Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Year 2010 - Volume 36  - Number 6  (November/December)






Editorial

1 - Time to turn the page

A hora da virada

Carlos R. R. Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):669-670

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Original Article

3 - Determinants of smoking experimentation and initiation among adolescent students in the city of Salvador, Brazil

Determinantes da experimentação do cigarro e do início precoce do tabagismo entre adolescentes escolares em Salvador (BA)

Adelmo de Souza Machado Neto, Tarcisio Matos Andrade, Carlos Napoli, Lilian Carine Souza de Lima Abdon, Mônica Rocha Garcia, Francisco Inácio Bastos

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):674-682

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: To identify the factors associated with smoking experimentation and initiation among adolescent students (11-14 years of age). Methods: A cross-sectional, population-based study involving adolescent (middle and high school) students at public and private schools in the city of Salvador, Brazil. A multiple-stage sampling protocol was used. The participants completed an anonymous, voluntary, self-report questionnaire. The dependent variables were age at smoking experimentation and smoking initiation. Sociodemographic and educational variables, as well as those related to media influence and alcohol consumption, were considered independent variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, followed by analysis of the fit of the final logistic regression model. Results: The prevalence of smoking experimentation was 16.1% (95% CI: 15.1-17.2). Of the 5,347 students evaluated, 757 had experimented with cigarettes, and 462 (61.2%) of those 757 had done so before the age of 15 (mean age at smoking experimentation, 13.9 ± 1.8 years). Smoking initiation was associated with paternal smoking (OR = 1.53; 83% CI = 1.07-2.19) and with media influence (OR = 2.43; 83% CI: 1.46‑4.04). Smoking experimentation was associated with alcohol consumption (OR = 6.04; 83% CI: 4.62-7.88), having friends who smoke (OR = 3.18; 83% CI: 2.54-3.99), having a boyfriend/girlfriend who smokes (OR = 3.42; 83% CI: 1.78-6.56), and coercive/aggressive educational interventions by the parents (OR = 1.60; 83% CI: 1.26‑2.04). Conclusions: Alcohol consumption and the influence of peers and relatives who smoke showed a strong association with smoking experimentation. Paternal smoking and media influence were found to increase the chances of adolescent smoking.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Adolescence; Health education; Cross-sectional studies; Epidemiologic factors; Brazil.

 

4 - The Asthma Control Scoring System: Translation and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil

Tradução e adaptação cultural do Asthma Control Scoring System (Sistema de Escore para Controle Abrangente da Asma) para uso no Brasil

Michelle Gonçalves de Souza Tavares, Márcia Margaret Menezes Pizzichini, Leila John Marques Steidle, Nazaré Otília Nazário, Cristiane Cinara Rocha, Maíra Chiaradia Perraro, Emílio Pizzichini

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):683-692

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of a specific scoring instrument for the comprehensive control of asthma, the Asthma Control Scoring System (ACSS), for use in Brazil. Methods: The protocol included ten steps: acquisition of written permission from the author of the ACSS; translation of the instrument to Brazilian Portuguese, carried out by three separate translators; analysis and comparison of the three versions by a review committee; literal back-translation to English; review and harmonization of the back-translation; acquisition of the approval of the original author; review of the translation by specialists; cognitive debriefing: test of clarity to, understanding by, and acceptance of the target population (evaluation of the translation by 10 health care workers); second cognitive debriefing: review of the revised version by a second group of health care workers; and reconciliation and preparation of the final version by the review committee. Results: The Brazilian Portuguese-language version of the ACSS showed clarity, understandability, and acceptability. The instrument was considered to be comprehensive because it includes the clinical manifestations of asthma, as well as the functional and inflammatory aspects of the disease. Conclusions: With the use of this careful methodology in the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the ACSS, we have ensured its cultural adequacy for Brazil. The use of this instrument could facilitate future studies on asthma control.

 


Keywords: Asthma/classification; Asthma/prevention & control; Questionnaires.

