Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2010 - Volume 36  - Number 1  (January/February)

Original Article

4 - Development and validation of an asthma knowledge questionnaire for use in Brazil

Desenvolvimento e validação de um questionário de conhecimento em asma para uso no Brasil

Marcos Carvalho Borges, Érica Ferraz, Sílvia Maria Romão Pontes, Andrea de Cássia Vernier Antunes Cetlin, Roseane Durães Caldeira, Cristiane Soncino da Silva, Ana Carla Sousa Araújo, Elcio Oliveira Vianna

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: To develop and validate an asthma knowledge questionnaire for use in adult asthma patients in Brazil. Methods: A 34-item self-report questionnaire was constructed and administered to adult asthma patients and adult controls. The maximum total score was 34. Results: The questionnaire was shown to be discriminatory, with good reliability and reproducibility. The mean score for asthma patients and controls was, respectively, 21.47 ± 4.11 (range: 9-31) and 17.27 ± 5.11 (range: 7-28; p < 0.001). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was 0.53, and the Bartlett's test of sphericity demonstrated a satisfactory suitability of the data to factor analysis (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the total scores obtained in the first and in the second application of the questionnaire within a two-week interval (p = 0.43). The internal consistency reliability (KR-20 coefficient) was 0.69. Conclusions: This study has validated an asthma knowledge questionnaire for use in Brazil.


Keywords: Asthma; Questionnaires; Validation studies; Reproducibility of results.


5 - Pharmaceutical care for patients with persistent asthma: assessment of treatment compliance and use of inhaled medications

Atenção farmacêutica ao portador de asma persistente: avaliação da aderência ao tratamento e da técnica de utilização dos medicamentos inalatórios

Daiane de Oliveira Santos, Maria Cleusa Martins, Sonia Lucena Cipriano, Regina Maria Carvalho Pinto, Alberto Cukier, Rafael Stelmach

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):14-22

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate treatment compliance and use of inhaled medications of patients with asthma receiving complementary pharmaceutical care. Methods: A controlled prospective parallel study involving a study group and a control group. We selected 60 patients with persistent asthma and using metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs) or both. The patients were evaluated three times over 60 days. Instructions were provided to the patients in the study group at all visits but only at the first visit to those in the control group. The patients using < 80% or > 120% of the total number of prescribed doses were classified as noncompliant. The inhalation technique was quantified by a scoring system. A satisfactory technique was defined as a score higher than 7 (maximum, 9) for MDIs and higher than 4 (maximum, 5) for DPIs. Results: The final study sample comprised 28 study group patients and 27 control group patients, of whom 18 (64.3%) and 20 (74.7%), respectively, were considered treatment compliant. From the first to the third visits, there were increases, in the study and control groups, in the median MDI-use score (from 3 [range, 0-5] to 8 [range, 8-9]; p < 0.001; and from 5 [range, 2-6] to 7 [range, 6-8]), as well as in the median DPI-use score (from 3 [range, 2-4] to 5 [range, 4-5] and from 3 [range, 2-4] to 4 [range, 3-5]). Conclusions: The counseling provided by the pharmacist to the patient was important to assist in the implementation of the appropriate inhalation technique, especially for MDI use.


Keywords: Asthma; Pharmaceutical services; Administration, inhalation;Metered dose inhalers; Medication adherence.


6 - Serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts: relationship with treatment response in patients with acute asthma

Relação dos níveis séricos de IgE total e das contagens de eosinófilos com a resposta ao tratamento em pacientes com asma aguda

Ebrahim Razi, Gholam Abbass Moosavi

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):23-28

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts have any relationship with the response to routine pharmacological treatment in patients with acute asthma. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 162 patients with acute asthma. Serum total IgE levels, peripheral blood cell counts and eosinophil counts were determined. The treatment was adjusted for each patient according to the severity of asthma. Spirometry was performed at baseline and two weeks after the treatment. The patients were divided into two groups: high IgE (≥100 IU/mL) and low IgE (<100 IU/mL). We compared the two groups in terms of the relationships between baseline values and final values (percentage change) for the following parameters: FEV1, FVC, FEF25-75%, peripheral white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts. Results: There were no significant differences between the groups regarding the percentage changes of the studied parameters. Nor were there significant differences between the groups regarding FEV1, FVC, and FEF25-75% (% of the predicted values) at baseline. Conclusions: On the basis of these findings, we conclude that serum total IgE levels, peripheral white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts cannot predict the response to the pharmacological treatment of patients with acute asthma.


