Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2010 - Volume 36  - Number 5  (September/October)






Original Article

2 - Prevalence of and risk factors for wheezing in the first year of life

Prevalência e fatores de risco para sibilância no primeiro ano de vida

João Antonio Bonfadini Lima, Gilberto Bueno Fischer, Edgar Enrique Sarria, Rita Mattiello, Dirceu Solé

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):525-531

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of and the risk factors for wheezing in infants under one year of age and residing in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and is part of a multicenter, multinational project. The parents or legal guardians of the infants were interviewed at primary health care clinics or during home visits. We used a standardized questionnaire, validated for use in Brazil. Potential risk factors were assessed by means of a Poisson regression model with robust variance estimation, using the Wald test to determine the significance of each variable in the model. Results: The sample comprised 1,013 infants. The majority of those were male (53%), and the mean age was 13.5 ± 1.2 months. In 61% of the infants, there had been at least one episode of wheezing, which had recurred at least three times in one third of those infants. The mean age at the first episode of wheezing was 5.16 months (median, 5 months). Over 40% of the infants with wheezing visited emergency rooms due to wheezing, and 17% of those were hospitalized at least once in the first year of life because of this symptom. In the multivariate analysis, the risk factors for wheezing were as follows: male gender; history of pneumonia; maternal smoking during pregnancy; day care center attendance; low maternal level of education; early weaning; multiple episodes of cold; first viral infection prior to 3 months of age; existence of siblings; and history of asthma in the nuclear family. Conclusions: The prevalence of wheezing is high among infants in the city of Porto Alegre. We identified various risk factors for wheezing in infants.

 


Keywords: Respiratory sounds/epidemiology; Asthma; Infant; Risk factors.

 

3 - Performance of a word labeled visual analog scale in determining the degree of dyspnea during exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in children and adolescents with asthma

Desempenho de uma escala analógica visual legendada na determinação do grau de dispneia durante teste de broncoespasmo induzido por exercício em crianças e adolescentes asmáticos

Patrícia Bueno Lima, Ilka Lopes Santoro, Lilian Ballini Caetano, Anna Lúcia de Barros Cabral, Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):532-538

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: There is an indirect relationship between airway obstruction in asthma and the intensity of breathlessness (dyspnea). A word labeled visual analog dyspnea scale with a 0-3 score has been widely used for the assessment of the degree of bronchoconstriction, although the perception of such obstruction varies considerably. The objective of this study was to determine whether children and adolescents are able to perceive acute exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), as well as to measure the discriminatory power of a word labeled visual analog dyspnea scale in relation to the intensity of the EIB. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 134 children and adolescents with asthma and submitted to a six-minute steady-state exercise test on a cycle ergometer. The intensity of dyspnea was determined using a word labeled visual analog dyspnea scale prior to each determination of FEV1. The scale is scored from 0 to 3, with a logical sequence of pictures, ranging from "no symptoms" to "severe dyspnea". Variables were determined at baseline, as well as at 5, 10, and 20 min after the exercise test. The accuracy of the dyspnea scale in identifying the degree of EIB was determined by means of ROC curves for the post-exercise fall in FEV1, using cut-off points of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%. Results: Of the patients selected, 111 finished the study, and 52 (46.8%) presented with EIB. The area under the ROC curve increased in direct proportion to increases in the degree of bronchoconstriction. Conclusions: Among children and adolescents with asthma, the accuracy of this dyspnea scale improves as the post-exercise percentage fall in FEV1 increases. However, the predictive value of the scale is suboptimal when the percentage fall in FEV1 is lower.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Asthma, exercise-induced; Dyspnea.

