Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2010 - Volume 36  - Number 3  (May/June)

2 - Hemoptysis


Miguel Abidon Aidé

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):

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Original Article

3 - Can multiple doses of BCG vaccine protect against asthma?

Múltiplas doses de vacina BCG podem proteger contra asma?

Emanuel Sarinho, Fernanda Correia Kunz, Newton Bellesi, Paula Ferdinanda Conceição de Mascena Diniz Maia, José Ângelo Rizzo, Almerinda Rego Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):281-285

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Objective: To compare BCG vaccination involving a single intradermal dose and that involving multiple doses, one given with the multiple puncture technique, in terms of the protective effect against the subsequent onset of asthma. Methods: A retrospective cohort study involving 2,311 individuals having received the BCG vaccine. The patients were classified according to the number of doses of BCG vaccine administered (one; two; or three or more). The minimum follow-up period in order to determine whether there was any protective effect of BCG vaccination regarding the diagnosis of asthma was 10 years. Results: The sample included 1,317 individuals (56.99%) who had received only one BCG dose, 644 (27.87%) who had received two doses, and 350 (15.14%) who had received three or more doses. The number of patients diagnosed with asthma among those who had received one dose, two doses and three or more doses was, respectively, 216 (16.40%), 107 (16.61%) and 50 (14.28%). There were no significant differences among the groups. Conclusions: In the study sample, the prevalence of asthma among individuals having received multiple doses of the BCG vaccine was no different than that observed among those having received a single dose.


Keywords: Asthma; BCG vaccine; Immunization, secondary.


4 - Prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema among students between 6 and 7 years of age in the city of Londrina, Brazil

Prevalência de sintomas de asma, rinite e eczema atópico em escolares de 6 e 7 anos na cidade de Londrina (PR)

Luci Keiko Kuromoto de Castro, Alcindo Cerci Neto, Olavo Franco Ferreira Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):

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Objective: To determine the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema among students between 6 and 7 years of age in the city of Londrina, Brazil. Methods: A population-based study using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) standardized questionnaire (asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema modules), validated for use in Brazil, in public school students between 6 and 7 years of age. Results: Of the 3,963 questionnaires retrieved, 3,600 (90.8%) were appropriately completed and were used in the analysis. The prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema in the last 12 months was 22.0%, 27.3% and 9.6%, respectively. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema was 10.4%, 23.4% and 11.4%, respectively. The prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis and flexural eczema was 13.6% and 6.6%, respectively. Although symptoms of asthma and rhinitis were more common in males than in females, no gender difference was found regarding atopic eczema symptoms. Conclusions: The prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema in our sample was within the range found at the facilities that participated in phases I and III of the ISAAC in Brazil. The low prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma suggests that asthma continues to be underdiagnosed.


Keywords: Public health; Epidemiology; Asthma.


5 - Asthma and pregnancy: repercussions for neonates

Asma e gravidez: repercussões no recém-nascido

Maria Luiza Doria Almeida, Priscila Andrade Santana, Alzira Maria d'Ávila Nery Guimarães, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel, Elcio Oliveira Vianna

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):

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Objective: To describe socioeconomic and behavioral aspects of pregnant women with asthma and to analyze the effects of maternal asthma on certain perinatal parameters in a birth cohort. Methods: An observational cross-sectional analytical study using data regarding the mothers of a birth cohort at maternity hospitals in the greater metropolitan area of Aracaju, Brazil, between the 8th of March and the 15th of July of 2005. In the pregnant women, asthma was self-reported, based on previous medical diagnosis. Epidemiological, obstetric and perinatal variables were studied. Results: Of the 4,757 mothers included in the study, 299 (6.3%) had asthma. The mothers with asthma had lower family incomes and more frequently made use of the public health care system (for prenatal care and delivery) than did those without asthma. Although only 9.4% of the mothers with asthma smoked and only 27.6% consumed alcoholic beverages, these proportions were higher than were those observed for the control group. Asthma was not found to be associated with obstetric problems or with problems involving the neonates. Nor did we find asthma to be associated with cesarean delivery, prematurity or small-for-gestational-age neonates. Conclusions: Low socioeconomic level seems to be a risk factor for asthma.