Keywords: Asthma/drug therapy; Eosinophils; Immunoglobulin E


7 - Observer agreement in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases based on HRCT scans

Concordância entre observadores no diagnóstico das doenças pulmonares intersticiais por imagens de TCAR

Viviane Baptista Antunes, Gustavo de Souza Portes Meirelles, Dany Jasinowodolinski, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira, Carlos Gustavo Yuji Verrastro, Fabíola Goda Torlai, Giuseppe D'Ippolito

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):29-36

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the interobserver and intraobserver agreement in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) based on HRCT scans and the impact of observer expertise, clinical data and confidence level on such agreement. Methods: Two thoracic radiologists and two general radiologists independently reviewed the HRCT images of 58 patients with ILDs on two distinct occasions: prior to and after the clinical anamnesis. The radiologists selected up to three diagnostic hypotheses for each patient and defined the confidence level for these hypotheses. One of the thoracic and one of the general radiologists re-evaluated the same images up to three months after the first readings. In the coefficient analyses, the kappa statistic was used. Results: The thoracic and general radiologists, respectively, agreed on at least one diagnosis for each patient in 91.4% and 82.8% of the patients. The thoracic radiologists agreed on the most likely diagnosis in 48.3% (κ = 0.42) and 62.1% (κ = 0.58) of the cases, respectively, prior to and after the clinical anamnesis; likewise, the general radiologists agreed on the most likely diagnosis in 37.9% (κ = 0.32) and 36.2% (κ = 0.30) of the cases. For the thoracic radiologist, the intraobserver agreement on the most likely diagnosis was 0.73 and 0.63 prior to and after the clinical anamnesis, respectively. That for the general radiologist was 0.38 and 0.42.The thoracic radiologists presented almost perfect agreement for the diagnostic hypotheses defined with the high confidence level. Conclusions: Interobserver and intraobserver agreement in the diagnosis of ILDs based on HRCT scans ranged from fair to almost perfect and was influenced by radiologist expertise, clinical history and confidence level.


Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial; Tomography, X-ray computed; Observer variation.


8 - Gender differences in predictors of health status in patients with COPD

Preditores do estado de saúde em pacientes com DPOC de acordo com o gênero

Renata Ferrari, Suzana Erico Tanni, Paulo Adolfo Lucheta, Márcia Maria Faganello, Renata Antonialli Ferreira do Amaral, Irma Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):37-43

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the health status (HS) of COPD patients and to identify the main predictors of HS in these patients according to gender. Methods: The study included 90 COPD patients (60 males and 30 females; mean age = 64 ± 9 years) with a wide range of airway obstruction disorders (mean FEV1 = 56 ± 19% of predicted). The men were individually matched to the women by % of predicted FEV1 (ratio: 2:1). The patients were assessed regarding body composition; six-minute walk distance; perception of dyspnea using the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale; Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ); Charlson comorbidity index; and the multidimensional Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of HS by gender. Results: Impairment of HS was greater among the women than among the men for SGRQ total score and for all SGRQ domains (total: 51 ± 18% vs. 38 ± 19%; p = 0.002; symptoms: 61 ± 22% vs. 42 ± 21%; p < 0.001; activity: 62 ± 18% vs. 49 ± 21%; p = 0.004; and impact: 41 ± 19% vs. 27 ± 18%; p = 0.001). The multiple linear regression showed that age and perception of dyspnea correlated with SGRQ total score for both genders (males, r² = 0.42; females, r² = 0.70; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results showed an association between gender and HS in COPD patients. Age and dyspnea are determinants of HS in both genders.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Health status; Dyspnea.