 

5 - Exhaled breath temperature, a new biomarker in asthma control: A pilot study

Temperatura do ar exalado, um novo biomarcador no controle da asma: Um estudo piloto

Raul Emrich Melo, Todor A. Popov, Dirceu Solé

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):693-699

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate whether the exhaled breath temperature (EBT), measured by a noninvasive method, is an effective means of monitoring patients with uncontrolled asthma. Methods: A pilot study comprising nine patients (seven women and two men; mean age: 39 years) diagnosed with asthma at least one year prior to the beginning of the study and not having been under maintenance therapy for the last three months. In the first visit, the patients underwent spirometry and measurement of EBT. The patients were then instructed to use inhaled budesonide/formoterol (200/6 µg) every 12 h for six weeks. In addition, the patients with severe asthma (FEV1 < 60% of predicted) were instructed to use oral prednisolone (40 mg/day) for five days. After six weeks, the patients underwent the same tests. Results: All of the patients reported an improvement in the symptoms of asthma, as confirmed by a statistically significant increase in FEV1 from the first to the second visit (mean, 56.1% vs. 88.7% of predicted; p < 0.05). Five patients used oral prednisolone for the first five days of the treatment period. Six patients used additional doses of inhaled budesonide/formoterol (mean duration, 2.5 weeks). The EBT decreased significantly from the first to the second visit (mean EBT: 35.1°C vs. 34.1°C; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Uncontrolled asthma, especially during exacerbations, is followed by an increase in EBT, which decreases after appropriate asthma control, as demonstrated by an increase in FEV1 and an improvement of the reported symptoms. These preliminary results suggest that EBT can be used as a parameter for the assessment of asthma control.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Biomarkers, pharmacological; Hydroxycorticosteroids.

 

6 - Predictors of hospital admission due to asthma in children and adolescents enrolled in an asthma control program

Fatores preditores de hospitalização por asma em crianças e adolescentes participantes de um programa de controle da asma

Heli Vieira Brandão, Constança Sampaio Cruz, Armênio Guimarães, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos, Álvaro Augusto Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):700-706

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the clinical characteristics and the predictors of hospital admission due to asthma among children and adolescents with asthma under treatment at a referral center. Methods: A retrospective cohort study comprising 151 children and adolescents with asthma, referred from the Unified Health Care System and enrolled in the Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Control Program in the city of Feira de Santana, Brazil, followed for a period of 12 months and receiving asthma medication at no cost. The chi-square test was used in order to determine the associations between the studied variables and the occurrence of hospital admissions, whereas the Mann-Whitney test was used for the comparison between the groups of hospitalized patients and nonhospitalized patients. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Univariate analysis with logistic regression was performed in order to determine the predictors of hospital admission. Results: Of the 151 patients evaluated, 8 (5.2%) were hospitalized, in a total of 12 hospital admissions. In the univariate analysis, the only variable found to be a predictive factor was greater asthma severity (OR = 13.3; 95% CI: 2.55-70.1). Conclusions: The fact that, in our study sample, the principal predictor of hospital admission was greater asthma severity, calls for special attention being given to the care of these patients.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Hospitalization; Health services.

 

7 - Risk factors for pulmonary complications in patients with sarcoma after the resection of pulmonary nodules by thoracotomy

Fatores de risco de complicações pulmonares em pacientes com sarcoma após toracotomia para a ressecção de nódulos pulmonares

Rogério Santos Silva, Paulo Sérgio Siebra Beraldo, Flávia Ferretti Santiago, Daniel Sammartino Brandão, Eduardo Magalhães Mamare, Thomas Anthony Horan

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):707-715

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify the risk factors for pulmonary complications after thoracotomy for the resection of pulmonary nodules in patients with sarcoma. Methods: A retrospective cohort study involving 68 consecutive patients diagnosed with sarcoma and submitted to a total of 174 thoracotomies for the resection of pulmonary nodules. The dependent variable was defined as the occurrence of any postoperative pulmonary complications. The independent variables were related to the patient, underlying diagnosis, and type of surgical procedure. We analyzed the data using a multivariate generalized estimating equations model with logistic link function and a symmetric correlation structure. Results: Complications were observed in 24 patients (13.8%, 95% CI: 9.0-19.8), and there was one death. The mean length of hospital stay was twice as long in the patients with postoperative complications as in those without (18.8 ± 10.0 days vs. 8.6 ± 6.0 days; p < 0.05). The variables that correlated with the outcome measure were the type of resection (wedge vs. anatomic; OR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.5-8.8), the need for blood transfusion (OR = 9.8; 95% CI: 1.6-60.1), and the number of nodules resected (OR = 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0-1.1). The multivariate model showed an area under the ROC curve of 0.75 (95% CI: 0.65-0.85). Conclusions: Postoperative pulmonary complications were common after pulmonary nodule resection in patients with sarcoma, occurring in approximately 10% of the procedures. The occurrence of such complications can be expected when techniques other than wedge resection are employed, when blood transfusion is required, and when a great number of nodules are resected. Therefore, it is possible to identify patients at risk for pulmonary complications, who should be closely monitored in the immediate postoperative period. In such patients, all preventive measures should be taken.