Keywords: Asthma; Pregnancy; Socioeconomic factors; Infant, newborn.


6 - Necrotizing pneumonia in children submitted to thoracoscopy due to pleural empyema: incidence, treatment and clinical evolution

Pneumonia necrosante em crianças submetidas à toracoscopia por empiema pleural: incidência, tratamento e evolução clínica

Maurício Macedo, Karine Furtado Meyer, Tatiana Cristina Miranda Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):

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Objective: To assess the incidence of necrotizing pneumonia (NP) in children submitted to thoracoscopy, comparing patients with and without NP in terms of the presentation and clinical evolution. Methods: A retrospective study of children with pleural empyema submitted to thoracoscopy. Thoracoscopy was performed in patients not previously submitted to thoracic drainage and in whom there was evidence of loculated effusion or pneumothorax, as well as in those previously submitted to thoracic drainage and in whom there was persistent pneumothorax or fever with purulent discharge. On the basis of the thoracoscopy findings, patients were distributed into two groups: those with NP (NP group) and those without (no-NP group). Results: The study sample comprised 52 patients. Of the 24 patients with NP, 19 (79%) had undergone thoracic drainage prior to thoracoscopy, 11 (46%) presented with pneumothorax, and 16 (67%) developed bronchopleural fistula. In the NP group, the median drainage time and the median length of hospital stay were 18 and 19 days, respectively. Of the 28 patients without NP, 10 (36%) had undergone thoracic drainage prior to thoracoscopy, 9 (32%) presented pneumothorax, and 5 (18%) developed bronchopleural fistula. In the no-NP group, the median drainage time and the median length of hospital stay were 6 and 10 days, respectively. Conclusions: Pneumothorax should raise the suspicion of NP. Early thoracoscopy can be a valuable treatment option for NP in children because it hastens recovery in comparison with the medical treatment alone and avoids extensive late thoracotomy lung resections.


Keywords: Keywords: Empyema, pleural; Thoracoscopy; Pneumonia; Child.


7 - New reference values for maximal respiratory pressures in the Brazilian population

Novos valores de referência para pressões respiratórias máximas na população brasileira

Dirceu Costa, Helena Amaral Gonçalves, Luciana Peraro de Lima, Daniela Ike, Karina Maria Cancelliero, Maria Imaculada de Lima Montebelo

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):

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Objective: To compare MIP and MEP determined in healthy subjects with those predicted using the equations proposed in another study, and, if necessary, to suggest new equations for MIP and MEP to be used in the Brazilian population. Methods: The study sample comprised 60 healthy males and 60 healthy females, 20-80 years of age (20 subjects per ten-year age bracket). Maximal respiratory pressures were determined following a standardized protocol. Results: Regarding MIP, the measured values were significantly lower than those predicted for both males (31%) and females (24%). There were no significant differences between measured and predicted MEP in either gender. We found that age presented the greatest power to predict MIP and MEP in both genders. New equations were proposed. Conclusions: The previously proposed equations were unable to predict MIP and MEP for all of the subjects in our sample. Therefore, the results of this study can facilitate the prediction of respiratory muscle strength in healthy adult subjects in Brazil. Further studies, involving subjects from different regions of the country, could lead to the development of better tables or equations for maximal respiratory pressures in the Brazilian population.


Keywords: Respiratory muscles; Muscle strength; Reference values.