 

4 - Poor perception of dyspnea following methacholine challenge test in patients with asthma

Baixo grau de percepção da dispneia após teste de broncoprovocação induzida por metacolina em pacientes com asma

Cláudia Loss Reck, Daniel Fiterman-Molinari, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Jussara Fiterman

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):539-544

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the proportion of asthma patients with a poor perception of dyspnea, correlating the level of that perception with the severity of acute bronchoconstriction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, use of maintenance medication, and asthma control. Methods: Uncontrolled clinical trial involving asthma patients treated at the Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Methacholine challenge testing was performed using a five-breath dosimeter protocol. The perception of dyspnea after each breath was determined using the Borg scale. Data concerning asthma control, medication in use, and use of rescue short-acting bronchodilators were recorded. Results: Of the 65 patients included in the study, 53 completed the evaluation. Of those, 32 (60.5%) showed adequate perception of dyspnea after the methacholine challenge test, whereas 21 (39.5%) did not perceive any changes in the degree of dyspnea even after a 20% fall in FEV1. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding baseline FEV1, percentage fall in FEV1, and the dose of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1. The perception of dyspnea was not significantly associated with age (p = 0.247); gender (p = 0.329); use of maintenance medication (p = 0.152); asthma control (p = 0.562), bronchial hyperresponsiveness (p = 0.082); or severity of acute bronchoconstriction (p = 0.749). Conclusions: A significant proportion of asthma patients have a poor perception of dyspnea. The factors related to the inability of these patients to identify changes in pulmonary function have not yet been well defined. In order to reduce asthma-related morbidity and mortality, it is essential that this group of patients be identified and counseled.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Dyspnea; Airway obstruction.

 

5 - Adhesiveness and purulence of respiratory secretions: implications for mucociliary transport in patients with bronchiectasis

Adesividade e purulência de secreções respiratórias: implicações no transporte mucociliar em pacientes com bronquiectasias

Joana Tambascio, Roberta Marques Lisboa, Rita de Cássia Vianna Passarelli, José Antonio Baddini Martinez, Ada Clarice Gastaldi

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):545-553

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze and compare the transport properties of respiratory secretions, classified by selected parameters, in individuals with bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis. Methods: We collected mucus samples from 35 individuals with bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis. The samples were first classified by their surface properties (adhesive or nonadhesive), as well as by their aspect (mucoid or purulent). We then tested the samples regarding relative transport velocity (RTV), displacement in a simulated cough machine (SCM), and contact angle (CA). For the proposed comparisons, we used ANOVA models, with a level of significance set at 5%. Results: In comparison with nonadhesive samples, adhesive samples showed significantly less displacement in the SCM, as well as a significantly higher CA (6.52 ± 1.88 cm vs. 8.93 ± 2.81 cm and 27.08 ± 6.13° vs. 22.53 ± 5.92°, respectively; p < 0.05 for both). The same was true in the comparison between purulent and mucoid samples (7.57 ± 0.22 cm vs. 9.04 ± 2.48 cm and 25.61 ± 6.12° vs. 21.71 ± 5.89°; p < 0.05 for both). There were no significant differences in RTV among the groups of samples, although the values were low regardless of the surface properties (adhesive: 0.81 ± 0.20; nonadhesive: 0.68 ± 0.24) or the aspect (purulent: 0.74 ± 0.22; mucoid: 0.82 ± 0.22). Conclusions: The respiratory secretions of patients with bronchiectasis showed decreased mucociliary transport. Increased adhesiveness and purulence cause the worsening of transport properties, as demonstrated by the lesser displacement in the SCM and the higher CA.

 


Keywords: Bronchiectasis; Mucus; Mucociliary clearance; Adhesiveness.