9 - The role of the FEF50%/0.5FVC ratio in the diagnosis of obstructivelung diseases

O papel da razão FEF50%/0,5CVF no diagnóstico dosdistúrbios ventilatórios obstrutivos

Marcelo Tadday Rodrigues, Daniel Fiterman-Molinari, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Jussara Fiterman

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):44-50

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the contribution of a new coefficient, the FEF50%/0.5FVC ratio, obtained from the maximal expiratory flow-volume curve, to the diagnosis of obstructive lung disease (OLD); to test this coefficient in differentiating among patients considered normal, those with OLD and those with restrictive lung disease (RLD); and to determine cut-off points for each functional diagnosis, as well as the probability for each diagnosis based on individual values. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study analyzing the pulmonary function of patients referred to the Porto Alegre Hospital de Clínicas, in Porto Alegre, Brazil, between January and December of 2003. We collected demographic and spirometric data. The patients were divided into three groups: normal; OLD; and RLD. We calculated the FEV1/FVC and FEF50%/0.5FVC ratios, and we compared the mean FEF50%/0.5FVC values among the groups. We used Pearson's correlation test in order to compare FEF50%/0.5FVC with FEV1/FVC. The patients were again divided into two groups: those with OLD and those without OLD. We calculated the likelihood ratio for different cut-off points. Results: The mean age of the patients was 55.8 ± 14.7 years. There were significant differences among the groups in terms of the mean FEF50%/0.5FVC (2.10 ± 0.82, 2.55 ± 1.47 and 0.56 ± 0.29, respectively, for normal, RLD and OLD; p < 0.001). There was a positive correlation between FEF50%/0.5FVC and FEV1/FVC in the OLD group (r = 0.83). We found that an FEF50%/0.5FVC < 0.79 strongly suggests OLD, whereas an FEF50%/0.5FVC > 1.33 practically excludes this diagnosis. Conclusions: The FEF50%/0.5FVC ratio is a potentially useful parameter in the differential diagnosis of OLD and correlates positively with the FEV1/FVC ratio.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Spirometry; Respiratory function tests.


10 - Morphological prognostic factors in nosocomial pneumonia:an autopsy study

Determinantes morfológicos de prognóstico em pneumonia nosocomial: um estudo em autópsias

Luiz Mário Baptista Martinelli, Paulo José Fortes Villas Boas, Thais Thomaz Queluz, Hugo Hyung Bok Yoo

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):51-58

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of nosocomial pneumonia in autopsies at a public university hospital; to identify the risk factors for nosocomial pneumonia and the potential prognostic factors associated with fatal nosocomial pneumonia and with fatal aspiration pneumonia; and to determine whether anatomopathological findings correlate with nosocomial pneumonia or aspiration pneumonia. Methods: A retrospective study involving 199 autopsied patients, older than 1 year of age, who had been admitted to the São Paulo State University Botucatu School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas and died of nosocomial pneumonia (underlying or contributing cause), between 1999 and 2006. Demographic, clinical and anatomopathological variables were tested regarding their association with the outcomes (fatal nosocomial pneumonia and fatal aspiration pneumonia). The significant variables were analyzed using multivariate analysis. Results: The mean age was 59 ± 19 years. The prevalence of nosocomial pneumonia in autopsies was 29%, and the disease was the cause of death in 22.6% of the autopsied patients. Fatal nosocomial pneumonia correlated with the following anatomopathological findings: tobacco‑associated structural lesions (OR = 3.23; 95% CI: 1.26-2.95; p = 0.02) and bilateral pneumonia (OR = 3.23; 95% CI: 1.26-8.30; p = 0.01). None of the variables were found to be significantly associated with fatal aspiration pneumonia. Conclusions: In our sample, there was a high prevalence of nosocomial pneumonia, which was responsible for almost 25% of all of the deaths. Smoking-related structural lesions and bilateral pneumonia all favored mortality. These findings corroborate the results of various clinical studies on nosocomial pneumonia.


