Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2009 - Volume 35  - Number 11  (/November)






Original Article

2 - Prevalence of asthma among adolescents in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil

Prevalência de asma em adolescentes na cidade de Fortaleza, CE

Maria de Fátima Gomes de Luna, Paulo César de Almeida, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1160-1167

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of asthma among adolescents (13-14 years of age) in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 3,015 adolescents at public and private schools between 2006 and 2007. The participants completed the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Results: The prevalences of "wheezing ever", "wheezing within the last 12 months" (active asthma) and "asthma ever" (physician-diagnosed asthma) were 44.1%, 22.6% and 11.6%, respectively. The prevalences of "wheezing ever" (p = 0.001), "1-3 wheezing attacks within the last 12 months" (p = 0.001), active asthma (p = 0.002), "sleep disturbed due to wheezing less than one night per week" (p < 0.001) and "dry cough at night" (p < 0.001) were higher among girls. Private school students presented higher prevalences of "wheezing ever", active asthma, "1-3 wheezing attacks within the last 12 months", "4-12 wheezing attacks within the last 12 months" and physician-diagnosed asthma (p < 0.001 for all), as well as of "exercise-induced wheezing" (p = 0.032). Conclusions: The prevalence of asthma and asthma-related symptoms in students aged 13-14 years in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil, was high, predominantly among girls and private school students. The difference between the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma and that of active asthma suggests that asthma was underdiagnosed in the population studied.

 


Keywords: Asthma/diagnosis; Asthma/epidemiology; Asthma/prevalence.

 

3 - Joint use of cervical mediastinoscopy and video-assisted thoracoscopy for the evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

Utilização conjunta de mediastinoscopia cervical e videotoracoscopia para a avaliação linfática mediastinal em pacientes com carcinoma de pulmão não-pequenas células

Darcy Ribeiro Pinto Filho, Alexandre José Gonçalves Avino, Suzan Lucia Brancher Brandão, Wilson Paloschi Spiandorello

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1068-1074

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of the joint use of cervical mediastinoscopy and video-assisted thoracoscopy for the sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and candidates for pulmonary resection. Methods: Sixty-two patients diagnosed with NSCLC were submitted to cervical mediastinoscopy and video-assisted thoracoscopy. The samples obtained (from paratracheal chains, anterior and posterior subcarinal chains, paraesophageal chains and pulmonary ligament) were submitted to frozen section analysis. The following variables were also evaluated: age; gender; weight loss; diagnostic method; tomographic findings; histological type; staging; and location and size of the primary tumor. Results: In 11 patients, mediastinoscopy showed no involvement of the subcarinal chain, whereas such involvement was identified when video-assisted thoracoscopy was used: positive predictive value = 88.89% (95% CI: 51.75-99.72); negative predictive value = 94.34% (95% CI: 84.34-98.82); prevalence = 17.74% (95% CI: 9.2-29.53); sensitivity = 72.73% (95% CI: 39.03-93.98); and specificity = 98.77% (95% CI: 93.31-99.97). In 60% of the patients with involvement of the posterior subcarinal chain, the primary tumor was in the right inferior lobe. (p = 0.029) Conclusions: The joint use of cervical mediastinoscopy and video-assisted thoracoscopy for the evaluation of posterior mediastinal lymph nodes proved to be an efficacious method. When there is no access to posterior chains by means of ultrasound with transbronchial or transesophageal biopsy, which dispenses with general anesthesia, this should be the method of choice for the correct evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with NSCLC.

 


Keywords: Neoplasm staging; Mediastinoscopy; Biopsy; Lymphatic metastasis.