 

6 - Ventilation strategy and its influence on the functional performance of lung grafts in an experimental model of single lung transplantation using non-heart-beating donors

Influência da estratégia ventilatória no desempenho funcional de enxertos pulmonares em um modelo experimental de transplante pulmonar unilateral de doadores após parada cardiocirculatória

Elaine Aparecida Felix, Cristiano Feijó Andrade, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Gabriela Cury Thiesen, Ana Carolina Peçanha Antonio, Lucas Krieger Martins, Tiago Antonio Tonietto

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):554-561

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare the influence of two different ventilation strategies-volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) and pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV)-on the functional performance of lung grafts in a canine model of unilateral left lung transplantation using donor lungs harvested after three hours of normothermic cardiocirculatory arrest under mechanical ventilation. Methods: The study comprised 40 mongrel dogs, randomized into two groups: VCV and PCV. Of the 20 recipients, 5 did not survive the transplant, and 5 died before the end of the post-transplant assessment period. The remaining 10 survivors (5 in each group) were evaluated for 360 min after lung transplantation. The functional performance of the grafts was evaluated regarding respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, and lung graft histology. Results: There were no significant differences between the groups regarding respiratory mechanics (peak inspiratory pressure, plateau pressure, mean airway pressure, dynamic compliance, and static compliance) or gas exchange variables (PaO2, venous oxygen tension, PaCO2, venous carbon dioxide tension, and the arterial-venous oxygen content difference). The histopathological findings were consistent with nonspecific acute lung injury and did not differ between the groups. Conclusions: This model of lung transplantation showed that the functional performance of lung grafts was not influenced by the ventilation strategy employed during the first six hours after reperfusion.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary ventilation; Respiration, artificial; Lung transplantation; Dogs; Organ preservation.

 

7 - Predictors of physical and mental health-related quality of life in patients with interstitial lung disease: a multifactorial analysis

Fatores preditores da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde física e mental em pacientes com doença pulmonar intersticial: uma análise multifatorial

Ana Cláudia Coelho, Marli Maria Knorst, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):562-570

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 63 patients, all of whom underwent lung function testing and the six-minute walk test. The following instruments were used: the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-form Survey (SF-36), the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale. Principal component analysis was used in order to reduce the dimensionality of the data, thereby identifying the predictor variables, and multiple linear regression analysis was used in order to identify the explanatory variables. Results: Of the 63 patients, 34 were female. The mean age was 60.1 ± 13.3 years, the mean FVC was 64.17 ± 15.54% of predicted, and the mean DLCO was 44.21 ± 14.47% of predicted. All of the patients evaluated had impaired HRQoL, scoring worst for the SF-36 physical functioning and SGRQ activity domains. Of the patients evaluated, 60.3% and 57.1% showed symptoms of anxiety and depression, respectively. The principal component analysis identified one predictor of physical HRQoL and one predictor of mental HRQoL. Depression had a strong influence on the predictor of mental HRQoL, and the degree of dyspnea had a strong influence on both predictors of HRQoL in the patients evaluated. Variables related to lung function, exercise capacity, and anxiety had no impact on these predictors. Conclusions: In our sample of patients with ILD, the degree of dyspnea had a major impact on the physical and mental HRQoL, and depression had an impact on mental HRQoL.

 


Keywords: Anxiety; Depression; Dyspnea; Lung diseases, interstitial; Quality of life; Respiratory function tests.

 

8 - Dyspnea in COPD: Beyond the modified Medical Research Council scale

Dispneia em DPOC: Além da escala modified Medical Research Council

Lilia Azzi Collet da Rocha Camargo, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):571-578

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the correlations among various dyspnea scales, spirometric data, exercise tolerance data, and the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index in patients with COPD. Methods: Between March of 2008 and July of 2009, 79 patients with COPD were recruited, and 50 of those patients were included in the study. After being regularly treated with formoterol for one month, the patients completed the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC, dyspnea scale), Baseline Dyspnea Index (BDI), Oxygen Cost Diagram (OCD), and Shortness Of Breath Questionnaire (SOBQ). Subsequently, the patients underwent spirometry and six-minute walk tests (6MWTs), with determination of the six-minute walk distance (6MWD), as well as initial and final SpO2. All patients also completed the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Borg scale. Results: The best correlations were between the Borg scale and the VAS (rs = 0.79) and between the BDI and the SOBQ (rs = −0.73). Among the one-dimensional scales (the VAS, mMRC, OCD, and Borg scale), only the VAS correlated with the spirometric parameters, whereas the multidimensional scales BDI and SOBQ did correlate, but poorly. The MRC, BDI, and SOBQ correlated well with 6MWD. Among the spirometric data, inspiratory capacity (IC) and FVC had the strongest correlations with 6MWD. In the multivariate analysis, BDI and IC were selected as the best predictors of 6MWD. Conclusions: Multidimensional dyspnea scales should be applied in the evaluation of COPD patients.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Spirometry; Dyspnea; Exercise tolerance.

