Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2009 - Volume 35  - Number 2  (/February)






Original Article

2 - Semiquantitative echocardiographic evaluation of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations: correlation with evaluation of shunt levels and pulmonary function parameters

Avaliação semiquantitativa ecocardiográfica de dilatações vasculares intrapulmonares em candidatos a transplante hepático: correlação com avaliação de shunt e parâmetros funcionais pulmonares

Maria Angélica Pires Ferreira, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Marli Maria Knorst, Mario Reis Álvares da Silva, Antonio Furlan Pinotti

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(2):106-113

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To correlate semiquantitative evaluation of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations (IPVD) with quantitative evaluation of shunt levels, as well as to describe clinical and pulmonary function findings in a sample of liver disease patients with IPVD. Methods: Patients presenting transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) positivity for IPVD underwent clinical evaluation, pulmonary function tests and pulmonary shunt quantification (scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin and blood gas analysis after pure oxygen breathing). Results: A total of 28 liver cirrhosis patients were studied (mean age, 47.5 years; 60.7% were Child-Pugh class B). A 4-point, ascending scale was used as a measure of IPVD intensity, which was scored as 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, in 13 (46.4%), 9 (32.1%), 2 (7.1%) and 4 (14.3%) of the patients. Patients were divided into a low-intensity group (scores 1 and 2) and a high-intensity group (scores 3 and 4). The mean shunt assessed using scintigraphy was 14.9% in the sample as a whole and was lower in the low-intensity group (11.7% vs. 26.3%; p = 0.01). The mean shunt by blood gas analysis was higher in the high-intensity group (8.3% vs. 16.3%; p < 0.001). Mean PaO2 was lower in the high-intensity group. There was a negative correlation between DLCO and IPVD severity (r = −0.406, p = 0.01). Conclusions: TTE is a safe, useful tool for assessing IPVD severity in liver disease patients. The IPVD intensity assessed using TTE correlated with the intrapulmonary shunt values obtained through the quantitative methods evaluated, as well as with pulmonary gas exchange abnormalities.

 


Keywords: Anoxia; Liver cirrhosis; Hepatopulmonary syndrome; Echocardiography.

 

3 - Risk factors and prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism in hospitals in the city of Manaus, Brazil

Fatores de risco e profilaxia para tromboembolismo venoso em hospitais da cidade de Manaus

Edson de Oliveira Andrade, Fábio Arruda Bindá, Ângela Maria Melo da Silva, Thais Ditolvo Alves da Costa, Marcélio Costa Fernandes, Márcio Costa Fernandes

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(2):114-121

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify and classify risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized patients, as well as to evaluate medical practices regarding prophylaxis for the disease. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study, carried out between January and March of 2006, involving inpatients at three hospitals in the city of Manaus, Brazil. Risk stratification for VTE was based on the criteria established by the Brazilian Society of Angiology and Vascular Surgery and by the International Union of Angiology. Clinical, surgical and medication-related risk factors were analyzed. The statistical analysis of the data obtained was conducted, adopting an alpha error of 5% and 95% CI. Qualitative data were analyzed using the chi-square test, whereas quantitative data were analyzed using Student's t-test. Results: Of the 1,036 patients included (total number of admissions, 1,051), 515 (49.7%) were male, and 521 (50.3%) were female. A total of 23 risk factors for VTE were identified (total number of occurrences, 2,319). The stratified risk for VTE was 50.6%, 16.6% and 30.8% among the admissions of high-, moderate- and low-risk cases, respectively. In 73.3% of the admissions, nonpharmacological prophylaxis was not employed at any point during the study period. In 74% of those classified as high- or moderate-risk cases, no prophylactic medications were administered. Conclusions: This study showed that, in the population studied, risk factors were common and that prophylactic measures were not employed in patients prone to developing VTE and its complications.

 


Keywords: Venous thromboembolism; Risk factors; Venous thrombosis/prevention & control.