 

4 - Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia

Prevalência da apneia obstrutiva do sono em crianças e adolescentes portadores da anemia falciforme

Cristina Salles, Regina Terse Trindade Ramos, Carla Daltro, Andréa Barral, Jamocyr Moura Marinho, Marcos Almeida Matos

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1075-1083

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia (SCA); to investigate the possible correlation between mean annual hemoglobin level and total sleep time with SpO2 < 90%, as well as between mean annual hemoglobin level and total sleep time with SpO2 < 80%; and to investigate the possible correlation between apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and painful crisis. Methods: The study involved 85 patients with SCA. The patients completed a questionnaire, were submitted to polysomnography and underwent clinical evaluation (by a pediatrician and an otolaryngologist). An AHI > 1 was considered indicative of a diagnosis of OSAS. Results: The prevalence of OSAS was 10.6%. We found a negative correlation between mean annual hemoglobin level and total sleep time with SpO2 < 90% (r = −0.343; p = 0.002), as well as between mean annual hemoglobin level and total sleep time with SpO2 < 80% (r = −0.270; p = 0.016). There was no association between AHI and painful crisis. Conclusions: The prevalence of OSAS in this population was high (10.6%). Therefore, it is important to identify signs of OSAS as soon as possible and to determine the mean annual hemoglobin level because of the inverse correlation between that level and the total sleep time with SpO2 < 90% or < 80%.

 


Keywords: Prevalence; Sleep apnea, obstructive; Anemia, sickle cell; Polysomnography; Sleep apnea syndromes.

 

5 - Ventilator-associated pneumonia: epidemiology and impact on the clinical evolution of ICU patients

Pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica: epidemiologia e impacto na evolução clínica de pacientes em uma unidade de terapia intensiva

Pedro Mendes de Azambuja Rodrigues, Edgard do Carmo Neto, Luiz Rodrigo de Carneiro Santos, Marcos Freitas Knibel

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1084-1091

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Although ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a major cause of nosocomial infection, its role in the prognosis of patients remains undefined. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of VAP on the clinical evolution of patients. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study involving 233 patients on mechanical ventilation (VAP group, n = 64; control group, n = 169). Primary outcomes were time on mechanical ventilation (TMV), time in ICU (TICU), overall length of hospital stay (LHS) and in-ICU mortality. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality, microbiological profile, prior use of antibiotics and risk factors for VAP acquisition. Results: Control and VAP group outcomes were, respectively, as follows: median TMV (days), 9 (interquartile range [IQR]: 5-15) and 23 (IQR: 15-37; p < 0.0001); median TICU (days), 12 (IQR: 8-21) and 27 (IQR: 17-42; p < 0.0001); median LHS (days), 33 (IQR: 18-64) and 46 (IQR: 25-90; p = 0.05); and in-ICU mortality, 38% (95% CI: 31-45) and 55% (95% CI: 42-67; p = 0.02). VAP was a predictor of in-ICU mortality (OR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.54‑7.48). TMV (OR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.05-4.87) and prior use of antibiotics (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.04-1.10) were risk factors for VAP. VAP did not affect in-hospital mortality. Acinetobacter spp. was the most common isolate (28%). Inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy was administered in 48% of cases. Conclusions: In this study, there was a high incidence of infection with resistant bacteria and inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy. Long TMV and prior use of antibiotics are risk factors for VAP.

 


Keywords: Pneumonia, ventilator-associated; Cross infection; Intensive care units; Hospital mortality; Risk factors.

 

6 - Bacteriological analysis of induced sputum for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in the clinical practice of a general tertiary hospital

Análise bacteriológica do escarro induzido para o diagnóstico de tuberculose pulmonar na prática clínica de um hospital geral terciário

Sabrina Bollmann Garcia, Christiano Perin, Marcel Muller da Silveira, Gustavo Vergani, Sérgio Saldanha Menna-Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1092-1099