 

9 - Lung alterations in a rat model of diabetes mellitus: effects of antioxidant therapy

Alterações pulmonares em um modelo de diabetes mellitus em ratos: o efeito da terapia antioxidante

Luiz Alberto Forgiarini Junior, Nélson Alexandre Kretzmann, Juliana Tieppo, Jaqueline Nascimento Picada, Alexandre Simões Dias, Norma Anair Possa Marroni

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):579-587

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate structural alterations of the lung in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM), by quantifying oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as to determine the effects that exogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD) has on such alterations. Methods: A controlled experimental study involving 40 male Wistar rats, divided into four groups (10 animals each): control; SOD-only (without DM but treated with SOD); IDM-only (with streptozotocin-induced DM but untreated); and IDM+SOD (with streptozotocin-induced DM, treated with SOD). The animals were evaluated over a 60-day period, day 0 being defined as the day on which the streptozotocin-injected animals presented glycemia > 250 mg/dL. The SOD was administered for the last 7 days of that period. At the end of the study period, samples of lung tissue were collected for histopathological analysis, evaluation of tissue oxidative stress, and assessment of DNA damage. Results: There were no significant differences among the groups regarding DNA damage. In the IDM-only group, there was a significant increase in the extracellular matrix and significantly greater hyperplasia of the capillary endothelium than in the SOD-only and control groups. In addition, there were significant changes in type II pneumocytes and macrophages, suggesting an inflammatory process, in the IDM-only group. However, in the IDM+SOD group, there was a reduction in the extracellular matrix, as well as normalization of the capillary endothelium and of the type II pneumocytes. Conclusions: Exogenous SOD can reverse changes in the lungs of animals with induced DM.

 


Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, experimental; Oxidative stress; Lung; DNA damage.

 

10 - Evolution of performance status, body mass index, and six-minute walk distance in advanced lung cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

Evolução do status de performance, índice de massa corpórea e distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de seis minutos em pacientes com câncer de pulmão avançado submetidos à quimioterapia

Luciana Machado, Ivete Alonso Bredda Saad, Helen Naemi Honma, André Moreno Morcillo, Lair Zambon

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):588-594

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the effect of chemotherapy on the physical condition of patients with advanced lung cancer. Methods: We evaluated 50 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (in stages IIIB and IV) and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status scale scores between zero and two. All patients underwent chemotherapy using paclitaxel and platinum derivatives and were evaluated at three time points (prechemotherapy, postchemotherapy and six months after starting the treatment), at which the ECOG scale, the body mass index (BMI) and the six-minute walk distance (6MWD) were assessed. Results: Of the 50 patients included in the study, 14 died, 5 were excluded due to the worsening of their performance status, and 31 completed the six-month follow-up. There was no statistically significant difference between the time points of assessment for BMI (prechemotherapy vs. postchemotherapy, p = 1.00; and prechemotherapy vs. six months later, p = 0.218) or for 6MWD. Performance status improved, and this was especially due to the increase in the number of asymptomatic patients after the six-month follow-up (p = 0.031). Conclusions: Chemotherapy had a beneficial effect on the performance status of the patients. No significant changes in BMI or 6MWD were found during the study period, which might suggest the maintenance of the physical condition of the patients.

 


Keywords: Drug therapy; Lung neoplasms; Exercise tolerance.

