Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2009 - Volume 35  - Number 8  (/August)






Original Article

2 - Hospitalizations for asthma: impact of a program for the control of asthma and allergic rhinitis in Feira de Santana, Brazil

Hospitalizações por asma: impacto de um programa de controle de asma e rinite alérgica em Feira de Santana (BA)

Heli Vieira Brandão, Constança Margarida Sampaio Cruz, Ivan da Silva Santos Junior, Eduardo Vieira Ponte, Armênio Guimarães, Álvaro Augusto Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(8):723-729

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the impact of the Programa de Controle da Asma e Rinite Alérgica em Feira de Santana (ProAR-FS, Program for the Control of Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis in Feira de Santana) on the frequency of hospitalizations for asthma in patients monitored at a referral center for one year. Methods: This was a historical control study involving 253 consecutive patients with asthma, ages ranging from 4 to 76 years. We compared the frequency of hospital admissions and visits to the emergency room (ER) in the 12 months prior to and after their admission to the ProAR-FS. During the program, patients received free treatment, including inhaled medications and education on asthma. Demographic and socioeconomic aspects were also assessed. Results: There was a significant reduction in the number of hospitalizations (465 vs. 21) and of visits to the ER (2,473 vs. 184) after their admission to ProAR-FS (p < 0.001 for both). Of the 253 patients who had been hospitalized and had had ER visits within the year prior to the admission to ProAR-FS, only 16 were hospitalized and 92 visited the ER during the follow-up year, representing a reduction of 94% and 64%, respectively. Conclusions: Implementing a referral center for the treatment of asthma and rhinitis in the Unified Health Care System, with the free distribution of inhaled corticosteroids and the support of an education program, is a highly effective strategy for the control of asthma.

 


Keywords: Hospitalization; Asthma; Rhinitis; Health services; Public health.

 

3 - Influence of respiratory function parameters on the quality of life of COPD patients

Influência dos parâmetros funcionais respiratórios na qualidade de vida de pacientes com DPOC

Eanes Delgado Barros Pereira, Renata Pinto, Marcelo Alcantara, Marta Medeiros, Rosa Maria Salani Mota

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(8):730-736

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the quality of life of COPD patients by using the Medical Outcomes 36-item Short-Form Survey (SF-36) and the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), correlating the scores with respiratory function parameters. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 42 COPD patients. We used the SGRQ (a specific questionnaire) and the SF-36 (a general questionnaire), together with their component summaries, in order to determine the quality of life of these patients. The functional profile was assessed by means of spirometry, arterial blood gas analysis and the six-minute walk test. Results: Of the 42 patients, 30 (71.4%) were male and 12 (28.6%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 65.4 ± 8.0 years. The mean physical component summary and mean mental component summary scores were 37.05 ± 11.19 and 45.61 ± 15.65, respectively. The physical component summary correlated significantly with FEV1 in L/s (r = 0.38; p = 0.012). There was a correlation between the SGRQ total score and FEV1 (r = −0.50; p < 0.01). The SGRQ activity domain showed negative correlations with all respiratory function parameters. The multiple regression analysis showed that only FEV1 correlated significantly with the SGRQ total score, as well as with the activity domain score (r= −0.32; p = 0.04 and r = −0.34; p = 0.03, respectively). Conclusions: In COPD patients, a decline in FEV1 is associated with poorer quality of life, as evaluated using the SGRQ.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Quality of life; Respiratory function tests.

 

4 - Portuguese-language version of the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire: a validity and reproducibility study

Versão em português do Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire: estudo da validade e reprodutibilidade

Graciane Laender Moreira, Fábio Pitta, Dionei Ramos, Cinthia Sousa Carvalho Nascimento, Danielle Barzon, Demétria Kovelis, Ana Lúcia Colange, Antonio Fernando Brunetto, Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(8):737-744