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the diagnostic sensitivity of bacteriological analyses in induced sputum (IS) for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and to identify the clinical characteristics associated with the confirmed diagnosis, as well as to determine the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy carried out when IS tests negative for AFB in smear microscopy. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study of patients suspected of having active pulmonary TB and referred to our clinic for sputum induction. We consecutively reviewed the laboratory data of all patients submitted to sputum induction between June of 2003 and January of 2006, as well as their electronic medical records. In addition, the results of the bacteriological analysis of bronchoscopic specimens collected from the patients whose AFB tests were negative in IS were reviewed. Results: Of the 417 patients included in the study, 83 (19.9%) presented IS samples that tested positive for TB (smear microscopy or culture). In the logistic regression analysis, radiological findings of cavitation (OR = 3.8; 95% CI: 1.9-7.6) and of miliary infiltrate (OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.6-8.6) showed the strongest association with the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. In 134 patients, bronchoscopy was carried out after negative AFB results in IS and added 25 (64.1%) confirmed diagnoses of pulmonary TB. Conclusions: In our clinical practice, the frequency of confirmed diagnosis of pulmonary TB using IS (19.9%) was lower than that previously reported in controlled trials. Cavitation and miliary infiltrate increase the diagnostic probability of pulmonary TB using IS. The use of bronchoscopy when IS tests negative for AFB significantly increases sensitivity in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Diagnosis; Sputum.

 

7 - Tuberculosis treatment: integration between hospitals and public health care clinics in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

Tratamento de tuberculose: integração entre assistência hospitalar e rede básica na cidade de São Paulo

Mirtes Cristina Telles Perrechi, Sandra Aparecida Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1100-1106

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the level of access to health care clinics of a population of patients hospitalized for tuberculosis (TB) at two hospitals in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, comparing them with a population of TB patients under outpatient treatment only. Methods: We compiled sociodemographic, clinical and epidemiological data related to patients hospitalized for TB at two hospitals in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, between January and December of 2007, using a structured questionnaire. We also identified the outpatient clinics to which the patients were referred at discharge. The same variables were evaluated for TB outpatients during the same period, using a database. Results: The study sample consisted of 474 patients (166 inpatients and 308 outpatients: mean age, 41.0 and 39.1 years, respectively). The univariate analysis showed positive associations between hospitalization due to TB and the following variables: 30-39 year age bracket (OR = 2.17); 50-59 year age bracket (OR = 2.17); combination of pulmonary and extrapulmonary forms of TB (OR = 5.31); TB re-treatment (OR = 2.66); seeking treatment at other health care facilities prior to the diagnosis of TB (OR = 2.05); symptom duration of more than 12 weeks (OR = 2.23); and TB diagnosed at hospitals or in emergency rooms (OR = 4.68). The proportion of inpatients who resided in the same regional health district area as that in which the respective hospital was located was 77.6% and 36.8%. The proportion of discharged patients who were referred to outpatient clinics in the same areas was 67.1% and 39.7%, respectively. Conclusions: Patients hospitalized for TB should be monitored from discharge until their admission to the outpatient clinic.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Health services accessibility; Inpatients; Outpatients.

 

Brief Communication

8 - Ex vivo lung perfusion: initial Brazilian experience

Perfusão pulmonar ex vivo: experiência nacional inicial

Paulo Manuel Pêgo-Fernandes, Israel Lopes de Medeiros, Alessandro Wasum Mariani, Flávio Guimarães Fernandes, Fernando do Valle Unterpertinger, Marcos Naoyuki Samano, Eduardo de Campos Werebe, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1107-1111

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In the last 20 years, lung transplantation has become the standard treatment for patients with end-stage lung disease. However, less than 20% of the donor lungs available for transplant are actually usable. This disparity between the growing number of recipients and the small number of donors has resulted in increased mortality among lung transplant candidates on waiting lists. Strategies such as the utilization of organs from marginal donors have proven ineffective in increasing the number of transplants. In 2000, a new method for reconditioning human lungs that had been previously rejected for transplantation was developed in Sweden. We describe our initial experience with ex vivo lung perfusion.

 


Keywords: Lung transplantation; Organ preservation; Organ preservation solutions; Thoracic surgery.

 

9 - Pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD: from exercise training to "real life"

Reabilitação respiratória na DPOC: do treinamento de exercício para a "vida real"

Susana Alves Ferreira, Miguel Guimarães, Natália Taveira

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1112-1115

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of exercise training by means of a rehabilitative walking protocol. Twenty patients with COPD staged as III/IV according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease were included. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the exercise program regarding oxygen desaturation, sensation of dyspnea/fatigue, quality of life and six-minute walk distance. The comparison between the six-minute walk distance prior to and after training proved the efficacy of the protocol, which also resulted in a decrease in oxygen desaturation and in the sensation of dyspnea. This protocol can be easily put into practice.

