Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2009 - Volume 35  - Number 10  (/October)


1 - More than good lungs!

Mais do que bons pulmões!

Ilma Aparecida Paschoal

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(10):947-948

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Original Article

2 - Profile of the level of physical activity in the daily lives of patients with COPD in Brazil

Perfil do nível de atividade física na vida diária de pacientes portadores de DPOC no Brasil

Nidia Aparecida Hernandes, Denilson de Castro Teixeira, Vanessa Suziane Probst, Antonio Fernando Brunetto, Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos, Fábio Pitta

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(10):949-956

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Objective: To evaluate characteristics of physical activities in daily life in COPD patients in Brazil, correlating those characteristics with physiological variables. Methods: Physical activities in daily life were evaluated in 40 COPD patients (18 males; 66 ± 8 years of age; FEV1 = 46 ± 16 % of predicted; body mass index = 27 ± 6 kg/m2) and 30 healthy age- and gender-matched subjects, using a multiaxial accelerometer-based sensor for 12 h/day on two consecutive days. We also assessed maximal and functional exercise capacity, using the incremental exercise test and the six-minute walk test (6MWT), respectively; MIP and MEP; peripheral muscle force, using the one-repetition maximum test and the handgrip test; quality of life, using the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ); functional status, using the London Chest Activity of Daily Living questionnaire; and dyspnea sensation, using the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. Results: Mean walking time/day was shorter for COPD patients than for the controls (55 ± 33 vs. 80 ± 28 min/day; p = 0.001), as movement intensity was lower (1.9 ± 0.4 vs. 2.3 ± 0.6 m/s2; p = 0.004). The COPD patients also tended to spend more time seated (294 ± 114 vs. 246 ± 122 min/day, p = 0.08). Walking time/day correlated with the 6MWT (r = 0.42; p = 0.007) and maximal workload (r = 0.41; p = 0.009), as well as with age, MRC scale score and SGRQ activity domain score (−0.31 ≤ r ≤ −0.43; p ≤ 0.05 for all). Conclusions: This sample of Brazilian patients with COPD, although more active than those evaluated in studies conducted in Europe, were less active than were the controls. Walking time/day correlated only moderately with maximal and functional exercise capacity.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Motor activity; Exercise tolerance.


3 - Predictors of oxygen desaturation during the six-minute walk test in patients with cystic fibrosis

Preditores da dessaturação do oxigênio no teste da caminhada de seis minutos em pacientes com fibrose cística

Bruna Ziegler, Paula Maria Eidt Rovedder, Claudine Lacerda Oliveira, Sandra Jungblut Schuh, Fernando Abreu e Silva, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(10):957-965

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Objective: To identify the predictive factors of oxygen desaturation during the six-minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study involving clinically stable patients with CF aged ≥ 10 years. The patients were submitted to nutritional evaluations, oral glucose tolerance tests, pulmonary function tests, chest X-rays and 6MWTs. Results: The study included 88 patients (43 females and 45 males; mean age, 19.9 ± 7.2 years; mean FEV1, 65.4 ± 28.4%). We observed oxygen desaturation in 13 patients (OD+ group) and no oxygen desaturation in 75 (OD− group). In comparison with OD− group patients, OD+ group patients presented higher mean age (p = 0.004), worse clinical score (p < 0.001), worse radiological score (p < 0.001), higher incidence of glucose intolerance (p = 0.004), lower incidence of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infection (p < 0.001), higher incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection (p = 0.016), higher incidence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection (p = 0.008), lower mean resting SpO2 (p < 0.001) and lower mean FEV1 (p < 0.001). In the logistic regression analysis, oxygen desaturation during the 6MWT correlated with resting SpO2 (OR = 0.305, p < 0.001) and FEV1 (OR = 0.882, p = 0.025). The parameters maximizing the predictive value for oxygen desaturation were resting SpO2 < 96% and FEV1 < 40%. In this sample, 15% of the patients with CF aged ≥ 10 years presented oxygen desaturation during the 6MWT. Conclusions: Resting SpO2 < 96% and FEV1 < 40% can predict oxygen desaturation during the 6MWT.


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Respiratory function tests; Exercise tolerance.