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the validity and reproducibility of a Portuguese-language version of the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ) in patients with COPD. Methods: A Portuguese-language version of the CRQ (provided by McMaster University, the holder of the questionnaire copyright) was applied to 50 patients with COPD (70 ± 8 years of age; 32 males; FEV1 = 47 ± 18% of predicted) on two occasions, one week apart. The CRQ has four domains (dyspnea, fatigue, emotional function, and mastery) and was applied as an interviewer-administered instrument. The Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), already validated for use in Brazil, was used as the criterion for validation. Spirometry and the six-minute walk test (6MWT) were performed to analyze the correlations with the CRQ scores. Results: There were no significant CRQ test-retest differences (p > 0.05 for all domains). The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.98, 0.97, 0.98 and 0.95 for the dyspnea, fatigue, emotional function and mastery domains, respectively. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.91. The CRQ domains correlated significantly with the SGRQ domains (−0.30 < r < −0.67; p < 0.05). There were no significant correlations between spirometric variables and the CRQ domains or between the CRQ domains and the 6MWT, with the exception of the fatigue domain (r = 0.30; p = 0.04). Conclusions: The Portuguese-language version of the CRQ proved to be reproducible and valid for use in Brazilian patients with COPD.

 


Keywords: Quality of life; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Questionnaires.

 

5 - Respiratory diseases morbidity and mortality among adults attending a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

Morbidade e mortalidade relacionadas a doenças respiratórias em adultos atendidos em um hospital terciário na Nigéria

Desalu O. Olufemi, Joshua Afolayan Oluwafemi, Ololade Ojo

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(8):745-752

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the morbidity and mortality related to respiratory diseases among adults attending a tertiary-care hospital in Nigeria. Methods: We carried out a retrospective study of 183 adult patients (> 15 years of age), diagnosed with respiratory diseases between November of 2006 and October of 2008 at the Federal Medical Centre in Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria. Results: Of the 183 patients enrolled in the study, 78 (42.6%) were male and 105 (57.4%) were female, the male:female ratio being 1:1.4. Respiratory diseases were predominant in the 25-44 year age bracket (37.2%) and lower socioeconomic class (81.4%). Pulmonary TB was the leading cause of morbidity (in 42.1%), followed by asthma (in 17.5%) and pneumonia (in 15.3%). Lung cancer was uncommon (in only 0.6%). Pulmonary TB was the leading cause of hospitalization for respiratory disease (in 32%). Pulmonary TB, asthma, pneumonia and pleural pathologies were more common in women, whereas COPD was more common in men. The most common comorbidity was HIV infection (in 11.5%). The overall mean length of hospital stay was 14 days. Overall mortality was 8.7%; 50% of the deaths were attributed to pulmonary TB, 25% were attributed to pleural disease, 12.5% were attributed to pneumonia, and 6.25% were attributed to acute exacerbation of COPD. Mortality was higher in women and in the 25-44 year age bracket. Conclusions: Pulmonary TB, asthma and pneumonia were the leading causes of respiratory disease-related morbidity. Pulmonary TB was the leading cause of respiratory disease-related mortality among the adult Nigerians evaluated. Therefore, these conditions should be given higher priority in patient care. In addition, antiretroviral therapy should be readily accessible and affordable to HIV-infected individuals.

 


Keywords: Morbidity; Mortality; Respiratory tract diseases; Africa.

 

6 - Spatial analysis of hospitalizations for pneumonia in the Vale do Paraíba region of Brazil

Análise espacial das internações por pneumonia na região do Vale do Paraíba (SP)

Adriana de Oliveira Mukai, Kátia de Souza Costa Alves, Luiz Fernando Costa Nascimento

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(8):753-758

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify spatial patterns in hospitalizations for pneumonia in infants under one year of age in the Vale do Paraíba region of Brazil. Methods: This was an ecological exploratory study using a georeferencing technique based on data from the Information Technology Department of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System on the number of hospitalizations for pneumonia among infants under one year of age in the Vale do Paraíba region between 2004 and 2005. Based on the distribution of the rates of hospitalizations for pneumonia per 1,000 live births, thematic maps were created. Moran's spatial autocorrelation coefficient was estimated, and the cities with the highest rates were identified using box maps. Results: During the study period, 2,227 infants under one year of age were hospitalized for pneumonia. Moran's coefficient was 0.37 (p = 0.02), demonstrating a spatial autocorrelation for these hospitalizations. Eight cities deserving special attention for future interventions were identified. Conclusions: The spatial analysis was successful in determining the spatial autocorrelation, as well as in identifying the cities in which an intervention is necessary regarding the number of hospitalizations for pneumonia in infants under one year of age.

 


Keywords: Pneumonia; Geographic information systems; Child health (Public health); Infant.