 

4 - Expectations and patient satisfaction related to the use of thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for treating recurrence of spontaneous primary pneumothorax

Expectativas y satisfacción en el tratamiento del neumotórax espontáneo primario recurrente tratado por toracotomía o cirugía torácica video-asistida

Jorge Ramón Lucena Olavarrieta, Pául Coronel

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(2):122-128

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare the outcomes of thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in the treatment of recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Methods: Medical records of patients presenting recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: those who underwent conservative thoracotomy (n = 53, thoracotomy group); and those who underwent VATS (n = 47, VATS group). Results: Although there were no deaths in either group and the length of hospital stays was similar between the two, there was greater morbidity in the thoracotomy group. Patients in the thoracotomy group required more pain medication for longer periods than did those in the VATS group (p < 0.05). In the thoracotomy group, the rate of recurrence was 3%. Pain was classified as insignificant at one month after the operation by 68% of patients in the VATS group and by only 21% of those in the thoracotomy group (p < 0.05). At three years after the surgical procedure, 97% of the VATS group patients considered themselves completely recovered from the operation, compared with only 79% in the thoracotomy group (p < 0.05). Chronic or intermittent pain, requiring the use of analgesics more than once a month, was experienced by 90% of the thoracotomy group patients and 3% of the VATS group patients. In addition, 13% of the thoracotomy group patients required clinical pain management. Conclusions: We recommend VATS as the first-line surgical treatment for patients with recurrent primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

 


Keywords: Thoracoscopy; Thoracic surgery, video-assisted; Recurrence; Pneumothorax.

 

5 - Long-term repercussions of a pulmonary rehabilitation program on the indices of anxiety, depression, quality of life and physical performance in patients with COPD

Repercussões tardias de um programa de reabilitação pulmonar sobre os índices de ansiedade, depressão, qualidade de vida e desempenho físico em portadores de DPOC

Rossane Frizzo de Godoy, Paulo José Zimermann Teixeira, Benno Becker Júnior, Maurício Michelli, Dagoberto Vanoni de Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(2):129-136

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess the 24-month effects of a pulmonary rehabilitation program (PRP) on anxiety, depression, quality of life and physical performance of COPD patients. Methods: Thirty patients with COPD (mean age, 60.8 ± 10 years; 70% males) participated in a 12-week PRP, which included 24 physical exercise sessions, 24 respiratory rehabilitation sessions, 12 psychotherapy sessions and 3 educational sessions. All patients were evaluated at baseline (pre-PRP), at the end of the treatment (post-PRP) and two years later (current) by means of four instruments: the Beck Anxiety Inventory; the Beck Depression Inventory; Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire; and the six-minute walk test (6MWT). Results: The comparison between the pre-PRP and post-PRP values revealed a significant decrease in the levels of anxiety (pre-PRP: 10.7 ± 6.3; post-PRP: 5.5 ± 4.4; p = 0.0005) and depression (pre-PRP: 11.7 ± 6.8; post-PRP: 6.0 ± 5.8; p = 0.001), as well as significant improvements in the distance covered on the 6MWT (pre-PRP: 428.6 ± 75.0 m; post-PRP: 474.9 ± 86.3 m; p = 0.03) and the quality of life index (pre-PRP: 51.0 ± 15.9; post-PRP: 34.7 ± 15.1; p = 0.0001). There were no statistically significant differences between the post-PRP and current evaluation values. Conclusions: The benefits provided by the PRP in terms of the indices of anxiety, depression and quality of life, as well as the improved 6MWT performance, persisted throughout the 24-month study period.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Rehabilitation; Exercise; Quality of life; Anxiety; Depression.

 

6 - Nutritional, clinical and socioeconomic profile of patients with cystic fibrosis treated at a referral center in northeastern Brazil

Perfil nutricional, clínico e socioeconômico de pacientes com fibrose cística atendidos em um centro de referência no nordeste do Brasil

Isabel Carolina da Silva Pinto, Cristiane Pereira da Silva, Murilo Carlos Amorim de Britto