4 - Association between nutritional status and dietary intake in patients with cystic fibrosis

Associação entre o estado nutricional e a ingestão dietética em pacientes com fibrose cística

Míriam Isabel Souza dos Santos Simon, Michele Drehmer, Sérgio Saldanha Menna-Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(10):966-972

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Objective: To determine the relationship between nutritional status and dietary intake in patients with cystic fibrosis. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 85 cystic fibrosis patients between 6 and 18 years of age. Dietary intake was evaluated by the 3-day diet record (weighing the food consumed). The outcome measures were the following nutritional status indicators: weight/height (W/H%) percentage, body mass index (BMI) percentiles, Z score for weight/age (W/A), Z score for height/age (H/A) and percentage of dietary intake compared with the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). Results: The prevalence of well-nourished patients was 77.7%, using BMI above the 25th percentile as the cut-off value, and the W/H% was above 90% in 83.5%. The mean dietary intake, evaluated in 82 patients, was 124.5% of the RDA. In the univariate logistic regression analyses, we found a significant association between the independent variable calorie intake and the Z score for W/A. The multivariate analysis, based on the Z score for H/A and adjusted for FEV1, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and number of hospitalizations, demonstrated that a 1% increase in the calorie intake decreases the chance of having short stature by 2% (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-1.00). Maternal level of education showed a borderline association (p = 0.054). Conclusions: The prevalence of malnutrition was low in this sample of patients. The study model demonstrated an association between dietary intake and nutritional status. Dietary intake was a predictive factor of statural growth in patients with cystic fibrosis.


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Nutritional status; Diet records; Child; Adolescent.


5 - Air stacking and chest compression increase peak cough flow in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Empilhamento de ar e compressão torácica aumentam o pico de fluxo da tosse em pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne

Magneide Fernandes Brito, Gustavo Antonio Moreira, Márcia Pradella-Hallinan, Sergio Tufik

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(10):973-979

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Objective: To evaluate cough efficiency using two manually-assisted cough techniques. Methods: We selected 28 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The patients were receiving noninvasive nocturnal ventilatory support and presented FVC values < 60% of predicted. Peak cough flow (PCF) was measured, with the patient seated, at four time points: at baseline, during a spontaneous maximal expiratory effort (MEE); during an MEE while receiving chest compression; during an MEE after air stacking with a manual resuscitation bag; and during an MEE with air stacking and compression (combined technique). The last three measurements were conducted in random order. The results were compared using Pearson's correlation test and ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by Tukey's post-hoc test (p < 0.05). Results: The mean age of the patients was 20 ± 4 years, and the mean FVC was 29 ± 12%. Mean PCF at baseline, with chest compression, after air stacking and with the use of the combined technique was 171 ± 67, 231 ± 81, 225 ± 80, and 292 ± 86 L/min, respectively. The results obtained with the use of the combined technique were significantly better than were those obtained with the use of either technique alone (F[3.69] = 67.07; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Both chest compression and air stacking techniques were efficient in increasing PCF. However, the combination of these two techniques had a significant additional effect (p < 0.0001).


Keywords: Muscular dystrophy, Duchenne; Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation; Cough; Insufflation;Peak expiratory flow rate.


6 - Characteristics of smokers enrolled in a public smoking cessation program

Perfil de fumantes atendidos em serviço público para tratamento do tabagismo

Laura Miranda de Oliveira Caram, Renata Ferrari, Suzana Erico Tanni, Liana Sousa Coelho, Ilda de Godoy, Rosana dos Santos e Silva Martin, Irma de Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(10):980-985

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Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of smokers seeking treatment in a public smoking cessation program. Methods: This was a retrospective evaluation of data collected during the interview for enrollment in the smoking cessation program of the Smoking Outpatient Clinic of the Paulista State University School of Medicine in the city of Botucatu, Brazil, between April of 2003 and April of 2007. Demographic variables; previous use of the behavioral approach, medications or alternative treatments for smoking cessation; degree of nicotine dependence; and history of comorbidities were evaluated in 387 smokers. Results: In our sample, 63% of the smokers were female. The mean age of the subjects was 50 ± 25 years. More than half of the subjects (61%) had up to eight years of schooling, and 66% had a monthly income of less than twice the national minimum wage. The degree of nicotine dependence was high/very high in 59%, medium in 17% and low/very low in 24% of the subjects. Although 95% of the patients presented comorbidities, only 35% had been referred to the program by a physician. More than half of the subjects (68%) had made at least one smoking-cessation attempt, 83% of whom did so without the help of a structured program. Conclusions: Smokers seeking assistance for smoking cessation were socially disadvantaged, presented a high degree of nicotine dependence and had previously made smoking-cessation attempts without the benefit of a structured program. Therefore, in order to be effective, smoking control interventions should take into consideration the general characteristics of the smokers treated via the public health care system.