 

11 - Reproducibility of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire used in conjunction with its lung cancerspecific module

Reprodutibilidade da versão em português do Brasil do European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire em conjunto com seu módulo específico para câncer de pulmão*

Juliana Franceschini, José Roberto Jardim, Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes, Sérgio Jamnik, Ilka Lopes Santoro

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):595-602

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The assessment of the quality of life in patients with lung cancer has become one of the main goals in current clinical trials. To assess the quality of life of these patients, the most widely used instrument is the 30-item European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) in conjunction with its supplemental 13-item lung cancer-specific module (QLQ-LC13). The objective of this study was to assess the reproducibility of the Brazilian Portuguese version of these questionnaires. Methods: A prospective study involving 30 stable outpatients with lung cancer who completed the instruments on the first day of the study and two weeks later. Results: The test-retest reproducibility using the intraclass correlation coefficient for the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the QLQ-LC13 ranged from 0.64 to 1.00 and from 0.64 to 0.95, respectively. No correlations were found between the domains of the instruments and clinical parameters. Conclusions: Our findings show that these instruments were reproducible in this sample of patients with lung cancer in Brazil.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Reproducibility of results; Quality of life.

 

12 - Factors that motivate smokers to seek outpatient smoking cessation treatment at a university general hospital

Fatores motivacionais que contribuem para a busca de tratamento ambulatorial para a cessação do tabagismo em um hospital geral universitário

Adriana Carneiro Russo, Renata Cruz Soares de Azevedo

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):603-611

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the reasons smokers give for seeking smoking cessation treatment, correlating those reasons with sociodemographic characteristics, clinical data, stage of readiness to change, and severity of nicotine dependence. Methods: Between February of 2008 and February of 2009, we evaluated 53 smokers who were naive to smoking cessation treatment and sought such treatment at the psychoactive substance abuse outpatient clinic of a university general hospital. The instruments used in the study were as follows: a form for the collection of sociodemographic and clinical data; the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment scale; and a questionnaire on the smoking habit. Results: The sample comprised 34 women and 19 men, with a mean age of 48.1 years. Most of the participants had less than 8 years of schooling, had tobacco-related diseases, started smoking during adolescence, had smoked for more than 20 years, and had high nicotine dependence. The decision to quit smoking was mainly influenced by advice from family members, and the decision to seek specialized smoking cessation treatment was influenced by physicians. Most of the men were in the contemplation stage of change, whereas the women tended to have a more balanced distribution of the stages (p = 0.007). The women had attempted to quit smoking more often than had the men (p = 0.017) and also had a higher level of nicotine dependence (p = 0.053). Conclusions: The findings of this study highlight the role of health professionals in the approach to smoking cessation and suggest the importance of interventions that are more targeted, in view of the differences between men and women.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Smoking cessation; Motivation; Tobacco use disorder.

 

13 - Comparison among three cold staining methods in the primary diagnosis of tuberculosis: a pilot study

Comparação entre três métodos de coloração a frio no diagnóstico primário de tuberculose: um estudo piloto

Soham Gupta, Vishnu Prasad Shenoy, Indira Bairy, Sethumadhavan Muralidharan

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):612-616

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: In developing countries, sputum smear microscopy is the main tool for pulmonary tuberculosis case finding. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of Gabbett's staining (GS) and modified cold staining (MCS), both of which are two-step methods, in comparison with that of fluorescent staining (FS), which is a three-step method, for the detection of AFB in sputum smears. Methods: Our sample comprised 260 sputum samples collected from individuals suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis at Kasturba Hospital, in Manipal, India. Smears were prepared in triplicate: one each for FS, MCS, and GS. The smears were randomly numbered so that the examiner was blinded to the sample identities. Results: Of the 260 samples, 16 (6.15%), 15 (5.77%), and 13 (5.00%) showed positive AFB results with FS, MCS, and GS, respectively. The sensitivity of GS and MCS, in comparison with that of FS, was 81.25% and 93.75%, respectively. The concordance of GS and MCS with FS was good (0.988 and 0.996, respectively), and no statistically significant differences were found. Conclusions: Although MCS and GS were found to be less sensitive than was FS, which is evaluated under fluorescence microscopy, the first two are promising methods for the diagnosis of tuberculosis.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Diagnostic techniques and procedures; Microscopy, fluorescence; Sputum.