Keywords: Autopsy; Risk factors; Prognosis; Pneumonia, aspiration; Pneumonia/mortality.


11 - Correlation between inflammatory mediators in the nasopharyngeal secretion and in the serum of children with lower respiratory tract infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus and disease severity

Correlação entre mediadores inflamatórios na secreção nasofaríngea e no soro de crianças com infecção do trato respiratório inferior por vírus sincicial respiratórioe a gravidade da doença

Renata Amato Vieira, Edna Maria de Albuquerque Diniz,Maria Esther Jurfest Rivero Ceccon

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):59-66

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether the concentrations of inflammatory mediators (CCL5, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 [sICAM-1], TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10) in the nasopharyngeal secretion and in the serum of children with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) correlate with the clinical markers of disease severity. Methods: Between July of 2004 and December of 2005, 30 children less than three months of age, diagnosed with LRTI caused by RSV and admitted to a neonatal ICU, were included in this study. Results: The severity of disease at hospital admission, as determined with a modified clinical scoring system, presented a significant positive correlation with sICAM-1 and IL-10 concentrations in the nasopharyngeal secretion, as well as with IL-6 concentrations in the serum, of the patients. In addition, serum IL-6 concentrations presented a significant positive correlation with the duration of oxygen therapy and with the length of hospital stay. Conclusions: At hospital admission, the concentrations of sICAM-1 and IL-10 in the nasopharyngeal secretion, as well as the concentration of IL-6 in the serum, could be used as markers of severity in patients with LRTI caused by RSV. The serum levels of IL-6 determined at admission could also be used to predict prolonged oxygen supplementation and hospital stay.


Keywords: Respiratory syncytial virus, human; Chemokine CCL5; Intercellular adhesion molecule-1; Interleukin-6; Interleukin-10; Tumor necrosis factor-alpha.


12 - Clinical characteristics and quality of life of smokers at a referral center for smoking cessation

Características clínicas e qualidade de vida de fumantes em um centro de referência de abordagem e tratamento do tabagismo

Márcia Regina Pizzo de Castro, Tiemi Matsuo, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):67-74

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare smokers and never smokers in terms of the following: quality of life; BMI; hospitalizations; functionality; family history of mental disorder; tobacco-related diseases; depression; and psychoactive substance use. Methods: We evaluated 167 smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation program at the Londrina State University Referral Center for Understanding and Treating Smoking, together with 272 never-smoking blood donors. We employed the following instruments, all validated for use in Brazil: a structured questionnaire for the collection of sociodemographic data; the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test; the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, brief version (WHOQoL-BREF); and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. We also applied diagnostic criteria for the investigation of depressive disorders. Results: The mean age of the smokers and never smokers was, respectively, 45 and 44 years. Females predominated in both groups. Smokers more often presented with impaired work/domestic functionality, hospitalizations, depressive disorders, smoking in the household, sedative use and a family history of mental disorders, as well as scoring lower in all domains of the WHOQoL-BREF. The mean age at smoking onset was lower for smokers with depression or using psychoactive substances than for smokers without such comorbidities. Diabetes, arterial hypertension, heart disease, respiratory disease and peptic ulcer were more common in smokers than in never smokers. The mean BMI was lower in the smokers than in the never smokers. Conclusions: This study suggests that, for smoking cessation programs, subgroups of smokers with specific characteristics (early age at smoking onset, tobacco-related diseases, depressive disorders and use of psychoactive substances) should be identified.


Keywords: Smoking; Depressive disorder; Smoking cessation; Tobacco use disorder.