 


Keywords: Sarcoma; Neoplasm metastasis; Risk; Thoracotomy; Thoracic surgery.

 

8 - Surgical treatment of children with necrotizing pneumonia

Tratamento cirúrgico de crianças com pneumonia necrosante

Fernando Luiz Westphal, Luís Carlos de Lima, José Corrêa Lima Netto, Eugênio Tavares, Edson de Oliveira Andrade, Márcia dos Santos da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):716-723

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the results of the surgical treatment of children with necrotizing pneumonia. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the medical charts of 20 children diagnosed with necrotizing pneumonia and submitted to surgical treatment between March of 1997 and September of 2008 in the thoracic surgery departments of two hospitals in the city of Manaus, Brazil. We compiled data regarding age, gender, etiologic agent, indications for surgery, type of surgical resection performed, and postoperative complications. Results: The mean age of the patients was 30 months. Of the 20 patients studied, 12 (60%) were female. The most common etiologic agents were Staphylococcus aureus, in 5 patients (25%), and Klebsiella sp., in 2 (10%). The indications for surgery were sepsis, in 16 patients (80%), and bronchopleural fistula, in 4 (20%). The types of surgical procedures performed were lobectomy, in 12 patients (60%), segmentectomy, in 7 (35%), and bilobectomy, in 1 (5%). There were 8 patients (40%) who also underwent decortication. The postoperative complications were as follows: bronchopleural fistula, in 4 patients (20%); empyema, in 1 (5%); pneumatocele, in 1 (5%); and phlebitis of the left arm, in 1 (5%). Four (20%) of the patients died. Conclusions: Surgical resection should be considered in patients with evidence of pulmonary necrosis. Resection is indicated in cases of severe sepsis, high output bronchopleural fistula, or acute respiratory failure that are refractory to clinical treatment.

 


Keywords: Pneumonia; Necrosis; Lung abscess; Empyema, pleural.

 

9 - Thrombosis in small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries in Wegener's granulomatosis: A confocal laser scanning microscopy study

Trombose em artérias pulmonares pequenas e médias em granulomatose de Wegener: Um estudo com microscopia confocal a laser

Alfredo Nicodemos Cruz Santana, Alexandre Muxfeldt Ab`Saber, Walcy Rosolio Teodoro, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Carmen Silvia Valente Barbas

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):724-730

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Objective: Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) can cause endothelial cell damage and thromboembolic events. Nevertheless, there have been few studies on the pulmonary microcirculation-small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries (SMSPA)-in patients with WG. The objective of this study was to quantify fibrin thrombi in the SMSPA of patients with WG. Methods: We analyzed 24 SMSPA samples collected from six patients with WG and 16 SMSPA samples collected from four patients without WG. In all samples, we used the endothelial cell marker CD34 and confocal laser scanning microscopy in order to detect intravascular fibrin thrombi. We calculated the total vessel area, the free lumen area, and the thrombotic area. Results: The mean total vessel area was similar in the WG and control groups (32,604 µm2 vs. 32,970 µm2, p = 0.8793). Thrombi were present in 22 (91.67%) of the 24 WG group samples and in none of the control group samples (p < 0.0001; OR = 297; 95% CI: 13.34-6,612). The mean thrombotic area was greater in the WG group samples than in the control group samples (10,068 µm2 vs. 0.000 µm2; p < 0.0001). In contrast, the mean free lumen area was smaller in the WG group samples than in the control group samples (6,116 µm2 vs. 24,707 µm2; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a significant association between pulmonary microvascular thrombosis and WG. This suggests a possible role of microvascular thrombosis in the pathophysiology of pulmonary WG, evoking the potential benefits of anticoagulation therapy in pulmonary WG. However, further studies are needed in order to confirm our findings, and randomized clinical trials should be conducted in order to test the role of anticoagulation therapy in the treatment of patients with pulmonary WG.

