiratory sounds; Asthma; Epidemiology; Hypersensitivity.

 

4 - Symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children

Sintomas da síndrome de apnéia-hipopnéia obstrutiva do sono em crianças

Paloma Baiardi Gregório, Rodrigo Abensur Athanazio, Almir Galvão Vieira Bitencourt, Flávia Branco Cerqueira Serra Neves, Regina Terse5, Francisco Hora

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(6):356-361

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate the symptoms most frequently found in children with a polysomnographic diagnosis of obstructive sleep apneahypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Methods: We evaluated 38 children consecutively referred to the sleep laboratory with suspicion of OSAHS between June of 2003 and December of 2004. The patients were submitted to a pre-sleep questionnaire and to polysomnography. Results: The mean age was 7.8 ± 4 years (range, 2-15 years), and 50% of the children were male. Children without apnea accounted for 7.9% of the sample. The obstructive sleep apnea observed in the remainder was mild in 42.1%, moderate in 28.9% and severe in 22.1%. Severe cases of apnea were most common among children under the age of six (pre-school age). In children with OSAHS, the most common symptoms were snoring and nasal obstruction, which were observed in 74.3 and 72.7% of the children, respectively. Excessive sleepiness and bruxism were seen in 29.4 and 34.3%, respectively, and reflux disease was seen in only 3.1%. Restless legs and difficulty in falling asleep were identified in 65 and 33%, respectively. All of the children diagnosed with severe OSAHS also presented snoring and bruxism. Conclusions: Snoring and nasal obstruction were the most common symptoms found in our sample of children and adolescents with OSAHS. In addition, OSAHS severity was associated with being in the lower age bracket.

 


Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea; Polysomnography; Pediatrics; Snoring.

 

5 - Pulmonary involvement in Behcet's disease: a positive single-center experience with the use of immunosuppressive therapy

Acometimento pulmonar na doença de Behçet: uma boa experiência com o uso de imunossupressores

Alfredo Nicodemos Cruz Santana, Telma Antunes, Juliana Monteiro de Barros, Ronaldo Adib Kairalla, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de Carvalho, Carmen Silvia Valente Barbas

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(6):362-366

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Behcet's syndrome, or Behcet's disease (BD), is a multisystem pathology, and survival is related to pulmonary involvement. However, it appears that different treatments correlate with different prognoses. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and tomographic evolution, as well as the survival, of patients with BD-related pulmonary involvement. Methods: A retrospective review of our experience with pulmonary manifestations in patients with BD treated at our institution between January 1, 1988 and April 30, 2006. The clinical, radiological, treatment and survival data were obtained from medical charts. Results: We identified 9 patients with BD-related pulmonary involvement. The mean age was 34 ± 11.5 years, and 7 of the patients were male. The radiological findings were as follows: pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) in 8 patients; pulmonary embolism in 3 (translating to an incidence of 5.11 cases/100 patient-years); alveolar hemorrhage in one; and pulmonary hypertension in one. The treatment consisted of immunosuppression with prednisone plus chlorambucil (or cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate mofetil) in all patients, with partial or complete resolution of the PAAs. One patient with a PAA and pulmonary hypertension also received sildenafil and warfarin, with good clinical and tomographic response (the first report in the English literature). In our sample, the mean duration of the follow-up period was 6.52 years. The three-year survival rate was 88.8%, as was the five-year survival rate. Conclusions: Patients with BD-related pulmonary involvement can present good survival with immunosuppressive therapy, and BD should be borne in mind as a possible cause of pulmonary hypertension and alveolar hemorrhage.

 


Keywords: Behcet Syndrome; Lung diseases, interstitial; Pulmonary circulation; Hypertension, pulmonary; Pulmonary embolism; Alveolar.

 

6 - Occupational exposure and occurrence of pneumoconioses in Campinas, Brazil, 1978-2003

Exposição ocupacional e ocorrência de pneumoconioses na região de Campinas (SP) Brasil, 1978-2003

Alessandro Vito Lido, Satoshi Kitamura, José Inácio Oliveira, Sérgio Roberto de Lucca, Valmir Antonio Zulian de Azevedo, Ericson Bagatin