 

Brief Communication

14 - The revised tumor-node-metastasis staging system for lung cancer: changes and perspectives

Revisão do sistema de estadiamento tumor-nódulo-metástase para câncer de pulmão: mudanças e perspectivas

Filipe Moreira de Andrade, Omar Moté Abou Mourad, Luiz Felippe Judice

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):617-620

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system for lung cancer has been modified since its first edition in the late 1960s. Its seventh edition has been recently published and, for the first time, a truly worldwide database was analyzed in order to propose modifications in the staging. Significant changes have been made in the tumor and metastasis descriptors. Although the recommendations for the node descriptor have remained unchanged, the analysis of the factors related to this descriptor suggests that modifications will be made in the future. The forthcoming revisions of the TNM staging system might take the molecular aspects of lung cancer into consideration, aiming at a more refined staging system.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Neoplasm staging; Epidemiologic methods.

 

15 - Tuberculosis and gender in a priority city in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Tuberculose e gênero em um município prioritário no estado do Rio de Janeiro

Márcia Teresa Carreira Teixeira Belo, Ronir Ragio Luiz, Christy Hanson, Lia Selig, Eleny Guimarães Teixeira, Thiago Chalfoun, Anete Trajman

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):621-625

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of this study was to compare gender differences among tuberculosis patients in a city with a high incidence of tuberculosis. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study involving 560 tuberculosis patients (373 males and 187 females). Sociodemographic and clinical data, as well as data related to diagnostic criteria and treatment outcome, were collected (from the questionnaires and medical records) and subsequently compared between the genders. The median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 90 days. There were no differences between the genders regarding the clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, previous noncompliance with treatment, time from symptom onset, number of medical appointments prior to diagnosis, or treatment outcome. Gender-specific approaches are not a priority in Brazil. However, regardless of patient gender, the delay in diagnosis is a major concern.

 


Keywords: Poverty; Tuberculosis; Income.

 

Review Article

16 - Antituberculosis drugs: Drug interactions, adverse effects, and use in special situations. Part 1: First-line drugs*

Drogas antituberculose: Interações medicamentosas, efeitos adversos e utilização em situações especiais. Parte 1: Fármacos de primeira linha

Marcos Abdo Arbex, Marília de Castro Lima Varella, Hélio Ribeiro de Siqueira, Fernando Augusto Fiúza de Mello

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):626-640

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The main objectives of tuberculosis therapy are to cure the patients and to minimize the possibility of transmission of the bacillus to healthy subjects. Adverse effects of antituberculosis drugs or drug interactions (among antituberculosis drugs or between antituberculosis drugs and other drugs) can make it necessary to modify or discontinue treatment. We briefly review the new guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of tuberculosis, introduced by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health in 2009, and describe the general mechanism of action, absorption, metabolization, and excretion of the first-line drugs used in the basic regimen. We describe adverse drug reactions and interactions (with other drugs, food, and antacids), as well as the most appropriate approach to special situations, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, liver failure, and kidney failure. We also describe the mechanisms by which the interactions among the antituberculosis drugs used in the basic regimen can cause drug-induced hepatitis, and we discuss the alternatives in this situation.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Drug interactions; Antibiotics, antitubercular; Pharmacologic actions; Drug toxicity; Drug-induced liver injury.