 


Keywords: Vasculitis; Antibodies, antineutrophil cytoplasmic; Wegener granulomatosis; Thrombosis; Lung; Microscopy, confocal.

 

10 - Clinical, nutritional and spirometric evaluation of patients with cystic fibrosis after the implementation of multidisciplinary treatment

Avaliação clínica, nutricional e espirométrica de pacientes com fibrose cística após implantação de atendimento multidisciplinar

Lídia Torres, Jenny Libeth Jurado Hernandez, Giseli Barbiero de Almeida, Liana Barbaresco Gomide, Valéria Ambrósio, Maria Inez Machado Fernandes

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):731-737

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic multisystemic hereditary disease for which a multidisciplinary approach must be taken. The objective of this study was to show the evolution of a group of patients with CF after the implementation of multidisciplinary treatment. Methods: A retrospective study involving 19 patients (6-29 years of age) under clinical follow-up treatment at the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas, located in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. The patients were divided into two groups: 6-12(6-12 years of age) and 13+ (> 12 years of age). We collected data regarding body mass index (BMI), Zscore, Shwachman score (SS), number of exacerbations/year, chronic colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and spirometric measurements (FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, and FEF25-75%). Data were collected at two different time points (before and after the implementation of the multidisciplinary treatment) and were analyzed with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: The median age at the onset of symptoms was 10 months. In the 6-12 group, only BMI and FVC increased significantly. Although the other spirometric values increased, the differences were not significant. In the 13+ group, there were no significant differences between the two time points. There was a borderline significant decrease in SS and less than significant decreases in the spirometric measurements. However, the number of patients with alterations in volumes and flows decreased in both groups. Conclusions: Although our patient sample was small, the lack of changes in the spirometric parameters might reflect clinical and functional stability. In all of the patients evaluated, clinical, functional, and nutritional parameters remained stable throughout the study period. The implementation of a multidisciplinary approach might have contributed to this result.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Spirometry; Body mass index; Physical therapy modalities.

 

11 - Diaphragmatic mobility in healthy subjects during incentive spirometry with a flow-oriented device and with a volume-oriented device

Mobilidade diafragmática durante espirometria de incentivo orientada a fluxo e a volume em indivíduos sadios

Wellington Pereira dos Santos Yamaguti, Eliana Takahama Sakamoto, Danilo Panazzolo, Corina da Cunha Peixoto, Giovanni Guido Cerri, André Luis Pereira Albuquerque

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):738-745

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare the diaphragmatic mobility of healthy subjects during incentive spirometry with a volume-oriented device, during incentive spirometry with a flow-oriented device, and during diaphragmatic breathing. To compare men and women in terms of diaphragmatic mobility during these three types of breathing exercises. Methods: We evaluated the pulmonary function and diaphragmatic mobility of 17 adult healthy volunteers (9women and 8 men). Diaphragmatic mobility was measured via ultrasound during diaphragmatic breathing and during the use of the two types of incentive spirometers. Results: Diaphragmatic mobility was significantly greater during the use of the volume-oriented incentive spirometer than during the use of the flow-oriented incentive spirometer (70.16 ± 12.83 mm vs. 63.66 ± 10.82 mm; p = 0.02). Diaphragmatic breathing led to a greater diaphragmatic mobility than did the use of the flow-oriented incentive spirometer (69.62 ± 11.83 mm vs. 63.66 ± 10.82 mm; p = 0.02). During all three types of breathing exercises, the women showed a higher mobility/FVC ratio than did the men. Conclusions: Incentive spirometry with a volume-oriented device and diaphragmatic breathing promoted greater diaphragmatic mobility than did incentive spirometry with a flow-oriented device. Women performed better on the three types of breathing exercises than did men.

 


Keywords: Diaphragm; Breathing exercises; Respiratory function tests; Ultrasonography; Respiratory muscles.