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(6):367-372

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To develop and consolidate a comprehensive database on the occurrence of pneumoconioses in an industrialized region of Brazil, with a special focus on the activities most frequently related to these diseases. Methods: A retrospective, observational study was conducted in order to gather data on cases of pneumoconioses treated at the outpatient clinic of the State University at Campinas Hospital das Clínicas between 1978 and 2003. Individuals diagnosed with pneumoconiosis, based on their occupational history and on chest X-ray findings of abnormalities consistent with interstitial lung disease involving the parenchyma, in accordance with the 1980 and 2000 recommendations of the International Labour Organization, were included in the study. Results: A total of 1147 cases of pneumoconiosis were identified (1075 in males and 72 in females): 1061 cases of silicosis (92.5%); 51 cases of mixed-dust pneumoconiosis (4.45%); 15 cases of asbestosis (1.31%); 13 cases of phosphate rock-related pneumoconiosis (1.13%); and 7 cases of other types of pneumoconiosis (0.6%), including those related to exposure to coal, graphite and hard metals. The most common chest X-ray findings were 1/0, 1/1 or 1/2 profusion and small regular opacities (p, q or r), although 192 patients (16.74%) presented large opacities. There has been a substantial decline in the occurrence of the disease since the 1990s, and the duration of exposure was typically shorter than that observed in a study conducted in the United States. Conclusions: Our findings have been compiled into a comprehensive database for the investigation of pneumoconiosis in an industrialized area of Brazil. These data make it possible to conduct follow-up studies and develop health policies related to occupational respiratory disorders.

 


Keywords: Occupational medicine; Respiratory tract diseases/epidemiology; Pneumoconiosis; Epidemiology.

 

7 - Immediate bronchodilator response to formoterol in poorly reversible chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Resposta broncodilatadora imediata ao formoterol em doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica com pouca reversibilidade

Adalberto Sperb Rubin, Fábio José Fabrício de Barros Souza, Jorge Lima Hetzel, José da Silva Moreira

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(6):373-379

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate, using pulmonary function tests, the effectiveness of formoterol as a bronchodilator at 30 min after its administration in patients with poorly reversible COPD. Methods: A prospective study including 40 COPD patients not responding to the short-acting bronchodilator used in the spirometric test-variation of less than 200 mL and less than 7% of predicted in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). All patients were classified as having stage II, III, or IV COPD (Brazilian Thoracic Society/Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) and presented FEV1 ≤ 70% of predicted value. The patients were randomized into two groups of 20, with similar clinical characteristics, receiving, via a dry powder inhaler, either formoterol or a placebo. The pulmonary function testing (plethysmography) was repeated at 30 min after formoterol or placebo administration. Results: In the formoterol group, the mean values obtained for FEV1, inspiratory capacity, and forced vital capacity were significantly greater than those obtained in the placebo group (p = 0.00065, p = 0.05, and p = 0.017, respectively), whereas that obtained for airway resistance was significantly lower (p = 0.010). Less pronounced differences were observed for residual volume, vital capacity and specific airway conductance, which were lower, higher and higher, respectively, in the formoterol group. Conclusions: In COPD patients not responding to the short-acting bronchodilator used in the spirometric test, formoterol promoted significant improvement in lung function at 30 min after of administration. Further studies are required to confirm whether formoterol can also be used as a medication for immediate relief of symptoms in COPD.

 


Keywords: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Respiratory function tests; Bronchodilator agents.

 

8 - Effects of manually assisted coughing on respiratory mechanics in patients requiring full ventilatory support

Efeitos da tosse manualmente assistida sobre a mecânica do sistema respiratório de pacientes em suporte ventilatório total

Katia de Miranda Avena, Antonio Carlos Magalhães Duarte, Sergio Luiz Domingues Cravo, Maria José Junho Sologuren, Ada Clarice Gastaldi

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(6):380-386

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Manually assisted coughing (MAC) consists of a vigorous thrust applied to the chest at the beginning of a spontaneous expiration or of the expiratory phase of mechanical ventilation. Due to routine use of MAC in intensive care units, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of MAC on respiratory system mechanics in patients requiring full ventilatory support. Methods: We assessed 16 sedated patients on full ventilatory support (no active participation in ventilation). Respiratory system mechanics and oxyhemoglobin saturation were measured before and after MAC, as well as after endotracheal aspiration. Bilateral MAC was performed ten times on each patient, with three respiratory cycle intervals between each application. Results: Data analysis demonstrated a decrease in resistive pressure and respiratory system resistance, together with an increase in oxyhemoglobin saturation, after MAC combined with endotracheal aspiration. No evidence of alterations in peak pressures, plateau pressures or respiratory system compliance change was observed after MAC. Conclusions: The use of MAC alters respiratory system mechanics, increasing resistive forces by removing secretions. The technique is considered safe and efficacious for postoperative patients. Using MAC in conjunction with endotracheal aspiration provided benefits, achieving the proposed objective: the displacement and removal of airway secretions.

 


Keywords: Cough; Sputum; Respiratory mechanics; Respiration, artificial.