 


Keywords: Activities of daily living; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Rehabilitation; Exercise therapy; Exercise test.

 

Review Article

10 - Nosocomial pneumonia: importance of the oral environment

Pneumonia nosocomial: importância do microambiente oral

Simone Macedo Amaral, Antonieta de Queiróz Cortês, Fábio Ramôa Pires

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1116-1124

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Nosocomial pneumonia, especially ventilator-associated pneumonia, is a common infection in ICUs. The main etiologic factors involve colonizing and opportunistic bacteria from the oral cavity. Oral hygiene measures, including the use of oral antiseptic agents, such as chlorhexidine, have proven useful in reducing its incidence. The objective of this article was to review the literature on the importance of the oral environment in the development of nosocomial pneumonia.

 


Keywords: Intensive care; Oral hygiene; Cross infection; Pneumonia.

 

11 - Methods for the assessment of peripheral muscle fatigue and its energy and metabolic determinants in COPD

Métodos de avaliação da fadigabilidade muscular periférica e seus determinantes energético-metabólicos na DPOC

Rafaella Rezende Rondelli, Simone Dal Corso, Alexandre Simões, Carla Malaguti

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1125-1135

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

It has been well established that, in addition to the pulmonary involvement, COPD has systemic consequences that can lead to peripheral muscle dysfunction, with greater muscle fatigue, lower exercise tolerance and lower survival in these patients. In view of the negative repercussions of early muscle fatigue in COPD, the objective of this review was to discuss the principal findings in the literature on the metabolic and bioenergy determinants of muscle fatigue, its functional repercussions, as well as the methods for its identification and quantification. The anatomical and functional substrate of higher muscle fatigue in COPD appears to include lower levels of high-energy phosphates, lower mitochondrial density, early lactacidemia, higher serum ammonia and reduced muscle perfusion. These alterations can be revealed by contraction failure, decreased firing rates of motor units and increased recruitment of motor units in a given activity, which can be functionally detected by a reduction in muscle strength, power and endurance. This review article also shows that various types of muscle contraction regimens and protocols have been used in order to detect muscle fatigue in this population. With this understanding, rehabilitation strategies can be developed in order to improve the resistance to muscle fatigue in this population.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Neuromuscular manifestations; Muscle fatigue; Exercise tolerance; Energy metabolism; Evaluation.

 

Update Course - Mycoses

12 - Chapter 3 - Pulmonary cryptococcosis

Capítulo 3 - Criptococose pulmonar

Cecília Bittencourt Severo, Alexandra Flávia Gazzoni, Luiz Carlos Severo

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1136-1144

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Cryptococcosis is a systemic mycosis caused by two species of the encapsulated basidiomycetes, Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii, which, respectively, cause infection in immunocompromised individuals and in immunologically normal hosts. Patients with T-cell deficiencies are more susceptible to this infection. The spectrum of the disease ranges from asymptomatic pulmonary lesions to disseminated infection with meningoencephalitis. The medical relevance of cryptococcosis increased dramatically as a consequence of the AIDS epidemic and organ transplants.

 


Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans; Pneumonia; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; Amphotericin B; Fluconazole.

 