13 - Prevalence of smoking among adults residing in the Federal District of Brasília and in the state capitals of Brazil, 2008

Prevalência do tabagismo em adultos residentes nas capitais dos estados e no Distrito Federal, Brasil, 2008

Deborah Carvalho Malta, Erly Catarina Moura, Sara Araújo Silva, Patrícia Pereira Vasconcelos de Oliveira, Vera Luiza da Costa e Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):75-83

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of smoking in the adult population of Brazil, in order to propose recommendations for the reduction of tobacco use. Methods: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study including a sample composed of residents (≥ 18 years of age) of the capital cities of 26 Brazilian states and in the Federal District of Brasília, Brazil. For the determination of sample size, a 95% confidence interval and a 2% sample error were defined. The participants were selected and interviewed by means of the Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (VIGITEL, Telephone-based System for the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases).The proportion of smokers and the number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated and stratified according to sociodemographic variables. In addition, the male/female ratio was estimated for the prevalence of smoking. Results: The prevalence of smoking was 16.1% (20.5% among males and 12.4% among females). The proportion of adults that reported smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes a day was 4.9%, being greater in males (6.5% vs. 3.6%). The prevalence of smoking was greater among individuals with a lower level of education (≤ 8 years of schooling). The number of cigarettes smoked per day by males was approximately the double that smoked by females. Conclusions: The VIGITEL estimates indicate a reduction in the prevalence of smoking, which was, however, still greater among males than among females. The VIGITEL has been fundamental to monitoring smoking, as well as to informing decisions regarding public policies for health promotion and the prevention of chronic nontransmissible diseases.


Keywords: Smoking/epidemiology; Smoking/prevention & control; Cross-sectional studies.


14 - Early versus late tracheostomy in patients with acute severe brain injury

Traqueostomia precoce versus traqueostomia tardia em pacientes com lesão cerebral aguda grave

Bruno do Valle Pinheiro, Rodrigo de Oliveira Tostes, Carolina Ito Brum,Erich Vidal Carvalho, Sérgio Paulo Santos Pinto, Júlio César Abreu de Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):84-91

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare the effects of early tracheostomy and of late tracheostomy in patients with acute severe brain injury. Methods: A retrospective study involving 28 patients admitted to the ICU of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora University Hospital in Juiz de Fora, Brazil, diagnosed with acute severe brain injury and presenting with a Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score < 8 within the first 48 h of hospitalization. The patients were divided into two groups: early tracheostomy (ET), performed within the first 8 days after admission; and late tracheostomy (LT), performed after postadmission day 8. At admission, we collected demographic data and determined the following scores: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, GCS and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). Results: There were no significant differences between the groups (ET vs. LT) regarding the demographic data or the scores: APACHE II (26 ± 6 vs. 28 ± 8; p = 0.37), SOFA (6.3 ± 2.7 vs. 7.2 ± 3.0; p = 0.43) and GCS (5.4 ± 1.7 vs. 5.5 ± 1.7; p = 0.87). The 28-day mortality rate was lower in the ET group (9% vs. 47%; p = 0.04). Nosocomial pneumonia occurring within the first 7 days was less common in the ET group, although the difference was not significant (0% vs. 23%; p = 0.13). There were no differences regarding the occurrence of late pneumonia or in the duration of mechanical ventilation between the groups. Conclusions: On the basis of these findings, early tracheostomy should be considered in patients with acute severe brain injury.


Keywords: Tracheostomy; Pulmonary ventilation; Coma.


15 - Efficacy of the scoring system, recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health, for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children and adolescents, regardless of their HIV status

Eficácia do sistema de pontuação, preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde, para o diagnóstico de tuberculose pulmonar em crianças e adolescentes infectados ou não pelo HIV

Cinthia Pedrozo, Clemax Couto Sant'Anna, Maria de Fátima B. Pombo March, Sheila Cunha Lucena