 

9 - Assessment of the quality of life of patients with lung cancer using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey

Avaliação da qualidade de vida em pacientes com câncer de pulmão através da aplicação do questionário Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey

Juliana Franceschini, Alecssandra Aparecida dos Santos, Inás El Mouallem, Sergio Jamnik, César Uehara, Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes, Ilka Lopes Santoro

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(6):387-393

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess the quality of life of patients with lung cancer and to compare it with that of individuals without cancer. Methods: The Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was administered to 57 patients diagnosed with lung cancer, treated at the Lung Cancer Outpatient Clinic of the Hospital São Paulo, and to a control group of 57 individuals recruited from the Extra Penha workout group. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the groups, domain by domain. The first model of logistic regression was adjusted for male gender, nonsurgical treatment, Karnofsky performance status and smoking, which were included as predictors. The second model was adjusted for each SF-36 domain in order to identify increases in the proportions of patients in stage IIIB or IV. Results: The lung cancer group and the control group presented the following mean scores, respectively, for the SF-36 domains: role limitations due to physical health problems, 29.39 ± 36.94 and 82.89 ± 28.80; role limitations due to emotional problems, 42.78 ± 44.78 and 86.55 ± 28.77; physical function, 56.49 ± 28.39 and 89.00 ± 13.80; vitality, 61.61 ± 23.82 and 79.12 ± 17.68; bodily pain, 62.72 ± 28.72 and 81.54 ± 19.07; general health, 62.51 ± 25.57 and 84.47 ± 13.47; emotional well-being, 68.28 ± 23.46 and 82.63 ± 17.44; and social functioning, 72.87 ± 29.20 and 91.67 ± 17.44. The logistic regression model showed that role limitations due to physical health problems, physical function and emotional well-being were predictors of stages IIIB and IV. Conclusions: The patients with lung cancer had a poorer quality of life, especially regarding physical aspects, than did the control subjects.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Quality of life; Health status.

 

10 - Treatment outcome and laboratory confirmation of tuberculosis diagnosis in patients with HIV/AIDS in Recife, Brazil

Desfecho do tratamento e confirmação laboratorial do diagnóstico de tuberculose em pacientes com HIV/AIDS no Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil

Magda Maruza, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes, Heloísa Ramos Lacerda

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(6):394-403

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare the frequency of unfavorable outcome (death or default and treatment failure) between tuberculosis (TB)/HIV co-infected patients treated for TB after laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis and TB/HIV co-infected patients who were so treated without diagnostic confirmation. Methods: A retrospective cohort of TB/HIV co-infected patients who started TB treatment between July of 2002 and June of 2004 at an HIV/AIDS referral center in Recife, Brazil. The main exposure variable, laboratory confirmation of TB, was adjusted for three different sets of variables: sociodemographic variables; HIV/AIDS-related variables; and TB-related variables. In order to evaluate the statistical significance of the results, we calculated odds ratios, with 95% confidence intervals, and p values (from chi-square tests and likelihood ratio tests). Results: A total of 262 patients were studied. No association was found between laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis of TB at treatment outset and unfavorable outcome, even after adjustment for confounders. In the final multiple logistic regression model, the following variables remained: the presence of other opportunistic diseases; CD4 lymphocyte count below 50 cells/mm3; viral load between 10,000 and 100,000 copies/mL; dyspnea; the disseminated form of TB; and change in the TB treatment regimen due to adverse reactions or intolerance. Conclusions: Our results suggest that TB treatment in TB/HIV co-infected patients without etiologic confirmation of TB, at the discretion of experienced physicians in referral centers, did not increase the risk of unfavorable outcomes. In addition, it allowed the identification of groups that should be closely monitored due to a greater risk of unfavorable outcomes.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Diagnosis; Therapeutics; Treatment outcome; HIV infections.

 

11 - Accuracy of inpatient and outpatient gastric lavage in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children

Acurácia do lavado gástrico realizado em ambiente hospitalar e ambulatorial no diagnóstico da tuberculose pulmonar em crianças

Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel, Reynaldo Dietze, Renata Peres Lyrio, Solange Alves Vinhas, Moises Palaci, Rodrigo Ribeiro Rodrigues, Claudio Jose Struchiner

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(6):404-411

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare gastric lavage (GL) performed in inpatients with GL performed in outpatients in terms of its accuracy in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in children. Methods: A prospective study was carried out in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, from 1999 to 2003. A total of 230 children suspected of having TB (103 inpatients and 127 outpatients) were selected to undergo GL. Those thus diagnosed with TB (n = 53) were divided into two groups: inpatient GL (n = 30) and outpatient GL (n = 23). All 53 children were monitored for 6 months in order to evaluate the accuracy of the diagnosis. Accuracy was determined based on any change in diagnosis, cure rate, and the percentage of positive cultures in the two groups studied. Results: The cure rate was 100% in both groups, and there was no change in diagnosis in the 53 children studied. No significant difference was found between the two groups studied in terms of detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (RR = 1.47; 95% CI: 0.95-2.27; p = 0.095), although the outpatient group presented a greater rate of positive cultures. Conclusions: Our results show that the accuracy of GL performed in an inpatient setting is similar to that of GL performed in an outpatient setting. This indicates that hospitalization is required only in more severe cases in which GL cannot be performed as an outpatient procedure.