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(2):137-143

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the profile of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study involving CF patients ≤ 18 years of age, evaluated between March and July of 2006 at a referral center in northeastern Brazil. Nutritional assessment was performed using Z scores for height/age (H/A), weight/age (W/A) and weight/height (W/H), as well as %weight/height (%W/H) and body composition measurements. Socioeconomic and clinical data were obtained. Results: Twenty-one patients were evaluated, 12 (57.1%) of whom were female. Mean age at diagnosis was 3.8 ± 3.9 years. The principal features at diagnosis were respiratory infection (85.7%), steatorrhea (66.7%) and nutritional deficit (47.6%). The mean Z scores for W/A, H/A and W/H were 0.73 ± 0.28, 0.34 ± 0.21 and 0.73 ± 0.35, respectively. Mean %W/H was 94.52 ± 1.58. The percentage of malnourished children assessed by Z score differed from that assessed by %W/H (nutritional deficit in 66.7% and 33.3%, respectively; p > 0.05). Socioeconomic status, clinical status and Shwachman score were better among well-nourished patients than among those classified as malnourished (p < 0.05 for Shwachman score). Conclusions: Normal nutritional status was identified based on nutritional indicators (W/A, H/A and W/H), whereas nutritional deficit was identified by assessing body composition. Socioeconomic factors proved favorable, especially maternal education and per capita income. Age at diagnosis was higher than that reported in the literature, although the Shwachman score and the incidence of respiratory infections demonstrated that the patients presented good clinical status.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Nutritional assessment; Symptoms, clinical; Socioeconomic factors.

 

7 - Effectiveness of a photogrammetric model for the analysis of thoracoabdominal respiratory mechanics in the assessment of isovolume maneuvers in children

Efetividade de um modelo fotogramétrico para a análise da mecânica respiratória toracoabdominal na avaliação de manobras de isovolume em crianças

Denise da Vinha Ricieri, Nelson Augusto Rosário Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(2):144-150

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To test the applicability of a geometric model, adapted to the supine position, for the analysis of respiratory mechanics regarding changes in lateral thoracoabdominal areas in children with asthma. Methods: Nineteen children (mean age, 11.26 ± 1.28 years) performed isovolume maneuvers (IVMs) after maximal inspiration, followed by glottal closure and alternation of airflow between the abdominal and thoracic compartments. The maneuvers were recorded in a digital video camera placed perpendicularly to the movement plane, and the images of interest were selected. The geometric model was traced on each image based on surface landmarks of anatomical references. The traced areas were calculated using a computer program, and the results were converted into metric units (cm2) using a surface landmark of a known area. Relative contributions (RCs) of the subcompartments in relation to their original compartments and to the chest wall (CW) were calculated. Results: The model was based on 55 thoracic IVM images and 55 abdominal IVM images. Areas and subareas were compared between the maneuvers. There were significant differences in all subcompartments (p < 0.001). All of the RCs were significantly different for the CW (p < 0.001) but not for the ratios between the subcompartments and their original compartments. Conclusions: This geometric model, applied in children and adapted to the supine position, was effective in profiling changes in the thoracoabdominal silhouette during the IVMs, and the selected subdivisions were useful for the identification of areas contributing the most and the least to CW composition.

 


Keywords: Photogrammetry; Respiratory mechanics; Image processing, computer-assisted.

 

8 - Comparison between PEF values obtained from a population sample in the city of São Carlos, Brazil, and reference values

Comparação de valores de PFE em uma amostra da população da cidade de São Carlos, São Paulo, com valores de referência

Cilso Dias Paes, Bruna Varanda Pessoa, Maurício Jamami, Valéria Amorim Pires Di Lorenzo, Kamilla Tays Marrara

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(2):151-156

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare the reference values for PEF suggested by other authors in 1963, 1989 and 2001 (for populations in the USA, England and Cuba, respectively) with those obtained from a population sample in the city of São Carlos, Brazil, and to determine whether there is concordance among them. Methods: A total of 243 volunteers (123 females and 120 males; 20-70 years of age) participated in the study. The PEF measurements were performed with the volunteer standing, using a nose clip, by means of a portable peak flow meter. These measurements were compared with the reference values using the Friedman test and Dunn's post-hoc test (p < 0.05). Results: Significant differences were found in all age groups from both genders regarding the values predicted in 1989; the same occurred in the 20-30 and 31-40 age groups (both genders), as well as in the 61-70 age group (females only), regarding those predicted in 2001, as well as in the 20-30 age group (males only) regarding those predicted in 1963. Conclusions: The values predicted in 1963 are appropriate for a population of individuals with the same characteristics as the study sample, except for males in the 20-30 age group. Our study is relevant due to the fact that our sample was larger than that evaluated in the 1963 study. The majority of the values predicted in 1989 and 2001 overestimated the PEF values obtained in our study, proving to be inappropriate for the population studied.