13 - Chapter 4 - Histoplasmosis

Capítulo 4 - Histoplasmose

Miguel Abidon Aidé

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1145-1151

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Histoplasmosis is systemic mycosis caused by a small fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum, whose natural habitat is soil contaminated by bat or bird excrement. The incidence of histoplasmosis is worldwide. In Brazil, the disease is found in all regions; however, the state of Rio de Janeiro is responsible for most of the microepidemics described. Human infection occurs when airborne spores of H. capsulatum are inhaled. The most common clinical presentation is asymptomatic. The symptoms of acute or epidemic histoplasmosis are high fever, cough, asthenia and retrosternal pain, as well as enlargement of the cervical lymph nodes, liver and spleen. The most common radiological findings are diffuse reticulonodular infiltrates in both lungs, as well as hilar and mediastinal lymph node enlargement. In chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis, the clinical and radiological manifestations are identical to those of reinfection with pulmonary tuberculosis. Histoplasmosis is diagnosed by means of the identification or culture growth of the fungus in sputum or fiberoptic bronchoscopy specimens. Histopathological examination reveals the fungus itself within or surrounding macrophages, as well as granulomatous lesions with or without caseous necrosis. Double agar gel immunodiffusion is the most easily used and readily available serologic test for making the immunological diagnosis. Acute histoplasmosis with prolonged symptoms requires treatment, as do the disseminated or chronic pulmonary forms of the disease. The drug of choice is itraconazole.

 


Keywords: Mycosis; Histoplasmosis; Lung diseases, fungal.

 

Case Report

14 - A rare case of co-infection with pulmonary tuberculosis and oronasal actinomycosis

Caso raro de coinfecção tuberculose pulmonar e actinomicose oronasal

Vitor Alexandre Oliveira Fonseca, Gustavo Reis, Carlos Alves, Maria José Simões, Elvira Camacho, António Pinto Saraiva

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1152-1155

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Oronasal actinomycosis is an infection seldom described in the literature, especially in the form of a co-infection with pulmonary tuberculosis. We report the case of a 48-year-old male admitted to the isolation ward due to active pulmonary tuberculosis, with a history of diabetes and alcohol abuse. While hospitalized, the patient complained of dysphagia and nasal regurgitation of food. The examination of the oral cavity revealed an oronasal fistula. The infecting agent was identified, and the treatment was successful. We also present a brief review of the literature, as well as a full description and discussion of the process of investigating this rare clinical case.

 


Keywords: Actinomycosis, cervicofacial; Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Oral fistula.

 

15 - Endoscopic treatment of tracheobronchial tree fistulas using atrial septal defect occluders: preliminary results

Tratamento endoscópico de fístulas da árvore traqueobrônquica com dispositivos para a correção de defeitos do septo interatrial: resultados preliminares

Paulo Rogério Scordamaglio, Miguel Lia Tedde, Hélio Minamoto, Carlos Augusto Cardoso Pedra, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1156-1160

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Fistulas in the tracheobronchial tree (bronchopleural and tracheoesophageal fistulas) have a multifactorial etiology and present a variable incidence in the literature. In general, the related morbidity and mortality are high. Once such a fistula has been diagnosed, surgical closure is formally indicated. However, the clinical status of affected patients is usually unfavorable, which precludes the use of additional, extensive surgical interventions. In addition, attempts at endoscopic closure of these fistulas have seldom been successful, especially when the fistula is large in diameter. We report the cases of three patients submitted to endoscopic closure of fistulas, two of which were larger than 10 mm in diameter, by means of the insertion of atrial septal defect occluders. The procedure was minimally invasive, and the initial results were positive. The results indicate that this is a promising technique for the resolution of tracheobronchial tree fistulas.

 


Keywords: Bronchial fistula; Tracheoesophageal fistula; Bronchoscopy; Respiratory therapy.

 

16 - Chronic cavitary pulmonary histoplasmosis

Histoplasmose pulmonar cavitária crônica

José Wellington Alves dos Santos, Gustavo Trindade Michel, Mônica Lazzarotto, Juliana Kaczmareck Figaro, Daniel Spilmann, Gustavo Köhler Homrich

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1161-1164

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, which can be isolated from soil contaminated with droppings from birds or bats. Chronic cavitary pulmonary histoplasmosis is one of the rarest clinical presentations of this disease. The differential diagnosis with tuberculosis should be made in patients presenting with cavitated lesions in upper lung segments. We report the case of a female patient with chronic cavitary pulmonary histoplasmosis who had presented with progressive dyspnea and worsening of the radiological pattern over a four-year period.

 


Keywords: Histoplasmosis; Cavitation; Pulmonary emphysema.

 

 


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