Keywords: Smoking; Tobacco use disorder; Smoking cessation.


7 - Prevalence of smoking and its association with the use of other drugs among students in the Federal District of Brasília, Brazil

Prevalência do tabagismo e associação com o uso de outras drogas entre escolares do Distrito Federal

Márcia Cardoso Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas, Emannuel Lucas Gomes, João Paulo Majella de Godoy Morais, Juliano Coelho de Oliveira Zakir

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(10):986-991

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Objective: To estimate the prevalence of smoking, as well as to determine the association between smoking and the use of other drugs, among middle and high school students in the Federal District of Brasília, Brazil. Methods: Epidemiological study involving a reference population of students in the District. Our sample comprised 2,661 students from 9 to 19 years of age, in all middle and high school grades. All participating students completed a standard questionnaire. Results were analyzed by gender and type of school (public or private). Results: The prevalence of smoking among students in the District was 10.5%. Smoking was found to be associated with the use of alcohol and other drugs. Conclusions: Smoking is a gateway to the use of other drugs.


Keywords: Smoking; Tobacco; Adolescent; Students; Alcohol drinking; Dependency (Psychology).


8 - Food baskets given to tuberculosis patients at a primary health care clinic in the city of Duque de Caxias, Brazil: effect on treatment outcomes

Efeito do incentivo alimentício sobre o desfecho do tratamento de pacientes com tuberculose em uma unidade primária de saúde no município de Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro

João Paulo Cantalice Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(10):992-997

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Objective: To evaluate the effect that the distribution of food baskets to tuberculosis (TB) patients has on treatment outcomes at a primary health care clinic. Methods: Retrospective comparative study of the medical and social aspects of 142 patients at a primary health care clinic in the city of Duque de Caxias, Brazil. The patients were divided into two groups: the first group included 68 patients treated with standard regimens (between September of 2001 and December of 2003); and the second group included 74 patients treated with the same regimens but also receiving food baskets on a monthly basis (between January of 2004 and July of 2006). Results: The statistical comparison between the two groups revealed that the cure rate was higher in the group receiving the food baskets (87.1% vs. 69.7%), whereas the rate of noncompliance was markedly lower (12.9% vs. 30.3%). Conclusions: The results indicate that the distribution of food baskets can be a useful strategy to improve compliance with TB treatment at primary health care clinics.


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Nutritional support; Treatment outcome; Ambulatory health services.


9 - Characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis in a hyperendemic area-the city of Santos, Brazil

Características da tuberculose pulmonar em área hiperendêmica - município de Santos (SP)

Andrea Gobetti Vieira Coelho, Liliana Aparecida Zamarioli, Carmen Argüello Perandones, Ivonete Cuntiere, Eliseu Alves Waldman

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(10):998-1007

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Objective: To characterize the profile of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the city of Santos, Brazil, according to biological, environmental and institutional factors. Methods: Descriptive study, using the TB surveillance database, including patients with PTB, aged 15 years or older, residing in the city of Santos and whose treatment was initiated between 2000 and 2004. Results: We identified 2,176 cases, of which 481 presented a history of TB. Of those 481 patients, 29.3% were cured, and 70.7% abandoned treatment. In 61.6% of the cases, the diagnosis was confirmed by sputum smear microscopy, whereas it was confirmed based on clinical and radiological criteria in 33.8%; 69.0% were male; and 69.5% were between 20 and 49 years of age. There were 732 hospitalizations, and the mean length of hospital stay was 32 days (first hospitalization). The prevalence of alcoholism, diabetes and TB/HIV coinfection was, respectively, 11.7%, 8.2% and 16.2%. The prevalence of TB/HIV coinfection decreased from 20.7% to 12.9% during the study period. The treatment outcome was cure, abandonment, death from TB and death attributed to TB/HIV coinfection in 71.0%, 12.1%, 3.9% and 2.5%, respectively. The directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) was adopted in 63.4% of cases, and there were no significant differences between DOTS and the conventional treatment approach in terms of outcomes (p > 0.05). The mean annual incidence of PTB was 127.9/100,000 population (range: 72.8-272.92/100,000 population, varying by region). The mean annual mortality rate for PTB was 6.9/100,000 population. Conclusions: In areas hyperendemic for TB, DOTS should be prioritized for groups at greater risk of treatment abandonment or death, and the investigation of TB contacts should be intensified.


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Epidemiology, descriptive; Control.