8 - Inspiratory muscle training in quadriplegic patients

Treinamento de músculos inspiratórios em pacientes com quadriplegia

Janne Marques Silveira, Ada Clarice Gastaldi, Cristina de Matos Boaventura, Hugo Celso Souza

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):

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Objective: To determine whether inspiratory muscle training can increase strength and endurance of these muscles in quadriplegic patients. Methods: Eight quadriplegic patients (7 males and 1 female) with injury to the lower cervical spine (segments C4-C7) were submitted to inspiratory muscle training with a threshold inspiratory muscle trainer adjusted to 30% of MIP. The training sessions were carried out with the patients in a sitting position, 5 days a week for 8 weeks. Endurance time, MIP, MEP and FVC were determined at baseline, week 4 and week 8. Results: In comparison with the mean baseline value, there was an increase in MIP, measured in the sitting position, at weeks 4 and 8 (−83.0 ± 18.9 cmH2O vs. −104.0 ± 19.4 cmH2O and −111.3 ± 22.7 cmH2O). There was an increase in MEP, also in the sitting position, at week 4 (from 36.8 ± 8.1 to 42.6 ± 8.8 cmH2O). There was an improvement in FVC at week 4 (from 2.1 ± 0.8 to 2.5 ± 0.6 L, representing an increase of 24 ± 22%). Although there was an increase in endurance (sitting) at week 8, the difference was not significant in comparison with the baseline value (29.8 ± 21.0 vs. 35.9 ± 15.5 min, an increase of 173 ± 233%). Conclusions: Quadriplegic patients can benefit from training at low loads (30% of MIP), which can improve inspiratory muscle strength, FVC and expiratory muscle performance.


Keywords: Respiratory mechanics; Quadriplegia; Breathing exercises.


9 - Hemoptysis in a referral hospital for pulmonology

Hemoptise em hospital de referência em pneumologia

Fernando Luiz Cavalcanti Lundgren, Ana Maria Costa, Lícia Caldas Figueiredo, Paola Colares Borba

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):

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Objective: To determine the main causes of hemoptysis and to classify this symptom, in terms of the amount of blood expectorated, in patients hospitalized at a referral hospital for pulmonology. Methods: The study included 50 patients with hemoptysis admitted to the pulmonology ward of a general hospital in the city of Recife, Brazil, between July of 2005 and February of 2006. The data of interest were analyzed and compared with those in the literature. Results: The most common cause of hemoptysis was infection-in 39 patients (78%)-mostly related to tuberculosis sequelae or active tuberculosis. Regarding the severity of hemoptysis, moderate hemoptysis, diagnosed in 28 patients (56%), was the most common. Conclusions: Our results suggest that all patients who present with hemoptysis should be investigated for infection.


Keywords: Hemoptysis/classification; Hemoptysis/etiology; Comorbidity.


10 - Factors associated with nocturnal, productive and dry cough in the young adult population of Nigeria

Fatores associados à tosse seca, tosse produtiva e tosse noturna em adultos jovens na Nigéria

Olufemi Olumuyiwa Desalu, Alakija Kazeem Salami, Olufunto Anthony Seidu, Abdulfatai Bamidele Olokoba, Abayomi Fadeyi

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):

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Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with nocturnal, productive and dry cough among young adults in Nigeria. Methods: We evaluated 498 subjects, 20-44 years of age, in Ilorin, Nigeria, using the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaire, administered by trained interviewers. Results: Nocturnal cough was associated with asthma (OR = 10.87; p < 0.01), nasal allergy (OR = 6.33; p < 0.01), smoking (OR = 3.10; p < 0.01), skilled manual and non-manual work (OR = 2.86 and 2.10, respectively; p < 0.01 for both) and female gender (OR = 1.33; p = 0.17). Productive cough was associated with skilled manual and non-manual work (OR = 3.82 and 3.03, respectively; p < 0.01 for both), smoking (OR = 3.10; p < 0.01), asthma (OR = 3.27; p < 0.01) and nasal allergy (OR = 5.81; p < 0.01). Dry cough was associated with asthma (OR =5.18; p < 0.01) obesity (OR =1.88; p = 0.19), smoking (OR = 1.77; p = 1.44), nasal allergy (OR = 1.45; p = 0.26) and female gender (OR =1.36; p = 0.33). Age, gender, type of residence and obesity were not significantly associated with any type of cough (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Early prevention and treatment of conditions associated with cough, as well as the modification of social factors commonly associated with cough, are needed in order to reduce respiratory morbidity.