 

7 - Stability of the animal model of oleic acid-induced acute lung injury

Estabilidade do modelo animal de lesão pulmonar aguda induzida por ácido oleico

Eduardo Gaio, César Augusto de Melo e Silva, Flávio Brito, Marco Aurélio Pereira Firmino, Rodrigo Storck, Eduardo Freitas

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(8):759-766

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the stability of hemodynamic, respiratory and gas exchange variables in an animal model of oleic acid-induced acute lung injury. Methods: This was an experimental study involving 10 mongrel dogs. The variables were measured at baseline, as well as at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the administration of oleic acid. In order to analyze repeated measurements, linear and quadratic effects were tested. Mixed linear models with diversified variance and covariance structures were used, depending on the variable studied. Results: We found that mean arterial blood pressure stabilized at 30 min, as did heart rate, pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary capillary pressure at 60 min. Respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute volume and respiratory work stabilized at 30 min. Regarding gas exchange variables, PaO2, PaO2/FiO2 ratio and pulmonary shunt fraction stabilized at 30 min. The remaining variables maintained a continuous rise or fall. Conclusions: This oleic acid-induced acute lung injury model is stable for some of the variables tested, although stabilization occurs at different times. The respiratory and gas exchange variables stabilized at 30 min, whereas the hemodynamic variables stabilized at 60 min.

 


Keywords: Respiratory distress syndrome, adult; Models, animal; Statistical analysis.

 

8 - Polymorphism of the CYP1A1*2A gene and susceptibility to lung cancer in a Brazilian population

O polimorfismo do gene CYP1A1*2A e a suscetibilidade ao câncer de pulmão na população brasileira

Helen Naemi Honma, Eduardo Mello De Capitani, Aristóteles de Souza Barbeiro, Daniel Botelho Costa, André Morcillo, Lair Zambon

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(8):767-772

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To estimate and compare the frequency of CYP1A1*2A gene polymorphisms in a Brazilian population and determine the possible contribution of these genetic variations to lung cancer risk. Methods: The study population included 200 patients with lung cancer, and the control group consisted of 264 blood donors. Genomic DNA was obtained from peripheral blood samples. The PCR-RFLP method was used for analysis of the CYP1A1*2A gene. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the lung cancer patients and the controls in terms of the distribution of CYP1A1*2A polymorphisms (p = 0.49). A multivariate logistic regression model analysis by ethnic group revealed that, within the lung cancer group, the CYP1A1*2A genotype CC plus TC was more common among the African-Brazilian patients than among the White patients (adjusted OR = 3.19; 95% CI: 1.53‑6.65). Conclusions: The CYP1A1*2A gene cannot be linked with lung cancer risk in Brazilian patients at this time. Larger epidemiologic studies are needed in order to establish whether the CC plus TC polymorphism increases the risk of lung cancer in African-Brazilians.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Polymorphism, genetic; Metabolism.

 

9 - Isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains arising from mutations in two different regions of the katG gene

Resistência do Mycobacterium tuberculosis à isoniazida por mutações em duas regiões diferentes do gene katG

Helio Ribeiro de Siqueira, Flávia Alvim Dutra de Freitas, Denise Neves de Oliveira, Angela Maria Werneck Barreto, Margareth Pretti Dalcolmo, Rodolpho Mattos Albano

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(8):773-779

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze and compare the mutations in two different regions of the katG gene, which is responsible for isoniazid (INH) resistance. Methods: We analyzed 97 multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in cultures of sputum samples obtained from the Professor Hélio Fraga Referral Center, in Brasília, Brazil. Another 6 INH-sensitive strains did not present mutations and were included as controls. We used PCR to amplify two regions of the katG gene (GenBank accession no. U06258)-region 1, (from codon 1 to codon 119) and region 2 (from codon 267 to codon 504)-which were then sequenced in order to identify mutations. Results: Seven strains were resistant to INH and did not contain mutations in either region. Thirty strains carried mutations in region 1, which was characterized by a high number of deletions, especially at codon 4 (24 strains). Region 2 carried 83 point mutations, especially at codon 315, and there was a serine-to-threonine (AGC-to-ACC) substitution in 73 of those cases. The analysis of region 2 allowed INH resistance to be diagnosed in 81.4% of the strains. Nine strains had mutations exclusively in region 1, which allowed the proportion of INH-resistant strains identified to be increased to 90.6%. Conclusions: The number of mutations at codon 315 was high, which is consistent with cases described in Brazil and in other countries, and the analysis of region 1 resulted in a 9.2% increase in the rate at which mutations were identified.