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):92-98

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the efficacy of the scoring system, recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health (NMH), for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in children and adolescents, regardless of their HIV status. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytical study carried out between January of 2002 and December of 2006, involving 239 individuals less than 15 years of age. The patients were divided into four groups: latent TB (LTB group; n = 81); no-TB (NTB group; n = 41); TB group (n = 104); and TB/HIV group (n = 13). We studied the clinical, radiological and laboratory findings according to the scoring system. Results: Reports of fever, cough, asthenia and weight loss for at least two weeks were significantly higher in the TB group (p < 0.0001). The proportion of cases with a history of any contact and household contact with a TB patient was, respectively, 95.0% and 86.1% in the TB group, versus 75.0% and 58.3% in the TB/HIV group. In the TB and TB/HIV groups, respectively, chest X-rays revealed parenchymal alterations in 75.0% and 53.9%, revealing combined parenchymal/lymph node alterations in 18.2% and 30.8%. There were no significant differences among the groups regarding the tuberculin skin test results. In the TB group, 16.3% of the patients were malnourished (p < 0.005 vs. the LTB group). The mean NMH system scores in the LTB, NTB, TB and TB/HIV groups were, respectively, 24.2, 18.5, 45.3 and 41.5. Conclusions: The NMH system scores were significantly higher in the TB and TB/HIV groups than in the other two groups. Therefore, this scoring system was valid for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in this population, regardless of HIV status.


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; HIV seropositivity; Diagnostic techniques and procedures.


Special Article

16 - Illustrated Brazilian consensus of terms and fundamental patternsin chest CT scans

Consenso brasileiro ilustrado sobre a terminologia dos descritores e padrões fundamentais da TC de tórax

C. Isabela S. Silva, Edson Marchiori, Arthur Soares Souza Júnior, Nestor L. Müller, Comissão de Imagem da Sociedade Brasileirade Pneumologia e Tisiologia

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):99-123

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of this new Brazilian consensus is to update and to continue the standardization of the principal terms and fundamental patterns in chest CT scans in Portuguese. There is a succinct definition of the principal terms used to describe chest CT findings, as well as illustrations of classic examples. The group of authors comprised radiologists specializing in chest radiology and holding membership in the Brazilian College of ­Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, as well as pulmonologists having a special interest in diagnostic imaging and holding membership in the Brazilian Thoracic Association.


Keywords: Lung; Consensus; Tomography.


Review Article

17 - Allergic rhinitis: indicators of quality of life

Rinite alérgica: indicadores de qualidade de vida

Inês Cristina Camelo-Nunes, Dirceu Solé

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):124-133

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of this review was to present evidence of the relationship between allergic rhinitis and impairment of quality of life. The data sources were original articles, reviews and consensus statements entered into the Medline and LILACS databases between 1997 and 2008. The following search terms were used: "allergic rhinitis"; "quality of life"; and "sleep disorders". Quality of life is often impaired in patients with allergic rhinitis, due to the classic symptoms of the disease (sneezing, pruritus, rhinorrhea and nasal obstruction). In addition, the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis often disrupts sleep, leading to fatigue, irritability, memory deficits, daytime sleepiness and depression. The total burden of this disease goes beyond impairment of physical and social functioning. It has also a financial impact, which becomes greater when we consider the evidence that allergic rhinitis is a possible causal factor of comorbidities, such as asthma and sinusitis. Nasal obstruction, the most prominent symptom, is associated with sleep disorders, which can have a profound effect on mental health, learning, behavior and attention. Finally, allergic rhinitis-a chronic condition that affects adults, adolescents and children-is often underdiagnosed or inadequately treated. The deleterious impact that allergic rhinitis-related sleep disorders have on patient capacity to perform activities of daily living is an important component of the morbidity of the disease. With an accurate diagnosis, there are various available treatments that can reduce the burden of allergic rhinitis.


Keywords: Rhinitis, allergic, perennial; Rhinitis, allergic, seasonal; Quality of life; Sleep disorders.


Update Course - Mycoses

18 - Chapter 7 - Zygomycosis

Capítulo 7 - Zigomicose

Cecília Bittencourt Severo, Luciana Silva Guazzelli, Luiz Carlos Severo

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):134-141

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Zygomycosis (mucormycosis) is a rare but highly invasive infection caused by fungi belonging to the order Mucorales, which includes the genera Rhizopus, Mucor, Rhizomucor, Absidia, Apophysomyces, Saksenaea, Cunninghamella, Cokeromyces and Syncephalastrum. This type of infection is usually associated with hematologic diseases, diabetic ketoacidosis and organ transplantation. The most common form of presentation is rhinocerebral mucormycosis, with or without pulmonary involvement. Pulmonary zygomycosis is more common in patients with profound, prolonged neutropenia and can present as segmental or lobar infiltrates, isolated nodules, cavitary lesions, hemorrhage or infarction. The clinical and radiological manifestations are often indistinguishable from those associated with invasive aspergillosis. This article describes the general characteristics of pulmonary zygomycosis, emphasizing laboratory diagnosis, and illustrates the morphology of some lesions.