Keywords: Cough; Smoking; Asthma; Rhinitis; Nigeria.


11 - Evaluation of the exhaled carbon monoxide levels in smokers with COPD

Avaliação da concentração de monóxido de carbono no ar exalado em tabagistas com DPOC

Gustavo Chatkin, José Miguel Chatkin, Gabriel Aued, Guilherme Oliveira Petersen, Edna Thais Jeremias, Flávia Valladão Thiesen

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):

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Objective: To measure exhaled carbon monoxide (COex) levels in smokers with and without COPD. Methods: Smokers treated at outpatient clinics of São Lucas Hospital in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, between September of 2007 and March of 2009 were invited to participate in this study. The participants completed a questionnaire regarding demographic and epidemiologic characteristics and were submitted to spirometry, as well as to determination of COex and urinary cotinine levels. The participants were divided into two groups: those with COPD and those without COPD. Results: The study involved 294 smokers, of whom 174 (59.18%) had been diagnosed with COPD. All of the participants presented with urinary cotinine levels > 50 ng/mL. Smokers with COPD presented significantly higher median values for age and pack-years than did those without COPD (p < 0.001 and p = 0.026, respectively). No other statistically significant differences were found. When adjusted for gender, age at smoking onset, number of cigarettes/day and urinary cotinine level, the mean values of COex were higher, but not statistically so, in the COPD group than in the non-COPD group (17.8 ± 0.6 ppm and 16.6 ± 0.7 ppm, respectively; p = 0.200). The differences remained nonsignificant when plotted logarithmically. A wide dispersion of COex values was found when the participants were classified by FEV1 level (r = −0.06; p = 0.53) or by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease classification (r = 0.08; p = 0.34). The proportions of false-negative results for smoking were 18.4% and 6.7%, respectively, in the COPD and non-COPD groups (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Since COex values did not differ significantly between smokers with COPD and those without, there seem to be no major contraindications to their use in smokers with COPD.


Keywords: Carbon monoxide; Smoking cessation; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.


12 - Smoking in elderly patients admitted to long-term care facilities

Tabagismo em idosos internados em instituições de longa permanência

Anderson Albuquerque de Carvalho, Lucy Gomes, Altair Macedo Lahud Loureiro

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):

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Objective: To determine the prevalence of smoking among elderly patients admitted to long-term care facilities (LTCFs) and to determine whether the degree of nicotine dependence is associated with sociodemographic variables, affective ties, motivation for smoking cessation and depression. Methods: Cross-sectional, population-based study involving 573 individuals over the age of 60, admitted to 13 LTCFs in the Federal District of Brasília, Brazil. We analyzed the following variables: type of LTCF, gender, age, level of education, monthly income, marital status, retirement status, affective ties, probable depression, motivation for smoking cessation and degree of nicotine dependence. In order to collect these data, the following instruments were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire; the Flanagan Quality of Life Scale; the Mini-Mental State Examination; the Geriatric Depression Scale; the Richmond test; and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. Results: The prevalence of smokers in the study sample (573 individuals) was 23.0%. Of the 132 smokers, there were 90 males (25.8%) and 42 females (18.7%). Of these, 116 smokers were included in the study, 70 of whom (60.3%) presented with probable depression. The degree of nicotine dependence was found to be significantly associated with level of education, monthly income, affective ties, motivation for smoking cessation and probable depression, although not with the type of LTCF, gender, age, retirement status or marital status. Conclusions: Among elderly patients admitted to LTCFs in the Federal District of Brasília, the prevalence of smoking is high and the motivation for smoking cessation is low.


Keywords: Smoking; Homes for the aged; Health services for the aged.