 

12 - Accelerated lung aging in patients with morbid obesity

Envelhecimento pulmonar acelerado em pacientes com obesidade mórbida

Saulo Maia D'Ávila Melo, Valdinaldo Aragão de Melo, Enaldo Vieira de Melo, Raimundo Sotero de Menezes Filho, Vinicius Leite de Castro, Matheus Santana Paes Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):746-752

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the lung age of patients with morbid obesity and to compare it with the chronological age of these patients, emphasizing the premature damage that morbid obesity does to the lungs. Methods: An open, prospective cross-sectional study comprising 112 individuals: 78 patients with morbid obesity (study group); and 34 non-obese individuals with normal pulmonary function results (control group). All of the patients underwent spirometry for the determination of lung age. The lung age and the chronological age of the individuals in each group were compared in isolation and between the two groups. Results: The difference between lung age and chronological age in the group with morbid obesity was significant (p < 0.0001; 95% CI: 6.6-11.9 years), the mean difference being 9.1 ± 11.8 years. The difference between the study group and the control group in terms of lung age was significant (p < 0.0002; 95% CI: 7.5-16.9 years), the mean difference being 12.2 ± 2.4 years. Lung age correlated positively with chronological age and body mass index (BMI), whereas it correlated negatively with the spirometric variables (p < 0.0001 for all). Multiple linear regression analysis identified BMI and chronological age (p < 0.0001) as significant predictors of lung age. Conclusions: Lung age is increased in patients with morbid obesity, suggesting premature damage and accelerated lung aging, as evidenced by the discrepancy between chronological age and lung age. The determination of lung age might become a new tool for understanding pulmonary function results, for patients as well as for health professionals, in relation to obesity control.

 


Keywords: Spirometry; Obesity, morbid; Respiratory function tests.

 

13 - Thoracic catheter-related infections

Infecções relacionadas a cateteres torácicos

Ekrem Senturk, Murat Telli, Serdar Sen, Salih Cokpinar

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):753-758

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the incidence of local and systemic infection in a sample of patients catheterized with thoracic catheters (TCs) and to identify the prognostic factors for catheter-related infection. Methods: A retrospective study involving 48 patients (17 females and 31 males) catheterized with TCs between December of 2008 and March of 2009 in the Thoracic Surgery Department of the Adnan Menderes University Hospital, located in Aydin, Turkey. Blood samples for culture were collected from the distal end of each TC and from each of the 48 patients. We looked for correlations between positive culture and possible prognostic factors for catheter-related infection. Results: Culture results were positive in TC samples only for 3 patients, in blood samples only for 2, and in both types of samples for another 2. Advanced age correlated significantly with positive culture in TC samples and in blood samples (r = 0.512 and r = 0.312, respectively; p < 0.05 for both), as did prolonged catheterization (r = 0.347 and r = 0.372, respectively; p < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between having undergone surgery and positive culture in TC samples only (p < 0.05). However, having an inoperable malignancy correlated with bacterial growth in blood and in TC samples alike (p < 0.05 for both). Conclusions: Risk factors, such as advanced age, prolonged catheterization, comorbidities, and inoperable malignancy, increase the risk of catheter-related infection. It is imperative that prophylaxis with broad-spectrum antibiotics be administered to patients who present with these risk factors and might be catheterized with a TC.

 


Keywords: Catheter-related infections; Thoracic surgery; Bacterial infections.

 

14 - Pleurodese nos derrames pleurais malignos: Um inquérito entre médicos em países da América do Sul e Central

Pleurodese nos derrames pleurais malignos: Um inquérito entre médicos em países da América do Sul e Central

Evaldo Marchi, Francisco Suso Vargas, Bruna Affonso Madaloso, Marcus Vinicius Carvalho, Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Lisete Ribeiro Teixeira