 


Keywords: Isoniazid; Mutation; Tuberculosis; Drug resistance, multiple.

 

10 - Epidemiological profile of hospitalized patients with TB at a referral hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Perfil epidemiológico de pacientes portadores de TB internados em um hospital de referência na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

Hedi Marinho de Melo Guedes de Oliveira, Rossana Coimbra Brito, Afranio Lineu Kritski, Antonio Ruffino-Netto

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(8):780-787

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the epidemiological profile of inpatients at a TB referral hospital. Methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective study of the medical charts of patients with TB hospitalized at the Hospital Estadual Santa Maria (HESM), in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between January of 2002 and December of 2003. Data were collected using a standardized form. Results: Of the 451 patients included in the study, 313 (69.4%) had been referred to the HESM from health care clinics, and 302 (67.0%) were male. Most of the patients were in the 30-59  year age bracket, 443 (98.2%) lived in the greater metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, and 298 (66.1%) lived in the city of Rio de Janeiro itself. The most common reason for hospitalization was poor health status (in 237, 52.5%). The most common comorbidity was AIDS (in 137, 30.4%). The most common signs and symptoms at admission were weight loss, fever and productive cough. Sputum smear microscopy was positive in 122 (71.0%) of the patients presenting with productive cough at admission. Of the 212 patients being retreated, 156 (73.6%) reported noncompliance with previous treatment. Regarding the outcome, 273 (65.8%) of the patients were referred to municipal health care centers, 83 (18.4%) died, 44 (9.8%) were cured, and 27 (6%) were discharged against medical advice. Conclusions: Providing hospitals specializing in TB is relevant for TB control, especially in metropolitan regions. In addition to taking biosafety measures, these hospitals must be prepared to treat patients with TB-related comorbidities and social problems. This study has resulted in improvements at the HESM.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Epidemiology; Hospitalization.

 

Brief Communication

11 - Experimental diabetes mellitus: oxidative stress and changes in lung structure

Estresse oxidativo e alterações estruturais pulmonares no diabetes mellitus experimental

Luiz Alberto Forgiarini Junior, Nélson Alexandre Kretzmann, Marilene Porawski, Alexandre Simões Dias, Norma Anair Possa Marroni

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(8):788-791

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine/metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Its impact on the respiratory system is characterized by functional changes and alterations in gas exchange. The objective of this study was to evaluate the increase in oxidative stress and the potential damages to the lung structure in an experimental model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. We conducted histological, biochemical and blood gas analyses in the lungs of diabetic rats. We concluded that the effects of experimental diabetes mellitus include oxidative stress, structural changes in the lung tissue and altered gas exchange.

 


Keywords: Lung; Diabetes mellitus; Oxidative stress; Diabetes mellitus, experimental; Free radicals.

 

Review Article

12 - Chronic interstitial lung diseases in children

Doenças pulmonares intersticiais crônicas na criança

Maria Aparecida Soares de Souza Paiva, Sandra Mara Moreira Amaral

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(8):792-803

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) in children constitute a heterogeneous group of rare diseases that have been described and classified according to experiences and research in adults. However, pediatric pulmonologists have observed that the clinical spectrum is broader in children than in adults, and that many of these disorders have different courses and treatment responses. In addition, probably due to the various stages of lung development and maturation, new clinical forms have been described, particularly in infants. This has broadened the classification of ILDs in this age bracket. The understanding that neither the usual definition nor the standard classification of these disorders entirely apply to children has prompted multicenter studies designed to increase knowledge of these disorders, as well as to standardize diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. We have reviewed the conceptualization of ILDs in children, taking into consideration the particularities of this group of patients when using the criteria for the classification of these diseases in adults. We have also made a historical review of several multicenter studies in order to further understanding of the problem. We have emphasized the differences in the clinical presentation, in an attempt to highlight knowledge of newly described entities in young children. We underscore the need to standardize management of laboratory and radiological routines, as well as of lung biopsy processing, taking such knowledge into account. It is important to bear in mind that, among the recently described disorders, genetic surfactant dysfunction, which is often classified as an idiopathic disease in adults, should be included in the differential diagnosis of ILDs.

 


Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial; Lung diseases, interstitial/diagnosis; Lung diseases, interstitial/therapy; Child.