13 - Epidemiological monitoring of tuberculosis in a general teaching hospital

Monitoramento epidemiológico da tuberculose em um hospital geral universitário

Berenice das Dores Gonçalves, Luciana Tricai Cavalini, Joaquim Gonçalves Valente

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):

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Objective: To describe the epidemiological monitoring of exposure to tuberculosis in a hospital environment and to analyze the profile of the disease in a general teaching hospital. Methods: A descriptive and retrospective study of tuberculosis cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2006, with the determination of indicators of morbidity and mortality, which were compared with the general population of patients treated at the hospital and with the hospital employees who developed active tuberculosis. Results: There were 763 patients who were treated for active tuberculosis (mean, 109 patients/year), 481 (63.1%) of whom were male. Most of the patients were in the 30-59 year age bracket. Tuberculosis that was exclusively pulmonary or extrapulmonary predominated. However, among the hospitalized patients, the combination of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, as well as exclusively noninfectious tuberculosis, predominated. Comorbidities were more prevalent among the hospitalized patients and among those who evolved to death. Only 52.8% of the cases treated at the hospital were reported. The overall hospital indicators showed longer length of hospital stay and greater mortality among the patients with tuberculosis. The incidence and prevalence show that there was a high risk of exposure to tuberculosis in the hospital during the period studied. Conclusions: The proposed indicators can potentially help standardize epidemiological monitoring procedures for nosocomial tuberculosis, and the epidemiological profile described in this study can contribute to a better understanding of the situation of tuberculosis in Brazil.


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; Cross infection/prevention & control; Epidemiologic surveillance/statistics & numerical data; Risk management.


Case Series

14 - Association between paracoccidioidomycosis and cancer

Associação entre paracoccidioidomicose e câncer

Gustavo da Silva Rodrigues, Cecília Bittencourt Severo, Flávio de Mattos Oliveira, José da Silva Moreira, João Carlos Prolla, Luiz Carlos Severo

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):

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Objective: To analyze the association between paracoccidioidomycosis (Pcm) and cancer in a series of 25 cases and to review the literature on this topic. Methods: A retrospective review of 25 cases diagnosed with Pcm and cancer, retrieved from a series of 808 consecutive adult patients diagnosed with Pcm based on tests conducted in the Mycology Laboratory of the Santa Casa Complexo Hospitalar, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, between 1972 and 2007. The diagnosis of Pcm was confirmed by means of direct microscopic examination, histopathological examination or immunodiffusion test. All cancer cases were confirmed by histopathological or cytopathological examination. Results: Respiratory symptoms were the principal complaints of the patients evaluated. Pulmonary involvement predominated, followed by skin and lymph node involvement. The most prevalent tumor was bronchial carcinoma, in 15 patients, followed by other types of carcinoma, and 1 patient had Hodgkin's lymphoma. In 16 patients (64%), the site of the Pcm was the same as that of the tumor. In most cases, Pcm treatment consisted of the isolated administration of sulfanilamide, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, ketoconazole, itraconazole or amphotericin B. The most common treatment for cancer was surgery, followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Of the 25 patients, 12 were cured of Pcm, and 4 died. In 9 patients, the final outcome was unknown. In the general population of the area under study, the prevalence of lung cancer was significantly higher in smokers with Pcm than in smokers without Pcm (p < 0.001). Conclusions: A diagnosis of Pcm appears to increase the risk of lung cancer.


Keywords: Paracoccidioides; Paracoccidioidomycosis; Neoplasms.


Review Article

15 - Cytoskeleton and mechanotransduction in the pathophysiology of ventilator-induced lung injury

Citoesqueleto e mecanotransdução na fisiopatologia da lesão pulmonar induzida por ventilador

Leandro Utino Taniguchi, Elia Garcia Caldini, Irineu Tadeu Velasco, Elnara Márcia Negri

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Although mechanical ventilation is an important therapy, it can result in complications. One major complication is ventilator-induced lung injury, which is caused by alveolar hyperdistension, leading to an inflammatory process, with neutrophilic infiltration, hyaline membrane formation, fibrogenesis and impaired gas exchange. In this process, cellular mechanotransduction of the overstretching stimulus is mediated by means of the cytoskeleton and its cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions, in such a way that the mechanical stimulus of ventilation is translated into an intracellular biochemical signal, inducing endothelial activation, pulmonary vascular permeability, leukocyte chemotaxis, cytokine production and, possibly, distal organ failure. Clinical studies have shown the relationship between pulmonary distension and mortality in patients with ventilator-induced lung injury. However, although the cytoskeleton plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of ventilator-induced lung injury, there have been few in vivo studies of alterations in the cytoskeleton and in cytoskeleton-associated proteins during this pathological process.