Keywords: Zygomycosis; Diagnostic techniques and procedures; Mucormycosis.


19 - Chapter 8 - Fungal infections in immunocompromised patients

Capítulo 8 - Infecções fúngicas em imunocomprometidos

Rodney Frare e Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):142-147

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pulmonary complications are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, who lack of the basic mechanisms of cellular defense. Regardless of the cause of the immunodeficiency, the most common complications are infections (bacterial, viral or fungal). Among the fungal infections, aspergillosis is the most common (incidence, 1-9%; mortality, 55-92%) following organ transplant. Although pulmonary involvement is the most common form of aspergillosis, central nervous system involvement and sinusitis are not uncommon. On CT scans, the halo sign represents an area of low attenuation around the nodule, revealing edema or hemorrhage. The gold standard for the diagnosis is the culture identification of the fungus in sputum, BAL fluid or biopsy samples. Failing this identification, the detection of galactomannan, which is one of the fungal wall components, has shown sensitivity and specificity of 89% and 98%, respectively. Amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, caspofungin and, especially, voriconazole are effective against the fungus. Although Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia can be fatal, the incidence of this disease has decreased due to the prophylactic use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In immunocompromised patients presenting with dyspnea and hypoxemia, screening for fungi is indicated. A 14- to 21-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in combination with corticosteroids is usually efficacious. Another rare fungal infection is disseminated candidiasis, which is caused by Candida spp.


Keywords: Pneumonia; Immunosuppression; Lung diseases, fungal.


Case Report

20 - Hard metal pneumoconiosis with spontaneous bilateral pneumothorax

Pneumoconiose por exposição a metal duro com pneumotórax bilateral espontâneo

Maria Auxiliadora Carmo Moreira, Amanda da Rocha Oliveira Cardoso, Daniela Graner Schuwartz Tannus Silva, Maria Conceição de Castro Antonelli Monteiro de Queiroz, Albino Alegro Oliveira, Tiago Marinho Almeida Noleto

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):148-151

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Hard metal pneumoconiosis, first described in 1964, is a diffuse disease caused by the inhalation of cobalt particles. The disease can manifest as occupational asthma, interstitial disease or allergic alveolitis. We report the case of a young male, working as a tool sharpener, who presented with dry cough and progressive dyspnea for one year, as well as with spontaneous bilateral pneumothorax at admission. The diagnosis was confirmed by open lung biopsy.


Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial; Pneumoconiosis; Pneumothorax.


21 - Tracheal lipoma mimicking obstructive lung disease

Lipoma de traqueia simulando doença pulmonar obstrutiva

Vinícius Turano Mota, José Geraldo Soares Maia, Ana Teresa Fernandes Barbosa, Diego Franco Silveira Fernandes, Emanuelly Botelho Rocha

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):152-155

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Tracheal tumors are rare and can be difficult to diagnose due to their capacity to mimic other obstructive lung diseases, such as asthma and COPD. We report the case of a female patient with a tracheal tumor. She had previously been treated for asthma and COPD, with little response to the treatment. The onset of infectious complications prompted further investigation. Chest CT images suggested the presence of a tumor, which was confirmed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. The tumor was endoscopically resected. However, the patient evolved to death due to pneumonia and septic shock.


Keywords: Lipoma; Lung diseases, obstructive; Tracheal neoplasms.


Author's reply

23 - Author`s reply

Resposta do autor

Maria Alice da Silva Telles

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):

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Fone/fax: 0800 61 6218/ (55) (61) 3245 1030/ (55) (61) 3245 6218

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