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):759-767

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Pleurodesis is an effective alternative for the control of malignant pleural effusions. However, there is as yet no consensus regarding the indications for the procedure and the techniques employed therein. The objective of this study was to evaluate how pleurodesis is performed in South and Central America. Methods: Professionals who perform pleurodesis completed a questionnaire regarding the indications for the procedure, the techniques used therein, and the outcomes obtained. Results: Our sample comprised 147 respondents in Brazil, 49 in other South American countries, and 36 in Central America. More than 50% of the respondents reported performing pleurodesis only if pleural malignancy had been confirmed. However, scores on dyspnea and performance status scales were rarely used as indications for the procedure. Nearly 75% of the respondents in Brazil and in Central America preferred to perform pleurodesis only for recurrent effusions and stated that lung expansion should be 90-100%. Talc slurry, instilled via medium-sized chest tubes, was the agent most often employed. Thoracoscopy was performed in less than 25% of cases. Fever and chest pain were the most common side effects, and empyema occurred in ≤ 14% of cases. The mean survival time after the procedure was most often reported to be 6-12 months. Conclusions: There was considerable variation among the countries evaluated in terms of the indications for pleurodesis, techniques used, and outcomes. Talc slurry is the agent most commonly used, and thoracoscopy is the technique of choice in Brazil. Pleurodesis is an effective procedure that has few side effects, as evidenced by the low complication rates and high survival times.

 


Keywords: Pleural effusion, malignant; Pleura; Pleurodesis.

 

15 - University of São Paulo Reasons for Smoking Scale: a new tool for the evaluation of smoking motivation

Escala Razões para Fumar da Universidade de São Paulo: um novo instrumento para avaliar a motivação para fumar

Elisa Sebba Tosta de Souza, José Alexandre de Souza Crippa, Sonia Regina Pasian, José Antônio Baddini Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):768-778

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: To develop a new scale aimed at evaluating smoking motivation by incorporating questions and domains from the 68-item Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68) into the Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale (MRSS). Methods: Nine WISDM-68 questions regarding affiliative attachment, cue exposure/associative processes, and weight control were added to the 21 questions of the MRSS. The new scale, together with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), was administered to 311 smokers (214 males; mean age = 37.6 ± 10.8 years; mean number of cigarettes smoked per day = 15.0 ± 9.2), who also provided additional information. We used exploratory factor analysis in order to determine the factor structure of the scale. The influence that certain clinical features had on the scores of the final factor solution was also analyzed. Results: The factor analysis revealed a 21-question solution grouped into nine factors: addiction, pleasure from smoking, tension reduction, stimulation, automatism, handling, social smoking, weight control, and affiliative attachment. For the overall scale, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.83. Females scored significantly higher for addiction, tension reduction, handling, weight control, and affiliative attachment than did males. The FTND score correlated positively with addiction, tension reduction, stimulation, automatism, social smoking, and affiliative attachment. The number of cigarettes smoked per day was associated with addiction, tension reduction, stimulation, automatism, affiliative attachment, and handling. The level of exhaled CO correlated positively with addiction, automatism, and affiliative attachment. Conclusions: The new scale provides an acceptable framework of motivational factors for smoking, with satisfactory psychometric properties and reliability.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Validation studies; Tobacco use cessation.

 

Brief Communication

16 - Surgical treatment of pulmonary aspergilloma

Tratamento cirúrgico de aspergiloma pulmonar

Raul Lopes Ruiz Júnior, Frederico Henrique Sobral de Oliveira, Bruno Luiz Burgos Piotto, Felipe Antunes e Silva de Souza Lopes Muniz, Daniele Cristina Cataneo, Antonio José Maria CataneoResumo

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):779-783

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of this study was to analyze the outcome of surgical treatment of pulmonary aspergilloma. To that end, we evaluated 14 adult patients so treated between 1981 and 2009 at the Botucatu School of Medicine University Hospital, in the city of Botucatu, Brazil. Data were collected from the medical records of the patients. Ten patients (71%) presented with simple pulmonary aspergilloma, and 4 (29%) presented with complex pulmonary aspergilloma. Hemoptysis was the most common symptom, and tuberculosis was the most prevalent preexisting lung disease. Two patients (14%) underwent surgery on more than one occasion. There were no intraoperative deaths. Half of the patients developed postoperative complications, prolonged air leak and empyema being the most common.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary aspergillosis; Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Thoracic surgery.