Keywords: Respiration, artificial; Cytoskeleton; Cell adhesion molecules; Focal adhesions; Mechanotransduction, cellular


16 - Cell profile of BAL fluid in children and adolescents with and without lung disease

Celularidade do líquido de LBA em crianças e adolescentes saudáveis e com doenças pulmonares

Isabela Furtado de Mendonça Picinin, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos, Christophe Marguet

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):

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The objective of this study was to review the literature on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell profiles in healthy children and adolescents, as well as on the use of BAL as a diagnostic and follow-up tool for lung disease patients in this age bracket. To that end, we used the Medline database, compiling studies published between 1989 and 2009 employing the following MeSH descriptors (with Boolean operators) as search terms: bronchoalveolar lavage AND cytology OR cell AND child. In healthy children, the cell profile includes alveolar macrophages (> 80%), lymphocytes (approximately 10%), neutrophils (approximately 2%) and eosinophils (< 1%). The profile varies depending on the disease under study. The number of neutrophils is greater in wheezing children, especially in non-atopic children, as well as in those with pulmonary infectious and inflammatory profiles, including cystic fibrosis and interstitial lung disease. Eosinophil counts are elevated in children/adolescents with asthma and can reach high levels in those with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or eosinophilic syndromes. In a heterogenous group of diseases, the number of lymphocytes can increase. Evaluation of the BAL fluid cell profile, when used in conjunction with clinical and imaging findings, has proven to be an essential tool in the investigation of various lung diseases. Less invasive than transbronchial and open lung biopsies, BAL has great clinical value. Further studies adopting standard international protocols should be carried out. Such studies should involve various age groups and settings in order to obtain reference values for BAL fluid cell profiles, which are necessary for a more accurate interpretation of findings in children and adolescents with lung diseases.


Keywords: Bronchoalveolar lavage; Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid/cytology; Child; Adolescent.


Case Report

17 - Severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the influenza A (H1N1) virus

Síndrome respiratória aguda grave causada por influenza A (subtipo H1N1)

Sandra Aparecida Ribeiro, Graziela Sgreccia Brasileiro, Luciana Novaes Campello Soleiman, Cristiano Cruz Silva, Cláudio Shoki Kavaguti

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):

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In view of the pandemic caused by a new virus, influenza A (H1N1), we report the case of a 56-year-old patient without relevant risk factors and with severe acute respiratory syndrome resulting from infection with this virus. We present the results of laboratory tests and the imaging findings (chest X-ray and CT scans). The evolution was favorable, and the patient was discharged after 14 days.


Keywords: Influenza A virus, H1N1 subtype; Severe acute respiratory syndrome; Patient care.


18 - Bronchial glomus tumor with right upper lobe atelectasis

Tumor glômico endobrônquico com atelectasia de lobo superior direito

Artur Eugênio de Azevedo-Pereira, Moacyr Pezati Rigueiro, Fernando Conrado Abrão

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):

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Glomus tumors are uncommon benign soft tissue neoplasms. We report the case of a 32-year-old male who presented with right upper lobe atelectasis due to an endobronchial tumor. The patient underwent right upper lobectomy and wedge bronchoplasty. The pathological diagnosis was bronchial glomus tumor. To our knowledge, this presentation (with right upper lobe atelectasis) has never before been reported. Glomus tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of endobronchial lesions causing lobar atelectasis.


Keywords: Glomus tumor; Bronchial neoplasms; Thoracic surgical procedures.


Author's reply

20 - Author`s reply

Resposta ao autor

Cinthia Pedrozo, Clemax Couto Sant'Anna, Maria de Fátima B. Pombo March, Sheila Cunha Lucena

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):

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Original Article

89 - teste



J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):89

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Keywords: teste



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