 


Keywords: Reference values; Respiratory function tests; Airway obstruction; Peak expiratory flow rate.

 

9 - Characteristics of patients with lung cancer in the city of Manaus, Brazil

Características de pacientes com câncer de pulmão na cidade de Manaus

Fernando Luiz Westphal, Luis Carlos de Lima, Edson Oliveira Andrade, José Corrêa Lima Netto, Andrei Salvioni da Silva, Bruna Cecília Neves de Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(2):157-163

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the characteristics of patients with lung cancer. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study of patients receiving a histopathological diagnosis of lung cancer between 1995 and 2002 in the city of Manaus, Brazil. Data were collected from the medical archives of three hospitals. Statistical analyses were carried out, and survival curves were generated by means of an actuarial estimator. Results: Of the 352 patients selected, 262 (74.4%) were male and 90 (25.6%) were female. The mean age was 62 years. The following histological types were identified: squamous cell carcinoma, 62.8%; adenocarcinoma, 24.7%; small cell carcinoma, 9.1%; and large cell carcinoma, 3.4%. The most common stages were stages IIIB and IV, in 45% and 21.5%, respectively. Of the total sample, 73.4% were submitted to treatment. Of these, 51.4% underwent radiotherapy; 16.6%, surgery; 15.8%, chemotherapy; and 16.2%, radiotherapy in association with chemotherapy. Cumulative survival rates were low: three-year survival was 6.5%, and five-year survival was 3.5%. Conclusions: In this group of patients with lung cancer, survival rates were considerably lower than those reported in the literature. This might be attributable to the limited access to the specialized health care system and the advanced stage of the disease at diagnosis.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Neoplasm staging; Survival.

 

10 - Influence of total face, facial and nasal masks on short-term adverse effects during noninvasive ventilation

Influência das máscaras facial total, facial e nasal nos efeitos adversos agudos durante ventilação não-invasiva

Marcelo Alcantara Holanda, Ricardo Coelho Reis, Georgia Freire Paiva Winkeler, Simone Castelo Branco Fortaleza, José Wellington de Oliveira Lima, Eanes Delgado Barros Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(2):164-173

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Failure of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been associated with short-term adverse effects related to the use of masks. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence, type and intensity of adverse effects, as well as the comfort, of total face masks (TFMs), facial masks (FMs) and nasal masks (NMs) during NIV. Methods: This was a randomized crossover trial involving 24 healthy volunteers submitted to six sessions of NIV in bilevel positive airway pressure mode using the TFM, FM and NM masks at low and moderate-to-high pressure levels. A written questionnaire was applied in order to evaluate eleven specific adverse effects related to the use of the masks. Comfort was assessed using a visual analog scale. The CO2 exhaled into the ventilator circuit was measured between the mask and the exhalation port. Results: The performance of the TFM was similar to that of the NM and FM in terms of comfort scores. Higher pressure levels reduced comfort and increased adverse effects, regardless of the mask type. When the TFM was used, there were fewer air leaks and less pain at the nose bridge, although there was greater oronasal dryness and claustrophobia. Air leaks were most pronounced when the FM was used. The partial pressure of exhaled CO2 entering the ventilator circuit was zero for the TFM. Conclusions: The short-term adverse effects caused by NIV interfaces are related to mask type and pressure settings. The TFM is a reliable alternative to the NM and FM. Rebreathing of CO2 from the circuit is less likely to occur when a TFM is used.

 


Keywords: Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation; Masks/adverse effects; Respiratory insufficiency;Equipment failure analysis.

 

Brief Communication

11 - Incidence of TB diagnosed in the emergency room of a teaching hospital in southeastern Brazil

Incidência de TB diagnosticada no pronto-atendimento de um hospital escola na região sudeste do Brasil

Silvana Spíndola de Miranda, Ana Rita de Paiva Toledo, Simone Rodrigues Ribeiro, Izabela Magalhães Campos, Petra Maria de Oliveira Duarte Sthur, Afrânio Lineu Kritski

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(2):174-178

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In this study, we analyzed the number of TB cases in an emergency room (ER) and the susceptibility profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Patients were selected from among those treated at the Hospital das Clínicas, in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Between 2002 and 2005, 240 TB patients were identified. Of those, 117 patients (48.7%) were diagnosed in the ER, 72 (61.5%) presenting positive sputum smear microscopy. Drug susceptibility testing was carried out in 90 strains, of which 80 (89%) were sensitive, 9 (10%) were resistant, and 1 (1%) was multidrug resistant. The incidence of positive smear sputum microscopy and resistant TB strains was high, which calls for the immediate adoption of TB control measures in the ER.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Disease transmission, infectious; Drug resistance.