 

Review Article

17 - Occupational lung cancer

Câncer de pulmão ocupacional

Eduardo Algranti, José Tarcísio Penteado Buschinelli, Eduardo Mello De Capitani

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):784-794

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Lung cancer is a multifactorial disease. Hereditary, genetic, and environmental factors interact in its genesis. The principal risk factor for lung cancer is smoking. However, the workplace provides an environment in which there is a risk of exposure to carcinogens. The International Agency for Research on Cancer currently lists 19 substances/work situations/occupations that have been proven to be associated with lung cancer (group 1). Thorough occupational history taking is not widely practiced in patients with lung cancer, which has a negative impact on the investigation of causality and, consequently, on the identification of cases of occupational cancer. The objectives of this review were to list the agents that are recognized as causes of lung cancer, to discuss the contribution of occupation to the development of the disease, to cite national studies on the subject, and to propose a list of procedures that are essential to the appropriate investigation of causality between lung cancer and occupation.

 


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Occupational diseases; Occupations; Carcinogens.

 

18 - Diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension: an update*

Diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão pulmonar: uma atualização

Susana Hoette, Carlos Jardim, Rogério de Souza

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):795-811

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Over the last five years, knowledge in the field of pulmonary hypertension has grown consistently and significantly. On the basis of various clinical studies showing the usefulness of new diagnostic tools, as well as the efficacy of new medications and drug combinations, new diagnostic and treatment algorithms have been developed. Likewise, in order to simplify the clinical management of patients, the classification of pulmonary hypertension has been changed in an attempt to group the various forms of pulmonary hypertension in which the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are similar. The objective of this review was to discuss these modifications, based on the 2005 Brazilian guidelines for the management of pulmonary hypertension, emphasizing what has been added to the international guidelines.

 


Keywords: Hypertension, pulmonary/diagnosis; Hypertension, pulmonary/therapy; Clinical protocols.

 

Case Series

19 - Descending necrotizing mediastinitis: minimally invasive thoracic surgical treatment

Mediastinite descendente necrosante: tratamento cirúrgico torácico minimamente invasivo

Cromwell Barbosa de Carvalho Melo, Petrúcio Abrantes Sarmento, Carlos Jogi Imaeda, Danilo Félix Daud, Fábio Nishida Hasimoto, Luiz Eduardo Villaça Leão

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):812-819

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To report a case series of patients with descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) who were treated with minimally invasive thoracic surgery. Methods: We report three cases of male patients with DNM who underwent mediastinal debridement by video-assisted thoracic surgery at the Hospital São Paulo, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, from admission to the final outcome. Results: The postoperative evolution was favorable in all three cases. The mean length of hospital stay was 16.7 days. Conclusions: We conclude that video-assisted thoracoscopy is an effective technique for mediastinal drainage in the treatment of DNM, with the benefits common to minimally invasive surgery: less postoperative pain, lower production of inflammatory factors, earlier return to activities of daily living, and better aesthetic results.

 


Keywords: Mediastinitis; Thorax; Thoracic surgery, video-assisted.

 

Case Report

20 - Castleman's disease associated with follicular dendritic cell sarcoma and myasthenia gravis

Doença de Castleman associada a sarcoma de células dendríticas foliculares e miastenia gravis

Fernando Luiz Westphal, Luís Carlos de Lima, Luiz Carlos Lopes Santana, José Corrêa Lima Netto, Vanise Campos Gomes Amaral, Márcia dos Santos da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):819-823

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Castleman's disease is an atypical lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, which might be associated with various clinical conditions, including autoimmune diseases and malignant neoplasms. We report the case of a 72-year-old female patient who was referred to the thoracic surgery department of Getúlio Vargas University Hospital, in the city of Manaus, Brazil, for the resection of a posterior mediastinal tumor. Three months prior, the patient had been admitted to the ICU with signs of severe dyspnea, at which time she was diagnosed with myasthenia gravis. After the resection of the mediastinal tumor, the histopathological examination revealed hyaline vascular-type Castleman's disease, complicated by follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. At this writing, the patient was being treated with an anticholinesterase agent and corticosteroids for the control of myasthenia gravis.

 


Keywords: Giant lymph node hyperplasia; Dendritic cell sarcoma, follicular; Myasthenia gravis; Mediastinal diseases.

 

Letter to the Reader

21 - A rare case of pyopneumothorax

Um caso raro de piopneumotórax

Vanda Areias, Jose Romero, Isabel Ruivo, Ulisses Brito

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):824-825

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Index of Issues

22 - 

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):

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Index of Authors

23 - 

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):

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Relationship of Reviewers

24 - 

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):

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