 

17 - Antituberculosis drugs: Drug interactions, adverse effects, and use in special situations. Part 2: Second line drugs

Drogas antituberculose: Interações medicamentosas, efeitos adversos e utilização em situações especiais. Parte 2: Fármacos de segunda linha

Marcos Abdo Arbex, Marília de Castro Lima Varella, Hélio Ribeiro de Siqueira, Fernando Augusto Fiúza de Mello

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):641-656

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The main objectives of tuberculosis therapy are to cure the patients and to minimize the possibility of transmission of the bacillus to healthy subjects. Adverse effects of antituberculosis drugs or drug interactions (among antituberculosis drugs or between antituberculosis drugs and other drugs) can make it necessary to modify or discontinue treatment. We describe the general mechanism of action, absorption, metabolization, and excretion of the drugs used to treat multidrug resistant tuberculosis (aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, cycloserine/terizidone, ethionamide, capreomycin, and para-aminosalicylic acid). We describe adverse drug reactions and interactions (with other drugs, food, and antacids), as well as the most appropriate approach to special situations, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, liver failure, and kidney failure.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Drug interactions; Antibiotics, antitubercular; Pharmacologic actions; Drug toxicity, Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant.

 

Case Report

18 - Lipoid pneumonia secondary to long-term use of evening primrose oil

Pneumonia lipoide secundária ao uso prolongado de óleo de prímula

Marcelo Fouad Rabahi, Andreia Alves Ferreira, João Gabriel Piccirilli Madeira, Paulo Menzel Galvao, Sebastião Alves Pinto

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):657-661

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Lipoid pneumonia is an underdiagnosed disease that is caused by the aspiration of lipid particles into the lungs. Although most of the reported cases have been associated with the use of mineral oil as a laxative, other lipid substances can also cause the disease. We report the case of a 50-year-old female patient with a complaint of productive cough who was initially diagnosed with bronchial hyperresponsiveness and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The patient was treated for GERD. Because the productive cough persisted, the patient underwent chest CT, fiberoptic bronchoscopy, and open lung biopsy. She was diagnosed with lipoid pneumonia. The patient was questioned regarding the use of lipid substances, and she reported the chronic use of evening primrose oil. After the discontinuation of the substance and the maintenance of GERD treatment, her condition improved.

 


Keywords: Pneumonia, lipid; Cough; Plant oils.

 

19 - Recurrent pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma

Granuloma hialinizante de pulmão recidivante

Guilherme D'Andréa Saba Arruda, Paulo César Ribeiro de Carvalho, Mara Patrícia Guilhermino de Andrade, Maurício Campos Cusmanich, Gustavo Bandeira, Felipe Shigueo Passos Tozaki

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):662-665

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We report the case of a 61-year-old male patient who underwent surgical excision of a lung mass for anatomopathological study. The patient had previously presented with fever, dry cough, and chest pain, together with lung masses detected by chest X-ray, and had undergone thoracotomy for diagnostic investigation on two occasions (1976 and 1981), although a conclusive diagnosis had not been made. A CT scan of the chest revealed large masses with areas of calcification in both lung fields. The anatomopathological study was consistent with pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. In the postoperative period, the patient experienced several episodes of bronchospasm, which was reversible with the use of symptomatic medication. At this writing, the patient was receiving maintenance therapy with prednisone (40 mg/day) and had shown clinical improvement.

 


Keywords: Glucocorticoids; Mass chest X-ray; Granuloma.

 

Letters to the Editor

21 - New reference values for maximal respiratory pressures in the Brazilian population: Corrections

Novos valores de referência para pressões respiratórias máximas na população brasileira: Correções

Dirceu Costa, Helena Amaral Gonçalves, Luciana Peraro de Lima, Daniela Ike,Karina Maria Cancelliero, Maria Imaculada de Lima Montebelo

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):667-

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Fone/fax: 0800 61 6218/ (55) (61) 3245 1030/ (55) (61) 3245 6218
E-mails: jbp@jbp.org.br
jpneumo@jornaldepneumologia.com.br

Copyright 2019 - Brazilian Thoracic Association

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