 


Keywords: Gastric lavage; Tuberculosis; Diagnosis.

 

Review Article

12 - Role of nitric oxide in the control of the pulmonary circulation: physiological, pathophysiological, and therapeutic implications

Papel do óxido nítrico na regulação da circulação pulmonar: implicações fisiológicas, fisiopatológicas e terapêuticas

Carlos Alan Dias-Junior, Stefany Bruno de Assis Cau, José Eduardo Tanus-Santos

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(6):412-419

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous vasoactive compound that contributes to pulmonary vascular homeostasis and is produced by three nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms-neuronal NOS (nNOS); inducible NOS (iNOS); and endothelial NOS (eNOS)-all three of which are present in the lung. Studies using pharmacological inhibitors or knockout mice have shown that eNOS-derived NO plays an important role in modulating pulmonary vascular tone and attenuating pulmonary hypertension. However, studies focusing on the role of iNOS have shown that this isoform contributes to the pathophysiology of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. This review aimed at outlining the role played by NO in the control of pulmonary circulation, both under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In addition, we review the evidence that the L-arginine-NO-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway is a major pharmacological target in the treatment of pulmonary vascular diseases.

 


Keywords: Nitric oxide; Arginine; Nitric oxide synthase; Cyclic GMP; Pulmonary circulation.

 

Case Report

13 - Negative-pressure pulmonary edema and hemorrhage associated with upper airway obstruction

Edema e hemorragia pulmonar por pressão negativa associados à obstrução das vias aéreas superiores

Ricardo Kalaf Mussi, Ivan Felizardo Contrera Toro

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(6):420-424

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Negative-pressure pulmonary edema accompanied by hemorrhage as a manifestation of upper airway obstruction is an uncommon problem that is potentially life-threatening. The principal pathophysiological mechanism involved is the generation of markedly negative intrathoracic pressure, which leads to an increase in pulmonary vascular volume and pulmonary capillary transmural pressure, creating a risk of disruption of the alveolar-capillary membrane. We report the case of an adult male with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage following acute upper airway obstruction caused by the formation of a cervical and mediastinal abscess resulting from the insertion of a metallic tracheal stent. The patient was treated through drainage of the abscess, antibiotic therapy, and positive pressure mechanical ventilation. This article emphasizes the importance of including this entity in the differential diagnosis of acute lung injury after procedures involving upper airway instrumentation.

 


Keywords: Hemorrhage; Pulmonary edema; Airway obstruction; Abscess; Prostheses and implants.

 

14 - A rare case of pneumothorax: metastatic adamantinoma

Caso raro de pneumotórax: adamantinoma metastático

Roberto Gonçalves, Roberto Saad Júnior, Vicente Dorgan Neto, Marcio Botter

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(6):425-429

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Here, we describe two cases of lung metastasis of adamantinoma of long bones, a low-grade bone neoplasm that rarely metastasizes. In both cases, the clinical presentation of the metastases was characterized by spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to tumor cavitation, a phenomenon described in only three of the studies reviewed in the literature. Clinical, radiological, and anatomopathological findings, as well as the procedures adopted in the two cases, are described.

 


Keywords: Adamantinoma; Pneumothorax; Neoplasm metastasis; Medical records.

 

Special Article

15 - Therapeutic application of collateral ventilation in diffuse pulmonary emphysema: study protocol presentation

Aplicação terapêutica da ventilação colateral no enfisema pulmonar difuso: apresentação de um protocolo

Roberto Saad Júnior, Vicente Dorgan Neto, Marcio Botter, Roberto Stirbulov, Jorge Rivaben, Roberto Gonçalves

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(6):430-434

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We present a protocol to test a new surgical procedure for the treatment of patients with diffuse lung emphysema who, after having received the golden standard treatment (pulmonary rehabilitation), continue to present respiratory failure with disabling dyspnea. Ten patients with severe lung hyperinflation will be evaluated. The method proposed is designed to create alternative expiratory passages for air trapped in the emphysematous lung by draining the lung parenchyma, thereby establishing communication between the alveoli and the external environment. The ten patients selected will be required to meet the inclusion criteria and to give written informed consent. Those ten patients will be included in the study pending the approval of the Ethics in Research Committee of the São Paulo Santa Casa School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil. The protocol we will employ in order to evaluate the proposed procedure is feasible and will show whether debilitated patients suffering from diffuse pulmonary emphysema can benefit from this procedure, which could represent an alternative to lung transplant or lung volume reduction surgery, the only options currently available.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary emphysema; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Lung, hyperlucent.

 

 


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