 

Case Report

13 - Systemic corticosteroids as first-line treatment in pulmonary hypertension associated with POEMS syndrome

Corticoide sistêmico como tratamento de primeira linha da hipertensão pulmonar secundária a síndrome POEMS

Samia Rached, Rodrigo Abensur Athanazio, Sérvulo Azevedo Dias Júnior, Carlos Jardim, Rogério Souza

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(8):804-808

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Resumo

A síndrome POEMS é uma rara doença de plasmócitos. A ocorrência de hipertensão pulmonar como complicação respiratória da síndrome é pouco frequente e pode estar ligada ao aumento de várias citocinas, quimiocinas e fatores de crescimento como parte dos fenômenos inflamatórios que cercam a fisiopatologia da síndrome POEMS. Descrevemos o caso de uma mulher de 54 anos com síndrome POEMS e hipertensão pulmonar, que foi tratada com corticoide como terapia de primeira linha. Tratava-se de uma paciente com clássicos sintomas dessa síndrome: polineuropatia (confirmada por eletroneuromiografia), organomegalia, hipotireoidismo subclínico, gamopatia monoclonal em dosagem urinária e alterações cutâneas. A cateterização cardíaca direita revelou pressão arterial pulmonar média de 48 mmHg, débito cardíaco de 4,1 L/min e resistência vascular pulmonar de 8,05 Woods. O nível sérico de brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) foi de 150 pg/mL. Nenhuma outra doença foi encontrada durante investigação. Prednisona (1 mg/kg por três meses) foi iniciada, com dramática melhora clínica e funcional, além de normalização dos níveis dos hormônios tireoidianos e de proteína em urina por eletroforese. A pressão arterial pulmonar média caiu para 26 mmHg, o débito cardíaco para 3,8 L/min e a resistência vascular pulmonar para 2,89 Woods. O nível sérico de BNP caiu para 8pg/mL. Nossos achados indicam o potencial papel da corticoterapia como primeira linha de tratamento na hipertensão pulmonar associada à síndrome POEMS. Diante da raridade dessa apresentação, um registro multicêntrico deveria ser desenvolvido para permitir a aquisição de mais dados que suportem essa conduta.

 


Palavras-chave: Síndrome POEMS; Hipertensão pulmonar; Glucocorticoides.

 

14 - Post-intubation tracheal injury: report of three cases and literature review

Laceração traqueal pós-intubação: análise de três casos e revisão de literatura

Carlos Remolina Medina, José de Jesus Camargo, José Carlos Felicetti, Tiago Noguchi Machuca, Bruno de Moraes Gomes, Iury Andrade Melo

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(8):809-813

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Post-intubation tracheal injury is a rare and potentially fatal complication. Among the most common causes, cuff overinflation and repetitive attempts of orotracheal intubation in emergency situations are paramount. Diagnosis is based on clinical and radiological suspicion, confirmed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Both conservative and surgical management apply, and the decision-making process depends on the patient profile (comorbidities, respiratory stability), characteristics of the lesion (size and location) and the time elapsed between the occurrence of the injury and the diagnosis. We report the cases of three patients presenting tracheal laceration due to traumatic orotracheal intubation, two submitted to surgical treatment and one submitted to conservative treatment.

 


Keywords: Tracheal diseases; Rupture; Intubation.

 

15 - Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery: a differential diagnosis of chronic pulmonary thromboembolism

Sarcoma intimal de artéria pulmonar: um diagnóstico diferencial do tromboembolismo pulmonar crônico

Ana Paula Alves Valle Dornas, Frederico Thadeu Assis Figueiredo Campos, Cláudia Juliana Rezende, Carlos Alberto Ribeiro, Nilson Figueiredo Amaral, Ricardo de Amorim Corrêa

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(8):814-818

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery is a rare and potentially lethal tumor, the diagnosis of which is difficult and therefore frequently delayed. The clinical signs and symptoms are nonspecific, often mimicking chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (CPTE). We report the case of a 45-year-old male under treatment for CPTE associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic cor pulmonale. There was no response to treatment with anticoagulants and sildenafil. We emphasize the difficulties in diagnosing intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery, the need to investigate this neoplasm in the differential diagnosis of CPTE and the systematic use of criteria for the appropriate prescription of new medications for pulmonary artery hypertension.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary embolism; Hypertension, pulmonary; Hemangiosarcoma; Diagnosis, differential.

 

Erratum

17 - ERRATA

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(8):

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