 

Review Article

12 - Pulmonary arterial hypertension and thyroid disease

Hipertensão arterial pulmonar e doenças da tireoide

Denise Rossato Silva, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Ângela Beatriz John, Débora Rodrigues Siqueira, Ana Luiza Silva Maia, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(2):179-185

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Recent studies have suggested an association between pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and thyroid diseases (hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism). This combination has a good prognosis, because the increase in the pulmonary artery pressure is usually slight and reverses after the treatment of the thyroid disease. Although the exact mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of this combination has not yet been established, it has been hypothesized that thyroid hormones and autoimmunity have a direct influence. Due to the high prevalence of thyroid disease in patients with PAH, thyroid function tests should be considered in the investigation of every patient with PAH. In this review, we describe the prevalence of PAH in patients with thyroid diseases and the prevalence of thyroid disease in patients with PAH, as well as addressing the principal effects that thyroid diseases have on the respiratory system. In addition, we report the treatment effects in patients with these diseases.

 


Keywords: Hypertension, pulmonary; Graves disease; Hyperthyroidism; Hypothyroidism; Thyroid hormones; Echocardiography.

 

Case Report

13 - A rare case of synchronous malignant thoracic tumors

Um caso raro de tumores torácicos malignos sincrônicos

Benoit Jacques Bibas, Marcos Madeira, Rodrigo Gavina, Leonardo Hoehl-Carneiro, Sergio Sardinha

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(2):186-189

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Malignant neurogenic mediastinal tumors in adults are uncommon and extremely aggressive. We report the case of a 61-year-old male patient with the simultaneous occurrence of malignant mediastinal schwannoma and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. Although bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is present in 4-7% of the resected synchronous thoracic tumors, this association has never been reported in the literature. However, it is a common finding in patients presenting apparently inflammatory infiltrates and ground-glass opacities, as in the case presented here.

 


Keywords: Mediastinal neoplasms; Nerve sheath neoplasms; Neurilemmoma; Neoplasms, multiple primary; Adenocarcinoma, bronchiolo-alveolar.

 

14 - Small cell carcinoma in Pancoast syndrome

Carcinoma de pequenas células na síndrome de Pancoast

Jefferson Fontinele e Silva, Melânio de Paula Barbosa, Cláudio Luiz Viegas

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(2):190-193

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pancoast syndrome consists of signs and symptoms resulting from a tumor affecting the pulmonary apex and adjacent structures. The process is typically caused by a neoplasm. The majority of cases of Pancoast syndrome are caused by bronchogenic carcinoma. The most commonly found histologic subtypes are adenocarcinoma and epidermoid carcinoma. There have been very few reports of small cell lung carcinoma in the genesis of Pancoast syndrome. We describe the case of a patient with Pancoast syndrome caused by small cell lung carcinoma and discuss the aspects related to the diagnosis and treatment.

 


Keywords: Pancoast syndrome; Small cell lung carcinoma; Lung neoplasms.

 

15 - Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax in an adult patient with cystic fibrosis

Pneumotórax espontâneo simultâneo bilateral em um paciente adulto com fibrose cística

Kamlesh Mohan, Martin James Ledson, Martin John Walshaw, Edson Marchiori

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(2):194-196

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pneumothorax is a common complication in cystic fibrosis and is associated with worsening of lung function. However, bilateral simultaneous pneumothorax in cystic fibrosis is a rare condition. We describe the case of a 17-year-old female with cystic fibrosis who presented with spontaneous pneumothorax. Clinically, she presented right-sided chest pain and progressive breathlessness. The pneumothorax failed to resolve after the initial treatment (chest drainage). However, the patient was later successfully treated with additional chest drainage and talc pleurodesis. We also discuss the etiology and management of pneumothorax in patients with cystic fibrosis, since pneumothorax is associated with increased morbidity and mortality among such patients.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis/physiopathology; Pneumothorax; Pleurodesis.

 

 


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