Review Article

10 - Primary immunodeficiency diseases: relevant aspects for pulmonologists

Imunodeficiências primárias: aspectos relevantes para o pneumologista

Pérsio Roxo Júnior

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(10):1008-1017

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Primary immunodeficiency diseases comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that affect distinct components of the innate and adaptive immune system, such as neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, complement proteins and natural killer cells, as well as T and B lymphocytes. The study of these diseases has provided essential insights into the functioning of the immune system. Primary immunodeficiency diseases have been linked to over 120 different genes, abnormalities in which account for approximately 180 different forms of these diseases. Patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases are most often recognized because of their increased susceptibility to infections. However, these patients can also present with a variety of other manifestations, such as autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer. The purpose of this article is to update the main aspects of primary immunodeficiency diseases, especially regarding the clinical manifestations related to the diagnosis, emphasizing the need for the early recognition of warning signs for these diseases.


Keywords: Respiratory tract infections; Complement activation; Immunologic deficiency syndromes; Phagocytes; Immunoglobulins.


Guidelines SBPT

11 - III Brazilian Thoracic Association Guidelines on TB

III Diretrizes para Tuberculose da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia

BTA Committee on Tuberculosis1, BTA Guidelines on Tuberculosis Work Group2

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(10):1018-1048

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New scientific articles about tuberculosis (TB) are published daily worldwide. However, it is difficult for health care workers, overloaded with work, to stay abreast of the latest research findings and to discern which information can and should be used in their daily practice on assisting TB patients. The purpose of the III Brazilian Thoracic Association (BTA) Guidelines on TB is to critically review the most recent national and international scientific information on TB, presenting an updated text with the most current and useful tools against TB to health care workers in our country. The III BTA Guidelines on TB have been developed by the BTA Committee on TB and the TB Work Group, based on the text of the II BTA Guidelines on TB (2004). We reviewed the following databases: LILACS (SciELO) and PubMed (Medline). The level of evidence of the cited articles was determined, and 24 recommendations on TB have been evaluated, discussed by all of the members of the BTA Committee on TB and of the TB Work Group, and highlighted. The first version of the present Guidelines was posted on the BTA website and was available for public consultation for three weeks. Comments and critiques were evaluated. The level of scientific evidence of each reference was evaluated before its acceptance for use in the final text.


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium infections; Diagnosis; Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant.


Case Report

12 - Asymptomatic giant mediastinal mass: a rare case of thymolipoma

Massa mediastinal gigante assintomática: um raro caso de timolipoma

Omar Moté Abou Mourad, Filipe Moreira de Andrade, Pedro Abrahão, Andréa Monnerat, Luiz Felippe Judice

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(10):1049-1052

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Thymolipoma is a very rare benign neoplasm of the thymus. We present the case of a 42-year-old male with a massive mediastinal tumor discovered on a chest X-ray after a motorcycle accident. The patient had no complaints, and his physical examination was unremarkable. Chest CT scans revealed a lipomatous mass containing areas of soft tissue density. The patient was submitted to median sternotomy expanded to left anterolateral thoracotomy, resulting in the complete excision of the tumor. The pathological diagnosis was thymolipoma. Thymolipoma usually attains enormous dimensions by the time of diagnosis, and the occasional symptoms are related to compression of adjacent structures. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice and offers the only possibility of cure. The airway deserves special care during anesthesia induction.


Keywords: Thymus neoplasms; Mediastinal neoplasms; Thymectomy; Lipoma.


13 - Madelung's disease as a rare cause of obstructive sleep apnea

Doença de Madelung como causa rara de apneia obstrutiva do sono

Vitor Alexandre Oliveira Fonseca, Carlos Alves, Helena Marques, Elvira Camacho, António Pinto Saraiva

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(10):1053-1056

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Madelung's disease, or multiple symmetric lipomatosis, is a rare disease, characterized by accumulation of unencapsulated fat, generally located symmetrically around the neck and shoulders. Here, we present the case of a patient with diffuse lipomatosis accompanied by obstructive sleep apnea due to cervical involvement and facial deformity, which made it necessary to use nasal pillows for ventilation. The patient was hospitalized with a diagnosis of pneumonia and required noninvasive ventilation due to severe hypercapnia. A brief review of the literature was made, and we describe and discuss the investigation of this rare clinical case.


Keywords: Lipomatosis, multiple symmetrical; Sleep apnea, obstructive; Continuous positive airway pressure; Masks.



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